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    Bunyan quotes this from the Genevan or Puritan version; our present translation has “in our body.” — Ed. From the verb “to chit,” to sprout — to shoot at the end of the grain; provincial and almost obsolete. — Ed. These ideas are as new as they are striking and splendid. Our vile bodies, when raised from the dust, shall be spiritual — like that of Christ — with him in glory; “bright as the sun and stars and angels.”

    How amazingly superior is our preaching mechanic, to all the fathers (so called) and dignitaries of state churches that ever wrote upon this subject. Bunyan proves his apostolic descent in the right line; he breathes the spirit — the holy fire of the inspired writers. — Ed. I have continued this word as Bunyan spelt it, but he probably meant hog-herd, a keeper or driver of swine, one of the dirtiest and lowest employments. “No boorish hog-herd fed his rooting swine” Browne’s Pastorals. — Ed. “Its possessing of us,” or to give us possession. “This possesses us of the most valuable blessing of human life, friendship. Gov. of Tongue. — Ed. This is an awful state of delusion; to imagine that God is the author of gross things, such as worshipping a wafer, or applying to a priest to forgive sins; and that a holy God prompts them to the doing thereof, and sanctions them by his presence!! “Every man is tempted, when he is drawn away of his own lust, and enticed,” James 1:14.

    Christian, take care that you receive not any doctrine, nor conform to any practice in religion, without prayerful investigation, and a “thus saith the Lord” for its sanction. — Ed. “Go to his grave in his banner,” alluding to splendid funerals, the hearse being ornamented with banners captured in war, or armorial bearings. — Ed. Unsanctified knowledge, accompanied by a degree of conformity in conduct, may be the portion of some who indulge soul- destroying heresies. — Ed. A graphic writer, addressing us at the distance of two centuries, frequently makes interesting mention of manners and customs prevailing at the time wherein he lived. From the illustration here employed by Bunyan, we learn that the culprit before trial, and therefore before convicted of crime, was in a manner prejudged, and loaded with fetters. These extreme judicial severities belong to the past. “Abundance,” exuberance, more than enough. — Ed. Bunyan’s sanctified mind, well stored with the sacred scriptures, richly enjoyed the contemplation of nature. No writer, however blessed with extensive learning, sanctified by deep and glowing piety, has opened the book of creation with such a master mind, as a witness against man at the day of judgment. In this, as in many other things, Bunyan stands pre-eminent; a striking illustration of the ways of God, who poured such abundance of heavenly treasure into an earthen vessel, despised and persecuted of men. — Ed. “Slethy,” now obsolete, sly, cunning, stealthy. “Darkened with men’s sleightie jugling, and counterfeit crafts.” Bishop Gardiner. — Ed. “Twenty and twenty years,” a singular mode of expression, probably alluding to the forty years’ trial of the Israelites in the wilderness. — Ed. Conscience, at the day of judgment, will imperatively “command guilt,” which had been committed, to appear, and will fasten it upon the soul, which it accuseth. This is a most impressive and solemn appeal; — there can then be no concealment, no subterfuge. — Ed. “Pricked,” nominated by a puncture or mark, as our sheriffs are pricked. — Ed. “Counters,” false coin — “Will you with counters sum The vast proportion of his infinite.” Shakespeare. — Ed. “Keser,” Caesar or emperor. — Ed. “Hump;” or “hump-back” is a deformity in nature, so Bunyan uses the word “hump” as a deformity in judgment. — Ed. “Famously,” plainly, openly; in this sense obsolete. Tillotson used the words “famous malefactors.” Sermon on 1 John 4:9. — Ed. Bunyan here alludes to men convicted of crime; but how many innocent, nay, pious servants of Christ, have been compelled to go up the ladder to the gibbet, and when the rope has been adjusted and the ladder turned, have been ignominiously murdered by the sanction of wicked laws. — Ed. The physician looks with another eye on the medicinal herb than the grazing ox, which swoops it in with the common grass. Glanville. — Ed.

    THE GREATNESS OF THE SOUL fta1 ‘Gospellers,’ a term of reproach given to our reformers under Henry VIII; changed to ‘Puritan’ under Elizabeth and the Stuarts; and to ‘Methodist,’ or ‘Evangelical’ in more recent times. All these terms were adopted by the reformers as an honorable distinction from the openly profane. — Ed. fta2 Having the most solemn warnings mercifully given to us by God, whose word is truth itself, how strange it is, nay, how insane, to neglect the Savior. Our author, in his ‘Grace Abounding to the Chief of Sinners,’ gives a solemn account of his own distracted feelings, when he, by Divine warnings, contemplated the probable loss of his never-dying soul; and, believing in the truth of God’s revealed will, he felt, with inexpressible horror, his dangerous state. He describes his mental anguish, by comparing it with the acute bodily sufferings of a criminal broken on the wheel (No. 152). Can we wonder that he was in ‘downright earnest’ in seeking salvation (No. 55). Oh! reader, may we be thus impelled to fly from the wrath to come. — Ed. fta3 Many have been the attempts to define the qualities, nature, and residence of the soul. The sinful body is the sepulchre in which it is entombed, until Christ giveth it life. The only safe guide, in such inquiries, is to follow Bunyan, and ascertain ‘what saith the Lord’ upon a subject so momentous and so difficult for mortal eyes to penetrate. — Ed. fta4 The poor soul, under the irresistible constraints of conscience, bears witness against itself; sits in judgment upon, and condemns itself; and goeth, without a jailor, to conduct it, into the dread prison, where it becomes its own tormentor. ‘A wounded spirit (or conscience) who can bear?’ — Ed. fta5 My Lord Will-be-will was a very eminent captain in the town of Mansoul, during the Holy War: wherefore Diabolus had a kindness for him, and coveted to have him for one of his great ones, to act and do in matters of the highest concern. Bunyan represents him as having been wounded in the leg, during the seige. ‘ Some of the prince’s army certainly saw him limp, as he afterwards walked on the wall.’ — Ed. fta6 To the unregenerate, unsanctified soul, the language of the Savior in John 6:48-58, must appear, as it did to the Jews, perfectly inexplicable — ’ He that eateth My flesh, and drinketh my blood, dwelleth in me, and I in him.’ Blessed mystery! to be one with Christ, in obedience to His will, and in partaking of His inheritance. To be enabled to say, ‘For me to live is Christ, and to die is gain.’ — Ed. fta7 Nothing short of a Divine influence can direct the passions of the soul to a proper use of their energies. ‘Godly sorrow worketh repentance — carefulness — indignation — fear — a vehement desire — zealrevenge,’ ( 2 Corinthians 7:11). Reader, has thy spirit been thus excited against sin? — Ed. fta8 This is perfectly true, but is only felt by those who are taught of the Holy Spirit rightly to appreciate Divine worship. How many pay undue respect to buildings in which public prayer is offered up? It is the worship that consecrates the place and solemnizes the mind. Very remarkably was this the case with Jacob while wandering in the open wilderness. He put stones for his pillow, and in a dream saw the angels visiting the earth, and said, THIS is the house of God, and the gate of heaven. — Ed. fta9 If the body, which is to return to dust, ‘is fearfully and wonderfully made,’ past our finding out in its exquisite formation, how much more so must be that immortal soul which we can only contemplate by its own powers, and study in the Bible. It never dies, although it may be dead in sin, in time; and be ever dying — ever in the agonies of death, in eternity. Solemn consideration! May our adorning be ‘the hidden man of the heart, which is not corruptible; a meek and quiet spirit; that which is in the sight of God of great price’ ( 1 Peter 3:4). — Ed. fta10 One of the first revelations to our race was, that ‘God breathed into his nostrils the breath of life, and man became a living soul.’ And this great and important fact has, by tradition, extended over the whole of the human family. — Ed. fta11 ‘An old horse shoe’ must be mentioned, to throw utter contempt upon a custom, then very prevalent, and even now practiced, of nailing an old horse shoe over the door of the house, to prevent a witch from entering. When will these absurd heathenish customs cease in Christian England? — Ed. fta12 ’A point,’ the tag at the end of a lace. — Ed. fta13 Nothing can more fully display the transcendant worth and excellency of the soul, than these two considerations: — first, That by the operation of the Eternal Spirit, it is made a habitation for God Himself, and susceptible of communion and converse with God, nay, of being even filled with all the fulness of God; and, second, The infinite price that was paid for its redemption from sin and woe — the precious blood of the Son of God. — Mason . fta14 ‘A Relation of the Fearful Estate of Frances Spira.’ He had been a Protestant, but, for some unworthy motives, became a Papist, and was visited with the most awful compunctions of conscience. A poetical introduction thus describes the guilty wretch: — ‘Reader, wou’dst see what, may you never feel, Despair, racks, torments, whips of burning steel?

    Behold this man, this furnace, in whose heart, Sin hath created hell. Oh! In each part What flames appear; His thoughts all stings; words swords; Brimstone his breath; His eyes flames; wishes curses; life a death; A thousand deaths live in him, he not dead; A breathing corpse, in living scalding lead.’ It is an awful account, and has added to it a narrative of the wretched end of John Child, a Bedford man, one of Bunyan’s friends, who, to avoid prosecution, conformed; was visited with black despair, and hung himself. A copy of this curious little book is in the editor’s possession. — Ed. fta15 Nothing more properly excited horror throughout Christendom, than the conduct of the Algerines in making slaves of their captives; because their victims had white skins, and were called Christians. Hundreds of thousands of pounds sterling were paid to redeem the Christian captives, and thus the pirates were strengthened to continue their ferocious deeds. Many contributed to those funds the very money which they derived from the negro slave trade; who, while they professed to execrate white man slavery, perpetrated the same barbarities upon their brethren of a different colour and caste. How strangely does sin pervert the understandings of men, who arrogate to themselves the highest grade of humanity and civilization! — Ed. fta16 These awful denunciations are so many proofs of the immutablilty of the justice and of the Word of God. — Ed. fta17 ‘Saith Christ;’ Peter in Acts 1:20, applies this Psalm to Christ, when the Jews cried, ‘His blood be upon us and upon our children;’ then did they put on the envenomed garment which has tormented them ever since. It is girded about their loins; the curse has penetrated like water, and entered the very bones like oil. How awful will be the state of those who crucify Him afresh, and again put Him to open shame! — Horsley . fta18 How awfully inconceivable is that eternal death that never dieth; that final end that never endeth — an immortal death — a soul-murdering life — ever dying, but never dead; were the mountains and rocks to fall upon and crush them, still eternity would intervene between them and death. Oh that grace may be given to ransom our souls from the doom we have deserved! — Ed. fta19 ‘Weal;’ wealth, happiness, prosperity; ‘wherefore taking comfort and boldness, partly of your grace and benevolent inclination toward the universal weal of your subjects, partly inflamed with zeal, I have now enterprized to describe, in our vulgar tongue, the form of a just public weal .’ Sir T. Elyot, Dedication of the Governor to Henry VIII . — Ed. fta20 ‘From the belly,’: from its birth. fta21 Bunyan having been engaged in the civil war, accounts for his using this military idea. — Ed. fta22 God hates not the sinner, but the sin; the glorious provision made for salvation, proves His good will to sinful souls. This will be ‘the worm that dieth not,’ to sinners to reflect, that, in rejecting the inviting promises of God, they have sealed their own condemnation. — Mason. fta23 ‘Hideth his sins,’ is quoted from the Genevan, or Puritan version. — Ed. fta24 ‘Pother;’ to be, or cause to be, as one involved in dust, in a cloud; to perplex, to puzzle, to confound. — Ed. fta25 This is an allusion to a custom, nearly obsolete, originating in the feast of tabernacles, of sacrificing to Vacina at the harvest home. The Papists substituted St. Bartholomew for the heathen goddess. Upon his day, the harvest being completed, an image of straw was carried about, called the corn, or Bartholomew, baby; and masters, mistresses, men, and maidens danced and rioted together; thus, under the guise of harmless joy, much evil was perpetrated. — Ed. fta26 ‘A blandation,’ an obsolete word, which means wheedling, flattering speech, soft words. — Ed. fta27 Knowing the certainty that this wrath to the uttermost will be poured out, our blessed Lord exhorts all to ‘fear God, who is able to destroy both body and soul in hell.’ In that doleful pit, the soul, re-united with the body, will suffer under the outpourings of Divine wrath. — Mason . fta28 Bunyan probably here refers to his own experience when he was in prison, and was threatened by the judge to be hung for not going to parish church. ‘I thought with myself, if I should make a scrabbling shift to clamber up the ladder, yet I should, either with quaking or other symptoms of faintings, give occasion to the enemy to reproach the way of God. I was ashamed to die with a pale face and tottering knees in such a cause as this.’ — Grace Abounding , No. 334. — Ed. fta29 This wish has been felt while in a desponding state, under the terrors of the law, and a fearful looking for of fiery indignation. Thus Bunyan says, ‘I blessed the condition of the dog and toad, and counted the estate of everything that God had made far better than this dreadful state of mine.’ Grace Abounding , No. 104. — Ed. fta30 Alluding to the old proverb of bringing a noble to ninepence, and ninepence to nothing. — Ed. fta31 At the popular game of nine pins — Ed. fta32 In our comparatively happy days, we have little if any conception of the manner in which our forefathers desecrated the Sabbath. When Popery clouded the country, mass was attended on the Lord’s day morning early; it was a recital of certain unknown words, after which parties of pleasure, so called, spent the day in places attractive for the frivolity or wantonness of their entertainments — in dancing, and carousing; the evening being devoted to the theatres or ball rooms. This was afterwards encouraged by our English ‘heads of the church,’ in a book of lawful sports to be used on Sundays. Even in our time a flood of iniquity continues to flow on those sacred days, which human laws cannot prevent. As the influence of the gospel spreads, the day will become sanctified and this will ever prove a correct standard of its progress. — Ed. fta33 How solemn, nay, awful is the thought that heaven’s gates must be shut against all impurity. None who live and die in the love of sin can enter heaven, lest they should defile it — ‘And there shall in no wise enter into it anything that defileth, neither worketh abomination, or a lie’ ( Revelation 21:27). — Ed. fta34 In ‘The Pilgrim’s Progress,’ in the house called Beautiful, all the inmates, except the porter, are females. — Ed. fta35 The edict of Nantes was issued April 1598; but in violation of it, Rochelle was taken from the Protestants in 1628. From that time horrid barbarities were practiced upon them. In 1676, the elector of Brandenburg appealed to the French king on behalf of his Protestant subjects, of whom multitudes fled for refuge to England and Germany.

    In 1685, the edict of Nantes was revoked, and a frightful persecution ensued. — Ed. fta36 Great allowance must be made for the times in which Bunyan lived.

    Baxter, and all the great divines, Sir M. Hale, and the judges, believed in witches, ghosts, and other chimeras; in fact, any one professing unbelief in these wild fancies, would have been counted among infidels and atheists. — Ed. fta37 Sin ‘in the general of it,’ or sin wherever it may be found. fta38 The law is a transcript of the mind of God, it is holy, just, and good — so that he that offendeth in one point is guilty of all. The law convicts and shows the sinner that God is all eye to see, and all fire to consume, every unclean thing. Thus the law gives sin its strength, and death its warrant, to arrest and execute the sinner. — Mason .

    THE RESURRECTION OF THE DEAD, AND ETERNAL JUDGMENT Ft1b Bunyan quotes this from the Genevan or Puritan version; our present translation has “in our body.” — Ed. ft2b From the verb “to chit,” to sprout — to shoot at the end of the grain; provincial and almost obsolete. — Ed. ft3b These ideas are as new as they are striking and splendid. Our vile bodies, when raised from the dust, shall be spiritual — like that of Christ — with him in glory; “bright as the sun and stars and angels.”

    How amazingly superior is our preaching mechanic, to all the fathers (so called) and dignitaries of state churches that ever wrote upon this subject. Bunyan proves his apostolic descent in the right line; he breathes the spirit — the holy fire of the inspired writers. — Ed. ft4b I have continued this word as Bunyan spelt it, but he probably meant hog-herd, a keeper or driver of swine, one of the dirtiest and lowest employments. “No boorish hog-herd fed his rooting swine” Browne’s Pastorals. — Ed. ft5b “Its possessing of us,” or to give us possession. “This possesses us of the most valuable blessing of human life, friendship. Gov. of Tongue. — Ed. ft6b This is an awful state of delusion; to imagine that God is the author of gross things, such as worshipping a wafer, or applying to a priest to forgive sins; and that a holy God prompts them to the doing thereof, and sanctions them by his presence!! “Every man is tempted, when he is drawn away of his own lust, and enticed,” James 1:14. Christian, take care that you receive not any doctrine, nor conform to any practice in religion, without prayerful investigation, and a “thus saith the Lord” for its sanction. — Ed. ft7b “Go to his grave in his banner,” alluding to splendid funerals, the hearse being ornamented with banners captured in war, or armorial bearings. — Ed. ft8b Unsanctified knowledge, accompanied by a degree of conformity in conduct, may be the portion of some who indulge soul- destroying heresies. — Ed. ft9b A graphic writer, addressing us at the distance of two centuries, frequently makes interesting mention of manners and customs prevailing at the time wherein he lived. From the illustration here employed by Bunyan, we learn that the culprit before trial, and therefore before convicted of crime, was in a manner prejudged, and loaded with fetters. These extreme judicial severities belong to the past. ft10b “Abundance,” exuberance, more than enough. — Ed. ft11b Bunyan’s sanctified mind, well stored with the sacred scriptures, richly enjoyed the contemplation of nature. No writer, however blessed with extensive learning, sanctified by deep and glowing piety, has opened the book of creation with such a master mind, as a witness against man at the day of judgment. In this, as in many other things, Bunyan stands pre-eminent; a striking illustration of the ways of God, who poured such abundance of heavenly treasure into an earthen vessel, despised and persecuted of men. — Ed. ft12b “Slethy,” now obsolete, sly, cunning, stealthy. “Darkened with men’s sleightie jugling, and counterfeit crafts.” Bishop Gardiner. — Ed. ft13b “Twenty and twenty years,” a singular mode of expression, probably alluding to the forty years’ trial of the Israelites in the wilderness. — Ed. ft14b Conscience, at the day of judgment, will imperatively “command guilt,” which had been committed, to appear, and will fasten it upon the soul, which it accuseth. This is a most impressive and solemn appeal; — there can then be no concealment, no subterfuge. — Ed. ft15b “Pricked,” nominated by a puncture or mark, as our sheriffs are pricked. — Ed. ft16b “Counters,” false coin — “Will you with counters sum The vast proportion of his infinite.” Shakespeare. — Ed. ft17b “Keser,” Caesar or emperor. — Ed. ft18b “Hump;” or “hump-back” is a deformity in nature, so Bunyan uses the word “hump” as a deformity in judgment. — Ed. ft19b “Famously,” plainly, openly; in this sense obsolete. Tillotson used the words “famous malefactors.” Sermon on 1 John 4:9. — Ed. ft20b Bunyan here alludes to men convicted of crime; but how many innocent, nay, pious servants of Christ, have been compelled to go up the ladder to the gibbet, and when the rope has been adjusted and the ladder turned, have been ignominiously murdered by the sanction of wicked laws. — Ed. ft21b The physician looks with another eye on the medicinal herb than the grazing ox, which swoops it in with the common grass. Glanville. — Ed.

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