Evolution Cruncher Chapter 18
The Laws of Nature
laws of nature oppose the evolutionary theory
This chapter is based on
pp. 805-829 of Other Evidence (Volume Three of our three-volume
Evolution Disproved Series). Not included in this paperback chapter are
at least 37 statements in the chapter of the larger book, plus 87 more
in its appendix. You will find them, plus much more, in the encyclopedia
on this website.
evolutionary theory, all matter came into existence by itself. At a
later time on our planet, living creatures quite literally "made
themselves." Such views
sound like Greek myths. But if these theories are true,—where did
the laws of nature come from? Too
often these are overlooked. There are a variety of very complicated
natural laws. How did these come into existence? People assume
that they too just sprung up spontaneously. But they are assuming too
chapter is of such importance that after reading it, someone will say,
"Why did you not place it at the beginning of the book?"
Someone else might add, "All you need is this chapter—and you can
omit the rest!"
The earlier portions of
this volume met evolution on its own ground. When given a hearing,
common sense combined with scientific facts will always tear the theory
of evolution to pieces.
Evolutionary theory is
built on two foundational pillars. But there are two laws that crush
those pillars to powder. Let us look at the two evolutionary
pillars and the two laws that destroy them:
teaches that matter is not conservative but self-originating; it
can arise from nothing and increase. The First Law of
Thermodynamics annihilates this error.
teaches that matter and living things keep becoming more complex,
and continually evolve toward greater perfection. Just as inorganic
matter becomes successively more ordered and perfect (via the Big Bang
and stellar evolution), so living creatures are always evolving into
higher planes of existence (via species evolution). The Second
Law of Thermodynamics devastates this theory.
LOOKING AT LAW
AND LAWS—In our civilizations, we find that it is highly
intelligent people who design the machinery and make the laws that
govern the nation. Because of our human limitations, much time needs to
be spent in improving man-made mechanical designs and rewriting human
But in nature we find
the perfection in design and laws which humans cannot achieve.
Every bird and animal is perfectly
designed, and fossil evidence indicates that each one has had the same
design all the way back to its first appearance in the fossil record.
The laws of nature are perfect also. If we need evidence about the
perfection of natural laws, now and in the past, all we need do is gaze
upon the planets, moons, stars, and galactic systems. The perfect
balancing of their rotations on their axes and revolutions (orbits)
around still larger spheres or star complexes is astounding. The laws
are operating with total precision. Any aberration of those laws in the
past would have brought the suns and stars and systems—and our own
world— crashing in upon each other. The evidence is clear that,
from the most distant past, the laws of nature have operated accurately.
work on three basic assumptions: (1) laws automatically sprang into
existence out of designless confusion, (2) matter originated from
nothing, and (3) living things came from non-living things.
But just as matter
and life did not make itself, so law did not make itself either.
"The naive view
implies that the universe suddenly came into existence and found a
complete system of physical laws waiting to be obeyed. Actually it seems
more natural to suppose that the physical universe and the laws of
physics are inter-dependent."—*W.H. McCrea, "Cosmology
after Half a Century," Science, Vol. 160, June 1968, p. 1297.
"Even if one day we
find our knowledge of the basic laws concerning inanimate nature to be
complete, this would not mean that we had "explained" all of
inanimate nature. All we should have done is to show that all the
complex phenomena of our experience are derived from some simple basic
laws. But how to explain the laws themselves?"—*R.E. Peieris,
The Laws of Nature, (1956), p. 240.
THE LAW OF
MANUFACTURE—A law is a
principle that is never, never violated. Let
us for a moment postulate a couple candidates for new laws:
A cardinal rule of
existence would be this. We shall call it the Law of
Manufacture. We could word the law something like this: "The
maker of a product has to be more complicated than the product."
The equipment needed to make a bolt and nut had to be far more complex
than the bolt and nut! Let us call that the First Law of Products.
Here is another
"law" to consider. We will call this one the Law of
Originator, and describe it in this way: "The
designer of a product has to be more intelligent than the product."
Let us return to the bolt and nut for our example of what we shall call
our Second Law of Products.
Neither the bolt nor the
nut made themselves. But more: the person who made this bolt and nut had
to be far more intelligent than the bolt and nut, and far more
intelligent than the production methods used to make it.
LAWS—There are many,
many laws operating in the natural world. It is intriguing that there
are also moral laws operating among human beings: laws of honesty,
purity, etc. We get into trouble when we violate moral law—the Ten
Commandments,—just as when we violate natural laws, such as
the Law of Gravity.
"Facts are the air
of science. Without them a man of science can never rise. Without them
your theories are vain surmises. But while you are studying, observing,
experimenting, do not remain content with the surface of things. Do not
become a mere recorder of facts, but try to penetrate the mystery of
their origin. Seek obstinately for the laws that govern them!"—*lvan
Pavlov, quoted in *Isaac Asimov’s Book of Science and Nature
Quotations, p. 99.
Let us now consider the
two special laws that we mentioned at the beginning of this chapter: the
two laws of thermodynamics. As with other laws, these
two laws operate throughout the universe.
The first is a
law of conservation that works to preserve the basic categories of
nature (matter, energy, etc.). The second is a law of decay that
works to reduce the useful amount of matter, energy, etc., as the
original organization of the cosmos tends to run down.
Let us now closely
examine each of these laws:
2 - THE
TWO LAWS OF THERMODYNAMICS
LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS—Simply
stated, the First Law of Thermodynamics
(hereinafter called "the First Law") is also called the
Law of Conservation of Mass/Energy..
It says this: "Energy
cannot by itself be created nor destroyed. Energy may be
changed from one form into another, but the total amount remains
showed that matter is but another form of energy, as expressed in the
equation: E = MC2
(E = Energy, m = mass, c2
= velocity of light squared). A nuclear explosion (such as we find in an
"atomic" bomb) suddenly changes a small amount of matter into
energy. But, according to the First Law, the sum total of energy
(or its sister, matter) will always remain the same. None of it
will disappear by itself. (The corollary is that no new matter or
energy will make itself.)
"The Law of Energy
Conservation—‘Energy can be converted from one form into another,
but can neither be created nor destroyed,’—is the most important and
best-proved law in science. This law is considered the most powerful and
most fundamental generalization about the universe that scientists have
ever been able to make."—*Isaac Asimov, "In the Game of
Energy and Thermodynamics You Can’t Even Break Even," Journal of
Smithsonian Institute, June 1970, p. 6.
cannot make itself or eliminate itself, only an outside agency or power
can make or destroy it..
"The First Law of Thermodynamics
states that the total amount of energy in the universe, or in any
isolated part of it, remains constant. It further states that although
energy (or its mass equivalent) can change form, it is not now being
created or destroyed. Countless experiments have verified this. A
corollary of the First Law is that natural processes cannot create
energy. Consequently, energy must have been created in the past by some
agency or power outside of and independent of the natural universe. Furthermore, if
natural processes cannot produce the relatively simple inorganic
portion of the universe, then it is even less likely that natural
processes can explain the much more complex organic (or living)
portion of the universe."—Walter T. Brown, In the Beginning
(1989), p. 12.
THE ENTROPY PROBLEM
Only a power outside of
all energy and matter could overrule the Second Law.
*Blum of Princeton University has written:.
"The second law of
thermodynamics predicts that a system left to itself will, in the
course of time, go toward greater disorder."—*Harold Blum,
Time’s Arrow and Evolution (1968), p. 201 [emphasis ours].
And now we come to the
Second Law of Thermodynamics, and here we find an astounding proof that
the entire evolutionary theory is totally incorrect:
SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS—(*#1/16
Universality of the Second Law*) The Second Law of
Thermodynamics is also called the Law of
Increasing Entropy (or disorder).
"It is a very broad
and very general law, and because its applications are so varied it may
be stated in a great variety of ways."—*E.S. Greene,
Principles of Physics (1962), p. 310.
Here are the three most
important applications of this law:
Thermodynamics: The energy available for useful work in a
functioning system tends to decrease, even though the total energy
Thermodynamics: The organized complexity (order) of a structured
system tends to become disorganized and random (disorder).
Thermodynamics: The information conveyed by a communicating system
tends to become distorted and incomplete."—Henry Morris and
Gary Parker, What is Creation Science? (1987) p. 199.
Second Law states that all systems will tend toward the most
mathematically probable state, and eventually become totally random and
disorganized. To put it in the vernacular, apart from a Higher
Power, everything left to itself will ultimately go to pieces.
All science bows low
before the Second Law. Genuine scientists do also.
The exception would be (1) the
evolutionists who, with no hesitation, ignore not only the First and
Second Law, but also other principles and laws (such as those which
govern matter, life, the DNA species wall, mutations, etc.), and (2) a
number of scientists who did not receive an adequate education in basic
laws in their university training, and therefore are favorable to
deception by Darwinian errors. Such men have no clear conception of the
fundamental laws governing nature. Evolution is an outlaw theory,
and those who bow to it refuse to acknowledge the proper authority of
"To their credit,
there are a few evolutionists (though apparently a few) who recognize
the critical nature of this problem [of the Second Law] and who are
trying to solve it."—*Ilya Prigogine, Gregoire Nicolis &
Agnes Babloyants, "Thermodynamics of Evolution," Physics
Today, Vol. 25, November 1972, pp. 23-28 [Professor in the Faculty of
Sciences at the University Libre de Belgique and one of the world’s
Regardless of the
excuses that evolutionists may offer, the Second Law rises above the
foibles and errors of mankind, and will not be overthrown.
Principle will preside as the ruling paradigm over the next period of
history. Albert Einstein said that it is the premier law of all science;
Sir Arthur Eddington referred to it as the supreme metaphysical law of
the entire universe."—*Jeremy Rifkin, Entropy: A New World
View (1980), p. 6.
Entropy Is Always Increasing*) It was *Sir Arthur Eddington, a
leading astronomer who coined the term "Time’s Arrow" to
succinctly describe this second law. He said the arrow points
downward, never upward. Although evolution requires an upward
arrow; the Second Law says, "No, an upward arrow is not
"There is a general
natural tendency of all observed systems to go from order to disorder,
reflecting dissipation of energy available for future
transformation—the law of increasing entropy."—*R.R. Kindsay,
"Physics: to What Extent Is it Deterministic," in American
Scientist 56 (1968), p. 100.
"How difficult it
is to maintain houses, and machinery, and our own bodies in perfect
working order; how easy to let them deteriorate. In fact, all we have to
do is nothing, and everything deteriorates, collapses, breaks down,
wears out, all by itself and that is what the Second Law is all
about."—*Isaac Asimov, Smithsonian Institute Journal, June
Evolution Claims to be above the Second Law*) (*#3/12
Evolution Claims to be above the Second Law*) Evolution
teaches an upward arrow all the way from nothingness to the present and
on into a glorious future when mankind will eventually evolve into
godlike creatures with fantastic minds, engaged in intergalactic
space trips while founding intergalactic space empires.
You may recall a
statement by a confirmed evolutionist, quoted earlier in this set of
books, that the marvelous powers of evolution brought man out of dust,
through microbes and monkeys to his present state and that, hereafter,
we may next change into clouds. Here is that quotation again:
"In a billion years
[from now], it seems, intelligent life might be as different from humans
as humans are from insects . . To change from a human being to a cloud
may seem a big order, but it’s the kind of change you’d expect over
billions of years."—*Freemen Dyson, 1988 statement, quoted in
Asimov’s Book of Science and Nature Quotations, p. 93 [American
Although evolution is
contrary to many physical laws, including the First and Second Laws of
Thermodynamics, throughout the remainder of this chapter we will
primarily concern ourselves with the Second Law.
stands in obvious defiance of the Second Law, but evolutionists declare
that this is no problem, for they declare their theory to be above law!
3 - EVOLUTIONARY EXCUSES
The Second Law and Crystallization*) The evolutionist argument
goes this way: Energy from the sun flows to our world and makes
it an open system. As long as the sun sends this energy, it will
fuel evolutionary development here. In contrast, a closed system
is one that neither gains nor gives up energy to its surroundings. Therefore,
sunshine negates the Second Law,—in spite of what Einstein and all
the other physicists say!
It is obvious that their
neat denial denies too much. They argument effectively nullifies
Second Law everywhere in the universe, except in the cold of
outer space and on planets distant from stars. Evolution is apparently
progressing even on our moon, for it is receiving as much energy from
the sun as we are! In addition, there ought to be a lot of evolution
going on inside stars, for they have the best "open systems"
The Second Law and Open Systems*) Here is the answer to this naive
argument: An influx of heat energy into a so-called "open
system" (in this case, solar heat entering our planet) would
not decrease entropy. The entropy continues apace, just as the
scientists said it would.
discovered the working of the Second Law, yet sunshine was bathing the
earth when they found it! If sunlight abrogated the Second Law,
scientists could not have discovered the law.
But there is more: Heat
energy flowing into our world does not decrease entropy—it increases
it! The greater the outside
heat energy that enters the system, the more will its entropy and
disorder increase. Energy by itself increases entropy,
therefore random energy or heat will increase entropy.
Opening a system to
random external heat energy will increase the entropy in that system
even more rapidly than if it remained closed. Oxidation is
increased, chemical actions speed up, and other patterns of
SLOWING THE SECOND LAW—Is
there no way to temporarily curtail the effects of the Second Law? Yes,
that is brought into a system from outside, AND
which is intelligently
controlled and directed,
can temporarily interfere with the operation of the Second Law. It
can for a time apparently stop entropy. But deliberate, ongoing
effort has to be expended to accomplish this. To say it another way: The
effects of the tearing down process of entropy have to be constantly
repaired. Consider the following:
There are many systems,
especially artificial ones (buildings, machinery) and living systems
(plants, animals) which appear to run counter to the Second Law. We walk
down the street and stand in front of a house: A higher intelligence
(intelligence higher than that which the building has) carefully
constructed the building, keeps it heated, air conditioned,
dehumidified, and in good repair. In spite of this, the building
gradually ages. Eventually the higher intelligence steps back and
stops repairing, replacing, and repainting—and the building decays
much more rapidly and finally falls to pieces.
Ordered systems, such as
a kept-up building or maintaining a human body, are working within the
Second Law, not outside of
second law is stated for isolated systems, but the second law applies
equally well to open systems."—*John Ross, Chemical
Engineering News, July 7, 1980, p. 4 [Harvard University researcher].
Consider a human body:
We have to constantly feed, bathe, oxygenate, and maintain it, or it
would immediately die. Yet, all the while, it keeps weakening.
Eventually it dies anyway. But, before it did, the body produced
offspring. But later the offspring die also.
*Harold F. Blum, a
biochemist at Princeton, wrote an entire book on the Second Law. He
maintains that this law does indeed apply to our world and to everything
in it—including living creatures.
"No matter how
carefully we examine the energetics of living systems, we find no
evidence of defeat of thermodynamic principles [the First and Second
Law], but we do encounter a degree of complexity not witnessed in the
non-living world."—*Harold Blum, Time’s Arrow and Evolution
(1962), p. 14 [emphasis ours].
VS. THE LAW—Theoreticians
have decided that information is a partial disproof of the Second Law.
The idea goes somewhat like this: If
you were to write down all the sunspot data about a star for ages and
ages, the star might be decaying, but your data would be increasing!
This fact is thought to mean something, but it really proves nothing. It
is just armchair theorizing. Nevertheless, it is a matter of deep
concern to some.
Here is the answer to
this "information theory" puzzle in regard to entropy: The
men gathering the sunspot data keep dying, and if others
do not take their place, the data is eventually lost or rots away. The
gathering of data is much like continually repainting a house.
As long as we keep working at it, the inevitable decay of entropy is
masked over. But set the papers aside for a time and the
information becomes out-of-date, and the paper it is on crumbles to dust.
VS. CONVERSION—Of all
the arguments defending evolutionary theory against the Second Law, the
"open system" argument is the most common. But the problem
is that in using the "open system" defense, the
evolutionists confuse quantity of energy (of which there
certainly is enormous amounts sent us from the sun) with conversion
EVOLUTION EVEN IN AN OPEN SYSTEM—(*#5/5
The Second Law and Crystallization*) But even if "open
systems" negated the Second Law, there could still be no evolution.
The problem is how would the sun’s energy begin and sustain
evolutionary development? How can sunlight originate life? How can it
produce a living cell or a living species? How could it change one
species into another one?
SOLIDITY OF THE SECOND LAW
BY LEADING SCIENTISTS—(*#6/12
The Second Law Destroys Evolutionary Theory*) Dedicated
evolutionists declare that evolution stands above the Second Law of
Thermodynamics and is not subject to it. In contrast, many of the
world’s leading scientists maintain that everything is subject to the
Second Law. *Sir Arthur Eddington (1882-1944) was a leading
British astronomer of the first half of the 20th century. He said this:
"If your theory is
found to be against the second law of thermodynamics, I can give you no
hope; there is nothing for it [your theory] but to collapse in deepest
humiliation."—*Arthur S. Eddington, The Nature of the Physical
World (1930), p. 74.
(1879-1955) is generally considered to have had one of the
outstanding scientific minds of the 20th century. He made this highly
significant statement regarding "classical thermodynamics,"
which is the First and Second Laws of Thermodynamics:
"[A law] is more
impressive the greater is the simplicity of its premises, the more
different are the kinds of things it relates, and the more extended its
range of applicability. Therefore, the deep impression which classical
thermodynamics made on me. It is the only physical theory of universal
content which I am convinced, that within the framework of applicability
of its basic concepts will never be overthrown."—*Albert
Einstein, quoted in M.J. Klein, "Thermodynamics in Einstein’s
Universe," in Science, 157 (1967), p. 509; also in *Isaac
Asimov’s Book of Science and Nature Quotations, p. 76.
Einstein said that the
First and Second Laws were so inviolate because they applied to so many
things. By the same rule, we
could speak of another law, the Law of Creatorship, and declare
that it is even more inviolate. Everything in the skies above and
the earth beneath witnesses to the fact that God made it all!
The Second Law has never
failed to be substantiated::
"The second law of
thermodynamics not only is a principle of wide reaching scope and
application, but also is one which has never failed to satisfy the
severest test of experiment. The numerous quantitative relations derived
from this law have been subjected to more and more accurate experimental
investigation without the detection of the slightest
inaccuracy."—*G.N. Lewis and *M. Randall, Thermodynamics
(1961), p. 87.
"There is thus no
justification for the view, often glibly repeated, that the Second Law
of Thermodynamics is only statistically true, in the sense that
microscopic violations repeatedly occur, but never violations of any
serious magnitude. On the contrary, no evidence has ever been presented
that the Second Law breaks down under any circumstances."—*A.B.
Pippard, Elements of Chemical Thermodynamics for Advanced Students of
Physics (1966), p. 100.
THE SECOND LAW
POINTS TO THE CREATOR—(*#7/6
The Second Law Requires a Beginning / #8/7 The Laws and their Maker*)
According to the First Law, matter can only be produced by an
outside agency or power. According to the Second Law, its decay can only
be postponed by activity of an outside agency or power.
COULD NOT DO THIS
"The second law of
thermodynamics predicts that a system left to itself will, in the
course of time, go toward greater disorder."—*Harold Blum,
Time’s Arrow and Evolution (1968), pp. 201 [emphasis ours].
It is a striking fact
that the Second Law of Thermodynamics points mankind to its Creator.
The greatest scientists
acknowledge the universality of this law. But if everything,
everywhere is running down, Who got it started originally? If
everything is moving toward an end, then it had to have a beginning!
The Second Law testifies
to the fact that there was a beginning to everything, and therefore a
puzzle is where all the order in the universe came from originally. How
did the cosmos get wound up, if the second law of thermodynamics
predicts asymmetric unwinding towards disorder?"—*Paul C.W.
All the stars and all of
nature testify that there is a Creator. The perfect designs of nature
and the precision of natural law—point us to the One who prepared all
at a pansy or a rose; pet a rabbit; watch a hummingbird in action.
Consider the awesome wonders of island universes with their complex
inter-orbiting suns. There is One who stands above and beyond all of
this. One who made it all, who is thoughtful of the needs of the
universe and cares for His own.
"It seems to be one
of the fundamental features of nature that fundamental physical laws are
described in terms of a mathematical theory of great beauty and power,
needing quite a high standard of mathematics for one to understand it .
. One could perhaps describe the situation by saying that God is a
mathematician of a very high order, and He used very advanced
mathematics in constructing the universe."—*P.A.M. Dirac,
"The Evolution of the Physicist’s Picture of Nature," in
Scientific American, May 1963, p. 53.
"The authors see
the second law of thermodynamics as man’s description of the prior and
continuing work of a Creator, who also holds the answer to the future
destiny of man and the universe."—Sonntag and Van Wylen,
Fundamentals of Classical Thermodynamics, 2nd Ed. Vol. 1 (1973), p. 248.
Very important: In
order to round out your understanding of this topic, you will want to
read the section, "Six Strange Teachings of Evolution" in
chapter 10, Mutations. It presents several aspects of
evolutionary theory which run remarkably opposite to the laws of
thermodynamics, and also to common sense: (1) Evolution operates
only upward, never downward; (2) evolution operates irreversibly; (3)
evolution operates from smaller to bigger; (4) evolution only operates
from less to more complex; (5) evolution only operates from less to more
perfect; (6) evolution is not repeatable.
Bernoulie was an 18th-century physicist who first stated the principle
that the pressure exerted by a moving fluid decreases as the fluid moves
faster. Bernoulie’s principle may sound complicated to you and me; but
prairie dogs, which live in the western plains of America, understand it
well. These little creatures admirably apply this principle in making
their underground tunnel cities.
The burrows have two
openings—one at ground level, the other located on a foot-tall chimney
of mud and stones. They work hard to make that second opening higher
than the flat one on ground level. Having done this, the Bernoulie
principle takes effect and nicely aerates their burrows with fresh air.
CHAPTER 18 -
STUDY AND REVIEW QUESTIONS
THE LAWS OF NATURE
GRADES 5 TO 12 ON A GRADUATED
1- If everything is
under law, where did those laws come from? Could they have made
themselves? Do human laws make themselves?
2 - Explain the
"first and second laws of products."
3 - Are even the
smallest and largest things under laws? Why?
4 - There are many types
of physical laws. There are also moral laws, and different health laws.
Think about this and list about 12 different natural laws.
5 - Define and explain
the First Law of Thermodynamics.
6 - In what way does
evolution agree or disagree with the First Law.
7 - Define and explain
the Second Law of Thermodynamics.
8 - In what way does
evolution agree or disagree with the Second Law.
9 - - Why do scientists
speak of an "arrow" in describing the Second Law?
10 - Give three examples
from practical life of the Second Law in operation.
11 - Discuss the flaws
in the "open systems" argument.
12 - Some say that the
Second Law only applies to "closed systems," and that our
solar system and everything in it is an "open system," and
therefore not subject to the Second Law. Explain why that idea is wrong.
Everything in the universe is either a closed system, and both laws
apply to everything, or everything in the universe is an open system,
and both laws apply to nothing.
13 - Why do
evolutionists claim that evolutionary theory is "above all
14 - Write a brief paragraph or two,
describing what scientists say about the importance and universality of
the Second Law.
You have just completed
18 The Laws of Nature
19 Evolution, Morality, and Violence