1 The reader may here, if necessary and so disposed, refresh his memory, by a reperusal of Part ii. Section v. p. 4-7; also Part in. section i. p. 46-48, 52-59, of this memoir.
2 The Doctor's Introduction is the book is foil of varied learning and research, and is distinguished for some nice balancing of expository opinion. His general opinion was, that "it is a very line ode:" and the poems to which he had special reference, in his remarks to Mr. Jay, were those of Jayadeva an ancient Hindoo poet, which he considered very similar both in construction and phraseology to the hook of canticles, and the poet himself, who flourished before the Christian ęra, the finest lyric poet in all India. The Doctor met with a part of the Gitagovinda in 1798, as noticed Part in, Sect. i, p. 55, &c., of these memoirs, which forms the tenth book of the Bhagavet, written professedly to celebrate the loves of Chrishna and Radha, or the reciprocal attraction between the Divine goodoeso and the human soul. He cautioned young Ministers especially against preaching on Solomon's Song. " If," said he, " they take a text out of it, to proclaim salvation to lost sinners, they must borrow their doctrines from other portions of Scripture, where all is plain and pointed. And why then leave such, and go nut of their way to find allegorical meanings, taking a whole hook by storm, and leaving the word of God to serve tables!"
3 The Rev. Thomas Scott, author of an excellent commentary on the Bible.
4 A minute and interesting account is given of this rare MS., 2 vols., folio, in the sale "catalogue of the Highly Interesting and Valuable Collection of European and Asiatic Manuscripts of the late Dr. Adam Clarke," p. 69, 70, 8vo.; comprising no less than 625, and including a particular description of most of them. Mr. Cochrane gave ś110 for the Ms. in question, at the sale.
5 The writer, not aware of the custom, was sensibly touched on seeing the whole congregation rise from their seats, on his first visit to Dublin, and stand till the text was read; thus preserving a proper distinction between the text and the sermon, -- reverently listening to GOD in the one, and to man in the other.
6 The Hebrew Bible used by the Rector of Epworth was a copy of the second edition of Sebastian Munster's, printed at Basil, 1546, folio, and the above fact of diligent reading is confirmed by the Rector himself, both at the beginning and end of the Pentateuch, in his own hand-writing. The first volume, containing the Pentateuch, is now in the possession of the biographer. "The collation," says Dr. Clarke, "which was done at Wroote, exists in the margin, and is one of the most curious specimens of careful, laborious, and accurate criticism I have ever seen." The volume itself appears to be the only surviving wreck of the Rector's collection for his projected Polyglott; and what became of his other preparations for the work, Dr. Clarke was never able to ascertain.
7 This excellent man, distinguished for piety, judgment, and a pacific disposition, took, as a Calvinist, exceptions to some passages in the Doctors Preface to his Commentary, to which the latter replied, with equal catholicity of feeling; observing, after entering into some explanations, that he had "seen with great grief the provokings of many, and had a thousand times in his heart said,
'Semper ego auditor TANTUM, nunquamque reponam, Vexatus toties --.'"
Further stating, that his "love of peace, and detestation of religious disputes, induced him to keep within his shell, and never to cross the waters of strife.' Mr. Morris, the biographer of Hall and of Fuller, on reading this letter to Mr. Hughes, after having indulged in some severe strictures on the Doctor's Commentary, in his "Biographical Recollections" of Hall, had the manly candor to avow that he had misunderstood the character Of the learned Commentator. "The letter in question," observes Mr. Morris, "is touching in the extreme, and gives a view of Dr. Clarke's character which I had never before witnessed, adding to it a charm which I never before suspected it to possess. It would give me pleasure to see any error corrected, or to retract any expression that conveyed a want of reverence or respect for the memory of so eminent a man. The sentiments of Adam Clarke on some points were sufficiently heterodox, and, in my opinion, of an injurious tendency; but alter seeing his tender and modest concessions to Mr. Hughes, it is impossible not to feel the highest admiration of his character." With a spirit like this, Wesleyans, Calvinists, Churchmen, Baptists, Moravians, &c., &c., may all retails their different peculiarities, and yet dwell together in harmony.
8 Seldon said that, "had he fallen into a pit, and the devil had extended his cloven foot, he would have accepted it," This was going far enough, -- yet he was right; but prejudice is generally both blind and intolerant, and especially so upon the subject of religious creeds, -- for here Satan assumes the garb of "an angel of light," whose advent is hailed with fervent accusations.
9 This paper was read by the Doctor before the ANTIQUARIAN SOCIETY. -- A Tower of a somewhat similar description is noticed in the Gent. Mag., vol. xliii. p. 230, for 1773, as standing near Loch Eribot, in the north of Scotland, where most of the inhabitants speak the Irish language. It is called the Dune or Darnadilla. In a French work on Gaulish antiquities, there is a print of a druidical temple in France of the same kind, which does not appear to have come under the notice of Dr. Clarke, any more than the one in Scotland. In a work on the Antiquity of the Irish Language, Dorn means a round stone, so that abdorn would mean the round stone of the priests; no is of; and Di is God; ulia means a place of devotion: so that Dor-na-Di-ulla will signify the round -- stone place of the worship of God; or, perhaps, it sight allude to some round stone preserved within as a sacred emblem of divinity.
10 "When people say such an one is injudicious, or ignorant, or feeble, or shallow, but she is a good mother; they talk nonsense. That which the woman is the mother will be and her personal qualities will direct and govern her maternal instinct, as her taste will influence her appetite"
11 A reference having been made to the Doctor's readings preparatory to preaching, an extract from one of the MSS. which he employed for the occasion may be given, labeled, "Text-Book for every day of the year. 1796. From June 1st to August 30th, inclusive;" each page occupying two days.
Prov. I. 20-23. The cry of wisdom to man, and the promises she makes.
Prov. II. 10 When wisdom entereth into thy heart, and understanding is pleasant unto thee.
Luke VIII. 5. Parable of the Sower. --27. The man possessed by a legion of devils. --41. Jairus' daughter raised to life.
Ephes. II. 1. You hath he quickened who were dead in trespasses. -- 8. By grace are ye saved through faith. -- 19. Now, ye are no more strangers and foreigners, but fellow citizens.
June 26. Prov. III. 1 -- 4. My son, forget not my law, but let thy heart keep my commandments.
-- 5, 6. Trust in the Lord with thy whole heart, and lean not to thy own understanding. -- 11, 12. My son, despise not the chastening of the Lord -- neither faint. -- 21-26. Keep sound wisdom and discretion -- they shall be life to thy soul. -- 27, 28. Withhold not good while it is in the power of thy hand to do it.
IV. 14, 15. Enter not into the path of the wicked -- avoid it, pass not by it, turn from it. -- 18. But the path of the just is as the shining light. -- See the Hebrew. -- 23. Keep thy heart with all diligence. Luke IX. 1-6. Christ's commission to the Apostles to preach and heal, -- 11. The people followed him -- he received them -- spoke to them of the kingdom. -- 23. If any man will come after me, let him renounce himself.
Ephes. III. 8. Unto me, who am less than the least of all saints. -- 14. For this cause I bow my knee unto the Father.
In this way he went through the whole Bible, selecting each day, in regular succession, from three of the writers of the Old and New Testament, such portions of truth as seemed most adapted to instruct and impress the people of his charge: and it was scarcely possible, from a cursory glance at such selections, for a mind like that of the subject of the memoir, not to settle down on some of the texts for the day, and to present to his hearers a constant stream of varied instruction.
In the same MS. the whole of the PSALMS were divided, towards the close, and portioned out into thirty-one parts, for the month, and similar selections made from them.
Day of the Month Psalm I. to XIV.
Psalm I. 1. Blessed is the man that walketh not in the council of the ungodly. -- 2. But his delight is in the haw of the Lord. -- 3. His blessedness -- He shalt he like a tree planted by the rivers of water. -- 4-6. The character and misery of the wicked -- The ungodly are not so.
Psalm II. 1. The opposition, and bad success of the great and the godless against Christ and his gospel.
-- 7, 8. The purpose of God to save by Christ Jesus, and the extent of that salvation.
-- 11, 12. The duty of those who have the decree published among them, and the care they should -
Psalm III. 4-6. The duty, confidence, and security of the godly man.
-- 7. Salvation belongeth unto the Lord.
Psalm IV. 3. Know that the Lord hath set apart the godly man for himself. -- 6, 7. There be many that say, who will show us any good? -- 8. The comfort and security of those who are in the divine favor. Psalm V. 1-3. Give ear unto my words, O Lord! consider my meditation.
-- 7. But as for me, I will come into thy house, in the multitude of thy mercies.
-- 11, 12. Let all those who put their trust in thee rejoice -- for thou, Lord, wilt bless. Psalm VI. 1. The distresses and petition of a penitent soul. Psalm VII. 9, 10. O let the wickedness of the wicked come to an end but establish the just. Psalm VIII. 1, 2. O Lord, our God, how excellent is thy name in all the earth! Psalm VIII. 1,4. What is man, that thou art mindful of him, and the Son of Man, that thou
visitest him? Psalm IX. 1. I will praise thee -- I will show forth all thy marvelous works. -- 9, 10. The Lord will he a refuge for the oppressed -- And they who know thy name. Psalm X. 17, 18. Lord, thou hast heard the desire of the humble, thou wilt prepare their
heart. Psalm XI. 7. For the righteous Lord, loveth righteousness: his countenance doth behold -Psalm XII. 1. Help, Lord, for the godly man ceaseth, for the faithful fail from among men. Psalm XIII. 1-6. David's complaint -- exercise of soul -- supplication -- confidence, and
success. Psalm XIV. 7. O that the salvation of Israel were come out of Zion! when the Lord bringeth
In addition to the line expressive of the general sense of the text, there was sometimes a remark appended, in a hand more erect, with a view to attract attention; as Ephes. vi. 10 -- "matter for many discourses;" Prov. xiii. 15. see the Heb.;" Col. in. 18, 22. "The duties of, 1 Wives, 2 Husbands, 3 Children, 4 Parents, 5 Servants." Eccl. iv. 9 -- 12, "remark four things in the verse;" John xvii. 1 -- 5, 6 -- 11, 11 -- 19, 20 -- 26, "This chapter may be paraphrased in these four parts;" Psal. xix, 7 -- 14, "each of these eight verses is a proper text;" Psal, xxiii. 1 -- 6, "each verse here is a good text;" Psal. lxxiii. 1 -- 20, "paraphrase this -- it will be very profitable;" Psal. xci. 1 "a most beautiful and important dialogue;" Psal. cx. 1 -- 7, " this is a Psalm of uncommon excellence;" Psal. cxi. 1 -- 10, "a fine Psalm;" Psal. cxii. 1 -- 10, "a fine Psalm containing a number of excellent texts;" Psal. cxxxi, 1 -- 3, "very instructive," &c., &c. These text-books [books of texts], which were originally written in parts, were at length entered into a thick oblong book, which, he observed to the biographer, "occupied about four hundred days to complete."
12 "Our language, observes the late admirable head master of Rugby School, (Dr. Arnold,) has lost much of its flexibility and power, and much of its native character, by its having adopted, and incorporated into it, such a jumble of Latin, Greek, and French exotics with the original Saxon."
13 See the Biographer's Preface to Vol. III. of Dr. Clarke's " Miscellaneous Works."
14 Mr. Montgomery regularly heard the local-preachers, for a series of years, in Carver-Street Chapel, Sheffield, on a Sabbath afternoon; and though not a Wesleyan, few indeed were the members of the body, who gave them a more candid and attentive hearing; remarking on one occasion, when sonic unguarded distinctions were made on the score of talent, "I never hear one, however feeble, but he has a message from God to me."
15 Abernethy was at this time in the height of his fame. So early as 1797, the author of the "Pursuits of Literature," distinguished him as "a young surgeon of an accurate and philosophical spirit of investigation, from whose genius and labors, the medical art and natural philosophy had reason to expect very great accessions." These were fully realized.
16 He was assassinated in the lobby of the House of Commons, by John Bellingham, May 11th, 1812, the latter of whom was executed for the offense, on the 17th of the same month. -- An annuity of 2000 l. was granted to Mrs. Percival, and 50,000 l. in total to her children.
17 This jocose species of glorying will be ceded to him as a right, when the reader peruses "A Historical and Descriptive Catalogue of the European and Asiatic Manuscripts in the library of the late Dr. Adam Clarke, F. S. A., M. R. S. A., &c. &c. &c., Illustrated by facsimiles of curious Illuminations, Drawings, &c., by J. B. B. Clarke, Trinity College, Cambridge." London: published by J. Murray, 1835. Royal 8vo. pp. 235; comprising 254 EUROPEAN' 17 HEBREW, 310 PERSIAN, ARABIC, SYRIAC, &c., 4 SINGALESE, PALI' SANSKRIT, &c., Manuscripts.
18 Whatever difference of opinion might be entertained on the subject, and however the results may be contemplated by statesmen, there can be but one feeling among Christians, respecting the Waste of human life, and but one opinion on the subject of expenditure; the great continental
struggle having cost the powers engaged in it, no less than 2,699,000,000 l., of which sum, we find 750,000,000 1. placed to the account of Great Britain; while, under the eleven years of the reign of Napoleon -- to say nothing of what preceded, -- 5,499,000 men were sacrificed, -- being a greater number than is stated to have been carried off during the civil Wars of three centuries. In the last year of his reign, Napoleon levied, independent of the National Guards, 1,300,000, which is upwards of 100,000 per month.
19 The Bible belonged to a friend, and having been freely used, the Doctor had devoted part of the day to the work of repairing it -- pasting pieces of paper neatly on some of its torn pages, and writing on it, "This Bible was repaired by Adam Clarke;" stating further, that if not repaired at first, a heavy book will soon fall into pieces. Idleness would have been one of the heaviest calamities that could have settled down upon his comforts.
20 This Hymn was translated into English verse, by Gilbert West, in his Odes of Pindar, &c. A critic has remarked, in reference to this Hymn, that an intelligent reader may be surprised to find "Such just sentiments of duty in a heathen, and so much poetry in a philosopher."
21 Menander drowned himself 293 years before the incarnation of our Lord. Some of his fragments have been published in English by Joseph Wharton, Francis Hawkes, and Geo. Colman; the latter in his Translations of the Comedies of Terence.
22 A more smart and humorous examination than this took place at a subsequent period, at City-Road.
Dr. Clarke. "Do you take tobacco in any form, brother?"
1st. Candidate. "Yes, Sir, I take a pipe now and then."
Dr. C. "Give it up."
lst. Cand. "I should be very glad to give it up, Sir, but my medical man recommended it to me."
Dr. C. Playfully -- "Give my love to him, and tell him he is a dirty fellow."
1st. Cand. " When I take a pipe, it always costs me a day's illness."
Dr. C. "If you have the punishment with the sin, and a medical gentleman recommends it, you will have to go on a little longer." [What the meaning is here, I am not sure. Possibly, Clarke meant that the man would have to "go on a little longer" without being accepted into the Methodist Itinerant ranks. -- DVM]
To another; -- Dr. C. "Do you take tobacco in any form, brother?'
2nd. Cand. (Somewhat pertly) "I take a little snuff, Sir."
Dr. C. "Give it up."
2nd. Cand. "I will give it up, Sir, if the Conference require me."
Dr. C. "I am the Conference, Sir, while I am seated here, and I order you to give it up."
2nd. Cand. A good deal toned down by the Doctor's authoritative air, and handing out a
small box, about the size of the first joint of his thumb -- "That serves me some months, Sir." Dr. C. "Hand it this way; as it is so small, it can be no great cross to give it up." The Doctor met with a more hazardous subject, in the case of a preacher who had long been in the itinerant work. The late Mr. D. Isaac was lodging at the same house with him one Conference, and after dinner, stepped into the garden to enjoy his pipe. The Doctor followed shortly after, and having been seen by Mr. Isaac through the opening leaves, the latter popped the pipe into the center of a thick gooseberry bush. But the fumes of the tobacco prevailed over the fragrance of the sweetest of Flora's children; and the Doctor coming up to Mr. Isaac, who appeared to be demurely gazing on the beauties of nature, jocosely said, "What, you are ashamed of your idol?" "No, Sir," returned Daniel, who was resolved to brave it out, and at once disarm his assailant, "I have only hid it to avoid giving offence to a weak brother;" leaving the Doctor the choice of applying the remark either to himself, or another gentleman at no great distance. This was said so much in keeping with the native character of Mr. Isaac, that the Doctor could not refrain from smiling at the wit and presence of mind displayed; both of which placed, for the moment, the extinguisher on the pipe.
23 The biographer possessed the copy with the Doctor's last corrections, dated "May 6, 1821," which, for the gratification of the reader, may be stated to be that of which the piece in his "Miscellaneous Works," is a correct copy.
24 This piece was entitled by the Doctor, in the MS., but afterwards altered by the Rev. J. B. B. C., "Means used by God and Man to Spread the Knowledge of the Gospel of Christ throughout the Earth." In the "Remarks," towards the close, the Doctor had a particular, which stood in the order of "3d." to which was appended, "Then Human Learning was resorted to as a substitute for this
unction but there were no conversions under this ministry." This was crossed out by the same pen which had altered the other, but was restored by the Editor of the Doctor's Miscellaneous Works, as a subject not to be blinked.
25 The Sermon was afterwards published in 1830; see Sermons, vol. III. p. 12. 8vo.
26 The following letter will be acceptable to the Biblical student, and to the classical reader; it does equal credit to the learning and candor of the Writer:-
My dear Mrs. Rowley, -- Understanding that it is your intention to assist in publishing a life of your distinguished father, I have thought it would not be unacceptable if I wrote to you respecting a passage in the Acts, on which he, of course, commented. His in the xiii. c. v.48, -" And as many as were ordained to eternal life, believed." Your father considers this passage to imply: that as many as were inclined, or disposed to embrace the offer of eternal life, believed. When I was a young man, it appeared to me, that this passage was certainly Calvinistic, and that in his zeal against Calvinism he had gone too far; and I think I mentioned my opinion about it to various persons. It may be supposed that in the course of twenty-five years, I have acquired a little more critical knowledge, and more sound judgment; and I may also remark, that when a young man, I did not critically study the scriptures much. It is now my decided opinion, that if I examine the passage critically, I cannot embrace the Calvinistic view. My reason is this, -- If the author of the Acts had been speaking of God's eternal predestination, he would, undoubtedly, have used the scripture phraseology: he would have employed the word propismenoi, or at least protetangmenoi, but certainly not tetangmenoi. Can anyone produce a passage, wherein an eternal predestination is evidently spoken of; and yet the verb tasso is employed? The passage, if quite literally translated, would stand thus, -- "And they believed, as many as had been set in order, or drawn up in battle array for life eternal." The metaphor is taken from a body of soldiers drawn up in order of battle.
Saint Chrysostom wrote, in the form of Homilies, large and luminous commentaries on various parts of the Holy Scriptures; and among them, on the Acts. As Greek was his native language, and as his writings abundantly evince that he was a great and consummate master of that language, and also had a great knowledge of time scriptures, his interpretation of the words, must surely be regarded with respect; I might say with reverence. His comment is as follows:-- Tout estin, aphorismenoi to Theo. Enteuthen deichnusi, kai to mengethos tas orochireseus, kai to tachos tas opheleias -- That is -- set apart to God. From hence he shows both the greatness of the predilection, or preference, and the quickness of the benefit.
It is, I think, admitted by every scholar, that almost all of the New Testament was written originally in Greek. Assuredly it is very strange that neither St. Chrysostom, nor any other Greek father, ever stumbled on any of the Calvinistic tenets; and it is worthy of especial notice, that he who brought forward suds tenets was not only a Latin writer, but a Latin, who disliked the Greek language, and knew but little of it. St. Augustine excogitated those doctrines, or at least doctrines similar to those, which were afterwards devised by Calvin.
I have often regretted that, on more points than one, unlearned men find their particular views more sanctioned in our translation of the New Testament than they are by the original; but let it be ever kept in mind, that with respect to Popery our version is correct and sound. In every passage of import, and wherein our translation differs from that of the Roman Catholic, ours is most decidedly correct. I speak as a scholar; not as a theologian. I say that ours is most decidedly correct. In two different works, I have commented on different parts of the Rhemish version, which are erroneously translated, and on the falsehoods the notes contain. There is, however, one passage on which I have not yet commented, and I am desirous of mentioning it here.
In the 19th chap. of St. Matthew, v. 11, we read, Ouoantes Chorousi ton logon touton. A truly critical Greek scholar will see at once, that these words cannot possibly have any meaning than one. All men are not capable of receiving; they are not able to receive: our translators, therefore, thus rendered them, -- "All men cannot receive this saying." If I were to say to a friend -how much does that pitcher hold? I should mean -- how much is it capable of holding? My friend would understand what I meant, and would reply -- it holds so much. If I spoke in Greek, I should use the verb Choreuo. If you will refer to the 2nd chap. of St. John, v. 6, you will see a clear illustration of what I have just said; and that our version of the passage in St. Matthew is powerfully confirmed: in both places the same verb is used. As the Rhemish translation was made in the very infancy of Greek learning, and long before Greek criticism was born, I think it probable that the mis-translation was the result of mere ignorance; but what can we think of the men who, in this learned age, sanction and perpetuate the various errors of the Rhemish version? Is it possible that, in every instance, they can be profoundly ignorant of the true meaning of the original?
I remain, yours very sincerely, -- H. S. BOYD.
27. At the close of the year, when removed from the bustle of the city, he found time to pen his thoughts on the subject; the sermon bearing date, "Millbrook, Dec. 25, 1815." The original title of the Sermon, in its separate form, was, -- "The Doctrine of Salvation by Faith; or, An Answer to the important Question, 'What must I do to be saved?' by Adam Clarke; with the following mottoes:-
"Father, thy ward is past; man shall find grace; And shall not grace find the means?-Atonement for himself, or offering meet, Indebted and undone, HE none can bring. Behold ME then; ME for him, life for life, I offer -- Parad. Lost, 6. in., 1. 227.
Mia estin hay hodos dichaiousa, hay dia oisteus. -- Ęcumen.
It was first published separately, by Butterworth and Son, -- then in his "Sermons," Vol. III.
p. 234, 8vo.; -- and lastly, in his "Miscellaneous Works,' Vol. VII. p. 120. He informs his readers, in an "Advertisement," that he sought truth of every description, especially religious truth; that for more than half a century he had been in pursuit of it, and had neglected no means to attain it; that he had watched with the ancients, and labored with the moderns; that he had searched the scriptures, and prayed for the succors of His Spirit of wisdom; that he had made himself acquainted with the religious systems; that he had examined, with diligence and candor, creeds, catechisms, confessions of faith, and bodies of divinity; and that he had turned from all to the Bible, which he had read carefully, with intense study and fervent prayer.
28. Without professing to state the precise views of either the Doctor, or the anonymous author, a few remarks may not be impertinent -- With some persons the ear is open only to the voice of reason; aid with them, the reason of God, the reason of man, and the reason of things, -- all acceptations of the same word, -- are often either ignorantly confounded, or artfully concealed; and, therefore, in arguing from one to another, indiscriminately employed. Instead of contemplating reason as a power of mind, variously possessed, and variously exerted, by different men, it is merely considered as a metaphysical faculty, whose sole employment is that of logic, without she most distant allusion to either. Nor does the idolizer of reason less err in the estimate he has formed of its capabilities, and the province in which it is destined to move; proceeding in his calculations and remarks, without reflecting, that, as a subject may either be viewed in a wrong aspect, or not be pursued to the utmost limits of its natural consequences, so there must, of necessity, be a right and a wrong reason, as well as a reason otherwise lamentably defective, The inference deduced from hence is, that if reason may be rigid or wrong in reference to truth, and differs in its degrees of strength and clearness in different men, it cannot, agreeably to some writers, be a sufficient guide in matters of religion.
It is not denied, that a final appeal is made to reason, in order to determine whether revelation itself he genuine or spurious; and that on the assumption of its divine authority we are assisted by it, in reference to the teachings and requirements of the sacred volume, in doctrine and practice but even in this case, it has its assigned powers, and its preserved limits, without which we should be unable to preserve a proper medium between vanity and enthusiasm, on the one hand, and skepticism and superstition on the other. Here it is that the very revelation, thus examined and received, comes in with its aid, (just as a friend may do who is admitted into our dwellings, and of whose integrity, importance, and good intentions, we have been convinced;) not by assisting reason to its powers to discern, compare, combine, and analyze, -- nor even by imparting any new ability for the work, -- but by furnishing suitable materials to work upon; offering to its consideration truths which it could never liars discovered by induction, and adding its own light to each particular subject; just in the way that day-break brings before the eye a variety of objects, which, till its dawning appear, are invisible to the beholder, though he might have exercised the organ of vision on a diversity of objects before, to which he might have been led by means of a lighted taper. The Divine Being, therefore, does not abolish reason, by which we are to understand the clear conviction at our faculties; but so far honors it, as his own gift, (as in the case of the eye just employed for illustration,) as to permit it to perform its proper work, by imparting a more lucid, a fuller, and more lively conviction of the truth of whatever is passing in review before it, than could otherwise be attained. But still it has its range and its bounds, beyond which, like the surges of the deep, it cannot go. There are heights to which it cannot soar; lengths to which it cannot reach; breadths to which it cannot extend; depths which it cannot fathom. After it has taken its soundings, and even attempted in its divings to reach "the deep things of God," it is compelled to pause; and, looking downward to the profound still beneath, constrained to exclaim, -- "O the depth!" The great mistake is, that reason attempts the work of faith whereas reason, in contradistinction to faith, has only to attend to the evidence arising from the nature of things; faith having invariably to proceed on the authority of the testifier. A truth is sometimes a matter of faith only; and at others, both of faith and reason, though in widely different respects: the one, therefore, is neither to usurp the province, nor trench upon the bounds of the other.
Our attention is directed to the astonishing achievements of Archimedes, the amazing erudition of Grotius, the strength and perspicuity of Chillingworth, the profound observations of Locke, and the surprising discoveries of Sir Isaac Newton. And by whom, and for what purpose? By men who appear more solicitous to support the honor of reason, than to attend to the declarations of God; desirous of clothing it, rather than their Saviour, with something like the attributes of divinity; and to bring us to its footstool in the humble attitude of adorers. But we can present in our turn, by way of preserving a proper balance, a long list of subjects in which reason has been busily employed for successive ages, and which are yet unexplored. While this exhibits the folly of implicitly adhering to such a guide, -- a guide so defective. so susceptible of delusion, -- it ought to moderate the pretensions of those men who are for bringing God himself to their bar, instead of going to his; taking the dimensions of infinite wisdom by the shallow and erring faculties of a finite mind: affecting, at the same time, to despise the lowly follower of Jesus, who marvels at nothing more than his own ignorance; and experiences no satisfaction, no consolation, equal to that which arises from faith in his sacrificial death.
Let the reader, if not Weary with this digressive note, -- though led to it by the subject of this memoir, -- apply the remark to the doctrine of Christ's satisfaction, as conveyed to man in the expressive language of revelation, and constitute an inquiry into the province of reason, in the case -- How far it can conduct us? where it is that its work commences, and where it terminates? The first discovery made by unassisted reason, is that of human guilt; a subject established on the testimony of the heathen, in the confessions and acknowledgments which they have invariably made of the crimes they bare perpetrated. Having acquired this knowledge in the outset, the second discovery, naturally proceeding from the first, is, desert of punishment; to demonstrate which, no other evidence is requisite than the remorse and fear with which the consciences of the same people are repeatedly agonized. The third conclusion to which it is brought, by gradually proceeding from proof to presumption, is, a persuasion, that the Being against whom so many offenses have been committed, and who is justly displeased because of those offence,, may, nevertheless, be induced to yield to the entreaties of his creatures. To attest the truth of this, we might adduce every prayer that has been uttered by pagan lips, every temple he has erected, every altar before which he has bowed as a worshipper. Reason, however, stops not here: it is capable of advancing still further; and to give it all the honor due, (and that is nuts little,) it may be further remarked, that the fourth point ascertained by it is, tine necessity of satisfying divine justice: a truth lIds, which is supported by every sacrifice, every burnt-offering, every human victim, and every drop of blood which has flowed around the altar of the untutored savage. Thus far has reason proceeded In regions that have never been visited by divine revelation; but further than this, it cannot go: here it comes to a breathless stand; all beyond is darkness that may be felt, deep as that which enwrapped the Egyptian, when a mats was unable to see his fellow; nor can it, in the language of inspiration, even by "feeling after" it, grope its way to the cross of Christ. How plausible soever, therefore, these speculations may be, they thrive only, in the expressive language of a writer of the last century, a systematic body without a head: for no positive promise of pardon from God, can by possibility belong to them, either separately or in their associated character. The mystery of redemption belongs exclusively to God; for he only could reveal that, because only he could plan, and only he could execute, that profound relief: and new that infallible wisdom has made it known, reason is in arms against it: and in cases, when not wholly socinianally averse to tine doctrine, is absolutely absorbed in its depths, and requires all its submission to receive it as an article of faith.
29 It may be modestly suggested, that the philosophy of the above fact may be found in the ascertained principle of the expansion of bodies by heat; for though water cannot be so hot as to injure the temper of a razor, it does at the same time, cause the steel to expand; and it would seem that the principle philosophic, is dependent on this circumstance; the cutting atoms on the edge of the razor, are a little protruded by the heat, and the edge thus becomes a very perfectly fine saw, which the more keenly cuts up every obstacle in its way.
30 Without, in the least, committing the Doctor to a Life by the biographer, or concluding that he was aware that a Memoir was contemplated, a word in self-defense, in addition to what has been stated, in the Preface to the first volume, may be allowed:-- "There are some incidents in my life, Everett, which you may publish, if you please, when I am dead." Doctor Clarke, Tuesday, June 17, 1828. -- On another occasion, having made a minute of an astronomical observation, "See Doctor," said Mr. R., "what a packet of leaves Mr. E. has filled while journalizing!" Doctor Clarke: "Mr. E. sows besides all waters, and brings the feet of the ox and the ass to them." -- At another time, on priestly domination being named, and knowing the writer's abhorrence of it, the Doctor laughingly said, "Put that down, E." and then, in the same jocose mood, he quoted Hudibras-
"'Tis owned he was a man of Wit, Yet many a foolish thing he writ."
31 In a letter from the Doctor, after the succeeding British Conference, he remarked to a friend; "So variously are your Chapels settled, that no case could be made out that could take in the several trusts in your deeds, leases, &c. You should not, therefore, have expected the English Conference to obtain you any opinion on this head. The matter is exceedingly short in law. Every trust is sacred; and as the trust, so will he the decision in any court. If, on the examination of your deeds, you find that neither preaching in Church hours, the Sacrament of The Lords Supper, &c, are proscribed; and that there are no conditions specified relative to such uses of the chapels, then no trustee can legally shut them up. A trustee can only plead on a breach of the trust; and he, as guardian, may interfere to prevent the premises from being alienated from their original purpose. Saurin, therefore, is not right: it is the trust clause, alone, that determines concerning the use of the chapel."
32 The Mohamedan's taciturnity seemed to arise from timidity and distrust, lest he should let out more than was compatible with personal safety; being totally ignorant of the character of the Doctor, and the designs of the persons who introduced him to his notice; and besides, his language
was not the pure Arabic, but rather of a mixed character. To this corruption the Doctor refers to his son-in-law, Mr. Hook, in another case: "Any book written in the African Nusk, like that which you have forwarded for my inspection, can easily be read by any European who understands the Arabic. But I know from long experience, that the African Mohamedans have scarcely any works among them worthy notice. The Koran, some lives and sayings of their saints, a very few Tarcechi, and some works on Judicial Astrology, are the chief I have ever seen from that quarter: and they are the worst writers of Arabic in the world. To farm a collection of such MSS., would never defray the cost and trouble of making it."
33 The title of this work, which has already been adverted to, is, "Clavis Biblica; or, a Compendium of Scriptural Knowledge: Containing a general view of the contents of the Old and New Testaments; the principles of Christianity derived from them, and the reasons on which they are founded: with directions how to read most profitably the Holy Bible. Originally drawn up for the instruction of two Teerunanxies, or High Priests, of Buddha, from the island of Ceylon. By Adam Clarke, L. L. D., F. A. S., M. B. I. A., M. B. A. S., member of the American Antiquarian Society, and Honorary Member of the Historical Society of New York." It was addressed to the President of the Conference; the Rev. Messrs. Joseph Taylor, Richard Watson, and John Burdsall, Missionary Secretaries; Joseph Butterworth, Esq., M. P., and the Rev. Geo. Marsden, General Treasurers; and all the gentlemen and ministers composing the General Committee of the Wesleyan Missionary Society.
34 In a letter to the biographer about the same date, he remarked in a similar strain:-- "This is the hardest task I ever undertook. I will venture to say, that no man, for these thousand years past, ever understood the Book, -- and still, both the language and matter lie in darkness. The language is a mere compound -- and may be termed Idumaico -- Arabico -- Hebraico -- Chaldaico, &c. I have done my best on it, and have brought forth, to its illustration, all the knowledge and skill I possessed."
35 Mr. Cooke was a Law Bookseller, and the brother of Mrs. Clarke; a member of the Wesleyan Society, and excelled most men in the literal fulfillment of the apostolic injunction -- "In every thing give thanks." Some years previously to this visit, his house took fire in the night, when himself and family were asleep. The good hand of God, however, preserved them unhurt, though they barely escaped in their night-clothes; all else falling a prey to the flames. On getting clear of the frightful element, and seeing all his family around him, he was so filled with gratitude, that he literally shouted for joy. He was a fine specimen of implicit confidence in the wisdom and goodness of God, and of obedience to his laws.
36 Mr. Mackey, who had seen the antiquated building, observed to the writer, that the door had neither thumb-piece nor string to lift the latch but a round hole into which the arm was introduced for the purpose of opening it.
37 The whole case having since then been published by the Doctor himself, in the Wesley Family, at once dissolves the bond of secrecy.
38 This copy was purchased by Mr. Tegg, with the Doctor's "Miscellaneous Works," and was in his hand when last seen by the biographer; but not being a work for the mass of the people, he stated his disinclination to hazard an edition -- doubting whether it would remunerate him for the expense of publishing.
39 There were many fine traits in the character of his Royal Highness the Duke of Sussex. The following relation by Dr. Heugh, at a meeting held in Edinburgh, to hear the report of the deputation from the Voluntary Church Association, referring to an interview with the Duke of Sussex, is not without interest -- "There is one anecdote," said the Doctor, "of his Royal Highness, which I would wish the meeting to hear, for I am sure they would long remember it. He said to us, 'Gentlemen, I am sixty-five years old. Thirty-five of these years have been spent in indisposition that sotters a man, that makes a man think, that corrects many opinions he may have entertained in former years. It has done so with me. I have been accustomed every morning alone to read two hours in the Bible before breakfast; and if a man read that book as he ought to do, he, in some measure, becomes inspired by it.' His Royal Highness then went on to give some comments on different passages of the Scriptures. He is a distinguished linguist, and the first thing we did, when we visited bun in Kensington, was to go to his library, which consial, of 1,500 copies of the Bible in all languages and editions, being the most perfect collection certainly in this kingdom, and perhaps the must perfect in the world. Its cost is estimated at £40,000, or £50,000. His Royal Highness commented on a passage quoted from Isaiah by the apostle is his epistle to the Corinthians, 'Death is swallowed up in victory." The root of the word victory,' he observed, 'ought properly to have been translated eternity, so that the most correct reading of the passage would be, Death; is swallowed up in eternity.' I mention this to show that his Royal Highness is not a mere cursory or formal reader of the Bible, but that he thinks deeply of what he reads."
40 The Colonel was an English gentleman. He commanded the Devonshire Militia; and, after the peace, settled in Ireland. He and his family were exceedingly hospitable and friendly; himself a constant hearer of the Wesleyan Preachers, and several of the family members of Society. That as many as possible might enjoy the Doctor's conversation, about 70 persons were invited to meet him at supper.
41 This town belongs chiefly to the Duke of Devonshire and the Earl of Shannon: it at that time contained a population of 10,000 inhabitants, mostly Protestants, 500 of whom where in the Methodist Society, besides a number of regular hearers. It was an English Colony, and, to the present day, the people possess a tolerable share of the English character, -- blunt, honest, liberal, straightforward.
42 One circumstance is worth recording:-- In the midst of the confusion, a little girl who was standing outside the chapel, ran home in a fright, and told her father, who was in bed, in consequence of previous inebriation, that the Methodist Chapel had fallen in, and that upwards of a hundred persons were killed. At this, the father started up -- put on his clothes -- and hurried off to the chapel, which he was surprised to find standing. After a few inquiries, he stole within the doorway to see how much of the interior had given way he next proceeded a short way up one of the aisles, part of which was left vacant by those who had taken flight, and after looking round him, settled down into the attitude of a hearer, when the few remaining words which the Doctor had to say, by way of winding up his subject, left a permanent impression on the man's mind, and he became a member of the Methodist Society.
43 The Poem referred to is entitled, "An Epistle to a Friend concerning Poetry. By Samuel Wesley. London: Printed by Charles Harper. at the Flower de Luce, in Fleet-Street." Folio. The copy in the writer's possession, and which is the only copy Doctor Clarke ever met with, belonged originally to Mr. J. Lambert, -- whose autograph it bears, -- the son-in-law of Mr. Samuel Wesley.
44 This is now in possession of the biographer.
45 These plans were also given to the biographer, by Mr. Tegg, the publisher of the improved edition of the "Wesley Family," and the Doctors "Miscellaneous Works," and sustain the character given of them as "curious."
45 He afterwards observed, "I thought all the copies of the Newcastle Arabic Bible, were printed in folio, but I see it was printed in quarto, though my copy, and several others, no doubt, were printed on folio paper. If perfect, it must be cheap at what you mention. The Rev. -- Moyses, a very good oriental scholar, was corrector of the press, and I should think, therefore, that the work is correct."
47 A copy at this time brought £7. 10s. Od.
48 The Doctor always congratulated himself on the beautiful preservation of his own copy, bound in Russia, and ruled with red ink by his own hand; in which he wrote -- "Matchless copy -- with two Prefaces, Dedication, original Advertisement given with the first vol. Thorough Titles, &c., &c." This exquisite copy is now in the possession of J. B. Eaye, Esq., Bass Lane House, near Bury, Lancashire.
49 A gentleman who had been looking out some time for the large paper copy fortunately met with one in London a few weeks after this. Naming the circumstance to the Doctor, the latter replied, "When my daughter was married to Mr. Smith, I wished to present her with the fine copy. Mr. Butterworth had not a copy of Genesis; I offered three guineas for that part alone, but could not obtain it."
50. One of the least scrupulous, and most wholesale decisions against the work, is given by a gentleman already noticed, in his "Biographical Recollections of the Rev. R. Hall," where he presents his readers with an interview which Doctor Mason had with that great man, p. 323 -- 4. Doctor Mason stated, that the Commentary had been printed at New York, but that it had produced general disappointment; and was, therefore, discontinued. with Doctor Mason's criticisms, the biographer has no disposition to interfere; nor is there any wish to moot the fact of discontinuance, It may be proper to observe, however, that, in 1826, when the conversation took place, only part of the work was published -- the whole not having been completed till this years afterwards: suspension, therefore, -- waiting for the succeeding parts, -- might have been mistaken for formal discontinuance. That this is at least probable, will appear from the subsequent popularity of the work. The New Testament was published before the Old was finished, and the writer holds a copy of the former, in 2 Vols. Royal 8vo., which was published at New York, in 1823 -- three years before the entire work came out of the hands of the author. This edition was sold for 15s.; and was absolutely stereotyped, with a view to secure a cheap and extensive sale.
There were two houses in New York, publishing the work at the same time; and such was the strife between them, to command and preserve the market, that copies were sold at 5s. The Wesleyan Conference stepped into the market with another edition of the New Testament, on fine paper, at 30s. Mr. Tegg, after this, sent duplicate copies of his stereotype plates, of the improved edition; and, on the testimony of the American Episcopal Ministers, the work has had an extensive spread on the continent. Should there have been any shyness in the first instance, it was subsequently removed. Perhaps a slight deduction may be made on each side of the water; Doctor Mason was an American, Mr. Morris was partial to the Calvinistic school, and Doctor Clarke was a staunch Wesleyan. Those, however, who embrace the Calvinistic side of the controversy, have but little occasion, with Doctor Mason, to complain of the want of Catholic spirit in the man, who is objected to, by the same person, for arguing in favor of the penitence of Judas.
Apart from the testimony of other competent judges, and as a set-off against Doctor Mason's hasty criticism, the biographer may be permitted to give the following sentiment, expressed by a correspondent in a letter, dated "Edinburgh, Dec. 17, 1831:" -- Doctor Chalmers said its public -- 'Doctor Clarke's Commentary is the only critical one in English worth reading;'" and, on his last visit to Bristol, a few days before his death, being its company with a grandson of the commentator, he observed: "Mr. Rawley, it is a great and learned work. Doctor C. is too fond of introducing his peculiar notions. e. g., the Doctrine of Perfection; but I study his Commentary frequently, and with great pleasure."
As a matter of curiosity, it maybe remarked, that the Princesses Elizabeth and Sophia, each had a copy of the Doctor's Notes, which Mr. Harding, the Queen's Librarian, had illustrated with plates from continental and other artists, for which they gave eighty guineas per copy.
51. See "Miscellaneous Works," Vol. II., p. 517.
52. One of these is inserted in his "Miscellaneous Works" also: Vol. II., p. 530.
53. This painful calamity occurred in the month of February, and was still vivid in the recollection. The Doctor observed, on another occasion, in reference to this melancholy event, -- "I am afraid some of our people have been making an ungodly beast of the preservation of our Missionaries, none till then having been lost; and God has taken away the lives of these excellent men, and has also permitted the loss of Lynx and Threlfal. This ought to teach us to pray for the preservation of our Missionaries. Still, I think, that those that were lost in the Maria Mail-boat, ought to have stopped with their luggage."
54. See Vol. xiii. p. 267-298.
55. This inaccuracy was observed in 1828, by the biographer, when sailing past the part of the island where the scene of Norna's cave is laid; there being no cave near the spot, though bold and rocky precipices were not wanting.
56. This was occasionally employed as a scaffolding, and for the purpose of holding lime, in the erection of the chapel, which was then about half finished. It was still on the premises when the biographer visited Walls with the Doctor, in 1828; and was filled by the former with mineral specimens, and brought home to England. It was afterwards taken in pieces, and made into two neat boxes, in remembrance of its more sacred service as a rostrum; in one of which boxes was deposited the hat which the venerable preacher wore during the present visit, and which lay by his side, while on what he elsewhere denominated his "standing place." Some other particulars might he stated, -- curious withal, in this "Tale of a Tub." "As to the poor old hat," the Doctor jocosely observed to the writer, before it came to hand, whose foible he was willing to indulge, "it is reserved sacredly for you. By the time I returned from contending with the North seas, it was abused and broken. It was the covering of my head by day, and often my night cap, when I went down to the sides of the ship by night. It was made for the purpose, and is, for its works' sake, respectable in its ruins. The shoes and little silver buckles are promised to another, who earnestly requested the hat. But Mother would not hear the request, for she said she had promised the fine
beaver to Mr. E. How powerful are we, when we get the good women on our side" On this hat, the writer, in an imaginative mood, intended to found something like a tate, embodying in it as much of the real history of the voyage as could be collected, with the probable musings of the head beneath it, in certain situations and under peculiar circumstances, -- the whole carrying with it as great an air of credibility as the history of a "Velvet Cushion." This notion, still floating in the region of the mind, led to the reply: " The shoes only covered the feet -- the hat overshadowed the head and the brain; and as the head has effected more than the feet, for the products of which you will be as generally and as highly honored, as for any of your pedestrian excursions, the hat is preferred to both 'silver' and gold."
57. It was this discourse that he was requested to publish, and which was soon after printed.
58. Mr. J. W. Clarke inquired of the Secretary of the Horticultural Society whether they had such a fruit, and had for answer, "We never produced one above four pounds."
59. The Doctor, in spelling this word, wrote the original Persian -- shawl deeming, at the same time, each equally correct.
60. The reader, by consulting the "Preface" to the 13th volume of Doctor Clarke's "Miscellaneous Works," will find that the biographer had preserved a Journal of the conversations, incidents, &c., of this voyage together with observations on the scenery, climate, manner, customs, &c., of the inhabitants. This Journal was known to the Doctor, and its contents sought, to aid him in writing a "History of the Shetland Isles." In a letter just after the writer's visit to the Islands, dated August 13, 1828, the Doctor writes, -- "Dear Everett, I see plainly, that I must publish some account, however short, of the Shetland Isles. I know you have taken many mental views of those Isles and
their inhabitants. I have no lively conceptions; and mine will make, I am afraid, but a doll narrative, if published as I wrote in my Journal. Wilt you lend me some of your lively descriptions on, or concerning any place, or every place? You cannot send amiss, And as to plates, if we can get them done, I believe, taken from your views, they wilt be highly acceptable." Before the close of the month of October, in the same year, the writer got ten plates engraved by Fothergill of Manchester, from the various sketches which he had taken, and from one of which one of the illustrations accompany the Doctor's "Miscellaneous Works," viz.:-- that of Lanwica, Shetland, was copied -- taken just as the "Henry" was leaving the sound, These plates, with several impressions, were forwarded to the Doctor, who expressed his satisfaction with them. On the writer forwarding the promised extracts from his Journal, the Doctor again wrote, on the reception of the first part:-- "Dear Everett, I have been up early this morning, and have begun with your extracts, -- and have got a hearty, though silent laugh, till the tears flowed with your Phiz -- iz -- iz -- izing. You should have made, and you must still make, an Introduction, stating something relative to his voyage, the persons, its objects, &c., &c." The passage here referred to, may be more distinctly noticed, for the double purpose -- of first, furnishing a more enlarged view of the Doctor's original plan, with a specimen of the material be intended to work into it; and, secondly, by way of showing, that -- however much opposed he might he to the publication of his CONVERSATIONS by a person who "died before" himself, agreeably to the testimony of the eon, in the Life published by part of the family, Preface, p. vi. Vol. I., -- he was not quite so averse to the subject when it proceeded from a person in whom he could confide, and could even "laugh till the tears flowed" at some of his own sayings, when they unexpectedly though sparingly turned up before him, in the more descriptive portions of the Journal forwarded. The scene took place, Friday June 20th, on board the Henry.
"We had all witnessed many a setting sun in our native isle, and had gazed with delight on the western hills which his parting beams were gilding, and 'the paradise of clouds' with which he was surrounded. A setting sun on the ocean, though beheld by some of the company, was still desired, because much more rare. No one, perhaps, though seen when voyaging in another direction, was more anxious for this than myself; and a disappointment two successive evenings only contributed to impart a keener edge to desire. On one occasion, I observed, as evening approached, ' We shall have a beautiful sun-set tonight." Not so,' replied the Doctor; then, pointing to the clouds, added, 'there is a bank of stratus in the way.' Resuming the subject, when the orb had reached nearer the horizon, snottier repulse was experienced from the same quarter. On directing the eye to the north, though; still at no great distance from the sun, -- 'Yonder,' said the Doctor, 'is the appearance of thunder; several of the clouds have a great deal of sullen purple in them.' We had
looked but a short time, when another unfavorable sign made its appearance. Turning to the captain, the Doctor asked in a tone corresponding with the somewhat singular expression employed, 'What is the hateful of rainbow a sign of, which; has just become visible?" Of rain, Sir,' replied the Captain. 'I thought so,' rejoined the Doctor; 'we were accustomed, when I was a boy, to call them weather patio.' The effect of this was such, as to furnish the idea of a rainbow concealed behind the clouds, a small portion of which was revealed to the eye through a partial opening in the revolving shadows in the foreground; or like a rainbow under an eclipse, without the eclipse being total. All the prismatic colors were languidly visible, but wanting in vividness in the general hue. Contrary, however, to several unfavorable indications, all of which might have produced the effects of which they are the usual forerunners, in a more distant part of the hemisphere, the heavens, in process of time, resumed a more lovely aspect, and between nine and ten o'clock, in the language of Southey, in his Madoc -- one of his finest poems-
'Bright with dilated glory shone the west; But brighter lay the ocean flood below, The burnish'd silver sea, that heav'd and flash'd In restless rays intolerably bright.'
As the orb approached the horizon, it became more and mare spherical, till it disappeared 'to dawn in glory' and other scenes. Just as it was setting, the Doctor adverted to some of the nations of the ancients, as embodied in the works of their poets: as Virgil, in his Georgics, I. 246, who mentions the bears, as afraid to dip themselves in the waters of the ocean, being a poetical definition of the fixed stars never being among the constellations of the frigid zone,-
'Arctoa Oceani metuentes aquore tingi.'
Passing from these to the sun, he next cited the passage in which Virgil, appealing to the Muses far instruction in astronomy, prays, among other things, that they would teach him why the winter suns -- or sun in the winter season -- make(s) so mach haste to dip themselves in the ocean; or, in other words, why the days are shorter than in summer,-
'Quid tantum Oceano properent at tingere soles Hyberni.'
After this, the Doctor took up another notion indulged by the ancients respecting the setting of the eon in the Atlantic Ocean, to which they represented it accompanied with noise, as if the sea were hissing, on which night immediately followed; when in occasionally playful sound, while scaled with his face towards the west, he said, -- 'The sun goes down -- dips into the ocean -- and cries 'Fizz!' The last word, on which the humor turned, was lengthened in the pronunciation -particularly the last letter, end lowered towards the close -- giving the notion of a red hot ball dropping into the water, and producing all the noise and boiling foam which heated iron occasions, when brought into contact with the opposing element, till the fire is quenched and the effects gradually die away. It had the effect of a farce at the clone of a splendid dramatic representation; and each strokes of humor were occasionally indulged with a view to relieve the muscles of the faces of some of his companions, not infrequently screwed into en unnatural form by sickness."
Montgomery, in his "Climbing Boy's Album;' p. 415, has a poetic expression, which pairs with the Doctor's prose -- "Bits of rainbow."
61 Fifty copies of this discourse were printed on fine paper, to present to the Bishops and principal Clergy.
62 The prices which some of the works afterwards brought, when the library was sold by Evans, 93, Pall-Mall, London, 1833, may be matter of curiosity to the bibliomanist -- Aristotle's Works, with copious elucidations from the Greek commentators, by Taylor, 9 vols., only fifty copies printed, 16l.; -- Abulfędę Annales Muslemici, Arabice et Latine, a Reiskio, 5 vols., uncut, Hafn, 1789, 8l.; -- Athanasii Opera Omnia, Gr. et Lat. Editio Benedictina, 3 vols., best edition, fine copy, scarce, Par. 1698, 7l. 18s.; -- Augustini Opera, Editio Benedictina, 11 vols. in 8, best edition, Paris, 1679; Appendix Augustiniana, Notis Clerici, Antwerp, 1703, in all 12 vols. in 9, fine, 191.; -- Chinese Imperial Dictionary, composed by order of the Emperor Kang Hi, about the year 1717, printed in Chinese characters on Chinese paper, in 4 cases, 71. 7s.; -- Auctores Classici Gręci, in all 63 vols., in vellum, 221. 18.; -- Auctores Classici Latini, in all 115 vols., uniformly bound in vellum, 201.; -- Archęologia, or Tracts published by the Society of Antiquaries, in all 25 vols., plates, uncut, 241.; -- Anglicarum Rerum Scriptores, a Gala et Fell, 3 vols., Russia, Oxon, 1684, 111. 11s.; -- Andersoni Thesaurus Diplomatum et Numissnatum Scotia,, edente Rudimanno, plates, in Russia, Edinb. 1739, 121. 12s.; -- Biblia Sacra Polyglotta, Hebraice, Chaldaice, Gręce, et Latine, nunc primum Impressa, bound in red morocco, gilt leaves, Compluti, 1514 -- 17, 421.; -- Biblia Sacra Polyglotta, Hebraice, Chaldaice, Gręce, et Latine, una cum, No. Test., Versions Syriaca, Philippi II. jussu edita et impressa; Studio Mon tani, 8 vols., Antv. Plantin. 1569-72, 24l. 3s.; -- Biblia Sacra Polyglotta, Hebraica, Samaritana, Chaldaica, Gręca, Syriaca, et Latina, Edente le Jay, 10 vols., bound in Russia, Paris 1645-48, 21l.; -- Biblia Sacra Polyglotta, Edente Walton, et Castelli Lexicon, bound in Russia, with joints and gilt leaves, ruled with red leaves by Dr. A. Clarke, London, 1656, 57l. 15s.; -- Biblia Hebraica, Heb. et Lat., cum notis criticis, editit Houbigant, 4 vols., Paris, 1753, 8l. 18s. 6d.; -- Vetus Testamentum Hebratcum, cum variis Lectionibus, edidit Kennicott, 2 vols., Oxon, 1776, 8l. 18s. 6d:; -- Biblia Sacra Arabica, edente Carlyle, large paper, only twelve copies printed, Newcastle-on-Tyne, 1811, 18l.; -- French Chronicles, viz., Froissart's, Montrelet's, and Joinville's Memoirs, by Johns, in all 12 vols., 16l.; -- Biblia Sacra Latina, 2 vols.; a very early and extremely rare edition, Argent Eggesteyn, circa 1468, 48l.; -- Holy Bible, Biblia; the first complete edition of the English Bible, by Miles Coverdale; a book of great rarity, 1535, 63l.; -- Holy Bible, Taverner's, with Preface by Becke, 1549, 261. 10sg.; -- Holy Bible, Cranmer's, Rouen, 1566, 12l. 5s.; -- Byzantinę Historia, Scriptores Pręcipui, Gręce et Latine, a Variis Editoribus, emendati et notis illustrati, 23 vols. in 26, bound in vellum, Venetiis, 1729-33, 19l. 19s.; -- Bochavti Opera Omnia, edeutibus Leusdeno et Villemandy, 3 vols., in Russia, L. Bat., 1692, 14l. 4s.; -- Chrisostomi Opera Omnia, Gr. et Lat., edente Montfaucon, Editlo Benedictina, 13 vols., scarce, Paris, 1718, 26l.; -- Concilia Magnę Britannię, et Hibernia,, edente Wilkins, 4 vols., scarce, Lond., 1737, 9l 18s.; -- Constantini Lexicon, Gręco-Latinurn, fine, 1592, 8l.; -- Dumont, Corp's Universal Diplomatique, &c., in all 16 vols., bound in 17, old French red morocco, gilt leaves, 30l.; -- Ducange Glossarium ad Scriptores Medię, et Infimte Latinitatis, cum Supplemento Carpentierli, 10 vola., fine set, Russia, Paris, 1733,15l. 15s.; -- Edmonson's complete Body of Heraldry, 2 vols., 1780, 7l.; -- Ercolano Antichita, 9 vola., 1757, 9l. 17g. Sanctorum Patrum Gręcorum Opera, Gr. et Lat., 15 vols., Wirceb., 1777; S. Patrum Latinorum Opera, 9 vols., wirceb., 1789, 9l. 15s.; -- Harleian Miscellany, by Park, 10 vols., 1808, 7l. 7s.; -- Hamilton's Hedaya, or Commentary on the Musaulman Laws, 4 vols., very scarce, 179l, 9l. 9s.; -- Grand Collection of Greek, Roman, Italian, and Sicilian Antiquities, in all 80 vols., beat editions, plates, fine set, uniformly bound in vellum, 55l.; -- S. Hteronymi Opera, Editio Benedictina, 5 vols., Paris, 1893, 8l. 15s.; -- Horatii Opera, numerous plates, Argeut Gruninger, 1498, 3l. 3s.; -- S. Hieronymi Epistolę, extremely rare, printed by Mentelin about the year 1468, red morocco, 9l. 12s.; -- Hickes Thesaurus Vet. Linguarum Septentrionalium, 3 vols., middle paper, 1705, 7l.; -- Morrison'a Chinese and English Dictionary, 9l.; -- MacCurtin's English-Irish Dictionary, Par., 1732, 5l.; -- Philosophical Transactions at large of the Royal Society, 103 vols. in 110, 52l. 10s.; -- Plato's Works, by Sydenham and Taylor, with copious notes, Russia, gilt leaves, 1804, Ill. us.; -- Plutarchi Moralia, Gr. et Lat., edente Wyttenbach, 5 vols. in Russia, 1795, 4l.; -- Montfaucon, Antiquité Expliquée et Representé en Figures, avec Is Supplement, 15 vols., best edition, large paper, Paris, 1719 -- 24, 16l.; -- Montfaucon, Monumens de la Monarchie Francoise, 5 vols., large paper, Paris, 1729, 21l.; -- Larramendi, Diccionario Castellano, Bascuence y Latin, 2 vols. in 1, very rare, San Sebast., 1745, 5l. 7s 6d.; -- Milis Repertorium, Juria Canonici, Russia, gilt leaves, Lov. per J. de Weatfalia, 1475, 3l. 5s.; -- Richardson's Persian, Arabic, and English Dict., by Wilkins, 2 vols., 1806, 3l.19s.; -- N. Testamentum Gręce, a Gerbelio, scarce edition, red morocco, Hagen, 1521, 3l. 7s.; -- Novum Testamentum Gręcurn, edente Griesbach,2 vols., large paper, printed only for presents at the expense of the Duke of Grafton, Hal. Sax., 1796, 7l.; -- New Testament, translated by Tyndall, a rare edition, imprynted by Tylle, 1548, 26l. 15s. 64.; -- Newe Testament, bothe in Englysshe and Laten, of Mayster Erasmus's translacion, rare, imprynted by Powell, 1547 10l. 15s.; -- Mer des Histoires, 2 vols., Paris, par le Rouge, 1488, 16l.; -- Meninski, Thesaurus Linguarum Orientalium, Institutiones, et Complementum Thesauri, 5 vols. in 4., Vien., 1680, 17l. 6l. 6d.; -- Origenia Opera, Gr. et Lat., a Be la Rue, Editio Benedictina, 4 vols., Paris, 1733, 5l.; -- Purchas his Pilgrimes and Pilgrimage, 5 vols., very rare, 1625, 27l. 10s.; -- Philo-Judęus, Gr. et Lat., 2 vols., Amst., 1742, 5l. 17s. 6d.; -- Patres Apostolici, Gr. et Lat., edente Cotolerio, 2 vols., best edition, Arnst., 1724, 5l.; -- Passerii Picturę Etruscorum in Vasculis, Dissertationibus Illustratę, 3 vols., Romę, 1767, 81. 15s.; -- Scholtz, Lexicon Ęgyptiaco-Latinum, et Grammatica-Ęgyptiaca, 1775 -- 78, 31. 12s.; -- Roderici Zamorensis Speculum Humanę Vitę, Paris, printed by Ulric Gering, in the Sorbonne, about 1472, 7l. 7s.; -- Roderici Zamorensis Speculum Hnmanę salutis, first edition, Romę, Sweynheym et Pannartz, 1488, 15l. 15s.; -- Stuart's Antiquities of Athens, 3 vols., original edition, 1782, 11l.; -- Sadee's Persian and Arabic works, 2 vols., Calcutta, 1791, 5l. 10s.; -- Stephani Thesaurus Linguę Gręce, cum Glossariis et Appendice Scotti, 7 vols., large paper, Russia, Ap. H. Steph., 1532, et Lond., 1745, 19l. 19s.; -- Scapulę Lexicon Gręco-Latinum, Lond., (Elzev.,) 1652, Burneii Appendix ad Scapulę Lexicon, Lond., 1789, 2 vols. in 1, 4l.; -- Somneri Dictionarium Saxonico-Latino-Anglicum, rare, Oxon, 1659, 5l. 17s.; -- Ditto, 7l.;. -- Schilteri Thesaurus Antiquatatum Teutonicarum Ecclesiasticarum, Civilium et Literariarum, 3 vols., Ulm, 1728, 5l. 5s.; -- Snorii Historia Regum Norvegicorum, edente Schoning, 4 vols., Ham., 1777, 4l. 10s.;. -- Seldeni Opera, 6 vols., 1726, 4l. 1s.; -- Scheuchzeri Physica Sacra, 4l. 12s.; -- Schedel, Chronicon Nurembergense, above 1000 wood-cuts, 1493, 3l. 3s.; -- Thurloe's Collection of state Papers, 7 vols., 1742, 8l.; -- Testamentum Gręcum Polyglottum, edente Huttero, 2 vols., Norib., 1599, 6l. 10s.; -- Novum Testamentum Gręcum, Gr. et Lat., Erasmi, first edition, very rare, Basil, 1516, 5l.; -- N. Testamentum Gręcum, edente Wetstenio, 2 vols., Russia, Amst., 1751, 7l. 15s.; -- Taylnr's Hebrew Concordance, Russia, 1754, 7l. 17s. 6d.; -- Tractatus Universi Juris in cum Congesti, 28 vols., Ven. Zilettus, 1584, 18l. 18s.; -- Torfęi Historia Norvegica, 4 vols., Hafn, 1711, 3l. 10s.; -- Ware's History of Ireland, and Lives of its Bishops, portraits inserted, 2 vols., 1739, 7l. A magnificent collection of Chinese drawings sold for 69l., and Holloway's Cartoons for 27l. 6s.
The library of printed books commanded ten days' sale, Feb. 18-28, 1833, and produced 3200l., being about 500l. more than was anticipated, in 2101 lots Erasmus' New Testament, for which the Doctor gave 1s., brought 10l. 15s.: Mr. Offer, who was present, left the room, and purchased another copy for 30s. The prices were, in many instances, arbitrary; some too high, others too low. Each day's sale was kept up with amazing spirit, and furnished many amusing incidents. The whole collection furnished an extraordinary instance of unwearied diligence and perseverance, worthy even of Episcopalian imitation: but bishops, in the present day, are not ardent collectors of books.
63 In the European department, the MSS. connected with the history and heraldry of England, and of the Low Countries, &c., were particularly interesting and curious, as consisting of statutes, charters, &c., and as throwing considerable light upon various historical incidents connected with this and other countries. The miggal,, breviaries, heureg, &c., were many of them most beautiful specimens of calligraphy and tasteful illumination; proving that our ancestors, at least, however mistaken they might sometimes have been in their piety, did not strive to serve their God with that which had cost them nought. The copies of the Vulgate were numerous; and the various readings were of the more consequence, because contained in MSS. upon the composition of which such evident care and industry had been lavished. Several of the Irish MSS. were of great age, and, like most Irish MSS., had suffered more from carelessness and neglect than from time. Their chief curiosity consisted in the insight they gave into the early literature of that people. The Icelandic MSS. were a most singular, and therefore invaluable, (some of them unique,) collection of the songs, legends, tales, history, and religion of the north of Europe, abounding in wild poetic imagery and deep natural feeling, and were the sources whence much of the spirit of our own sterling popular literature had indirectly flowed. With two or three exceptions, the remainder of these miscellaneous MSS. had their peculiar value, arising from their subject, age, execution, ornament, or some circumstance connected with their history. It would he difficult to conceive, on the testimony of the best judges, my thing more splendid than many of the ARABIC and Persian MSS.; the labor of a life appearing, in some instances, inadequate to produce such results. This excellence chiefly arose from so few of them being very modern; since the rule is pretty general, that, the older is the MS., the clearer and more beautiful is the writing, and the ornaments more elegant and elaborate. This rule is maintained as holding good as well with European as Asiatic MSS. But, in addition to the purity of the writing, another very great advantage arises from their age, and that is, the much greater correctness of the text, as not only being written nearer to the author's own time, before numerous transcripts had multiplied mistakes, but, as being executed when only learned natives were the purchasers, and not imperfectly skilled Europeans, by whom incorrectness would be less readily discovered; and, what will render well-executed MSS. exceedingly scarce, before the press had at all injured the race of scientific and able scribes, whose office must be ultimately destroyed by the cheapness and facility of printing. The oldest of the Asiatic MSS. were written A. B. 1024, 1490, and one written prior to these dates; but the far greater portion bore the dates of the 16th and 17th centuries. Few being written in the 18th, and scarcely any of them so late as the present century. This is a characteristic deemed worthy of attention by the literati, because it designates such MSS. as the source whence correct texts may be formed, and thus such authors as Khosroo, Saeeb, Haflz, Aovery, Ehakany, Oorfy, Jelal uddeen, Sady, may pour forth the music of their matchless verse, without the jarring discords created by ignorant copyists. The whole of the Korans were beautifully written, and some were superb. There was scarcely one of the MSS. in the collection which was an instance of careless penmanship; most of them having evidently been the work of skillful and welt-taught scribes, and some of them were the highest efforts of the reed. The condition of the MSS. could not be well exceeded. Where, in same instances, the worm, or the damp, or too heavy a band in ruling, had in any measure damaged a volume, it had been most carefully and neatly repaired, paper of the same sort being used to mend it, and stained to the color of the original: the toil which this had sometimes occasioned, few can conceive; the patience and care requisite for the task, still fewer would be capable of exerting: but the reparation was complete; and some which had been in a state of absolute decay, had been raised from their ruins, and were, when examined, singularly fine specimens of valuable works. It is stated, as a remarkable fact, that the damage peculiarly incident to oriental MSS. very rarely extends to the writing; hence, cafe has frequently restored a Ms. from an apparently hopeless state, to integrity, and almost pristine beauty. A Persian MS. has been known to be pierced through in millions of places by the worm, and, unless held up In the light, the damage could nut be perceived: in scarcely any instance had the animal passed through a single letter, something in the ink in alt probability having turned aside its attacks from the writing. Not only in the original purchase of these M55. had amazing expense been incurred, but in the expensive and splendid style in which a great proportion of them was bound, so that they formed a truly magnificent collection. The Hebrew and Syrian MSS. were held in more than ordinary authority, and one conceived in be of the very first importance. The Paintings were curious, as giving an insight into the manners, customs, and scenery of a remarkable people and a strange land: this was particularly the case with the Chinese Paintings, which possessed a brilliancy of coloring and a skill of execution which had hardly been supposed to belong to Chinese drawing, a considerable knowledge of perspective being evinced by the views of their temples, &c. The Singalese, Pali, and Sanskrit MSS. were nut amongst the least curious, as some of the works were rare, if not unique, in Europe; and others of them threw much tight on the Buddhist religion and its usages.
This collection was left by Dr. Clarke to his youngest sun, who, after describing the MS S., in Dec. 14, 1834, observed, -- "I have frequently thought that such an unknown individual as myself was not the one most fitted to be the possessor of such a collection: it would be a most noble addition in even the best and most extensive MS. library in the country, whether public or private: and it is possible that the following three united circumstances may shortly separate them and their present owner, -- a want of time to use, an inability to increase them, and my being apparently burn only to occupy heavy curacies." These MSS., which were afterwards sold by Snethely and Son. Wellington-St., London, June 20-24, 1838 -- embracing four days, realized £1864. Is. The famous MS. Bible, translated into she English language by Wiclif, in 2 vols., fetched £100. Since then, the elevation of the revered gentleman to a Prebend in one of our cathedrals, shows that he was "burn to" something more than that of "occupying heavy curacies."
64 The Museum was afterwards sold by Machin, Bebenham, and Storr, 26, King-Street, Covent Garden, on Friday and Saturday, April 26 and 27, 1833, embracing two days' sale.
65 The chapel in which the Rev. J. Irving officiated, in which "strange tongues" were heard.
66 Mr. Scott invariably gave £100. per annum, for the support of the Missionaries in the Shetland. Isles, and £10. towards the erection of every new chapel, with various other helps. He left for the Mission also, £3,000. in the 3½ per cents., besides the following beneficences; -- £1000. General Wesleyan Missions; £1000. Preachers' Annuitant Fund; £1000 British and Foreign Bible Society; £300. Naval and Military Society; £200. Strangers' Friend Society, in London; £200. Baptist Missions; £200. Strangers' Friend Society, in Bath; £200. Hibernian Missionary Society; 1200. Moravian Missionary Society; £200. London Missionary Society; £100. Tract Society, Bath; and £100. Tract Society, Bristol.
67 "Few, probably," says Montgomery, "are here now, who will not call to mind one who was in our midst, on the like occasion, last year, -- one who, by his sermons from the pulpit on the Sabbath, his address at the public meeting on the Monday, and his farewell to the breakfast pasty next morning, most effectually served the cause which he was engaged to plead, by making those who were privileged to hear him determine to render their own services more effective thenceforward; witnessing, as they did, the zeal, faith, and love, of' that venerable disciple towards the close of his career.
"Who among us does not remember -- nay, which of us can forget -- the two discourses referred to? -- the simple energy with which they were poured forth, the unction of the Holy One that accompanied them, and the devout feeling so interfused as to overpower the sense of admiration which the learning, the love, the transcendent ability displayed in the composition, were calculated to excite. Then his address to the meeting from this platform -- standing as he did where your esteemed superintendent now sits, at my side -- though uttered under the pressure of great bodily weakness, was hallowed throughout by much demonstration of the Spirit and of power, as to leave an imperishable recollection of its influence upon our minds; while, with patriarchal grace, he told the simple tale of his own early experience of the gospel; and showed how it immediately constrained him to sally forth, boy as he was, among the mountains and valleys, to the hamlets and scattered huts, in the wild neighborhood where he was born, with New Testament and Hymn-Book in hand, preaching and praying, reading and singing, wherever he could collect a few peasants, or women and children about him, to hearken to his voice, or join with him in worship. The scene, too, after the breakfast in the adjacent vestry, I have been assured, (for my duty detained me elsewhere,) was most touching and impressive. He knew not how to give over, while from the fulness of his heart his mouth spake. His last words -- of which more and more fell from his lips as he lingered in the room, and could not depart without again and again exhorting the company to diligence and fidelity in the service of the Lord, -- those last words left a blessing behind which can never be taken away from those on whom it descended: even as Elijah, before he was carried up to heaven in the chariots of fire already waiting for him, may be supposed to have turned back and spread abroad his hands in benediction towards the sons of the prophets who tarried on the other side of Jordan, while he on whom his mantle was to fall, accompanied him to the farther-side.
"Such was ADAM CLARKE, when we last beheld him. I must add, that he who, in his youth, had been the evangelist of his native district, in his old age became the apostle of the remotest isles of Britain's empire. It is a hundred years this very day -- this 22nd of April -- it is a hundred years precisely, since the ship from Copenhagen, which carried out the three Missionaries to Greenland, came in sight of the shores of Shetland, but having no message of mercy to deliver there, ' passed by on the other side.' The time of their visitation might not have been come; and the man was not yet 'born, who was destined to hear the special message of salvation to the poor inhabitants of those forlorn legions. Years upon years rolled away, before ever he was called in the course of his long life to that missionary enterprise, when his brow already wore that earthly 'crown of glory -- gray hairs found in the way of righteousness,' -- of which the very appearance gave note that ere long he must change it for a 'crown of righteousness that fadeth not away.' In God's time, however, he was called thither; and so faithful was he found in the ministry there, that, while the seas assail the rocks, and the rocks repel the seas, on the coasts of Shetland, the name of Adam Clarke will be held in sacred remembrance, and that day be called blessed in its annals, on which it was first said, 'How beautiful on the mountains are the feet of him that bringeth good tidings, that publisheth peace.'
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York:-- Coultas, Printer. Ouse-Bridge