This chapter is based on
pp. 895-934 (History of Evolutionary Theory) and 1003-1042 (Evolution and Society) of
Other Evidence (Volume Three of our three-volume Evolution Disproved Series). Not included
in this chapter are at least 318 statements by scientists. You will find them in the
appendix to this chapter, plus much more, on our website: evolution-facts.org.
This chapter is heavily
condensed and omits many, many quotations by scientists, historians, and evolutionists.
evolution is based on the concept that nothing can explode and produce all the stars
and worlds. Life evolution is founded on the twin theories of spontaneous
generation and Lamarckism (the inheritance of acquired
characteristics);yet, although they remain the basis of biological evolution, both
were debunked by scientists over a century ago.
Science is the study of the natural world.
We are thankful for the many dedicated scientists who are hard at work, improving life for
us. But we will learn, in this book, that their discoveries have provided no
worthwhile evidence supporting evolutionary theory.
Premises are important. They are the
concepts by which scientific facts are interpreted. For over a century, efforts have
been made to explain scientific discoveries by a mid-19th century theory, known as
"evolution." It has formed the foundation for many theories. Yet none of them
are founded on scientific facts!
Restating them again, here are the two
premises on which the various theories of evolution are based:
1 - This is the evolutionary formula for
making a universe:
Nothing + nothing
= two elements + time = 92 natural elements + time = all physical laws and a completely
structured universe of galaxies, systems, stars, planets, and moons orbiting in perfect
balance and order.
2 - This is the
evolutionary formula for making life:
+ water + time = living creatures.
Evolutionists theorize that
the above two formulas can enable everything about us to make itselfwith the
exception of man-made things, such as automobiles or buildings. Complicated things,
such as wooden boxes with nails in them, require thought, intelligence, and careful
workmanship. But everything else about us in nature, such as hummingbirds and the human
eye, is declared to be the result of accidental mishaps, random confusion, and time. You
will not even need raw materials to begin with. They make themselves too.
How did all this nonsense get started?
will begin this paperback with a brief overview of the modern history of evolutionary
But let us not forget that, though it may be
nonsensical, evolutionary theory has greatly affectedand damagedmankind in
the 20th century. Will we continue to let this happen, now that we are in the 21st
century? The social and moral impact that evolutionary concepts have had on the modern
world has been terrific.
Morality and ethical standards have been
greatly reduced. Children and youth are taught in school that they are an advanced
level of animals; there are no moral principles. Since they are just animals,
they should do whatever they want. Personal survival and success will come only by
strife, and stepping on others.
Here is a brief overview of some of the
people and events in the history of modern evolutionary theory. But it is only a
more will be found as you read farther in this paperback. And it is all fascinating
Only a few items are listed in this chapter,
but they are enough to provide you with a nice entry point to the rest of this paperback.
Keep in mind that you can look in the Search feature, and frequently
find still more information on a given subject ("Linnaeus,"
"Thermodynamics," "Guadeloupe Woman," "Mendel," etc.).
1 - 18th AND 19th CENTURY
Prior to the middle of the
1800s, scientists were researchers who firmly believed that all nature was made by a
Master Designer. Those pioneers who laid the foundations of modern science were
creationists. They were men of giant intellect who struggled against great odds in
carrying on their work. They were hard-working researchers.
In contrast, the philosophers sat around,
hardly stirring from their armchairs and theorized about everything while the scientists,
ignoring them, kept at their work.
But a change came about in the 19th
century, when the philosophers tried to gain control of scientific endeavor and
suppress research and findings that would be unfavorable to their theories. Todays
evolutionists vigorously defend the unscientific theories they thought up over a century
William Paley (1743-1805), in
his 1802 classic, Natural Theology, summarized the viewpoint of the scientists. He
argued that the kind of carefully designed structures we see in the living world point
clearly to a Designer. If we see a watch, we know that it had a designer and maker; it
would be foolish to imagine that it made itself. This is the "argument by
design." All about us is the world of nature, and over our heads at night is
a universe of stars. We can ignore or ridicule what is there or say it all made itself,
but our scoffing does not change the reality of the situation. A leading atheistic
scientist of our time, *Fred Hoyle, wrote that, although it was not difficult to disprove
Darwinism, what Paley had to say appeared likely to be unanswerable (*Fred Hoyle and
*Chandra Wickramasinghe, Evolution from Space, 1981, p. 96).
It is a remarkable fact that the basis of
evolutionary theory was destroyed by seven scientific research findings,before
*Charles Darwin first published the theory.
Carl Linn (Carolus Linnaeus,
1707-1778) was a scientist who classified immense numbers of living organisms. An earnest
creationist, he clearly saw that there were no halfway species. All plant and animal
species were definite categories, separate from one another. Variation was possible
within a species, and there were many sub-species. But there were no cross-overs from
one species to another (*R. Milner, Encyclopedia of Evolution, 1990, p. 276).
First Law of Thermodynamics
Heinrich von Helmholtz stated the law of conservation of energy: The
sum total of all matter will always remain the same. This law refutes several aspects
of evolutionary theory. *Isaac Asimov calls it "the most fundamental
generalization about the universe that scientists have ever been able to make"
in *Isaac Asimov, "In the Game of Energy and Thermodynamics You Cant Even Break
Even," Journal of Smithsonian Institute, June 1970, p. 6).
Second Law of Thermodynamics
(1850). R.J.E. Clausius stated the law of entropy: All systems will tend
toward the most mathematically probable state, and eventually become totally random and
disorganized (*Harold Blum, Times Arrow and Evolution, 1968, p. 201). In
other words, everything runs down, wears out, and goes to pieces (*R.R. Kindsay,
"Physics: to What Extent is it Deterministic," American Scientist 56, 1968, p.
100). This law totally eliminates the basic evolutionary theory that simple evolves
into complex. *Einstein said the two laws were the most enduring laws he knew of
Rifkin, Entropy: A New World View, 1980, p. 6).
Guadeloupe Woman Found (1812).
This is a well-authenticated discovery which has been in the British Museum for over a
century. A fully human skeleton was found in the French Caribbean island of Guadeloupe
inside an immense slab of limestone, dated by modern geologists at 28 million years old.
(More examples could be cited.) Human beings, just like those living today (but
sometimes larger) have been found in very deep levels of strata.
Gregor Mendel (1822-1884) was a
creationist who lived and worked near Brunn (now Brno), Czechoslovakia. He was a science
and math teacher. Unlike the theorists, Mendel was a true scientist. He bred garden peas
and studied the results of crossing various varieties. Beginning his work in 1856, he
concluded it within eight years. In 1865, he reported his research in the Journal of
the Brunn Society for the Study of Natural Science. The journal was distributed to 120
libraries in Europe, England, and America. Yet his research was totally ignored by the
scientific community until it was rediscovered in 1900 (*R.A. Fisher, "Has
Mendels Work Been Rediscovered?" Annals of Science, Vol. 1, No. 2, 1936).
experiments clearly showed that one species could not transmute into another one. A
genetic barrier existed that could not be bridged. Mendels work laid the basis for
modern genetics, and his discoveries effectively destroyed the basis for species evolution
(*Michael Pitman, Adam and Evolution, 1984, pp. 63-64).
Louis Pasteur (1822-1895) was
another genuine scientist. In the process of studying fermentation, he performed his
famous 1861 experiment, in which he disproved the theory of spontaneous generation.
Life cannot arise from non-living materials. This experiment was very important; for,
up to that time, a majority of scientists believed in spontaneous generation. (They
thought that if a pile of old clothes were left in a corner, it would breed mice! The
proof was that, upon later returning to the clothes, mice would frequently be found
there.) Pasteur concluded from his experiment that only God could create living
creatures. But modern evolutionary theory continues to be based on the out-dated theory
disproved by Pasteur: spontaneous generation (life arises from non-life). Why? Because it
is the only real basis on which evolution could occur. As *Adams notes,
"With spontaneous generation discredited [by Pasteur], biologists were left with no
theory of the origin of life at all" (*J. Edison Adams, Plants: An Introduction to
Modern Biology, 1967, p. 585).
August Friedrich Leopold Weismann
(1834-1914) was a German biologist who disproved *Lamarcks notion of "the
inheritance of acquired characteristics." He is primarily remembered as the
scientist who cut off the tails of 901 young white mice in 19 successive generations, yet
each new generation was born with a full-length tail. The final generation, he reported,
had tails as long as those originally measured on the first. Weismann also carried out
other experiments that buttressed his refutation of Lamarckism. His discoveries, along
with the fact that circumcision of Jewish males for 4,000 years had not affected the
foreskin, doomed the theory (*Jean Rostand, Orion Book of Evolution, 1960, p. 64).
Yet Lamarckism continues today as the disguised basis of evolutionary biology. For
example, evolutionists still teach that giraffes kept stretching their necks to reach
higher branches, so their necks became longer! In a later book, *Darwin abandoned
natural selection, as unworkable, and returned to Lamarckism as the cause of the
never-observed change from one species to another (*Randall Hedtke, The Secret of
the Sixth Edition, 1984).
Here is a brief, partial overview of what
true scientists were accomplishing in the 18th and 19th centuries. All of them were
Agassiz (1807-1873): glacial geology, ichthyology.
(1792-1871): actuarial tables, calculating machine, foundations of computer science.
(1561-1626): scientific method of research.
(1627-1691): chemistry, gas dynamics.
Sir David Brewster
(1781-1868): optical mineralogy, kaleidoscope.
(1769-1832): comparative anatomy, vertebrate paleontology.
Sir Humphry Davy
Jean Henri Fabre
(1823-1915): entomology of living insects.
(1791-1867): electric generator, electro-magnetics, field theory.
Sir John A. Fleming
(1849-1945): electronics, thermic valve.
(1797-1878): electric motor, galvanometer.
Sir William Herschel
(1738-1822): galactic astronomy, double stars.
(1818-1889): reversible thermodynamics.
Lord William Kelvin
(1824-1907): absolute temperature scale, energetics, thermodynamics, transatlantic cable.
(1571-1630): celestial mechanics, ephemeris tables, physical astronomy.
(1707-1778): classification system, systematic biology.
(1827-1912): antiseptic surgery.
(1806-1873): hydrography, oceanography.
James C. Maxwell (1831-1879): electrical dynamics, statistical thermodynamics.
Samuel F.B. Morse
(1642-1727): calculus, dynamics, law of gravity, reflecting telescopes.
(1623-1662): hydrostatics, barometer.
(1822-1895): bacteriology, biogenesis law, pasteurization, vaccination, and immunization.
Sir William Ramsey
(1852-1916): inert gases, isotropic chemistry.
John Ray (1827-1705):
natural history, classification of plants and animals.
(1842-1919): dimensional analysis, model analysis.
(1826-1866): non-Euclidean geometry.
Sir James Simpson
(1811-1870): chloroform, gynecology.
Sir George Stockes
(1819-1903): fluid mechanics.
2 - 18th AND
19th CENTURY EVOLUTIONISTS
And now we will view the
armchair philosophers. Hardly one of them ever set foot in field research or entered the
door of a science laboratory, yet they founded the modern theory of evolution:
(1688-1772) was a do-nothing expert. In his 1734 book, Principia, he theorized that
a rapidly rotating nebula formed itself into our solar system of sun and planets.
claimed that he obtained the idea from spirits during a sιance. It is significant that
the nebular hypothesis theory originated from such a source.
*Comte de Buffon (1707-1788)
was a dissolute philosopher who, unable to improve on the work of Linnaeus, spent his time
criticizing him. He theorized that species originated from one another and that a chunk
was torn out of the sun, which became our planet. As with the other philosophers, he
presented no evidence in support of his theories.
(1744-1829) made a name for himself by theorizing. He accomplished little else of
significance. He laid the foundation of modern evolutionary theory, with his concept of
"inheritance of acquired characteristics," which was later given the name
In 1809, he published a book, Philosophie zoologique, in which he declared that
the giraffe got its long neck by stretching it up to reach the higher branches, and birds
that lived in water grew webbed feet. If you pull hard on your feet, you can increase
their length; and, if you decide in your mind to do so, you can grow hair on your bald
head, and your offspring will never be bald. This is science?
*Lamarcks other erroneous
contribution to evolution was the theory of uniformitarianism. This is the
conjecture that all earlier ages on earth were exactly as they are today, calm and
peaceful with no worldwide Flood or other great catastrophes.
(1802-1883) was a spiritualist who regularly communicated with spirits. As a result of
his contacts, he wrote the first popular evolution book in all of Britain. Called Vestiges of CreationVestiges
of Creation (1844), it was printed 15 years before *Charles Darwins book,
of the Species.
*Charles Lyell Principles of
GeologyPrinciples of Geology in
1830-1833, and it became the basis for the modern theory of sedimentary
strata,even though 20th-century discoveries in radiodating, radiocarbon dating,
missing strata, and overthrusts (older strata on top of more recent strata) have nullified
In order to prove his theory, Lyell was
quite willing to misstate the facts. He learned that Niagara Falls had eroded a
seven-mile [11 km] channel from Queenston, Ontario, and that it was eroding at about 3
feet [1 m] a year. So Lyell conveniently changed that to one foot [.3 m] a year, which
meant that the falls had been flowing for 35,000 years! But Lyell had not told the truth.
Three-foot erosion a year, at its present rate of flow, would only take us back 7000 to
9000 years,and it would be expected that, just after the Flood, the flow would, for
a time, have greatly increased the erosion rate. Lyell was a close friend of Darwin,
and urged him to write his book, Origin of the Species.
*Alfred Russell Wallace
(1823-1913) is considered to be the man who developed the theory which *Darwin
published. *Wallace was deeply involved in spiritism at the time he formulated the
theory in his Ternate PaperTernate
Paper, which *Darwin, with the help of two friends (*Charles Lyell and *Joseph
Hooker), pirated and published under his own name. *Darwin, a wealthy man, thus obtained
the royalties which belonged to Wallace, a poverty-ridden theorist. In 1980, *Arnold C.
Brackman, in his book, A Delicate Arrangement A Delicate Arrangement, established that Darwin plagiarized Wallaces
material. It was arranged that a paper by Darwin would be read to the Royal Society, in
London, while Wallaces was held back until later. Priorities for the ideas thus
having been taken care of, Darwin set to work to prepare his book.
In 1875, Wallace came out openly for
spiritism and Marxism, another stepchild of Darwinism. This was Wallaces theory:
Species have changed in the past, by which one species descended from another in a manner
that we cannot prove today. That is exactly what modern evolution teaches. Yet it has no
more evidence supporting the theory than Wallace had in 1858 when he devised the theory
while in a fever.
In February 1858, while in a delirious fever
on the island of Ternate in the Molaccas, Wallace conceived the idea, "survival
of the fittest," as being the method by which species change. But the concept
proves nothing. The fittest; which one is that? It is the one that survived
longest. Which one survives longest? The fittest. This is reasoning in a circle.
The phrase says nothing about the evolutionary process, much less proving it.
In the first edition of his
book, Darwin regarded "natural selection" and "survival of the
fittest" as different concepts. By the sixth edition of his Origin of the Species,
he thought they meant the same thing, but that "survival of the fittest" was the
more accurate. In a still later book (Descent
of Man, 1871), Darwin
ultimately abandoned "natural selection" as a hopeless mechanism and returned to
Lamarckism. Even Darwin recognized the theory was falling to pieces. The supporting
evidence just was not there.
*Charles Darwin (1809-1882) was
born into wealth and able to have a life of ease. He took two years of medical school at
Edinburgh University, and then dropped out. It was the only scientific training he ever
received. Because he spent the time in the bars with his friends, he barely passed his
courses. Darwin had no particular purpose in life, and his father planned to get him into
a nicely paid job as an Anglican minister. Darwin did not object.
But an influential relative got him a
position as unpaid "naturalist" on a ship planning to sail around the world, the
Beagle. The voyage lasted from December 1831 to October 1836.
It is of interest that, after
engaging in spiritism, certain men in history have been seized with a deep hatred of God
and have then been guided to devise evil teachings, that have destroyed large numbers of
people, while others have engaged in warfare which have annihilated millions. In
connection with this, we think of such known spiritists as *Sigmund Freud and
It is not commonly known that *Charles
Darwin, while a naturalist aboard the Beagle, was
initiated into witchcraft in South America by nationals. During horseback travels into the interior, he
took part in their ceremonies and, as a result, something happened to him. Upon his
return to England, although his health was strangely weakened, he spent the rest of his
life working on theories to destroy faith in the Creator.
After leaving South America,
Darwin was on the Galapagos Islands for a few days. While there, he saw some Finches, Darwin's
finches which had blown in from South America and adapted
to their environment, producing several sub-species. He was certain that this showed
cross-species evolution (change into new species). But they were still finches.
theory about the finches was the primary evidence of evolution he brought back with him to
Darwin, never a scientist and knowing
nothing about the practicalities of genetics, then married his first cousin, which
resulted in all seven of his children having physical or mental disorders. (One girl died
after birth, another at 10. His oldest daughter had a prolonged breakdown at 15. Three of
his six sons became semi-invalids, and his last son was born mentally retarded and died 19
months after birth.)
His book, Origin of the Species, was first published in November 1859. The
full title, On the Origin of the Species by Means of Natural Selection or the
Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life,
reveals the viciousness of
the underlying concept; this concept led directly to two of the worst wars in the history
In his book, Darwin reasoned from theory
to facts, and provided little evidence for what he had to say. Modern evolutionists are
ashamed of the book, with its ridiculous arguments.
Darwins book had what some men wanted:
a clear out-in-the-open, current statement in favor of species change. So, in spite of its
laughable imperfections, they capitalized on it. Here is what you will find in his
Darwin would cite authorities that he did not
mention. He repeatedly said it was "only an abstract," and "a fuller
edition" would come out later. But, although he wrote other books, try as he may he
never could find the proof for his theories. No one since has found it either.
When he did name an authority, it was just an
opinion from a letter. Phrases indicating the hypothetical nature of his ideas were
frequent: "It might have been," "Maybe," "probably,"
"it is conceivable that." A favorite of his was: "Let us take an imaginary
Darwin would suggest a possibility, and later
refer back to it as a fact: "As we have already demonstrated previously."
Elsewhere he would suggest a possible series of events and then conclude by assuming that
proved the point.
He relied heavily on stories instead of
facts. Confusing examples would be given. He would use specious and devious arguments, and
spent much time suggesting possible explanations why the facts he needed were not
Here is an example of his reasoning:
To explain the fossil trans-species gaps, Darwin suggested that species must have been
changing quickly in other parts of the world where men had not yet examined the strata.
Later these changed species traveled over to the Western World, to be found in strata
there as new species. So species were changing on the other side of the world, and that
was why species in the process of change were not found on our side!
With thinking like this, who needs science?
But remember that Charles Darwin never had a day of schooling in the sciences.
Here is Darwins explanation of how one
species changes into another:
It is a variation of
*Lamarcks theory of
inheritance of acquired characteristics (*Nicholas Hutton III, Evidence of Evolution,
1962, p. 138). Calling it pangenesis, Darwin said that an organ affected by the
environment would respond by giving off particles that he called gemmules. These
particles supposedly helped determine hereditary characteristics. The environment would
affect an organ; gemmules would drop out of the organ; and the gemmules would travel to
the reproductive organs, where they would affect the cells (*W. Stansfield, Science of
Evolution, 1977, p. 38). As mentioned earlier, scientists today are ashamed of
In his book, Darwin taught that man came from
an ape, and that the stronger races would, within a century or two, destroy the weaker
ones. (Modern evolutionists claim that man and ape descended from a common ancestor.)
He developed a chronic
and incapacitating illness, and went to his death under a depression he could not shake
(Random House Encyclopedia, 1977, p. 768).
After taking part in the witchcraft
ceremonies, not only was his mind affected but his body also.
He frequently commented in private letters
that he recognized that there was no evidence for his theory, and that it could destroy
the morality of the human race. "Long before the reader has arrived at this part
of my work, a crowd of difficulties will have occurred to him. Some of them are so serious
that to this day I can hardly reflect on them without in some degree becoming
staggered" (*Charles Darwin, Origin of the Species, 1860, p. 178; quoted from
Harvard Classics, 1909 ed., Vol. 11). "Often a cold shudder
has run through me, and I have asked myself whether I may have not devoted
myself to a phantasy" (*Charles Darwin, Life and Letters, 1887, Vol. 2, p. 229).
*Thomas Huxley (1825-1895)
the man *Darwin called "my bulldog." *Darwin was so frail in health that he
did not make public appearances, but remained secluded in the mansion he inherited. After
being personally converted by Darwin (on a visit to Darwins home), Huxley
championed the evolutionary cause with everything he had. In the latter part of the 19th
century, while *Haeckel labored earnestly on the European continent, Huxley was
Darwins primary advocate in England.
The *X Club was a
secret society in London which worked to further evolutionary thought and suppress
scientific opposition to it. It was powerful, for all scientific papers considered by the
Royal Society were first approved by this small group of nine members. Chaired by *Huxley,
its members made contacts and powerfully affected British scientific associations
(*Michael Pitman, Adam and Evolution, 1984, p. 64). " But what do they
do? asked a curious journalist. They run British science, a professor
replied, and on the whole, they dont do it badly " (*R. Milner,
Encyclopedia of Evolution, 1990, p. 467). In the 20th century, U.S. government
agencies, working closely with the *National Science Federation and kindred organizations,
have channeled funds for research to universities willing to try to find evidence for
evolution. Down to the present day, the theorists are still trying to control the
The Oxford Debate was held in
June 1860 at Oxford University, only seven months after the publication of *Darwins
of the Species. A special meeting of the British Association for the Advancement of
Science, it marked a major turning point in England,just as the 1925 Scopes Trial
would be the turning point in North America. Scientific facts had little to do with either
event; both were just battles between personalities. In both instances,
evolutionists won through ridicule. They dared not rely on scientific facts to support
their case, because they had none.
Samuel Wilberforce, Anglican bishop of Oxford
University, was scheduled to speak that evening in defense of creationism. *Huxley had
lectured on behalf of evolution in many English cities and was not planning to attend that
night. But *Chambers, a spiritualist adviser to Huxley, was impressed to find and tell him
he must attend.
Wilberforce delivered a vigorous attack on
evolution for half an hour before a packed audience of 700 people. His presentation was
outstanding, and the audience was apparently with him. But then Wilberforce turned and
rhetorically asked Huxley a humorous question, whether it was through his grandfather or
his grandmother that Huxley claimed descent from an ape.
Huxley was extremely sharp-witted and, at the
bishops question, he clasped the knee of the person sitting next to him, and said,
"He is delivered into my hands!"
Huxley arose and worked the audience up to a
climax, and then declared that he would feel no shame in having an ape as an ancestor, but
would be ashamed of a brilliant man who plunged into scientific questions of which he knew
nothing (John W. Klotz, "Science and Religion," in Studies in Creation, 1985,
At this, the entire room went wild, some
yelling one thing and others another. On a pretext so thin, the evolutionists in
England became a power which scientists feared to oppose. We will learn that ridicule
heaped on ridicule, through the public press, accomplished the same results for American
evolutionists in Dayton, Tennessee, in 1925.
The Orgueil Meteorite (1861)
was one of many hoaxes perpetrated, to further the cause of evolution.
various dead microbes, and then covered it over with a surface appearing like the
meteorite. The objective was to show that life came from outer space. But the hoax was
later discovered (*Scientific American, January 1965, p. 52). A remarkable number
of hoaxes have occurred since then. Men, working desperately, tried to provide the
scientific evidence that does not exist. In the mid-1990s, a meteorite "from
Mars" with "dead organisms" on it was trumpeted in the press. But ignored
were the conclusions of competent scientists, that both "discoveries" were
*Sir Francis Galton (1822-1911).
was *Charles Darwins cousin, who amplified on one of the theorys
logical conclusions. He declared that the "science" of "eugenics"
was the key to humanitys problems: Put the weak, infirm, and aged to sleep.
*Adolf Hitler, an ardent evolutionist, used it successfully in World War II (*Otto
Scott, "Playing God," in Chalcedon Report, No. 247, February 1986, p. 1).
*Wallaces Break with *Darwin.
Darwins close friend, Russell Wallace, eventually separated from Darwins
positiona position he had given Darwinwhen Wallace realized that the
human brain was far too advanced for evolutionary processes to have produced it
C. Eiseley, "Was Darwin Wrong about the Human Brain?" Harpers Magazine,
*Herbert Spencer (1820-1903),
along with certain other men (*Friedrich Nietzche, *Karl Marx, *Sigmund Freud, *John
Dewey, etc.) introduced evolutionary modes and morality into social fields (sociology,
psychology, education, warfare, economics, etc.) with devastating effects on the 20th
century. Spencer, also a spiritist, was the one who initially invented the term,
"evolution" (*R. Milner, Encyclopedia of Evolution, 1990, p. 159; cf.
introduced sociology into Europe, clothing it in evolutionary terms. From there it
traveled to America. He urged that the unfit be eliminated, so society could properly
evolve (*Harry E. Barnes, Historical Sociology, 1948, p. 13). In later years,
even the leading evolutionists of the time, such as Huxley and Darwin, became tired of the
fact that Spencer could do nothing but theorize and knew so little of real-life facts.
These consisted of several fossils from a single limestone quarry in Germany, each of
which the quarry owner sold at a high price. One appeared to possibly be a small
dinosaur skeleton, complete with wings and feathers. European museums paid high prices
for them. (As we will learn below, in 1985 Archaeopteryx was shown to be a fake.)
teacher at the University of Jena in Germany, was the most zealous advocate of
Darwinism on the continent in the 19th century. He drew a number of fraudulent charts
(first published in 1868) which purported to show that human embryos were almost identical
to those of other animals. Reputable scientists repudiated them within a few years, for
embryologists recognized the deceit. (See chapter 16, Vestiges and Recapitulation
on our website for the charts.) *Darwin and *Haeckel had a strong influence on the rise
of world communism (*Daniel Gasman, Scientific Origins of National Socialism:
Social Darwinism in Ernst Haeckel and the German Monist League, 1971, p. xvi).
*Marshs Horse Series (1870s).
*Othniel C. Marsh claimed to have found 30 different kinds of horse fossils
in Wyoming and Nebraska. He reconstructed and arranged them in a small-to-large
evolutionary series, which was never in a straight line (*Encyclopedia Britannica, 1976
ed., Vol. 7, p. 13). Although displayed in museums for a time, the great majority
of scientists later repudiated this "horse series" (*Charles Deperet,
Transformations of the Animal World, p. 105; *G.A. Kerkut, Implications of Evolution,
1960, p. 149).
*Friedrich Nietzsche (1844-1900).
*Nietzsche was a remarkable example of a man who fully adopted
Darwinist principles. He wrote books declaring that the way to evolve was to have wars and
kill the weaker races, in order to produce a "super race" "super race"
Wallbank and *Alastair M. Taylor, Civilization Past and Present, Vol. 2, 1949 ed., p.
274). (*T. Walter
Wallbank and *Alastair M. Taylor, Civilization Past and Present, Vol. 2, 1949 ed., p.
274). *Darwin, in Origin of the Species, also said that this needed to happen.
The writings of both men were read by German militarists and led to World War I. *Hitler
valued both Darwins and Nietzches books. When Hitler killed 6 million Jews, he
was only doing what Darwin taught.
It is of interest, that a year before he
defended *John Scopes right to teach Darwinism at the Dayton "Monkey
Trial," *Clarence Darrow declared in court that the murderous thinking of two young
men was caused by their having learned *Nietzsches vicious Darwinism in the public
schools (*W. Brigan, ed., Classified Speeches).
*Asa Gray was the
first leading theistic evolutionary advocate in America, at the time when Darwin was
writing his books. Gray, a Presbyterian, worked closely with *Charles W. Eliot,
president of Harvard, in promoting evolution as a "Christian teaching," yet
teaching long ages and the book of Genesis as a fable.
The Challenger was a British
ship dispatched to find evidence, on the ocean bottom, of evolutionary change. During its
1872-1876 voyage, it carried on seafloor dredging, but found no fossils developing on
the bottom of the ocean. By this time, it was obvious to evolutionists that no fossils
were developing on either land or sea, yet they kept quiet about the matter.
years, theories, hoaxes, false claims, and ridicule favoring evolution were spread abroad;
but facts refuting it, when found, were kept hidden.
(1818-1883) is closely linked with Darwinism. That which *Darwin did to biology, Marx with
the help of others did to society. All the worst political philosophies of the 20th
century emerged from the dark cave of Darwinism. Marx was thrilled when he read
of the Species and he immediately wrote Darwin and asked to dedicate his own
work, Das Kapital, to him.
Darwin, in his reply,
thanked him but said it would be best not to do so.
In 1866, Marx wrote to *Frederick Engels,
that Origin of the Species contained the basis in natural history for their
political and economic system for an atheist world. Engels, the co-founder of world
communism with Marx and *Lenin, wrote to Karl Marx in 1859: "Darwin, whom I am just
now reading, is splendid" (*C. Zirkle, Evolution, Marxian Biology, and the
Social Scene, 1959, p. 85). In 1861, Marx wrote to Engels: "Darwins book is
very important and serves me as a basis in natural selection for the class struggle in
history" (*op. cit., p. 86). At Marxs funeral, Engles said that, as
Darwin had discovered the law of organic evolution in natural history, so Marx had
discovered the law of evolution in human history (*Otto Ruhle, Karl Marx, 1948, p.
As Darwin emphasized competitive survival as
the key to advancement, so communism focused on the value of labor rather than the
laborer. Like Darwin, Marx thought he had discovered the law of development. He saw
history in stages, as the Darwinists saw geological strata and successive forms of life.
*William Graham Sumner
(1840-1910) applied evolutionary principles to political economics at Yale University.
taught many of Americas future business and industrial leaders that strong business
should succeed and the weak perish, and that to help the unfit was to injure the fit and
accomplish nothing for society (*R. Milner, Encyclopedia of Evolution, 1990, pp.
59, 446, 72). Millionaires were, in his thinking, the "fittest." Modern
laissez-faire capitalism was the result (*Gilman M. Ostrander, The Evolutionary Outlook: 1875-1900,
1971, p. 5).
*William James (1842-1910)
another evolutionist who influenced American thinking. His view of psychology placed
the study of human behavior on an animalistic evolutionary basis.
Tidal Hypothesis Theory (1890).
Darwin, son of *Charles Darwin, wanted to come up with something original,
invented the theory that four million years ago the moon was pressed nearly against the
earth, which revolved every five hours.Then one day, a heavy tide occurred in the
oceans, which lifted it out to its present location! Later proponents of Georges
theory decided that the Pacific Basin is the hole the moon left behind, when the large
ocean waves pushed it out into space.
3 - 1898 TO 1949
(1898). Herman Bumpus was a zoologist at Brown University. During the winter of 1898, by
accident he carried out one of the only field experiments in natural selection.
cold morning, finding 136 stunned house sparrows on the ground, he tried to nurse them
back to health. Of the total, 72 revived and 64 died. He weighed and carefully measured
all of them, and found that those closest to the average survived best. This frequently
quoted research study is another evidence that the animal or plant closest to the
original species is the most hardy. Sub-species variations will not be as hardy, and
evolution entirely across species (if the DNA code would permit it)
be too weakened to survive (*R. Milner, Encyclopedia of Evolution, 1990, p. 61).
*Hugo deVries (1848-1935) was a
Dutch botanist and one of the three men who, in 1900, rediscovered Mendels paper on
the law of heredity.
One day while working with primroses,
deVries thought he had discovered a new species. This made headlines. He actually had
found a new variety (sub-species) of the primrose, but deVries conjectured that perhaps
his "new species" had suddenly sprung into existence as a "mutation."
" He theorized that new species "saltated" (leaped), that is,
continually spring into existence. His idea is called the saltation theory.
This was a new idea; and, during the first
half of the 20th century, many evolutionary biologists, finding absolutely no evidence
supporting "natural selection," switched from natural selection ("Darwinism")
to mutations ("neo-Darwinism") as the mechanism by which the theorized
cross-species changes occurred.
Later in this book, we will discover that
mutations cannot produce evolution either, for they are always harmful. In addition,
decades of experimentation have revealed they never produce new species.
In order to prove the mutation theory,
deVries and other researchers immediately began experimentation on fruit flies; and it has
continued ever sincebut totally without success in producing new species.
Ironically, deVries saltation theory
was based on an observational error. In 1914 *Edward Jeffries discovered that
deVries primrose was just a new variety, not a new species.
Decades later, it was discovered that most
plant varieties are produced by variations in gene factors, rarely by mutations. Those
caused by gene variations may be strong (although not as strong as the average original),
but those varieties produced by mutations are always weak and have a poor survival
rate. See chapter 10, Mutations, for much, much more on the mutation problem.
*Walter S. Sutton and *T.
Boveri (1902) independently discovered chromosomes and the linkage of genetic
characters. This was only two years after Mendels research was rediscovered.
Scientists were continually learning new facts about the fixity of the species.
*Thomas Hunt Morgan (1886-1945)
was an American biologist who developed the theory of the gene. He found that
genetic determinants were present in a definite linear order in the chromosomes and could
be somewhat "mapped." He was the first to work intensively with the fruit
fly, Drosophila (*Michael Pitman, Adam and Evolution, 1984, p. 70). But research
with fruit flies, and other creatures, has proved a total failure in showing mutations to
be a mechanism for cross-species change (*Richard B. Goldschmidt, "Evolution, as
Viewed by One Geneticist," American Scientist, January 1952, p. 94).
*H.J. Muller (1927). Upon
learning of the 1927 discovery that X-rays, gamma rays, and various chemicals could induce
an extremely rapid increase of mutations in the chromosomes of test animals and plants,
pioneered in using X-rays to greatly increase the mutation rate in fruit flies.
all he and the other researchers found was that mutations were always harmful
Muller, Time, November 11, 1946, p. 38; *E.J. Gardner, Principles of Genetics, 1964, p.
192; *Theodosius Dobzhansky, Genetics and the Origin of the Species, 1951, p. 73).
(1856-1939) was deeply indebted to the evolutionary training he received in Germany as
a young man. He fully accepted it, as well as *Haeckels recapitulation
theory. Freud began his Introductory Lectures on
Psychoanalysis (1916) with Haeckels premise: "Each individual somehow
recapitulates in an abbreviated form the entire development of the human race"
Milner, Encyclopedia of Evolution, 1990, p. 177).
Freuds "Oedipus complex" was
based on a theory of "primal horde" he developed about a mental complex that
caveman families had long ago. His theories of anxiety complexes, and "oral" and
"anal" stages, etc., were based on his belief that our ancestors were savage.
*H.G. Wells (1866-1946), the
science fiction pioneer based his imaginative writings on evolutionary teachings.
He had received a science training under Professor *Thomas H. Huxley, *Darwins chief
*Sir Arthur Conan Doyle (1859-1930),
like a variety of other evolutionist leaders before and after, was an avid
spiritist. Many of his mystery stories were based on evolutionary themes.
*George Bernard Shaw
(1856-1950) was so deeply involved in evolutionary theory, that
he openly declared that
he wrote his plays to teach various aspects of the theory (*R. Milner, Encyclopedia
of Evolution, 1990, p. 461).
Piltdown Man (1912).
parts of a jaw and skull were found in England and dubbed "Piltdown Man." News
of it created a sensation. The report of a dentist, in 1916, who said someone had
filed down the teeth was ignored. As we will learn below, in 1953 the fact that it was
a total hoax was uncovered. This, like all the later evidences
ancestors were part ape, has been questioned or repudiated by reputable scientists. See
chapter 13, Ancient Man.
World War I (1917-1918).
basically taught that there is no moral code, our ancestors were savage, and civilization
only progressed by violence against others. It therefore led to extreme nationalism,
racism, and warfare through Nazism and Fascism. Evolution was declared to involve
"natural selection"; and, in the struggle to survive, the fittest will win out
at the expense of their rivals. *Frederich von Bernhard, a German military officer,
wrote a book in 1909 extolling evolution and appealing to Germany to start another war.
*Heinrich von Treitsche, a Prussian militarist, loudly called for war by Germany in order
to fulfill its "evolutionary destiny" (*Heinrich G. von Treitsche, Politics,
Vol. 1, pp. 66-67). Their teachings were fully adopted by the German government, and
it only waited for a pretext to start the war (*R. Milner, Encyclopedia of Evolution,
1990, p. 59).
Communist Darwinism. *Marx and
*Engels acceptance of evolutionary theory made *Darwins theory the
"scientific" basis of all later communist ideologies (*Robert M. Young,
"The Darwin Debate," in Marxism Today, Vol. 26, April 1982, p. 21).
teaching declared that evolutionary change, which taught class struggle, came by
revolution and violent uprisings. Communist dogma declares that Lamarckism
(inheritance of acquired characteristics) is the mechanism by which this is done.
genetics was officially outlawed in Russia in 1948, since it was recognized as disproving
evolution. Communist theorists also settled on "synthetic speciation"
instead of natural selection or mutations as the mechanism for species change
Halstead, "Museum of Errors," in Nature, November 20, 1980, p. 208).
concept is identical to the sudden change theory of *Goldschmidt and *Gould, which we will
*John Dewey (1859-1952) was
another influential thought leader. A vigorous Darwinist, Dewey founded and led out in
the "progressive education movement" which so greatly affected U.S.
educational history. But it was nothing more than careful animal training (*Samuel L.
Blumenfeld, NEA: Trojan Horse in American Education, 1984, p. 43). The purpose was
to indoctrinate the youth into evolution, humanism, and collectivism. In 1933, Dewey
became a charter member of the American Humanist Association and its first
president. Its basic statement of beliefs, published that year as the Humanist
Manifesto, became the unofficial framework of teaching in most school textbooks. The
evolutionists recognized that they must gain control of all public education
Julian Huxley, quoted in *Sol Tax and *Charles Callender (eds.), Evolution after Darwin, 3
vols., 1960). Historically, American education was based on morals and standards; but
Dewey declared that, in order to be "progressive," education must leave
"the past" and "evolve upward" to new, modern concepts.
The Scopes Trial (July 10 to
July 21, 1925) was a powerful aid to the cause of evolution, yet scientific discoveries
were not involved. That was fortunate, since, except for a single tooth (later
disproved), the evolutionists had nothing worthwhile to present (*The Worlds Most
Famous Court Trial: A Complete Stenographic Report, 1925).
The ACLU (*American Civil Liberties Union)
had been searching for someone they could use to test the Butler Act, which forbade the
teaching of evolution in the public schools in Tennessee. *John Scopes (24 at the time)
volunteered for the job. He later privately admitted that he had never actually taught
evolution in class, so the case was based on a fraud; he spent the time teaching them
football maneuvers (*John Scopes, Center of the Storm, 1967, p.
60). But no matter, the ACLU wanted to so humiliate the State of Tennessee, that no other state would ever
dare oppose the evolutionists. The entire trial, widely reported as the
"Tennessee Monkey Trial," was presented to the public as something of a comic
opera. (A trained ape was even sent in, to walk around on a chain in the streets of
Dayton.) But the objective was deadly serious, and they succeeded very well.
the verdict was against Scopes, Americas politicians learned the lesson: Do not
oppose the evolutionists.
trial, the first event nationally broadcast over the radio, was a major victory for
evolutionists throughout the world. Ridicule, side issues, misinformation, and false
statements were used to win the battle.
TRIALEvolutionists turned the Dayton trial into ridiculous circus in order to
frighten later State governments into banning creationism from their school
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