Evolution Cruncher Chapter 13
there is no evidence humans evolved from anything
This chapter is based on
pp. 607-663 of Origin of Life (Volume Two of our three-volume Evolution
Disproved Series). Not included in this chapter are at least 137
statements by scientists. You will find them, plus much more, in the
encyclopedia on this website.
In the previous chapter (Fossils
and Strata), we examined the supposed evidences for the past
evolution of plants and animals. In this chapter, we will view the
imagined ancestry of human beings.
introduction, this chapter is divided into two main sections: Hominids
and Early Man.
The section on Hominids
will deal with what is called prehistoric man, or what we might call
"the man of evolution." In some respects it is an addition to
the chapter on fossils, although it reads more like a sideshow as it
tells about fakeries such as Piltdown Man, Java Man, Tuang Man, etc.
The concluding section, Early
Man, will be about actual geologic or historical evidences of
ancient peoples, and is about the "man of history." It is
somewhat paralleled by information near the end of chapter 4, Age of
The concept that we are
just animals, only slightly removed from apes, means that there are no
moral standards, no laws worth obeying, no future, and no hope. The
realization of this terrible truth even penetrated the gloom of
*Darwin’s mind at times.
"With me the
horrid doubt always arises whether the convictions of man’s mind,
which has been developed from the minds of the lower animals, are of
any value or at all trustworthy. Would anyone trust in the convictions
of a monkey’s mind, if there are any convictions in such a
mind?"—*Charles Darwin, quoted in Francis Darwin (ed.), Life
and Letters of Charles Darwin (1903; 1971 reprint), Vol. 1, p. 285.
1 - INTRODUCTION
SUCH BONES BEEN FOUND?—(*#1/28
Man’s Non-human Ancestry Unknown*) From grade school on up,
children are taught about "cavemen," and are gradually
conditioned to the idea that we evolved from lower forms of life. They
are also taught about the bones and skulls of our "ancestors."
As adults, we frequently
hear reports of fossil remains of ape-like humans that have been found.
Each discovery has been hailed as a landmark proof of the theory of
evolution. Scientists have given a name to these supposed
half-man/half-ape remains; they call them hominids..
Is it really true that
such skeletal remains have been found? Are we really related to apes?
In this chapter, you will examine the
evidence and find solid answers.
From Ape to Man*) Evolutionists teach two variant theories regarding
man’s direct ancestor: (1) man and ape came from a common ancestor
about 5-20 million years ago; (2) man descended from an ape.
Modern man is said to
have evolved until about 100,000 years ago—and then he stopped
evolving! It is claimed
that, since that time, man has switched over from "physical
evolution" to "cultural and social evolution." This
is an attempt to explain the fact that, in historical records, evolution
has never been known among humans.
There is no evidence
that evolution is now—or has ever—occurred among animals or plants
either. Are they culturally evolving now also? In addition, it is
strange that if man is essentially the same as he was a million
years ago, then why did he only begin leaving writings, buildings, and
artifacts during no more than the last few thousand years? Why does
human history only go back less than 5,000 years?
"The search for the
proverbial ‘missing link’ in man’s evolution, that holy grail of a
never-dying sect of anatomists and biologists, allows speculation and
myth to flourish as happily today as they did fifty years ago and
more."— *Sir Solly Zukerman, "Myth and Method in
Anatomy," in Journal of the Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh
(1966), Vol. 11(2), pp. 87-114.
Did man descend from the
apes? Our DNA is different from that of each of the apes, monkeys, and
all the rest. The number of vertebrae in our backbone is different from
that in the apes. Our cranial (brain) capacity is totally
different from the great apes.
Orangutans . . . . . .
Chimpanzees . . . . .
Gorillas . . . . . . . .
. 340 -752 cc.
Man . . . . . . . . . .
. .1100 -1700 cc.
Cranial capacity is, by
itself, an important test of whether a skull is from a man or an ape.
"Since there are variations in
tissues and fluids, the cranial capacity is never exactly equal to brain
size, but can give an approximation. A skull’s capacity is determined
by pouring seeds or buckshot into the large hole at the base of the
skull (foramen magnum), then emptying the pellets into a measuring jar.
The volume is usually given in cubic centimeters (cc.). Living humans
have a cranial capacity
ranging from about 950cc. to 1,800cc., with the average about
1,400cc."—*R. Milner, Encyclopedia of Evolution (1990), p.
COMPARING GORILLA AND MAN—*Charles
Darwin said man was descended from an ape. Shown below is a typical ape,
a gorilla. Carefully notice is bony structure. Notice the skulls and
neck bones. Both were carefully designed by a highly-intelligent
Creator, but both are very different.
Gorilla and Man
Evolution teaches that
we descended from the great apes, and they, in turn, from the gibbons
and other smaller apes.
between man and ape: (1)
Birth weight as a percent of maternal weight is, in man, almost twice
that of the great apes (5.5 vs. 2.4-4.1), but about the same or less
than that found in monkeys (5-10) and in gibbons (7.5). (2) Order of
eruption of teeth is the same in man and in the Old World monkeys, but
it is different than that of the great apes. (3) Walking upright is
quite different. Man and the gibbon walk habitually upright; the great
apes do not. As with the other teachings of evolution, scientific facts
are on the side of the creationists, and the evolutionists, and their
incredulous theories are outside the domain of scientific fact,
discovery, and law. (4) The neck hinge is at the back on man, but at the
front on the ape.
The shape and
arrangement of the teeth, for
example, is quite different for apes and man:, for example, is quite
different for apes and man:
"Many male primates
have large canine teeth, which are used in fighting and defense. Where
the upper canines meet, or occlude, with the lower jaw, there are
spaces, or gaps, between the opposing teeth. Canine diastemas [spaces
opposite large canines] are characteristic of the jaws of baboons,
gorillas and monkeys. They are used as a diagnostic feature in studying
fossils because they are absent in hominids [men or near-men]. A primate
jaw with canine diastemas is considered probably related to apes or
monkeys, not close to the human family."—*R. Milner,
Encyclopedia of Evolution (1990), p. 69.
PEOPLES—Early civilizations were advanced;
but, from time to time, groups would migrate to new areas and for a time
live in "stone age cultures," until they had
opportunity to build cities, plant, and engage in animal husbandry (*Science
Year: 1966, p. 256).
THE THEORETICAL ANCESTRY
OF MAN—Shown below are side views of the skulls, bottom views of the
upper teeth, and side views of the hands—of the supposed ancestral
line of mankind (Galago to Guenon, to chimpanzee, to man).
A careful comparison reveals they are
each quite different from the others.
The Theoretical Ancestry
In some localities, the
climate and environment have been difficult enough that groups have
continued down to the present time in stone-age conditions. Such racial
groups can be found in New Guinea and certain other areas.
Some of these peoples
have lost a knowledge of agriculture and the making of weapons, tools,
or houses. They only have a few crude stone and bamboo tools, and no
weapons. They live under the trees in the open, and the men spend each
day gathering worms, leaves, and fruit for the family to eat.
believe that those primitive "stone age" peoples are not
evidence of earlier human life-forms, but rather tribes which have
slipped back from the rest of us.
"Many of the
so-called ‘primitive’ peoples of the world today, most of the
participants agreed, may not be so primitive after all. They suggested
that certain hunting tribes in Africa, Central India, South America, and
the Western Pacific are not relics of the Stone Age, as had been
previously thought, but instead are the ‘wreckage’ of more highly
developed societies forced through various circumstances to lead a much
simpler, less developed life."—*Science Year, 1966, p. 256.
first introduction many children have to evolution are pictures of
dinosaurs and cavemen. It is true that there have been groups that have
lived in caves. They wandered from warm climates to colder ones and
chose to live in caves for a time before building themselves homes in a
new land. But the fact that some people lived in caves for awhile
does not prove evolution from one species to another.
writing about 60 B.C., told of people living along the shores of the Red
Sea in caves. He describes many other barbarian tribes, some of them
quite primitive. Thus we see that both advanced civilizations and
more backward cave cultures lived at the same time. We have no
reason to conclude that the less advanced peoples were ancestors of the
more advanced ones..
Archaeologists tell us
that in some places in Palestine, people resembling the Neanderthal race
lived in caves, while not far away in Jericho people dwelt in
well-built, beautifully decorated houses.
Neanderthal Men*) Evolutionists call the cavemen, "Neanderthals."
In 1856 workers blasted
a cave in the Neander Valley near Düsseldorf, Germany. Inside they
found limb bones, pelvis, ribs, and a skull cap. The bones were
examined by both scientists and evolutionists, and for a number of years
all agreed that these were normal human beings. Even that ardent
evolutionist and defender of *Darwin, *Thomas H. Huxley, said they
belonged to people and did not prove evolution. *Rudolph Virchow, a
German anatomist, said the bones were those of modern men
afflicted with rickets and arthritis. Many scientists today
recognize that they had bowed legs due to rickets, caused by a lack of
In 1886, two similar
skulls were found at Spy, Belgium. In the early 1900s, a number of
similar specimens were found in southern France. Over a hundred
specimens are now in collections.
A French paleontologist
named *Marcellin Boule said they belonged to ape-like creatures, but he
was severely criticized for this even by other evolutionists who said
this fossil was just modern man (Homo sapiens), deformed by
A most excellent,
detailed analysis of how rickets and arthritis caused the
features, peculiar to Neanderthals, was written by Ivanhoe in a
1970 issue of the scientific journal, Nature. The article is
entitled, "Was Virchow Right About Neanderthal?"
may have looked like he did, not because he was closely related to the
great apes, but because he had rickets, an article in the British
publication Nature suggests. The diet of Neanderthal man was
definitely lacking in Vitamin D."—*"Neanderthals
had Rickets," in Science Digest, February 1971, p. 35.
include a somewhat larger brow ridge (the supra orbital
torus), but it is known that arthritis can make this more
prominent. Virchow noted that the thighbone (femur) was
curved, a condition common to rickets. Lack of Vitamin D causes
osteomalacia and rickets, producing a subtle facial change by increasing
the size of the eye cavity (orbit), especially vertically.
*D.J.M. Wright, in 1973,
showed that congenital syphilis could also have caused the kind of bone
deformities found in Neanderthal specimens.
apparently lived at a time when there was not as much sunlight.
We know that the ice age came as a result of worldwide volcanic dust
pollution. The weather in Europe
at that time was cold enough that they may have stayed so much in
their caves that they did not obtain enough sunlight, especially due
to the overcast sky conditions.
They may also have lived
longer than men do today. Biblical
records indicate that those living just after the Flood (on down to
Abraham and even Moses) had somewhat longer life spans than we do today.
In 1973, *H. Israel explained that certain living individuals
today begin to develop Neanderthaloid features—the heavy eyebrow
ridges, elongated cranial vault, and so on—with extreme age. There is
definite evidence that the Neanderthals were several hundred years old.
For much more
information, see the book, Buried Alive, by Jack Cuozzo (1998).
In it, he clearly shows that the Neanderthals were several hundred
years old. Facial bones keep growing throughout life. He also
discovered that the evolutionists had mismatched the upper and
lower jaw, in order to make the Neanderthals look like apes.
Here are two facts you
will not find in the textbooks: (1) In 1908 a typical Neanderthal
skeleton was found in Poland. It had been buried in a suit of chain
armor that was not yet fully rusted ("Neanderthal in
Armour," in *Nature, April 23, 1908, p. 587). (2) A
Neanderthal skeleton was found in the Philippine Islands
in 1910. Due to the extreme moisture of that land, it would be
impossible for the skeleton to be as much as a century old ("Living
Neanderthal Man," in *Nature, December 8, 1910, p. 176).
A third interesting fact
is that the Neanderthals had larger craniums than we do. They had
larger brains! This indicates regression of our race from
a former longer-lived, more intelligent, race rather than evolutionary
progression. Brain capacity is an important indicator of whether a
cranium (the part of the skull which encloses the brain) belongs
to an ape or a person.
capacity of the Neanderthal race of Homo sapiens was, on the
average, equal to or even greater than that in modern man."—*Theodosius
Dobzhansky, "Changing Man," in Science, January 27, 1967, p.
"Normal human brain
size is 1450-1500 ccs; Neanderthal’s is 1600 ccs. If his brow is low,
his brain is larger than modern man’s."—Michael Pitman, Adam
and Evolution (1984), p. 87.
brain case on the average was more than 13 percent larger than that of
the average of modern man."—Erich A. von Fange, "Time
Upside Down," in Creation Research Society Quarterly, June 1974, p.
They also had
well-developed culture, art, and religion.
At the present time, most scientists agree
that Neanderthals were just plain people that lived in caves for a time.
Unfortunately, we are still waiting for this change in thinking to be
seen in children’s textbooks.
skulls were found in Santa Barbara, California in 1923. Researchers
recognized that they were just Indian skulls.
Neanderthals were just
racial types similar to ourselves.
Cro-Magnon and Rhodesian Man*) In 1868 a cave was discovered at Les
Eyzies, in the Dordogne area of France. In the local dialect, cro-magnon
means "big hole." A number of skeletons have been found
there, and have been hailed as the great "missing link"
between man and ape.
The Cro-Magnons were
truly human, possibly of a noble bearing. Some were over six feet tall,
with a cranial volume somewhat larger than that of men today.
This means they had more brains than men have today. Not only did they
have some excellent artists among them, but they also kept
astronomy records. The Cro-Magnons were normal people, not monkeys,
and they provide no evidence of a transition from ape to man..
2 - HOMINIDS
now turn our attention to part of a lengthy line of fakes.
As we view them, one by one,
there are a few questions we should keep in mind:
(1) Why is it
that, each time, only one specimen is found? Why not hundreds or
thousands of them? If these are our ancestors, there should be
millions of specimens. There are so many people alive today, there
should have been large numbers of half-ape people alive during that
"million years" that men are said to have lived on this
planet. Indeed, evolution teaches uniformitarianism, the concept
that past climates and living conditions were essentially like those we
have now in the world.
(2) Why are only
little pieces of bone found for each specimen—never a complete
skeleton? Is this not reading a lot into almost no evidence? Or is
it possible that the less found, the easier it is to try to make
unfounded claims for it? (Later in this chapter we learn that if
only parts of bones are found, their positions can be moved about to
imitate half-ape skulls and jaws.)
(3) Although bones decay
in a few years in damper regions, and in a few centuries in drier
regions,—why is it that these special bones did not decay even
though they are supposed to be "a million years old"?
The very possibility, that these "million-year-old bones" are
not supposed to have decayed, makes it all the more certain that there
ought to be millions of other bones lying around belonging to our
ancestors! There are millions living today, if people have lived
on earth for a million years,—the earth should be filled with the
bones of our ancestors!
(4) How could
"million-year-old bones" possibly be found in damp earth
(not encased within solid rock) in Indonesia, China, and England? Yet
the evolutionists claim that such bones have been found, as we shall
In an article about the
grand opening of the International Louis Leakey Memorial Institute for
African Prehistory (TILLMIAP) in Nairobi, Kenya, *Lewin wrote this:
"Perhaps more than
any other science, human prehistory is a highly personalized pursuit,
the whole atmosphere reverberating with the repeated collisions of
oversized egos. The reasons are not difficult to discover. For a start,
the topic under scrutiny—human origins—is highly emotional, and
there are reputations to be made and public acclaim to be savoured for
people who unearth ever older putative human ancestors. But the major
problem has been the pitifully small number of hominid fossils on which
prehistorians exercise their imaginative talents."—*Roger
Lewin, "A New Focus for African Prehistory," in New Scientist,
September 29, 1977, p. 793.
BONE PIECES—One problem, as indicated above,
is all that these experts work with is such things as jaw
fragments, broken skull pieces, and parts of other bones. No
complete or even half-complete skeleton, linking man with the rest of
animals has ever been found. all that these experts work with is such things as jaw
fragments, broken skull pieces, and parts of other bones. No
complete or even half-complete skeleton, linking man with the rest of
animals has ever been found. all that these experts work with is such things as jaw
fragments, broken skull pieces, and parts of other bones. No
complete or even half-complete skeleton, linking man with the rest of
animals has ever been found. But, working with pieces collected here
and there, imagination can produce most wonderful
"discoveries." In some instances, some of the pieces have been
found at some distance from the rest of the fragments.
Man*) In 1891, Java Man was found. This is a classic
instance of a man searching for evidence to support a theory.
This is a classic
instance of a man searching for evidence to support a theory. *
Eugene Dubois became a convinced evolutionist while attending a Dutch
college. Dropping out of school, he began searching for fossils in
Sumatra and other Dutch East Indies islands. He shipped thousands of
crates of regular animal bones back to Holland, and then went to Java.
In September 1891 near
the village of Trinil in a damp place by the Solo River, *Dubois found a
skull cap. A year later and fifty feet from where he had found the
skull cap, he found a femur. Later he found three teeth in another
location in that area. *Dubois assumed that (1) all these bones were
from the same individual, and (2) that they were as much as a million
Nearby, in the same
condition (indicating the same approximate age) he also found two human
skulls (known as the Wadjak
skulls), but he did not publicize this find, for they had a cranial
capacity somewhat above that of modern man. Thirty-one years later, in
1922, he admitted the Wadjak skull was an ape.
reported the find (the pieces of bone) as "Java Man," and
spent the rest of his life promoting this great discovery. The thigh
bone was a normal human upper leg bone. As might be expected, many
experts questioned whether all the bones came from the same person, and
even if they did, they said they were human bones, not ape bones. But
*Dubois spent most of the remainder of his life lecturing and telling
people about the "half-human half-ape" bones that he
had found in Java in 1891-1892. He named it Pithecanthropus erectus (erect
thought it was human, German experts decided it was ape,
and the French conjectured that it was something between the two.
Finally, in 1907 a German expedition was
sent from Berlin to Java to settle the matter. But *Dubois would
not show them his "bone collection" nor help
them in any way. Arriving in Java, they went over the Trinil site
thoroughly, removed 10,000 cubic meters of material and 43 boxfuls of bones, and
then declared it all to be wasted time. Their main discovery was that *Dubois’
Java Man bones had been taken from a depth that came from a
nearby volcano. It had overflowed in the recent past and spewed
forth lava, which overwhelmed and buried a number of people and animals.
ARRANGING JAVA MAN—This sketch is an
excellent illustration of how evolutionists prefer PIECES of bones, for
they can fit them together in different ways to achieve their purposes.
About 15 years before
his death, and after most evolutionists had become convinced that his
find was nothing more than bones from a modern human,—*Dubois
announced his conviction that the bones belonged to a gibbon!
School textbooks and
popular books for the public continue to cite 500,000 years as the age
of "Java Man," which, admittedly, is quite an imaginary
Piltdown Man / #10 The Story of Piltdown Man*) In 1912, Piltdown
Man was found. In 1912, Piltdown
Man was found. This created a great sensation in both the
newspapers and halls of science when it was announced by the British
Geological Society. They gave it the scientific name, Eoanthropus
dawsoni. For nearly 40 years the scientific world bowed before
Piltdown Man as the great key to human evolution. Only one specimen
existed, when there ought to be thousands if it was really genuine.
Paintings were made of
the great men who found and worked on it, and three of those men were
later knighted by the king of England. Such is the stuff of glory. Ignored
was the report of a dentist in 1916 who said that the teeth had been
filed down by someone.
In 1953, *Joseph Weiner and *Kenneth
Oakley applied a recently developed fluorine test to the bones—and
found that Piltdown Man was a grand hoax!
had taken an ape jaw and put it with a human skull, filed the teeth
somewhat, and then carefully stained it all so that the bones looked
both ancient and a matching set. Imported mammalian fossils and
handcrafted tools were placed nearby. It took 40 years to unravel that
particular hoax. (Later in this chapter, the story is discussed in
THE PIECES OF PILTDOWN
MAN—It took several years to fabricate Piltdown Man. *Dawson and his
associates carefully worked on the bones, in order to only provide
certain pieces, so a half-ape, half-human appearance could be produced.
The dark portions represent the pieces of bone; the white portions are
This illustration, like all in this
book, are taken from the author’s three-volume Evolution Disproved
examination of the bone pieces [in 1953] revealed the startling
information that the whole thing was a fabrication, a hoax perpetrated
by Dawson, probably, to achieve recognition. The skulls were collections
of pieces, some human and some not. One skull had a human skull cap but
an ape lower jaw. The teeth had been filed and the front of the jaw
broken off to obscure the simian [ape] origin. Some fragments used had
been stained to hide the fact that the bones were not fossil, but fresh.
In drilling into the bones, researchers obtained shavings rather than
powder, as would be expected in truly fossilized bone."—Harold
G. Coffin, Creation: Accident or Design? (1961), p. 221.
MAN—In 1921, Rhodesian
Man was discovered in a cave. Anthropologists
and artists set to work turning him into a half-ape, half-human sort of
creature. But then a competent anatomist had the opportunity to
examine it, and found that this was just a normal human being.
revealed dental caries which modern diets tend to produce, and also a
hole through the skull made by a bullet or crossbow.
So Rhodesian Man was not so ancient after
African Man was found in 1924
*Raymond Dart, when he came across the front face and lower jaw of
an immature ape in a cave in the Taung limestone quarry of South
Africa. He rushed to report it, accompanied by extravagant claims. A
majority of scientists rejected this find, but the press loudly
proclaimed it to be the "the missing link." Today most
experts dismiss it as the skull of a young ape.
"Differences due to
age are especially significant with reference to the structure of the
skull in apes. Very pronounced changes occur during the transition from
juvenile to adult in apes, but not in Man. The skull of a juvenile ape
is somewhat different from that of Man. We may remember that the first
specimen of Australopithecus that was discovered by Raymond Dart,
the Tuang ‘child,’ was that of a juvenile [ape]. This juvenile skull
should never have been compared to those of adult apes and
humans."—Duane Gish, Evolution: the Challenge of the Fossil
Record (1985), p. 178.
Nebraska Man*) Nebraska Man was found in 1922. Well,
not exactly. A single molar tooth was found in 1922,—and called
"Nebraska Man"! Based on that one tooth, an artist was told to
make a picture. He did so and it went around the world. Nebraska Man
was a key evidence at the Scopes trial in July 1925 in Dayton,
Tennessee. In 1928, it was discovered that the tooth belonged to
"an extinct pig"! In 1972, living specimens of the
same pig were found in Paraguay. *Grafton Smith, one of those involved
in publicizing "Nebraska Man" was knighted for his efforts in
making known this fabulous find.
*Henry F. Osborn, a
leading paleontologist, ridiculed William Jennings Bryan at the Scopes
Trial, declaring that the tooth was "the herald of anthropoid apes
in America," and that it "speaks volumes of truth" (*H.F.
Osborn, Evolution and Religion in Education, 1926, p. 103).
trial, two specialists in teeth at the American Museum of Natural
History, said that, after careful study, the tooth was definitely from a
species closer to man than to the ape. (Science 55, May 5, 1927, p.
MAN—Peking Man emerged
on the international scene in the 1920s.
finances of *Davidson Black were just about running out, and he needed
help, when in 1927 he found a tooth near Peking, China. The *Rockefeller
Foundation stepped forward and gave him $80,000 to continue research on
this colossal find. So *Black continued looking and came up with a
skull, copies of which are displayed today in biology laboratories.
*Black named it Sinanthropus pekinensis ("China man from
Peking"), and received honors from all over the world for his
discovery. After his death in 1934, the Jesuit that helped prepare
Piltdown Man (*Teilhard de Chardin) took over the work at the site. Then
*Franz Weidenreich led out until all work stopped in 1936, because of
the Japanese invasion of China.
This turned out to be
some kind of town garbage dump. Although
thousands of animal bones were found in this pit near Peking, only
a few human skulls were found, and there was no evidence that they had
evolved from anything else—even though there was 150 feet of
animal bones in the pit. These human bones totaled 14 skulls in varying
conditions, 11 jawbones, 147 teeth and a couple small arm bone and femur
fragments, along with stone tools and carbon ash from fires.
These were human bones,
but with a somewhat smaller brain capacity
(1,000cc., which some people today have), and with the prominent brow
ridges which we find in Neanderthals and Australopithecus.
There are races today
with larger brow ridges, and some Philippine women have brow
ridges,—which only men generally have. Patterns
vary, but the species remains one.
[Peking] hominid skull featured prominent brow ridges and a somewhat
smaller braincase (about 1,000 cc.) than modern humans (1,500
cc.)."—*R. Milner, Encyclopedia of Evolution (1990), p. 359.
A braincase of 1,000cc.
is not sub-human; people today vary between 1,000 and 2,000cc., with an
occasional low of 750cc., and an average of 1,500-1 ,600cc.
All the skulls
disappeared during World War II,
so we cannot now examine them with modern methods to check their
"Amidst the uncertainties of
war-torn Beijing [earlier called Peking], it proved impossible to store
them [Peking Man bones] safely with Chinese authorities, so Weidenreich
finally packed them for military shipment to the United States. They
were believed to be aboard the marine ship S.S.
President Harrison, which was sunk in the Pacific in mid-November
1941. So Peking man’s bones may now be resting on the ocean’s
have been sporadic reports that the crate never made it onto that
ill-fated ship, but was left behind in a railway station, where it was
confiscated by the Japanese, stolen by looters or simply lost in the
The evidence indicates
that this may have been a dining area or garbage dump, and that both
animals and people had been eaten.
"But just what had
been excavated? A living site? A burial ground? A place of ritual
cannibalism? . . Peking man was represented mainly by skulls—hardly
any postcranial material. Not a pelvis or a rib. Just skulls. And the
openings at their bases, the foramens magnums, had been widened and
smashed, as if someone had wanted to scoop out the brains."—*Ibid.
Twenty years later, in
the 1950s, *Ernst Mayr came up with a new name, Homo erectus, and
then put a variety of bone finds (Java Man, Peking Man, and several
others) into it.
It is well to keep in
mind that all that remains of Peking Man are plaster casts in the United
States. But plaster casts cannot be considered reliable evidence.
Ramapithecus*; #9/17 Australopithecus*) "Australopithecus"
("southern ape") is the name given to a variety of
ape bones found in Africa. After examining the bones carefully,
anthropologists have gravely announced that they come from an ancient
race of pre-people who lived from 4 to 1 million years ago. These
bones have been found at various African sites, including
Sterkfontein, Swartkrans, Koobi Fora, Olduvai, Hadar, and Orno River. The
Australopithecines, like modern apes, had a wide range of
varieties. But they are all apes.
One of the most famous
was named "Lucy," and
will be mentioned later on.
Some experts believe
that these apes, the Australopithecines, descended from another
ape, the "Ramapithecines" ("Ramapithecus" is
the singular for this word), which is supposed to have lived 12 million
"No proven ancestor
is known for any early Australopithecus, nor for any early Homo [habilis]."—W.
Mehlert, "The Australopithecines and (Alleged) Early Man," in
Creation Research Society Quarterly, June 1980, p. 25.
Homo habilis is
another ape. In the 1960s,
*Louis Leakey found some teeth and skull fragments at Olduvai. He dated
them at 1.8 million years ago and decided they belonged to the human
family, therefore naming them Homo (people are classified as Homo
Sapien. But many experts, including *Brace and *Metress have clearly
shown that habilis was nothing more than a large-brained Australopithecus.
Human beings have a brain size of
about 1500 cc. (cubic centimeters). In contrast, habilis was 660
cc. Other brain sizes would be 800 cc. for Hadar, 900 cc. for Koobi Fora.
Most other brain sizes are about 500 cc. The Taung and Sterkfontein
skulls are around 430 cc. apiece, so an adult of their species would
only be 550-600 cc. Thus on the score of size of brain case, these finds
An excellent and
detailed article on this, which
includes 13 charts and graphs, will be found in "Some
Implications of Variant Cranial Capacities for the Best-preserved
Australopithecine Skull Specimens," by Gerald Duffert (Creation
Research Society Quarterly, September 1983, pp. 96-104). The article
reveals that there was evidence of fraudulent measurements of
those ancient African skulls. Repeatedly, when initially measured a
high cubic centimeter volume was announced for the skull, but later
remeasurements by other investigators disclosed much smaller
revisionary calculations of australopithecine skulls have led to
reductions of their calculated volumes. The total percentage differences
amount to—157.91."—*Op. cit., p. 100.
that brain enlargement marked the beginning of man was long popular, but
went out of fashion with the discovery that the endocranial volumes of
the australopithecine group were not larger than those of
gorillas."—*Elwin L. Simons, Primate Evolution: An
Introduction to Man’s Place in Nature (1972), p. 278.
Speaking of the Australopithecines,
*J.S. Weiner commented:
profile of Australopithecus is so pronounced that its outline can
be superimposed on that of a female chimpanzee with a remarkable
closeness of fit, and in this respect and others it stands in strong
contrast to modern man."—*J.S. Weiner, The Natural History of
In 1957, *Ashley Montagu,
a leading U.S. anthropologist, wrote that these extremely apelike
creatures could not possibly have anything to do with man (*A.
Montegu, Man’s First Million Years).
After the most careful
research, *Oxnard and *Zuckerman have come to the conclusion that Australopithecus
is an ape, and not human, and not a transition between the two.
"Dr. Charles Oxnard
and Sir Solly Zuckerman were leaders in the development of a powerful
multivariate analysis procedure. This computerized technique
simultaneously performs millions of comparisons on hundreds of
corresponding dimensions of the bones of living apes, humans, and the
australopithecines. Their verdict, that the australopithecines are not
intermediate between man and living apes, is quite different from the
more subjective and less analytical visual techniques of most
anthropologists. This technique, however, has not yet been applied to
the most recent type of australopithecine, commonly known as ‘Lucy.’
"—Walter T. Brown, In the Beginning (1989), p. 39.
one of the most recent of the Australopithecus finds,
was unearthed by *Donald C. Johanson at Hadar, Ethiopia in 1975.
He dated it at 3 million years B.P.
[Before Present]. In 1979, *Johanson and *White claimed that Lucy came
under an ape/man classification (Australopithecus afarensis). But
even before that startling announcement, the situation did not look too
good for Lucy. In 1976, *Johanson said that "Lucy has massive
V-shaped jaws in contrast to man" (*National Geographic
Magazine, 150:790-810). In 1981, he said that she was "embarrassingly
un-Homo like" (Science 81, 2(2):53-55). Time
magazine reported in 1977 that Lucy had a tiny skull, a head like
an ape, a braincase size the same as that of a chimp—450 cc. and
"was surprisingly short legged" (*Time, November 7,
1979, pp. 68-69).
*Dr. Yves Coppens,
appearing on BBC-TV in 1982, stated that Lucy’s skull was like that
of an ape.
In 1983, *Jeremy Cherfas
said that Lucy’s ankle bone (talus) tilts backward like a
gorilla, instead of forward as in human beings who need it so to
walk upright, and concluded that the differences between her and human
beings are "unmistakable" (*J. Cherfas, New Scientist,
*Susman and *Stern of
New York University carefully examined Lucy and said her thumb was
apelike, her toes long and curved for tree climbing, and "she
probably nested in the trees and lived like other monkeys" (Bible
Science Newsletter, 1982, p. 4).
Several scientists have
decided that the bones of Lucy come from two different sources.
Commenting on this, *Peter Andrews, of the British Museum of Natural
History, said this:
matters further, some researchers believe that the afarensis sample
[Lucy] is really a mixture of two separate species. The most convincing
evidence for this is based on characteristics of the knee and elbow
joints."—*Peter Andrews, "The Descent of Man," in
New Scientist, 102:24 (1984).
Regarding those knee
joints, *Owen Lovejoy, *Richard Leakey’s highly qualified associate
(an anatomist), declared at a 1979 lecture in the United States that a
multivariate analysis of Lucy’s knee joints revealed her to be an ape
So whether Lucy’s
bones belong to one creature or two, they are both apes.
about Lucy is based on an assumption linking two fossils 1,000 miles
[1,609 km] apart:
"Although the Lucy
fossils were initially dated at three million years, *Johanson had
announced them as 3.5 million because he said the species was ‘the
same’ as a skull found by *Mary Leakey at Laetoli, Tanzania. By
proposing *Mary Leakey’s find as the ‘type specimen’ for Australopithecus
afarensis, he was identifying Lucy with another fossil 1,000 miles
[1,609 km] from the Afar [in northern Ethiopia] and half a million years
older! *Mary thought the two not at all the same and refused to have any
part of linking her specimen with [*Johanson’s] afarensis . . She
announced that she strongly resented Johanson’s ‘appropriating’
her find, her reputation and the older date to lend authority to Lucy.
Thus began the bitter, persistent feud between Johanson and the Leakeys."—*R.
Milner, Encyclopedia of Evolution (1990), p. 285.
himself, finally decided that Lucy was only an ape.
originally described the fossils as Homo, a species of man, but
soon after changed his mind based on the assessment of his colleague,
Tim White. They now describe the bones as too ape-like in the jaws,
teeth and skull to be considered Homo, yet also sufficiently
distinct from other, later australopithecines to warrant their own
Mehlert sums it up.
"The evidence . .
makes it overwhelmingly likely that Lucy was no more than a variety of
pigmy chimpanzee, and walked the same way (awkwardly upright on
occasions, but mostly quadrupedal). The ‘evidence’ for the alleged
transformation from ape to man is extremely unconvincing."—A.W.
Mehlert, news note, Creation Research Society Quarterly, December 1985,
MAN—Nutcracker Man was
found in 1959 by *Louis Leakey in
the Olduvai Gorge in East Africa, and is one of the Australopithecines,
1470—In 1972, *Richard
Leakey announced what he thought to be a human-like fossil skull, and
gave it an astonishing date of 2.8 million years.
official name of this find is KNM-ER 1470, but it is commonly
known as "Skull 1470." If this is a human skull, then
it would pre-date all the man/ape bones said to be its ancestors.
Both Leakey and other
hominid experts think it looks essentially like a modern small-brained
person. It was pieced together from several fragments.
"In 1972, Bernard
Ngeneo, of Richard Leakey’s ‘Hominid Gang,’ found a similar but
much more complete skull at East Turkana. It is generally known as the
‘1470’ skull, from its accession number at the Kenya National
"The 1470 skull was
pieced together by Richard Leakey’s wife Meave and several anatomists
from dozens of fragments—a jig jaw puzzle that took six weeks to
assemble. Dated at 1.89 million years old, with a cranial capacity of
750cc., Leakey believes it is the oldest fossil of a true human
ancestor. In his view, the australopithecines and other hominid fossils
"Leakey fought hard
to win a place for his 1470 (along with the previous habiline fragments
found at Olduvai) because most anthropologists thought the skull was
simply ‘too modern-looking’ to be as ancient as he at first
claimed."—*R. Milner, Encyclopedia of Evolution (1990), p.
Here was *Leakey’s
original announcement in regard to this skull:
"Either we toss out
this skull or we toss out our theories of early man . . [It] leaves in
ruins the notion that all early fossils can be arranged in an orderly
sequence of evolutionary change."—*Richard E. Leakey,
"Skull 1470," National Geographic, June 1973, p. 819.
But it should be
understood that modern, living, small-brained (750cc.) human
beings have existed, so the finding of a 750cc. Skull 1470 is no reason
to think it is an "ancestor" of mankind.
"Human qualities of
mind, Keith proclaimed, can only appear when brain volume is at least
750 cubic centimeters, a point nicknamed ‘Keith’s rubicon’
(dividing line) . . How did he arrive at the ‘magic’ number of
750cc.? It was the smallest functioning modern human brain anatomists
had seen at the time [when *Sir Arthur Keith, one of those involved in
the Piltdown hoax, was alive earlier in this century]."—*R.
Milner, Encyclopedia of Evolution (1990), p. 249.
Early comments on Skull
1470 included these:
"The finding of
‘Skull 1470,’ which Richard Leakey says is nearly three million
years old and really human, will shatter the whole evolutionary story
built upon so-called hominoids, if anthropologists accept Leakey’s
pronouncements. An artist for the National Geographic Magazine obligingly
painted a reconstruction which is very human indeed. The only thing
peculiar is the overly flat nose—and the shape of the nose cannot be
ascertained from a skull."—News note, Creation Research
Society Quarterly, September 1974, p. 131.
"The latest reports
of Richard Leakey are startling, and, if verified, will reduce to a
shambles the presently held schemes of evolutionists concerning man’s
origins."—Duane T. Gish, Evolution: The Fossils Say No!
(1973), p. 105.
After considering the
implications of the situation, the skull was carefully redated, lest it
be thought that human beings had lived 2.8 million years ago. The
experts did not want it to predate its ancestors!
"The 1470 Skull
discovered by Richard Leakey in 1972 was originally ‘dated’ at 2.6
million years. However, many anthropologists objected because then the
more modern 1470 Skull would predate all its supposed ancestors. Thus
1470 was ‘redated’ until a more ‘acceptable’ estimate of 1.8
million years was adopted."—John N. Moore, "Teaching
About Origin Questions: Origin of Human Beings," in Creation
Research Society Quarterly, March 1986, p. 185.
This skull may have been
that of a microcephalic human, a teenage human, or an ape..
It lacks the prominent
eyebrow ridges common to Homo
erectus (Java Man, etc.), many Neanderthals, and Australopithecus. Some
fossil apes had brow ridges; others lacked them.
The brow ridge slopes
back abruptly as does that of simians (apes), but it is somewhat more
The size of the
braincase is equivalent to that of a teenager, or a microcephalic, and
somewhat larger than an ape: 775 cc. A gorilla averages 500 cc., and an australopithecus
only 422 to 530 cc. The average brain size for modern man is 1450
cc. But there are exceptions to this:
Microcephalics are human
beings which have brains as small as 775 cc.
This condition is a birth defect which, though unfortunate, occurs from
time to time.
microcephaly are quite subnormal in intelligence, but they still show
specifically human behavioral patterns."—Marvin Lubenow,
"Evolutionary Reversals: the Latest Problem Facing Stratigraphy and
Evolutionary Phylogeny," in Bible-Science Newsletter, 14(1 1):1-4
"None of these
early hominids had brains approaching the size of modern human ones. The
indices of encephalization show that australopithecines were only
slightly above the great apes in relative brain size and even the
largest cranium [Skull 1470] is about as close to apes as it is to
humans."—*Henry M. McHenry, "Fossils and the Mosaic
Nature of Human Evolution," in Science 190(4213):425-431.
It is significant that
the lower jaw was not found. This would have told a lot.
face of the skull, below the eyes, protrudes forward in the manner of
apes. The jaw and molars are somewhat larger than the average modern
human’s, but not larger than those of some people. There appears to be
a lack of bony support beneath the nostrils, such as is found in
gorillas. Facial skeletons are relatively larger in apes than the
braincase size. Skull 1470 is about midway in this category, and thus
not like that of humans. It also has a long upper lip area, such as
Viewing three skulls
from the rear (an adult human, Skull 1470, and Australopithecus) we
find that Skull 1470 has similarities to that of Australopithecus.
John Cuozzo, in a 4-page
report complete with two drawings and seven photographs (Creation
Research Society Quarterly, December 1977, pp. 173-176), provides
intriguing evidence for his contention that Skull 1470 may have been
that of an early teenage human being, and that damage to the skull after
death caused the ape-like characteristics in the nasal opening, etc.
Frankly, there is not
enough data available to say much more. There is no doubt that the
special human qualities of speech, etc., would not reveal themselves in
It is also a fact that
evolutionists eagerly desire evidence that man descended from an
ape-like ancestor. Yet over a hundred years of searching has not
disclosed this, even though, as we learned in the chapter on Fossils
and Strata, millions of fossils have been dug out of the ground and
examined. If mankind had indeed descended from another creature, there
should be abundant fossil evidence. But it is not there.
Major Hominid Discoveries*) Most all of these supposed ancestral
bones of man have been catalogued in a *Time-Life book, The Missing
Link, Volume 2 in the "Emergence of Man Series," published
in 1972. It has a complete listing of all the Australopithecine
finds up to the end of 1971.
Although over 1400
specimens are given, most are little more than scraps of bone or
one complete skeleton of one individual exists. All that anthropologists
have in their ancestral closet are bits and pieces.
"The fossils that
decorate our family tree are so scarce that there are still more
scientists than specimens. The remarkable fact is that all the physical
evidence we have for human evolution can still be placed, with room to
spare, inside a single coffin!"—*Science Digest 90, May 1982,
As listed in the Ancient
Man appendix on our website (*#12*), the number of bone
pieces which have been found worldwide is incredibly small! You
will want to turn to the appendix and look over the listing for
yourself. There is little wonder that each new piece of bone receives so
many newspaper stories!
"The entire hominid
collection known today would barely cover a billiard table . . The
collection is so tantalisingly incomplete, and the specimens themselves
often so fragmentary and inconclusive, that more can be said about what
is missing than about what is present."—*John Reader, New
Scientist 89, March 26, 1981, p. 802.
"I don’t want to
pour too much scorn on paleontologists, but if you were to spend your
life picking up bones and finding little fragments of head and little
fragments of jaw, there’s a very strong desire there to exaggerate the
importance of those fragments."—*Greg Kirby, address at
meeting of Biology Teachers’ Association, South Australia, 1976
[Flinders University professor].
"The problem with a
lot of anthropologists is that they want so much to find a hominid that
any scrap of bone becomes a hominid bone."—*Timothy White,
quoted in New Scientist 98, April 28, 1983, p. 199 [University of
IT ALL MEANS—All the
evidence from bones and fossils gives only one report: Mankind did not
evolve from any lower form of life. Evolutionists have found no support
anywhere for their theory that man came from apes,
monkeys, mollusks, germs, or anything else.
Here are five special
reasons why mankind did not descend from apes.
We cover several of these in detail in other chapters:
appearance of fossil forms separated by systematic gaps between fossil
forms. 2. Distinctness of DNA, chemical components, and pattern (design)
of morphological similarities. 3. Laws of Mendel: combination,
recombination always results in easily recognized plant, animal forms; conclusive
evidence of fixed reproductive patterns (designs). 4. Distinctness
of human self-conscious awareness, and metaphysical concerns. 5.
Distinctness of human personality involving moral and ethical concern;
reflective, symbolic, abstract, conceptual thought."—John N.
Moore, "Teaching about Origin Questions: Origin of Human
Beings," in Creation Research Society Quarterly, March 1986, p. 184
that man descended from an unknown ancestor, and *Darwin said it was an
ape. If we descended from an ape, why do we have a different number
of vertebrae in our backbones than apes have? Why is our cranial
capacity totally different? And, most important, why is our DNA
distinctly different than apes, monkeys, and all species of wildlife?
They say that they have
found the bones of our hominid ancestors. Why then have only a
table-top full of bones been found? There ought to be millions of bones,
if they lived for hundreds of thousands of years before us. And why
do all those bones look only like ape bones or human bones—and never
They say that modern
evolutionary anthropology is based on the pioneering discoveries of six
men: * Eugene Dubois and his Java Man, *Charles Dawson’s
Piltdown Man, the 1921 Rhodesian Man, the 1922 Nebraska Man, *Raymond
*Dart’s Taung African Man, and *Davidson Black’s Peking Man. But
the finds of *Dubois and *Dawson were later discovered to be outright
fakes. Rhodesian and Taung Man were found to be apes. Nebraska Man
turned out to be a pig tooth, and Peking Man was just human bones.
And are not very old
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