Evolution Cruncher Chapter 14
EFFECTS OF THE
FLOOD part 1
actually happened after the Flood
This chapter is based on
pp. 665-719 of Origin of Life (Volume Two of our three-volume Evolution
Disproved Series). Not included in this chapter are at least 80
statements by scientists, plus specialized articles. You will find them,
plus much more, in the encyclopedia on this website.
The oldest historical
records of mankind in our possession were written by Moses.
These are the books of Genesis and Job. In the first of these is given
the history of the world from about 4000 B.C. on down to about 1900 B.C.
In the first two chapters of Genesis we find an account of
Creation Week, when our world and everything in it were made. In
Genesis 6 to 9 we are told about the worldwide Flood that occurred about
2348 B.C. (1656 A.M. [anno mundi], or about 1,656 years after
The effects of that
gigantic flood of waters were so dramatic that we find many evidences of
it today. It is impossible to properly study origins and earth science
without an understanding of the effects of the Flood.
For this reason, we are including it in this chapter.. For
this reason, we are including it in this chapter.
We will begin by
considering rock strata and fossil remains as an effect and evidence of
the Flood. .
Following this, we will
view several non-strata and fossil effects of the time before the Flood,
during the Flood, and a period of time immediately after the Flood
In this chapter, we will
obtain a better understanding of the effects of the Flood. We will also
see more clearly how those effects prove, not uniformitarianism,
but catastrophism. There was a worldwide Flood! It alone can explain so
many geographical features on our planet today.
basic principle of evolution for over a century has been the theory of uniformitarianism,
which teaches that "all things continue as they were from
the beginning" (you will find 2 Peter 3:3-7 interesting
When evolutionists gaze
upon the immense ocean, the millions of fossils and thick coal seams in
the sedimentary rocks, the sea shells on top of the highest mountains,
the deep canyons with small rivers, vast dried-up lake beds, and
thrust-up mountain blocks,—they declare that it all came about by the
same fairly gentle processes and natural forces that are operating
"This is the great
underlying principle of modern geology and is known as the principle
of uniformitarianism . . Without the principle of uniformitarianism
there could hardly be a science of geology that was more than pure
description."—*W.D. Thornbury, Principles of Geomorphology
(1957), pp. 16-17.
admit that the uniformitarian theory explains nothing about the
age of fossils, rock strata, the age of the earth, or anything else:
"The idea that the
rates or intensities of geological processes have been constant is so
obviously contrary to the evidence that one can only wonder at its
persistence . . Modern uniformitarianism . . asserts nothing about the
age of the Earth or about anything else."—*James H. Shea,
"Twelve Fallacies of Uniformitarianism," in Geology, September
1982, p. 457.
find it particularly difficult to apply their principle, namely: (1) the
cause of mountain-building; (2) the origin of geosynclines; (3) the
origin of petroleum; (4) the cause of continual glaciation; (5) the
mechanics of overthrusting; (6) the cause of peneplains; (7) the cause
of world-wide warm climates; (8) the nature of volcanism producing vast
volcanic terrains; (9) the nature of continental uplift processes; (10)
the origin of mineral deposits; (11) the nature of metamorphism; (12)
the origin of saline deposits; (13) the nature of granitization; and
(14) the origin of coal measures. Not one of the above phenomena has yet
been adequately explained in terms of present processes."—H.R.
Siegler, Evolution or Degeneration—Which? (1972).
See chapter 12, Fossils
and Strata, for much more information on this.
contrast, the concept called catastrophism teaches that a
terrible crisis occurred at some earlier time.
Geologic evidence on all
sides is clear that it was a catastrophe of such gigantic proportions
that rocks were twisted, mountains were hurled upward, water was pulled
out of the earth, and the very atmosphere was dramatically affected. As
a consequence, thousands of volcanoes erupted and vast glaciers moved
downward from poles which had earlier been warm.
"[*Bretz] has been
unable to account for such a flood but maintained that field evidence
indicated its reality. This theory represents a return to catastrophism
which many geologists have been reluctant to accept."—*W.D.
Thornbury, Principles of Geomorphology (1954), p. 401.
The evidence is so
profound that many secular scientists are indeed turning away from
"In fact, the
catastrophists were much more empirically minded than Lyell [who first
widely championed uniformitarianism over a century ago]. The geologic
record does seem to require catastrophism: rocks are fractured and
contorted; whole faunas are wiped out. To circumvent this literal
appearance, Lyell imposed his imagination upon the evidence. The
geologic record, he argued, is extremely imperfect and we must
interpolate into it what we can reasonably infer but cannot see. The
catastrophists were [in contrast] the hard-nosed empiricists of their
day."—*Stephan Jay Gould, "Catastrophes and Steady State
Earth," in Natural History, February 1975, p. 17. [Gould is a
professor at Harvard University, teaching geology, biology, and the
history of science.]
uniformitarianism, or ‘gradualism,’ i.e., the doctrine of
unchanging change, is verily contradicted by all post-Cambrian
sedimentary data and the geotectonic [earth movement] histories of which
these sediments are the record."—*P.D. Krynine,
"Uniformitarianism is a Dangerous Doctrine," in Paleontology,
1956, p. 1004.
"Often, I am afraid
the subject [of geology] is taught superficially, with Geikie’s maxim
‘the present is the key to the past’ used as a catechism and the
imposing term uniformitarianism’ as a smokescreen to hide confusion
both of student and teacher."—*Stephen Jay Gould, "Is
Uniformitarianism Useful?" in Journal of Geological Education,
October 1957, p. 150.
- FOSSILS, STRATA, AND THE FLOOD
this section duplicates portions of our earlier chapter, Fossils
and Strata, the duplication is considered necessary, for we
will now correlate the fossil and strata evidence with the worldwide
Flood. Without doing so, it would be more difficult to properly
assess the relationships, implications, and impact of the Flood.
AND ROCK STRATA—Above
the molten rock at the center of our planet is a mantle of black basalt,
from which flows the lava which issues forth out of volcanoes. Above
that basalt is to be found the light-colored, coarse-grained crystals we
call granite. This is the basement rock of the world and undergirds all
of our continents. At times this granite is close to the surface, but
frequently a large quantity of sedimentary rock is above it.
The sedimentary rock
that overlays the granite was obviously laid down by a gigantic flood of
waters, and is characterized by strata or layers. The strata are
composed of water-borne sediments, such as pebbles, gravel, sand, and
three-fourths, perhaps more, of the land area of the earth, 55 million
square miles [142 million km2],
has sedimentary rock as the bedrock at the surface or directly under the
cover of the mantle-rock . . The thickness of the stratified rocks range
from a few feet to 40,000 feet [121,920 dm] or more at any one place . .
The vast bulk of the stratified rocks is composed of shallow-water
deposits."—*O.D. von Engeln and *K.E. Caster, Geology (1952),
Within that strata is to
be found billions upon billions of fossils.
These are the remains—or the casts—of
plants and animals that suddenly died. Yet fossilization does not
normally occur today, for it requires sudden death, sudden burial, and
fossilized a plant or animal must usually have hard parts, such as bone,
shell or wood. It must be buried quickly to prevent decay and must be
undisturbed throughout the process."—*F.H.T. Rhodes,
H.S. Zim, and *P.R. Shaffer, Fossils (1962), p. 10.
The sedimentary strata
(also called fossil-bearing strata, or "the geologic
column") were laid down at the time of the Flood. There
are no fossils in the granite, for that rock was formed prior to the
We would not expect to
find fossils in granite since the astounding information given in
chapter 3, Origin of the Earth, reveals granite to be
"creation rock," antedating the Flood. We there learned that,
back in the beginning, granite came into existence in less than three
OF ANIMALS SUDDENLY DIED—The
quantity of fossils in the sedimentary rocks is enormous.
"At this spot [in
Wyoming] the fossil hunters found a hillside literally covered with
large fragments of dinosaur bones . . In short, it was a veritable mine
of dinosaur bones . . The concentration of the fossils was remarkable;
they were piled in like logs in a Jam."—*Edwin Colbert, Men
and Dinosaurs (1968), p. 151.
Scores of other
instances of immense "fossil graveyards" could be
cited. Vast quantities of plants and animals were suddenly buried.
So many fossils exist that one researcher made a carbon inventory,—and
found that at the present time—most of the carbon in our world is
locked within the fossils in the sedimentary strata!
There must have been an
immense quantity of living plants and animals before the worldwide Flood
occurred. Evidence indicates that, back then, our world had no deserts,
high mountains, few or no oceans, and plants and animals flourished even
near the poles. So the world would have been filled with vegetation and
SPECIES ARE ALREADY EXTINCT—
Some great natural catastrophe occurred earlier in history, for
most of the species which have ever lived are no longer alive!
not only brings new species into existence—if it does—but also
eliminates species, and on a colossal scale. It is calculated that 99
per cent of all the species which have ever existed are now extinct. So
perhaps it may be more instructive to discover why species vanish than
why they appear."—*G.R. Taylor, Great Evolution Mystery
(1983), p. 86.
"There is no need
to apologize any longer for the poverty of the fossil record. In some
ways it has become almost unmanageably rich, and discovery is outpacing
integration."—*T.N. George, "Fossils in Evolutionary
Perspective," in Science Progress, January 1960, p. 1.
FOSSILS ARE SO IMPORTANT—The
term, "evolution," means that species change gradually into
different species. If such species changes are occurring today, the
transitional forms should be seen. If it has occurred in the past the
fossil record will show the transitional forms.
It is of interest that evolution
bases its case on the fossils. This is because there is no evidence that
evolutionary processes are occurring today.
the Darwinists must consider the fossils to be their primary evidence
that it has ever occurred at all.
"The most important
evidence for the theory of evolution is that obtained from the study of
paleontology [fossils]. Though the study of other branches of zoology,
such as comparative anatomy or embryology, might lead one to suspect
that animals are all interrelated, it was the discovery of various
fossils and their correct placing in relative strata and age that
provided the main factual basis for the modern view of
evolution."—*G.A. Kerkut, Implications of Evolution (1960), p.
comparative study of living plants and animals may give very convincing
circumstantial evidence, fossils provide the only historical,
documentary evidence that life has evolved from simpler to more and more
complex forms."—*O. Dunbar, Historical Geology (1960), p. 47.
But just as there are
no transitional forms today, there are none in the past either!
At the present time, all we have are distinct plant and animal kinds. No
transitional species are to be found. (We will frequently refer to
these basic types as "species," although man-made
classification systems vary, sometimes incorrectly classifying
sub-species or genera as "species." See chapter 11, Animal
and Plant Species for more on this.)
In that great window to the past—the
fossil record—we also find only distinct plant and animal kinds, with
no transitional forms. With the
exception of creatures that have become extinct (plants and animals
simple diagram illustrates how, as the rains fell, the slowest creatures
were first to be entombed in the sediments, and then larger ones above.
longer alive today, such as the dinosaurs), all fossils of plants
and animals which did not become extinct, are just like those living
today (stasis). Only distinct species are to be found; there are
no halfway, or transitional, species (gaps). Thus there is
evidence of evolution in the fossils.
statement, quoted above, it is "the placing" of the fossils in
the strata that provides the evidence of evolution. All the
Darwinists have to base their case on is placement, not transitional
forms. . But what caused that placement?
slowest-moving creatures were buried first; after that, the
faster-moving ones. As the waters of the worldwide deluge rose
higher and still higher, they first covered the slowest-moving water
creatures, and buried them under sediment.
Then the slower-moving
land creatures were covered and buried under sediment. Then the more
agile creatures (both water and land) were covered. In the
fossil-bearing sedimentary strata we frequently find this arrangement,
with the smaller creatures in the lower strata and the larger ones
Yet even the smallest
creatures are complex, and just beneath the lowest stratum, the
Cambrian, we find no fossils at all!
This is both an astonishment and a terrible disappointment to the
evolutionists. The lowest-level life-forms in the strata are complex
multi-celled animals and plants.
"It has been argued
that the series of paleontological [fossil] finds is too intermittent,
too full of ‘missing links’ to serve as convincing proof. If a
postulated ancestral type is not found, it is simply stated that it has
not so far been found. Darwin himself often used this argument—and in
his time it was perhaps justifiable. But it has lost its value through
the immense advances of paleobiology [the study of animal fossils] in
the twentieth century . . The true situation is that those fossils have
not been found which were expected. Just where new branches are supposed
to fork off from the main stem it has been impossible to find the
connecting types."—*N. Heribert-Nilsson, Synthetische
Artbildung (1953), p. 1168 [Director of the Botanical institute at Lund,
Each twig on the
imaginary plant and animal "family trees" is a distinct
plant or animal type, either
extinct or like what we have today (although frequently larger). But there
are no intermediate life-forms to connect the twigs! There are no
branches and no trunk, only "twigs." The rest of the tree
FORMATION OF IMMENSE DEPOSITS—Nowhere
on earth today do we have fossils forming on the scale that we see in
geologic deposits. The
Karro Beds in Africa, for example, contain the remains of perhaps 800
billion vertebrates! But such fossils are not forming today. A
million fish can be killed in red tides in the Gulf of Mexico, but they
simply decay away; they do not become fossils. Similarly, debris from
vegetation does not today become coal. In order for fossilization
to occur, the vegetation would have to be rapidly buried under an
extremely heavy load of sediment.
It required massive
flood conditions to do all that burying.
An immense worldwide catastrophe occurred in the past.
produced the Sicilian hippopotamus beds, the fossils of which are so
extensive that they are mined as a source of charcoal; the great mammal
beds of the Rockies; the dinosaur beds of the Black Hills and the
Rockies, as well as in the Gobi Desert; the fish beds of the Scottish
Devonian stratum, the Baltic amber beds, Agate Spring Quarry in
Nebraska, and hundreds more. None of this fossil-making is being
done today. It only happened one time in history—at the time of the
Frequently the fossils
in these beds come from widely
separated and differing climatic zones, only to be thrown together in
disorderly masses. Nothing but a worldwide Flood can explain this.
And those fossils had to be rapidly buried. *Pinna explains why this is so.
"In fact, when an
organism dies, the substances that compose its soft parts undergo more
or less rapid decay, due to such factors as attack by bacteria and
erosion by water (particularly the sea) . . If an organism is to be
preserved, it must be protected from destructive agents as quickly as
possible . . And the sooner that this consolidation occurs, the more
likely it is that the organism will be preserved . . there are also
certain layers, such as those formed from extremely finegrained
calcareous rocks, which have consolidated so rapidly as to permit the
preservation of the most delicate structures of many
organisms."—*G. Pinna, The Dawn of Life, pp. 1-2 [Deputy
Director of the Museum of Natural History in Milan, Italy].
In spite of these facts,
there are still science writers who imagine that when an animals falls
into mud, tar, or water—and dies,—it becomes a fossil!
such an idea is only fiction.
"We can easily
imagine the predicament which led to the fossilization of the three
individuals [three fossil birds] so long ago. They were probably forced
into reluctant flight by some pursuing reptilian predator, only to flop
down on the water and mud from which they could not rise."—*R.
Peterson, The Birds, p. 10.
stratum with fossils in it is called the "Cambrian." It
has a great wealth of over a thousand different types of creatures—all
complex and multi-celled marine animals.
"At least 1500
species of invertebrates are known in the Cambrian, all marine, of which
60% are trilobites and 30% brachiopods."—*Maurice Gignoux,
Stratigraphic Geology (1955), p. 46.
Above this are the
Ordovician, Silurian, and Devonian, and they all include sea creatures
similar to those in the Cambrian. It is not until the Permo-Carboniferous
that the first land animals are encountered.
The worldwide fossil
strata give abundant evidence of a great flood of waters that covered
the earth. Below the sedimentary strata, with its hoard of fossils,
we find the "Precambrian period,"—and no fossils. (Some
scientists claim that a few are there, others say they are not sure,
while still others maintain that there are absolutely no fossils below
The sedimentary strata
with their billions of fossils are both a powerful effect and evidence
of the Flood. The Precambrian lack of fossils is an additional evidence
of it. Evolutionists
point to these strata with their fossils as proof of evolution. But
throughout the fossil rock we should find
transitional—evolving—types of plants and animals. In addition, at
the bottom below the Cambrian, should be the types that evolved into
those in the Cambrian.
"One can no longer
dismiss this event by assuming that all Pre-Cambrian rocks have been too
greatly altered by time to allow the fossils ancestral to the Cambrian
metazoans to be preserved . . Even if all the Pre-Cambrian ancestors of
the Cambrian metazoans were similarly soft-bodied and therefore rarely
preserved, far more abundant traces of their activities should have been
found in the Pre-Cambrian strata than has proved to be the case. Neither
can the general failure to find Pre-Cambrian animal fossils be charged
to any lack of looking."—*W.B. Harland and *Rudwick, "The
Great Infra-Cambrian Ice-Age," in Scientific American, 211(1964),
"Why should such
complex organic forms (in the Cambrian) be in rocks about six hundred
million years old, and be absent or unrecognized in the records of the
preceding two billion years? If there has been evolution of life, the
absence of requisite fossils in the rocks older than the Cambrian is
puzzling."—*G.M. Kay and *E.H. Colbert, Stratigraphy and Life
History (1965), pp. 102-103.
trees are fossil trees which extend vertically through several layers of
rock strata. They are often 20 feet [60.9 dm] or more in length.
Often the entire length of each
tree will be preserved, along with the top and bottom. Such a
formation would easily be explained by the Flood, but impossible to be
fitted into the theory of uniformitarianism, which says that the
rock strata are like tree rings, and have slowly been forming over the
last two billion years. Each stratum supposedly took millions of years
There is no doubt that
those trees were quickly covered by the strata, otherwise each tree
would have decomposed while
waiting for a hundred thousand years of strata to form around it.
From bottom to top, these upright trees sometimes span "millions of
years" of strata. Quite obviously, both the trees and
sediments around them were moved into place and deposited at the same
Many will recall the
explosion of Mount St. Helens on May 18, 1980. Research was done at the
site shortly afterward and it was discovered that the explosion filled
Spirit Lake with logs, many of which were floating vertically, due to
the weight of their roots. This helps explain what took place at the
time of the Flood, as trees were washed into an area and then, while
floating vertically in the water, were covered by a rapid deposit of
As a result of upheaval
of ground, combined with successive depositions of sedimentary layers, there
are instances in which vertical trees are to be found at more than one
level. Given the chaotic conditions at the time of the Flood, this would
be understandable. Fossil trees have been found horizontal,
vertical, diagonal, and upside down.
OIL—Most geologists agree
that coal came from ancient plants, and oil came from ancient marine
the soft parts of invertebrates, but also fish). Neither coal nor
petroleum is naturally being formed today. None of it is found
in Pleistocene (ice-age) deposits, but instead was quickly laid down
during the Flood, before the glacial ice flows began.
in rocks of all ages from the Cambrian to the Pliocene inclusive, but no
evidence has been found to prove that any petroleum has been formed
since the Pliocene, although sedimentation patterns and thicknesses in
Pleistocene and Recent sediments are similar to those in the Pliocene
where petroleum has formed."—*Ben B. Cox, "Transformation
of Organic Material into Petroleum under Geological Conditions,"
Bulletin of the American Association of Petroleum Geologists, May 1946,
Why did no petroleum
form after the Pliocene era?
This is a mystery to evolutionary geologists, but it is no problem to
Flood geology. T
From the beginning of
the Cambrian to the end of the Pliocene was when the Flood occurred..
absence of formation of petroleum subsequent to the Pliocene must be
explained in any study of the transformation of organic material into
(Some oil deposits have
been found below the Cambrian level, but it was afterward learned that
they seeped there from fossil-bearing strata above.)
Great masses of
vegetation, that became the coal we use today, were quickly laid down.
Because of Flood conditions, other things were also deposited
in those coal strata:
(1) Marine fossils
(tubeworms, corals, sponges, mollusks, etc.) are often found in coal
(2) Large boulders are
found in them.
(3) Fossil trees are
found standing on an angle or even upside down in coal beds.
(4) Washed-in marine
sediments will split a coal seam into two.
"under-soils" will frequently be under them.
(6) Strata of deposited
limestone, shale (hardened clay), or sandstone will be found in between
coal deposits. These strata are often found scores of times in seams of
that oil and gas require millions of years to form, and could not be
rapidly produced from vegetation, as Flood geology would require. But recent
experiments have shown that petroleum can be quickly made:
"There is great
promise in a system being developed by government scientists that
converts organic material to oil and gas by treating it with carbon
monoxide and water at high temperature and pressure . . By using the
waste-to-oil process, 1.1 billion barrels [131 billion liters] of oil
could be gleaned from the 880 million tons [798 mt] of organic wastes
suitable for conversion [each year]."—*L.L. Anderson,
"Oil from Garbage," in Science Digest, July 1973, p. 77.
Here is an instance in
which recently formed coal occurred:
describes very remarkable observations which he made during the
construction of a railway bridge at Alt-Breisach, near Freiburg. The
wooden piles which had been rammed into the ground were compressed by
overriding blocks. An examination of these compressed piles showed that
in the center of the compressed piles was a black, coal-like substance.
In continuous succession from center to surface was blackened,
dark-brown, light-brown and finally yellow-colored wood. The coal-like
substance corresponded, in its chemical composition, to anthracite [hard
coal], and the blackened wood resembled brown coal."—*Otto
Stutzer, Geology of Coal (1940), pp. 105-106.
"From all available
evidence it would appear that coal may form in a very short time,
geologically speaking it conditions are favorable."—*E.S.
Moore, Coal (1940), p. 143.
PROBLEM OF GRADED
that the sedimentary strata was gradually laid down over hundreds of
millions of years. But various aspects of the strata indicate it was
laid down rapidly under alluvial conditions. Rapid transport of various
materials by water appears to have been the cause.
One example of this is graded
bedding. In the strata we
will find a layer of coarse pebbles and small stones, with smaller
pebbles above them, grading off above to still finer materials such as
sand. Below this graded bedding will be another graded bedding where the
process has been repeated as another collection of sediments was washed
"The phenomenon of graded
bedding (coarse conglomerate on the bottom, with finer material
graded upward) is difficult to explain on the basis of uniformity, but
not on the basis of Genesis 8:1-3 where we are told that the Creator
dried up the flood-waters by strong winds that drove the waters by a
"going and returning." This process, too, would more readily
account for interbedding, the repetitive alternation of certain
layers, in some instances as many as 150 strata. Uniformitarian geology
offers no satisfactory explanation for this phenomenon.
"Then there is the
matter of disconformities, that is, a sudden change in fossil
types with no accompanying change in the physical composition of the
rock formation, or the appearance of fossils separated by a tremendous
time gap. This is not accounted for in uniformitarianism. If the
deposition had been uniform, as claimed, such disconformities should not
have occurred. The perplexing occurrence of so-called "older fossils"
above "younger fossils—"which paleontologists try to
account for by thrust faults, can much more readily be accounted for by
accepting the occurrence of worldwide volcanic and seismic upheavals
such as accompanied the Deluge. In fact, the mere presence of vast
numbers of fossils is explainable only if plants and animals were
suddenly inundated, trapped, and buried in moving masses of sediment. It
is almost impossible to explain how organisms could have been
transformed into fossils if they had simply perished and had remained
exposed to the decaying process of air, sun, and bacteria.
so-called fossil graveyards in which is often found a rich
conglomeration of organisms. One such found in Eocene lignite deposits
of the Geiseltal in central Germany, contains more than six thousand
remains of vertebrate animals together with an even greater number of
mollusks, insects, and plants. So well-preserved are many of these
animals that it is still possible to study the contents of their
stomachs. It is easy to imagine how these could have been deposited by
the swirling and receding waters of a great flood, but not how this
could have happened under uniformitarian conditions."—H.R.
Siegler, Evolution or Degeneration—Which? (1972), pp. 78-79.
OF THE STRATA—Basic to
evolutionary theory is the concept that each stratum was laid down
during a period of millions of years while the other strata were laid
down in other epochs or eras. All of the strata are said to have
required two billion years to form.
In contrast, the
evidence indicates that the fossils in each strata were laid down
rapidly rather than slowly. But, in addition, there is also evidence
that each stratum was deposited at about the same time as all the other
The primary difference
is that each layer has somewhat different fossils in it, but this too
would easily be explained by a gradually rising flood that washed in,
and then quickly buried great masses of plants and animals. One layer
and then the next was rather quickly laid down by the Flood.
Two of the most
important boundary points in the geologic column are the Paleozoic to
Mesozoic, and the Mesozoic to Cenozoic.
Careful research by *Wiedmann
in Germany has revealed that there is no observable time break
between these, the two most obvious divisions in the geologic column!
between eras, periods and epochs on the geological time-scale generally
denote sudden and significant changes in the character of the fossil
remains. For example, the boundary between the Triassic and Jurassic
periods of the Mesozoic era (about 180 million years ago) was supposedly
marked by spontaneous appearance of new species . . A reassessment of
the data by Jost Wiedmann of the University of Tübingen in the Federal
Republic of Germany, gives a clearer picture of evolution at the
boundaries of the Mesozoic (225 million to 70 million years ago). He
concludes that there were no worldwide extinctions of species or
spontaneous appearances of new species at the boundaries."—*Report
of the International Geological Congress at Montreal: "Fossil
Changes: ‘Normal Evolution,’ " in Science News, September 2,
1972, p. 152.
This is an important
point that *Wiedmann brings to the attention of the scientific world.
While most evolutionists maintain that the geologic column slowly formed
amid the peace and tranquility of uniformitarian ages, there are other
evolutionists who declare that there must have been a succession of
several catastrophes that accomplished the task. But *Wiedmann carefully
analyzed the two principle boundaries in the column—and discovered
that "no worldwide extinctions of species or spontaneous
appearances of new species" occurred at these boundaries. This is
important. The entire geologic column is an integral unit and was all
rapidly laid down at about the same time.
Here are some additional
reasons why this is so:
(1) Rapid or no
Fossils. Each stratum had to be laid down rapidly, or fossils
would not have resulted.
(2) Rapid or no
Rocks. The physical structure and interconnections of the strata
require rapid deposition in order for them to form into rocks.
(3) No Erosion
between Strata. Each strata was laid directly over the one below
it, since there is no trace of erosion between them. Each strata was
formed continuously and rapidly, and then—with no time-lapse erosion
in between—the next strata formed continuously and rapidly over that.
And on and on it went.
(4) Layers not
Worldwide. There are many "unconformities," where one
stratum ends horizontally and another begins. But there is no
worldwide unconformity; instead one stratum will gradually grade
imperceptibly into another, which thereupon succeeds it with more
continuous and rapid deposition, without a time break at any point.
(5) Generally no
Clear Boundaries. There is rarely a clear physical boundary
between strata formations. Generally they tend to merge and mingle
with each other in a zone of considerable thickness.
SEQUENCE AND OVERTHRUSTS—If
evolutionary theory were correct, each layer of the cake would be
quietly set in place on top of the preceding one
a span of long ages.
But instead we find "disconformity"
and "overthrusts." A
"recent stratum" which should therefore be near the
top, will be underneath several "older strata."
This can easily be
explained by the turbulence of a single worldwide Flood which laid down
all the strata within a relatively short time.
But evolutionary theory
is totally baffled by such a situation. So its supporters have invented
the theory of "overthrusts." As
we mentioned in chapter 12, the Matterhorn—one of the highest
and most prominent mountains in Switzerland— is supposed to have moved
horizontally many miles from some distant place. Evolutionary theories
about rock strata require such a hypothesis. Either the mountains
pack up and move to other lands, or evolution dies a sickening death.
The entire Matterhorn
rests on top of what is theorized as "younger strata," therefore
it is said to have hiked over the hills to its present location. The
same is true for the Appalachians, which climbed up out
of the Atlantic onto the North American continent. They arrived before
But, in reality,
overthrusts are but another effect of the Flood. For example, at one
point, some land animals and plants were covered by Flood-borne
sediments. Then, from some distant location, waters with fish were
carried in and deposited in a pile of sediment above the land creatures.
And so it went.
A related problem is
that, although the very bottom stratum should always be the
Cambrian,—in actuality, many different strata are found at the bottom!
"Further, how many
geologists have pondered the fact that lying on the crystalline basement
are found from place to place not merely Cambrian, but rocks of all
ages?"—*E.M. Spieker, "Mountain-Building Chronology and
Nature of Geologic Time-Scale," in Bulletin of the American
Association of Petroleum Geologists, August 1956, p. 1805.
How do you solve a
problem like that? Amid the confusion of a worldwide deluge, and
bursts of massive earth movements and hurricane winds, all kinds of
strata patterns could occur. Flood theory can solve questions that
evolutionary theory cannot answer.
Flood caused the sedimentary rock strata, with their billions of
fossils, then the following points would be expected;—and,
upon examination of the fossils in the strata—they all prove true:
living at the lowest levels would tend to be buried in the lowest
buried together—would tend to be buried with other animals that lived
in the same region or ecological community.
Hydrologic forces (the suck and drag of rapidly moving water) would tend
to sort out creatures of similar forms. Because of lower hydraulic drag,
those with the simplest shapes would tend to be buried first.
Backboneless sea creatures (marine invertebrates), since they live on
the sea bottom, would normally be found in the bottom strata.
Fish would be found in higher strata since they can swim up close to the
Amphibians and reptiles would be buried higher than the fishes, but as a
rule, below the land animals.
Few land plants or animals would be in the lower strata.
The first land plants would be found where the amphibians were found.
Mammals and birds would generally be found in higher levels than
reptiles and amphibians.
Because many animals tend to go in herds in time of danger, we would
find herd animals buried together.
In addition, the larger, stronger animals would tend to sort out into
levels apart from the slower ones (Tigers would not be found with
Relatively few birds would be found in the strata, since they could fly
to the highest points.
Few humans would be found in the strata. They would be at top, trying to
stay afloat until they died; following which they would sink to the
surface of the sediments and decompose.
In the above 13 points,
we have a solid Flood explanation for what we find in the sequence of
fossils in the geologic column.
Yet, lacking any other
evidence to bring forward, it is that very sequence of fossils placement
which evolutionists declare to be the primary evidence that animals have
"evolved" from one another!
LOOK AT THE "GEOLOGIC COLUMN"—Compare
the following analysis with the chart with the two-page chart near the
beginning of chapter 12, Fossils and Strata:
melt. Evidences of human civilization.
Flood waters conclude their receding from the continents. Fossils,
strata, and petroleum are no longer being formed. The ice age begins.
Flood has ended. First mountain building begins, as continents begin
rising, ocean basins dropping, and oceans filling. If this had not
occurred, everything today would be under water. Some strata forming
large numbers of birds buried. First evidence of volcanic lava.
of the very agile monkeys and apes buried.
faster animals (such as horses) buried. no more slow animals (including
strong land animals buried (slowest dinosaurs).
land animals buried (slow ones, such as small reptiles).
land plants laid down.
begins. Fossils and strata begin. Slowest creatures buried. But plants
float up to higher levels.
to the Flood. No sedimentary strata or fossils.
complete explanation of the above chart is given in the pages which
- RECORDS ABOUT THE FLOOD
FLOOD—Ours is the
water planet. We have 330 million cubic miles [2212 million km3]
of it! Water covers 72
percent of our planet’s surface. Every cubic mile of seawater holds
over 150 million tons [136 mt] of minerals. On the average, rain pours
down on our planet at the rate of 1.5 tons [1,361 kg] a day. At the
present time, there is 70 billion gallons [26,822 liters] of water for
every person alive. The oceans of the world are so
vast and deep that if Earth had an absolutely level crust, the sea would
form an envelope over 8,800 feet [26,822 dm] deep.
The antediluvian world
had never seen rain before. But when it came, it really came. When
the Genesis Flood began, the vast water canopy collapsed and "the
floodgates of the sky were opened." Torrential rains fell for six
tribes all over the world have, as part of their traditions, stories
about a great flood of water that covered the whole earth.
The event was so world-shattering
and life-changing that, from parents to children, stories of that great
upheaval passed down through the generations. Gradually, as mythologies
developed, legends about this flood became part of them. These stories
include various aspects of the Genesis account of the Flood:
"It has long been
known that legends of a great flood, in which almost all men perished,
are widely diffused over the world."—*George Frazer, Folklore
in the Old Testament, Vol. 1 (1919), p. 105.
You have just completed
Chapter 14 Effects of the Flood part 1
Go to the next file in
Chapter 14 Effects of the Flood part