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GAAL-MYSTERY by A. R. Fausset To the Students of the Words, Works and Ways of God: G GAAL Ebed’s son. He emboldened the Shechemites to rebel against Abimelech ( Judges 9:26). “Gaal came with his brethren and went over to Shechem, and the lords of Shechem (Hebrew) put their confidence in him.” He apparently was captain of a band of freebooters; and the Shechemites who were dissatisfied with Abimelech’s rule hoped Gaal would help them against him. Already they had “set liers in wait for Abimelech in the tops of the mountains” (Ebal and Gerizim, between which Shechem was situated), who robbed all passers by. By organized robbery they brought Abimelech’s government into discredit, and probably sought to waylay and kill himself.
Gaal developed their brigandage into open revolt. At the vintage ingathering feast they made praise offerings” (hillulim ), KJV made merry, margin songs; compare Isaiah 15:9,10) of their fruits, which newly planted vineyards bore in the fourth year, eating and drinking in the house of their god Baal-berith (“Baal in covenant”), answering to Jehovah’s feast ( Leviticus 19:#3 2:3-35). At the feast Gaal said, “Who is Abimelech and who is Shechem that we should serve him? is not he son of Jerubbaal?” i.e., he is son of the man who pulled down Baal’s altar at Shechem and restored Jehovah’s worship, for which the Shechemites themselves had tried to slay him ( Judges 6:27-32). Who is “Zebul his officer”? explains the previous “who is Shechem?” The might of Shechem does not consist in the might of Zebul its prefect, Abimelech’s officer. To the one officer of Abimeleeh Gaal opposes, “serve the men of Hamor the father of Shechem “ the patricians of the ancient line whom the Shechemites should serve; Humor was the Hivite prince who founded Shechem ( Genesis 33:19; 34:2; Joshua 24:32). The rebellion sought to combine the aboriginal Shechemites with the idolatrous Israelites against the anti-Baalite family of Gideon. Heated with wine Gaal vaunted that he, if made leader of the Shechemites, would soon overcome and “remove Abimelech.” Zebul, jealous of Gaal, privately (literally, with deceit, i.e. feigning assent to Gaal while planning his overthrow) sent information to Abimelech, who (margin, Judges 9:37) came “by way of the wizards’ terebinths,” and “chased Gaal” in battle; and “Zebul thrust out him and his brethren that they should not dwell in Shechem.” In Judges 9:39 it is translated: “Gaal went out in the sight of the lords of Shechem,” not at their head, but leading his own men; not until the “morrow” did the Shechemites go out. [For the issue see ABIMELECH .] We know no more of Gaal. Foolhardy boasting, which he failed to make good in action, was his fault.
GAASH On the N. of Gaash hill or mount was Timnath Serach, the city given by Israel to Joshua at his request, in the region “mount Ephraim,” where also he was buried ( Joshua 19:49,50; 24:30; Judges 2:9).
GABA Geba. Joshua 18:24, etc.
GABBAI Nehemiah 11:8.
GABBATHA John 19:13. Pilate came out of his own hall to his judgment seat on the “Pavement” (Chaldee Gabbatha). Josephus (Ant. 15:8, sec. 5) implies that the temple was near the castle of Antonia, and (Ant. 15:11, sec. 5) that Herod’s palace was near the castle. Therefore, Pilate’s hall, which was part of the palace, was near the castle. From Ant. 6:1, sec. 8 it appears a pavement was near the castle; therefore it was near Pilate’s hall. Thus, Josephus circuitously confirms John that near Pilate’s residence there was a pavement. It was outside the judgment hall (Praetorium), for Pilate brought forth Jesus from the hall to it. Pilate’s “judgment seat” (beema ) was on it, whereon he sentenced our Lord to crucifixion. Gabbatha is related to gibea h, a bore round hill, implying height and roundness; a rounded elevation with tesselated mosaic.
GABRIEL (“hero of God”) ( Daniel 8:16; 9:21; Luke 1:19,26). As Michael represents the angels in their might in conflict with evil, so Gabriel in ministering comfort and sympathy to man in dark times. Thus, Gabriel explains to Daniel the appalling prophecy concerning the ram and he-goat, and cheers him with the prophecy of Messiah’s advent within the “70 weeks,” in answer to his prayer; and in New Testament announces to Zacharias the glad tidings of the birth of John the forerunner, and of Messiah Himself to the Virgin ( Luke 1:19,26). There is in his manifestations a simplicity and absence of terror, corresponding to his character as a comforter.
GAD (1) Jacob’s seventh son; Leah’s maid Zilpah’s firstborn; Asher’s brother. Genesis 30:11-13, for “a troop cometh,” translated “good fortune cometh,” answering to Asher, “blessedness,” the name of the next son; Genesis 46:16,18. In Genesis 49:19 translated “Gad, troops shall troop upon him (Gad , gedud ye -guddenu ), but he shall troop upon (yagud ) their rear” in retreat; alluding to the Arab tumultuous tribes near, who would invade Gad, then retire, Gad pressing on them in retreat. Gedud implies not merely a numerous “troop,” but a fierce turbulent band. The tribe’s position on march was S. of the tabernacle ( Numbers 2:14).
Eliasaph, Reuel’s’ son, was their leader.
In Numbers 2:10,14, we find Gad united to Reuben on the S. side of the sanctuary. Companionship in arms and hardships in the wilderness naturally led them to desire neighborhood in their possessions; also similarity of pursuits in tending flocks and herds led Gad to alliance with Reuben. And their respective numbers were nearly the same; at the first census, Gad 45,650, Reuben 46,500; at the last, Gad 40,500, and Reuben 43,330.
These undesigned coincidences confirm the truth of the narrative. Like Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, of the tribes they two alone remained shepherds still after the intervening centuries since Jacob left Canaan for Egypt. They therefore received the pasture lands E. of Jordan for their possession (Numbers 32), as suited for their “multitude of cattle,” but accompanied the nine tribes and a half across Jordan to war with the Canaanites; and only after their conquest and the apportionment of the whole land to their brethren “at the doorway of the tabernacle of the congregation in Shiloh, before Jehovah” ( Joshua 19:51; 22:1-8), were they dismissed “to their tents (for still they led a half nomadic life) and the land of their possession.” Gad’s allotment lay chiefly about the center of the land E. of Jordan, comprising the high land on the general level, stopping short at the Jabbok, and also the sunk valley of the Jordan itself, the whole eastern side up to the sea of Cinnereth or Gennesaret. The farthest landmark eastward is Aroer facing Rabbah, now Arabian ( Joshua 13:25). Half Gilead ( Deuteronomy 3:12), and half of the land of Ammon, the mountainous district intersected by Jabbok. [See GILEAD. ] Manasseh lay N. and E. (reaching S. as far as Mahanaim), Reuben S., of Gad. Mahanaim the ancient sanctuary was on Gad’s northern border; Heshbon lay somewhat S. of its southern border.
From western Palestine the territory of Gad looks like a wall of purple mountain with a marked horizontal outline. On a nearer approach picturesque undulating downs are seen on every side clothed with rich grass; and three rivers, the Yarmuk, Jabbok, and Arnon flow down into the Jordan and Dead Sea by deep ravines which seam the horizontal line of hills. Not the flat sheep walks of Reuben and Moab, but well wooded, especially in the N., with sycamore, beech, terebinth, ilex, cedar, arbutus, and enormous fig trees.
In the official record in the days of Jotham king of Judah, and Jeroboam king of Israel, Gad had extended its possessions to Salcah in Bashan ( Chronicles 5:11,16,17), E. of the Hauran plain, while Manasseh was pushed further N. to mount Hermon ( 1 Chronicles 5:23). Thus Gad and Gilead became synonymous ( Judges 5:17). Jephthah is called “the Gileadite,” being a native of Mizpeh of Gad ( Judges 11:31,34; Joshua 13:26).
In Deuteronomy 33:20,21, Moses said of Gad, “Blessed is He that enlargeth (i.e. God who gives a large territory to) Gad; he lieth down as a lioness, and teareth the arm, yea (aph , not with) the crown of the head (of his foes); and he provided the first part (the first-fruit portion of the land conquered by Israel) for himself, because there was the leader’s (Gad’s) portion reserved (saphun ), Gad at the head of the tribes asked Moses for the conquered land E. of Jordan ( Numbers 32:2,6,25,34, etc.), even as they took the lead above Reuben in fortifying the cities Dibon, etc. Their name accordingly is prominent on the see DIBON stone); and he came with the heads of the people (i.e., he according to his stipulation to Moses went at the head of the tribes to conquer Canaan W. of Jordan, along with them: Numbers 32:17,21,32; Joshua 1:14; 4:12), he executed the justice of Jehovah (Moses prophetically foresees Gad will do what Jehovah required of His people as righteousness) and His judgments (in fellowship) with (the rest of) Israel.”
Their prowess is vividly portrayed in 1 Chronicles 12:8, “men of might and of war, fit, for the battle, that could handle shield and buckler, whose faces were the faces of lions, and as swift as the roes upon the mountains”; “one of the least was a match for a hundred, and the greatest for a thousand.” In spite of the Jordan’s overflow in the first month, and of the opposition of “all them of the valleys toward the E. and toward the W.,” they joined David at Ziklag.
Their war, in concert with Reuben, against the Hagarites, with Jetur, Nephish, and Nodab, resulted in the defeat and utter spoiling of the Hagarites, and the dispossessing them of “their steads.” “The war was of God,” and the victory was because the Gadites, etc., “cried to God in the battle and He was entreated of then, because they put their trust in Him” ( 1 Chronicles 5:18-22).
Other famous men of Gilead or Gad were the loyal, generous, and unambitious Barzillai ( 2 Samuel 17:27-29; 19:31-40) and the prophet Elijah. The land of Gad was the battlefield for long between Syria and Israel ( 2 Kings 10:33). Gad finally was carried captive by Tiglath Pileser, and Ammon seized their land and cities ( 2 Kings 15:29; Chronicles 5:26; Jeremiah 49:1).
GAD (2) The “seer” of king David ( 1 Chronicles 29:29). “The acts of David” were recorded “in the book of Gad the seer.” He joined David while in “the hold,” having probably first become acquainted with David in the latter’s visits to Samuel and the schools of the prophets, and by his advice David left it for the forest of Hareth ( 1 Samuel 22:5). At the numbering of the people Gad was Jehovah’s monitor to David ( 2 Samuel 24:11-19; Chronicles 21:9). He also took part in arranging the musical services of the temple ( 2 Chronicles 29:25). Jerome compares Gad to Elijah in the abruptness of his introduction; this concentrates all attention on his work and message, none on himself.
GAD (3) Margin Isaiah 65:11, “that troop,” rather “that prepare a (sacrificial) table for the Gad,” i.e. the deity of fortune, a Babylonian idol worshipped by the Jews, answering to either the moon or Jupiter, related to Syriac gado, and Arab jad “good fortune.” The star of luck, for which a couch was laid out and a banqueting “table.” Meni (“that number,” margin Isaiah 65:11) was the lesser good fortune, Gad the greater.
GADARA The country of the Gadarenes” ( Mark 5:1; Luke 8:26,37, in Alex. manuscript; and Matthew 8:28, the Vaticanus manuscript. But the Sinaiticus manuscript has: “Gazarenes” in Matthew,” Gerasenes” in Mark, and in Luke “Gergesenes.” Vaticanus has: “Gerasenes: in Mark and Luke. [See GERASA .] The Alexandrinus manuscript has: “Gergesenes” Matthew 8. Probably Matthew, writing for those intimately acquainted with the topography, names the obscure but exact locality; Mark and Luke, writing for those at a distance, name Gadara the well-known capital of the place.
The one name is probably more specific, the other more general.) Gadara was the most strongly fortified city in Perle. It was near the river Hieromax (now the bed Sheriat el Mandhur), E. of the sea of Galilee over against Tiberius, at 16 miles Roman distance, on a hill beneath which were warm springs called Amatha. Its ruins are identified with Um Keis on an isolated hill N.W. of the mountains of Gilead. Christ coming across the lake from Capernaum lauded at the S.E. corner, where the steep bank descends from the eastern highlands into the Jordan valley. There is only the one place where the swine could have rushed down a steep into the water. Gergesa was probably under the jurisdiction of Gadara. Two demoniacs met Him near the shore. A “great herd of swine” were feeding on the adjoining slope. Upon the demons entering them they rushed down the “steep” into the lake and were drowned. Josephus (Ant. 17:13, section 4) explains the difficulty of swine being there though forbidden by the Jewish law, “Gadara was a Grecian city.” On the keepers informing the people of what had happened, “the whole city came out to meet Jesus,” and “besought Him to depart out of their coasts” ( Job 21:14,15; 22:17). Men ignore God’s word ( Hosea 9:12), “woe to them when I depart from them” ( Deuteronomy 31:17); and the awful doom, Matthew 25:41.
It is an interesting coincidence that tombs still abound in the cliffs round the city, excavated in the limestone rock, some as large as 20 feet square, with side recesses for bodies. Stone slabs form the doors. Like the demoniacs, the people of Um Keis still dwell in the tombs. The ruins of Um Keis attest the greatness of Gadara anciently; from the gate a straight street, with a colonnade on each side, passed through the city; the pavement is almost perfect, marked here and there by chariot wheels; the columns are prostrate.
GADDI The spy who represented Manasseh (Nunmbers 13:11).
GADI Father of see MENAHEM .
GAIUS Paul’s host at Corinth when Paul wrote ( Romans 16:23), “mine host and of the whole church.” Baptized by that apostle ( 1 Corinthians 1:14). The third epistle of John is addressed to “the well beloved” Gaius or Caius; probably the same, for he evidently had the means to do kindness “to the brethren and to strangers.” He was converted through John ( John 1:4,5). A Gaius of Macedonia is mentioned in Acts 19:29, and a Gaius of Derbe ( Acts 20:4); probably distinct men.
GALATIA Galati is the same as Celts, of the Kymric not the Gaelic branch. These poured into Greece and pillaged Delphi 280 B.C. Some passed into Asia at the invitation of Nicomedes I, king of Bithynia, to help him in a civil war.
There they settled, namely, the Trocmi, Tolistoboii, and Tectosages (from Toulouse), and made inroads far and wide, but were checked by Antiochus I. of Syria, hence called Soter (Savior), and Attahs I of Pergamus, hence, designating himself “king.” Then they hired themselves out as mercenary soldiers.
Galatia lay in the center of Asia Minor, the province “Asia” on the W., Cappadocia on the E., Pamphylia and Cilicia on the S., and Bithynia and Pontus N. Ancyra (now Angora) was their capital; Tavium and Pessinus were leading cities. Their language was partly Gallic, partly Greek, hence they were called Gallo-Graeci. The inscriptions at Ancyra are Greek, and Paul’s epistle is in Greek.
Paul founded several “churches” in the Galatian region, not residing for long in one place and forming a central church, as at Ephesus and Corinth ( Galatians 1:2; 1 Corinthians 16:1; Acts 16:6). His first visit was about A.D. 51, during his second missionary journey. Sickness detained him among them, and he turned it to good account by becoming the first preacher of the gospel to them ( Acts 16:6; Galatians 1:8; 4:13). “On account of infirmity of flesh I preached unto you at the first” (so the Greek is). At his subsequent visit ( Acts 18:23) he “strengthened” them in the faith.
GALATIANS, EPISTLE TO Written by Paul, as the style proves. The heading and allusions to the apostle of the Gentiles in the first person throughout confirm his authorship ( Galatians 1:1,13-24; 2:1-14). Irenaeus (Adv. Haer., 3:7, sec. 2, referring to Galatians 3:19), Polycarp (Philippians 3, quoting Galatians 4:26; 6:7), Justin Martyr (Orat. ad Graecos, alluding to Galatians 4:12; 5:20), Tertullian (De Praescr., 60), uphold his authorship. The character of the Gallic Celts given by Caesar (B. G., Galatians 4:5) accords with that described in this epistle: “the infirmity of the Gauls is, they are fickle in their resolves, fond of change, and not to be trusted.” So Thierry: “flank, impetuous, impressible, eminently intelligent, but extremely inconstant, fond of show, perpetually quarreling, the fruit of excessive vanity.” This description is not altogether inapplicable to their descendants in France and Ireland. They received Paul at first with all affection, but soon wavered in their allegiance to the gospel, and hearkened as eagerly to Judaizing teachers as they had before to him ( Galatians 4:14-16).
Many Jews resided in Ancyra (Josephus, Ant. 16:62); among these probably, as elsewhere, he began his ministry, and from them perhaps emanated the Judaizers who almost induced the Gentile Christians ( Galatians 4:8,9), who constituted the majority of the Galatian church, to undergo circumcision ( Galatians 1:6; 3:1,3; 5:2,3; 6:12,13).
Accustomed, when pagan, to the mystic worship of Cybele prevalent in the neighboring Phrygia, they the more readily were led to believe that the full privileges of Christianity could only be attained by submitting to elaborate ceremonial symbolism ( Galatians 4:9-11; 5:7-12). They even gave ear to the insinuation that Paul himself observed the law among the Jews though he persuaded the Gentiles to renounce it, and that he wished to keep his converts in a lower state of privileges, excluded from the high Christian standing enjoyed by the circumcised ( Galatians 4:16; 5:11; compare Galatians 2:17), and that in “becoming all things to all men” he was but a men-pleaser, seeking to form a party for himself; moreover that he was not, as he represented, an apostle divinely commissioned by Christ, but a mere messenger of the twelve and the Jerusalem church, and that his teaching now did not accord with that of Peter and James, the acknowledged “pillars” of the church, and ought therefore to be rejected.
This design in writing then was: (1) To maintain his apostolic authority ( Galatians 1:11-19; 2:1-14. (2) To counteract the Judaizers (Galatians 3—4), and to show that their teaching undermined Christianity itself by lowering its spirituality to external ceremonialism. (3) To strengthen Galatian believers in faith toward Christ and in the fruit of the Spirit (Galatians 5—6); already he had testified against the Judaizers to their face ( Galatians 1:9; 4:16; Acts 18:28), and now that he has heard of the increase of the evil he writes to cheek it, “with his own hand” ( Galatians 6:11), a labor which he usually committed to an amanuensis.
His sketch of his apostolic call and course confirms the history in Acts, and proves his independence of human authority however exalted. His protest against Peter’s Judaizing dissimulation disproves the pope’s, and even Peter’s, supremacy, and shows that Peter, except when especially inspired, was fallible as other men ( Galatians 2:14-21). There is much in common between this epistle and that to the Romans; but the epistle to the Romans discusses justification by faith only, not by the law, in a didactic, logical mode; the epistle to the Galatians controversially, and with special reference to the Judaizers.
The style combines sternness (Galatians 1; 3:1-5) with tenderness ( Galatians 4:19,20), betraying his strong emotions, and well adapted to move an impressible people such as the Galatians. He begins abruptly, as is suitable to the urgency of the subject and the seriousness of the evil. A tone of sadness too appears, such as is natural in an affectionate teacher who has just learned that his loved disciples are abandoning his teachings for those of others who pervert the truth and calumniate himself.
The time of writing was after the visit to Jerusalem recorded in Acts 15:1 (i.e. A.D. 50), if that visit be identical, as is probable, with that in Galatians 2:1. Moreover, as allusion seems to be made to his seceded visit to the Galatians (in autumn A.D. 54) in Galatians 1:9, “as we said before,” and Galatians 4:16, “have I become your enemy?” the epistle must have been later than A.D. 54. Acts 18:23 implies that at his second visit the Galatians were well established in the faith, which made their speedy declension the stranger. Galatians 4:13, “ye know how I preached at the first” (Greek at rite former time), implies that Paul at the time of writing had been twice in Galatia; and Galatians 1:6, “I marvel that ye are so soon removed,” implies that he wrote not long after having left Galatia the second time, possibly (Alford) soon after he began his residence at Ephesus ( Acts 18:23; 19:1), which lasted from autumn A.D. 54 to Pentecost A.D. 57. However, the resemblance of this epistle to the epistle to the Romans favors the view (Conybeare and Howson) that it was not written until his stay at Corinth ( Acts 20:2,3, during the winter of A.D. 57-58), from whence he wrote the epistle to the Romans. It seems unlikely that 1 and 2 Corinthians, so dissimilar, should intervene between those so much alike as Galatians and Romans, or that Galatians should intervene between 2 Thessalonians and 1 Corinthians. Even three years would be “soon” for their apostasy, they having betrayed no symptoms at his second visit ( Acts 18:23). A sudden exigency (tidings of Galatian Judaizing having reached him at Corinth from Ephesus) apparently called forth this epistle, for it maintains Christian liberty from carnal ceremonialism, and justification by faith only, in an admonitory and controversial tone. That to Romans written subsequently, more systematically and deliberately sets forth the same truths for a church which as yet he did not personally know. The manner suits his relations to the two churches respectively; in writing to the Galatian church, which he had founded, he rests upon his authority; to the Roman church, whom he did not know personally, wholly upon argument: an undesigned coincidence and propriety confirming the authenticity. Reproof in Galatians predominates over praise and thanksgiving.
III. He warns ( Galatians 4:31—5:12) illustrates the true fulfillment of the law by the walk in the Spirit, in contrast to the flesh ( Galatians 5:13-26), practically instructs, and recapitulates (Galatians 6).
GALBANUM An ingredient of the sacred incense, for perfume ( Exodus 30:34). The odor is disagreeable, but its gum resin enables the perfume to retain its fragrance longer. An exudation from the Galbanum official of the eastern coast of Africa. A similar gun is yielded by the Opoidia galbanifera of Durrood in Khorassan (Lindley).
GALEED (“a witness heap”). A Hebrew name given by Jacob to the heap which he and Laban reared on mount Gilead, a memorial of their brotherly covenant ( Genesis 31:47,48). Laban called it in Aramaic (Chaldee or Syriac) see JEGAR-SAHADUTHA . Apparently Nahor’s family originally spoke Syriac, and Abraham and his family acquired Hebrew in Canaan, where the Hebrew was indigenous when he first settled there, the Hamitic Canaanites having learned it from an earlier Semitic race. The memorial heap marked the crisis in Jacob’s life when he became severed from his Syrian kindred, and henceforth a sojourner in, and heir of, Canaan.
GALILEE from galil . “A circle” or “circuit” around Kedesh Naphtali, in which lay the 20 towns given by Solomon to Hiram, king of Tyre, in payment for his having conveyed timber from Lebanon to Jerusalem ( Joshua 20:7; Kings 9:11). The northern part of Naphtali (which lay N. of Zebulun) was inhabited by a mixed race of Jews and Gentiles of the bordering Phoenician race ( Judges 1:30; 1 Kings 9:11). Tiglath Pileser carried away captive its Israelite population to Assyria; then Esarhaddon colonized it with pagan ( 2 Kings 15:29; 17:24; Ezra 4:2,10). Hence called ( Isaiah 9:1) “Galilee of the nations,” or “Gentiles” ( Matthew 4:13,15,16). During and after the captivity the Gentile element became the preponderating population, and spread widely; and the province included in our Lord’s days all the ancient Issachar, Zebulun, Asher, and Naphtali. The most northerly of the three provinces of Palestine, namely, Galilee, Samaria, Judaea ( John 4:3,4; Luke 17:11; Acts 9:31). Galilee’s Gentile character caused the southern Jews of purer blood to despise it ( John 1:46; 7:52); but its very darkness was the Lord’s reason for vouchsafing to it more of the light of His presence and ministry than to self-satisfied and privileged Judaea. There He first publicly preached, in Nazareth synagogue. From it came His apostles ( Acts 1:11; 2:7); foretold in Deuteronomy 33:18,19,23. Compare on Pentecost Acts 2:7; Psalm 68:27,28. Jerusalem, the theocratic capital, might readily have known Messiah; to compensate less favored Galilee He ministered mostly there. Galilee’s debasement made its people feel their need of the Savior, a feeling unknown to the self right. cons Jews ( Matthew 9:13). “The Light to lighten the Gentiles, and the Glory of His people Israel,” appropriately ministered on the border land between Israel and the Gentiles, still on Israel’s territory, to which He was primarily sent ( Matthew 15:24). Places and persons despised of men are honored of God. The region the first to be darkened by the Assyrian invasion was cheered by the prophet’s assurance that it should be the first enlightened by Immanuel ( 1 Corinthians 1:27-29). Its population being the densest of any part of Palestine, and its freedom from priestly and pharisaic prejudice, were additional grounds for its receiving the larger share of His ministry.
It was bounded on the W. by the region of Ptolemais (Acre), namely, the plain of Akka to the foot of Carmel. The Jordan, the sea of Galilee, lake Huleh, and the spring at Dan, was the eastern border. The northern boundary reached from Dan westward to Phoenicia ( Luke 8:26). The southern border ran along the base of Carmel and the Samaritan hills to mount Gilboa, then along the valley of Jezreel by Scythopolis (Bethshean) to Jordan. Probably the cleansing of the ten lepers took place near Jenin, the border town of Galilee toward Samaria, near the S. of the sea of Galilee. Jebel Jermuk is the highest mountain, 4,000 ft. above the sea.
There were two divisions:
I. Lower Galilee was the whole region from the plain of Akka on the W. to the lake of Galilee on the E., including the rich plain of Esdraelon, the heritage of Issachar, who submitted to servitude, to “tribute,” for the sake of the rich plenty that accompanied it ( Genesis 49:14,15; Deuteronomy 33:18). “Rejoice Zebulun in thy going out (thy mercantile enterprises by sea and fishing in the lake of Galilee), and Issachar in thy tents (in thy inland prosperity, agriculture and home comforts) they shall suck of the abundance of the seas (the riches of the sea in general, and the purple dye extracted from the murex here) and of treasures hid in the sand” (the sand of these coasts being especially valuable for manufacturing glass, a precious thing anciently: Job 28:17). “They shall call the people unto the mountain,” etc.: Zebulun and Issachar shall offer their wealth at the Lord’s appointed mount, and invite Gentile nations to join them ( Psalm 22:27,28, etc.). The conversion of the Gentiles, brought in to Israel and Israel’s Savior, is herein prophetically typified (compare Isaiah 60:5,6,16; 66:11,12). Asher “dips his feet in oil,” i.e. abounds in olive groves. “Fat bread” and “royal dainties” are his, grain, wine, milk, butter, from his uplands and valleys ( Genesis 49:20; Deuteronomy 33:24,25). “Thy shoes iron and brass,” i.e. thy hills shall yield these metals ( Deuteronomy 8:9). “As thy days (so shall) thy strength (be),” i.e., as thy several days come (throughout life) strength will be given thee,” Compare 1 Kings 8:59 margin.
II. Upper Galilee extended from Bersabe on the S. to the village of Baca, bordering on Tyre, and from Meloth on the W. to Thella, near Jordan (Josephus, B. J., 3:3, sec. 1); in fact, the whole mountain range between the upper Jordan and Phoenicia. Its southern border extended from the N.W. of the sea of Galilee to the plain of Akka. This upper Galilee is chiefly meant by “Galilee of the Gentiles.” The ravine of the Leonres separates the mountain range of upper Galilee from Lebanon, of which it is a southern prolongation. Safed is the chief town. The scenery is bolder and richer than that of southern Palestine. On the table land of upper Galilee lie the ruins of Kedesh Naphtali ( Joshua 20:7). Bochart, altering the vowel points, translated Genesis 49:21, “Naphtali is a spreading terebinth, which puts forth goodly branches”; for the country of Kedesh Naphtali is a natural park of oaks and terebinths.
The three former, or the Synoptic Gospels chiefly present our Lord’s ministry in Galilee; the Gospel of John His ministry in Judea. His parables in John and in the three Synoptists correspond to the features of Judaea and Galilee respectively. The vineyard, fig tree, shepherd, and desert where the man fell among thieves, were appropriate in Judaea; the grainfields ( Mark 4:28), the merchants and fisheries ( Matthew 13:45,47), and the flowers ( Matthew 6:28), suited Galilee. The Galilean accent and dialect were unique, owing to Gentile admixture ( Matthew 26:73).
After Herod the Great’s death Herod Antipas governed Galilee until six years after Christ’s crucifixion. Herod Agrippa, with the title of “king,” succeeded. On his death ( Acts 12:23) Galilee was joined to the Roman province of Syria. After the fall of Jerusalem Galilee became famed for its rabbis and schools of Jewish learning; and the Sanhedrim or great council was removed to Sepphoris, and then to Tiberias. Rabbi Judah Haqodesh here compiled the Mishna, to which the Gemara was subsequently added.
GALILEE, SEA OF ( Matthew 4:18; Mark 7:31; John 6:1). So called from its washing the E. side of Galilee. In Luke 5:1 “the sea of Gennesaret,” called so from the fertile plain of Gennesurer at its N.W. angle, three and a half miles long by two and a half broad ( Matthew 14:34). In Old Testament “the sea of Chinnereth” or Cinneroth, from the town so named on its shore ( Joshua 19:35), of which Gennesaret is probably the corruption, though others derive it from gannah , a “garden,” and Sarown , a plain between Tabor and the lake. “The sea of Tiberias” is another designation, from the city ( John 6:1). All its names were drawn from places on the western side. Now Bahr Tubariyeh (Tiberius, S.W. of the lake). Close to it was “His own city” Capernaum ( Matthew 4:13). Nine cities stood on the shores of the lake, of which only two are now inhabited, namely, Magdala, consisting of a few mud huts, and Tiberias, sadly changed from its ancient prosperity. Silence now reigns where formerly the din of industry was heard. On its shore Jesus called His first disciples ( Matthew 4:18; 9:9; Luke 5:1-11; John 1:43, etc.).
Lynch. Its length is about 13 miles, its breadth is about five or six. The view from the Nazareth road to Tiberias is beautiful. The hills from the eastern side rise apparently out of the water with a uniform slope, to the height of 2,000 ft., destitute of verdure, and shut in the lake; while far to the N. is seen snowy Hermon. The eastern hills, which are flat along the summit, are the wall that supports the table land of Bashan; from which on the N. there is a gradual descent to the valley of the Jordan, and then a rise to a plateau skirting the mountains of upper Galilee. The hills on the W., except at Khan Minyeh, where there is a small cliff, are recessed from the shore. On a western recess stands Tiberias. The whole basin betrays its volcanic origin, which also accounts for the warm spring at Tiberius The cliffs are hard porous basalt. The vegetation is tropical; the lotus thorn, palms, indigo, etc. The water is sweet, sparkling and transparent; the fish abundant as of old, many species being those of the Nile, the silurus, mugil, and sparers Galiloeus. Dr. Tristram says: “the shoals of fish Were marvelous, black masses of many hundred yards long, with the black fins projecting out of the water, as thickly as they could pack. There are the European loach, bethel, blenny and cyprinodont; the African chromis, hemichromis, and eellike clarias; and the Asiatic discognathus. The cyprinodonts are viviparous, and the sexual differences marked; they can live in cold water, or hot springs up to 90ø, fresh, brackish, or briny water.
This marks a former connection between these waters and those of N.E. and S.E. Africa, the Nile, the Zambesi, and the great lakes in the interior. The papyrus also, no longer found in the Nile, is found on the shores of the sea of Galilee. As Asia, Africa, and Europe respectively were represented at Christ’s cross by the Jews, Simon of Cyrene, and the Romans respectively, so the Asiatic, African, and European fish in the sea of Galilee represent the various races of mankind gathered by the spiritual fishermen into the one gospel net. Only one little boat represents the fleets of fishing vessels that once covered the lake. The fish are now taken with a hand net jerked round the fish by the fisher, usually naked, along the shore ( John 21:7); or else crumbs of bread mixed with bichloride of mercury are scattered to poison the fish, and the floating dead bodies are picked up for the Tiberias market (Porter, Handbook, p. 432).
Sudden and violent storms agitate the waters, sweeping down the ravines and gorges converging to the head of the lake, from the vast naked plateau of the Jaulan and the Hauran and mount Hermon in the background. It was such a storm that Jesus stilled by a word, as He had a few hours before rebuked and cast out demons. Mark 4:39, “Peace, be still,” Greek “Be silent, be muzzled”; addressing the sea and warring elements as rebel forces; compare Revelation 21:1. The apostles were trying to reach Bethsaida on the western coast, when the gale from. the S.W. that brought vessels from Tiberias to the N.E. coast ( John 6:23) delayed the vessel of the former, until at the fourth watch Jesus came walking over the tempest tossed waves; then followed Peter’s temporary walking through faith and sinking through unbelief in the same waters, and his rescue by Jesus; then they immediately reach their desired haven for which they had set out the evening before ( Matthew 14:28,29,33; John 6:17,21; Mark 6:45). So impressed were the disciples that “they worshipped Him, saying, Of a truth Thou art the Son of God.” Bethsaida Julias, the city of Andrew and Peter, lay on the E. bank of the Jordan where it enters the sea of Galilee on the N. Close by, and on the E. of the river and N.E. of the lake, stretched the “green grass” ( Mark 6:39) plain of Batihah, the scene of feeding the 5,000. Gergesa (now Kersa) lay E. of the lake. The Jordan’s outlet is at Kerak, the S.W. extremity of the lake. The lake, mirroring heaven in its union of rest and energy, represents Him who best combined the calm repose which reflected His Father’s image with energetic labors for God and man.
GALL 1. Mereerah = bitterness. Secreted in an animal’s gall bladder. Poetically used for a vital part, Job 16:13; 20:25. Job 20:14, “the gall of asps,” i.e. their poison, contained in a sac in the mouth; Scripture uses popular language when no moral truth is thereby endangered. 2. Rosh : a bitter and poisonous herb; the poppy (Gesenius). Rosh means head, so we speak of poppy heads. Jeremiah 8:14, “water of gall,” i.e. opium, Jeremiah 9:15; 23:15. Others suggest one of the Euphorbiaceae, distasteful and deadly; the “grapes of gall” answering to the rounded three berried fruit (Imperial Bible Dictionary). Deuteronomy 29:18 (to which Hebrews 12:15, “root of bitterness,” refers; a root whose essence is bitterness), Deuteronomy 32:32. Opium water would suit well for stupefying criminals in the agony of execution ( Psalm 69:21; Matthew 27:34; Acts 8:23). The vinegar offered to our Lord was mingled with “gall” according to Matthew, with “myrrh” according to Mark ( Mark 15:23). The myrrh was the usual seasoning of Roman wine; the gall was added to stupefy, but our Lord would meet His agony in full consciousness. Bengel supposes the gall was added in wantonness.
GALLERIES Song 1:17, “rafters (galleries margin) of fir”; the crossbeams, the carved ceiling, fretted work: rachit . The Qeri, or Hebrew margin, has rahit , an ambulatory; not probable. In Song 7:5 translated “the king is held bound with the flowing ringlets”; compare Song 6:5. In Ezekiel 41:15; 42:3, “the galleries” are terrace buildings. Smith’s Bible Dictionary identifies the” pillars” and “galleries,” Ezekiel 42:3,5,6; “the reason of the upper chambers being shorter is ascribed to the absence of supporting pillars which allowed an extra length to the chambers of the lower story; the space included within the pillars would form an open gallery.”
GALLIM (“heaps, or else springs”). 1 Samuel 25:44; Isaiah 10:30, “daughter of Gallim,” i.e. Gallim and her sons, i.e. inhabitants. It is enumerated amidst towns of Benjamin; Laish is one. Possibly “Phalti the son of Laish who was from Gallim” was a native of Laish the town, and this a dependency only. Now the hill Khirbet el Jisr, S. of Gibeah of Saul (Valentiner).
Brother of L. Annaeus Seneca, the philosopher. Adopted into the family, and so took the name, of the rhetorician L. Junins Gallis. His birth name was Marcus Annaeus Novatus (Pliny H. N., 31:33; Tacitus Ann., 15:73, 16:17). He left Achaia “when he began in a fever, often exclaiming that it was not his body, but the place, that had the disease” (Seneca, Ep. 104). “No mortal was ever so sweet to one as Gallio was to all,” says his brother, adding: “there is none who does not love Gallio a little, even if he cannot love him more”; “there is such an amount of innate good in him without any savor of art or dissimulation”; “a person proof against plottings.” How exactly and undesignedly this independent testimony coincides with Acts 18:12-17! The Jews plotted to destroy Paul by bringing him before Gallio’s judgment seat. But he was not to be entrapped into persecuting Christians by the Jews’ spiteful maneuver: “if it were a matter of wrong or wicked lewdness, O ye Jews,” said he without waiting even to hear Paul’s defense, just as the apostle was about to open his mouth, “reason would that I should bear with you; but since it is (Greek) a question of word and names (namely, whether Jesus is the Christ) and your law, look ye to it; for I will be no judge of such matters. And he drove them from the judgment seat.” So the Greeks, sympathizing with the deputy’s disgust at the Jews’ intolerance, beat Sosthenes the chief ruler of the Jews’ synagogue “before the judgment seat.” And Gallio winked at it, as the Jewish persecutor was only getting himself what he had intended for Paul. Thus God fulfilled His promise ( Acts 18:10), “Be not afraid, but speak, for I am with thee, and no man shall set on thee to hurt thee, for I have much people in this city.” “Gallio cared for none of these things” does not mean he was careless about the thirsts of God (that probably he was from his easy Epicurean-like temper), but with characteristic indifference to an outbreak provoked by the spite of the Jews he took no notice of the assault. Sosthenes himself seems, by Paul’s sympathy in trouble, to have been won to Christ, like Crispus ( 1 Corinthians 1:1). Seneca’s execution by Nero made Gallio trembling suppliant for his own life (Tacitus Ann., 15:73). Jerome says he committed suicide A.D. 65. Seneca dedicated to him his treatises On Anger and On a Happy Life. The accuracy of Scripture appears in the title “proconsul” (deputy), for Achaia was made a senatorial province by Claudius seven or eight years before Paul’s visit, having been previously an imperial province governed by a legate; and the senatorial provinces alone had “proconsuls.”
GAMALIEL 1. Numbers 1:10; 2:20; 7:54,59; 10:23. 2. A Pharisee and eminent doctor of the law, who advised the council wisely to let the apostles alone ( Acts 5:34, etc.), “for if this counsel or work be of men it will come to nought; but if it be of God ye cannot overthrow it, lest haply ye be found even to fight against God.” He was Paul’s teacher, “at whose feet he was brought up and taught according to the perfect manner of the law of the fathers” ( Acts 22:3). The Jews celebrated him as “the glory of the law,” the first designated Rabban “our master.” Son of rabbi Simeon, and grandson of Hillel; president of the Sanhedrin under Tiberius, Caligula, and Claudius; he died 18 years before the fall of Jerusalem. His counsel as to the apostles was not from any leaning to Christianity, but from opposition to Sadduceeism in a case where the resurrection was the point at issue, and from seeing the folly of unreasoning bigotry ( Acts 23:6-9). Saul his pupil was a leading persecutor when Stephen opposed Pharisaism; and probably Gamaliel would not altogether disapprove of his zeal in such a cause, though his own tendency was to leave the claims of Christianity to be tested by time.
GAMES Of children, Zechariah 8:5. Imitating marriages and funerals, Matthew 11:16,17. The earnestness of the Hebrew character indisposed adults to games. Public games they had none, the great feasts of religion supplying them with their anniversary occasions of national gatherings.
Jason’s introduction of Greek games and a gymnasium was among the corrupting influences which broke down the fence of Judaism, and threw it open to the assaults of the Old Testament antichrist, Antiochus Epiphanes (1 Macc. 1:14; 2 Macc. 4:12-14). Herod erected a theater and amphitheater, with quinquennial contests in gymnastics, chariot races, music, and wild beasts, at Jerusalem and Caesarea, to the annoyance of the faithful Jews (Josephus, Ant 15:8, sec. 1; 9, sec. 6).
The “chiefs of Asia” (Asiarchs) superintended the games in honor of Diana at Ephesus ( Acts 19:31). In 1 Corinthians 15:32 Paul alludes to “fights with beasts” (though his fights were with beast-like men, Demetrius and his craftsmen, not with beasts, from which his Roman citizenship exempted him), at Ephesus. The “fighters with beasts” were kept to the “last” of the “spectacle”; this he alludes to, 1 Corinthians 4:9: “God hath set forth (exhibited previous to execution) us the apostles last, as it were appointed to death, for we are made a spectacle unto the world,” etc., a “gazing stock” as in an amphitheater ( Hebrews 10:33). The Asiarchs’ friendliness was probably due to their having been interested in his teaching during his long stay at Ephesus. Nero used to clothe the Christians in beast skins when he exposed them to wild beasts; compare 2 Timothy 4:17, “I was delivered out of the mouth of the lion” (namely, from Satan’s snare, 1 Peter 5:8). In 2 Timothy 4:7, “I have striven the good strife,” not merely a fight, any competitive contest as the race-course, 1 Timothy 6:12 which was written from Corinth [see TIMOTHY ], where national games recurred at stated seasons, which accounts for the allusion: “strive” with such earnestness in “the good strife” as to “lay hold” on the prize, the crown or garland of the winner, “eternal life.” James 1:12; Revelation 2:10. Philippians 3:12-14: “not as though I had attained,” namely, the prize, “or am already perfected” (Greek), i.e., my course completed and I crowned with the garland of perfect victory; “I follow after,” i.e. I press on, “if that I may apprehend (grasp) that for which I am apprehended of (grasped by) Christ,” i.e., if so be that I may lay hold on the prize for obtaining which I was laid hold on by Christ at conversion (Song 1:4; 1 Corinthians 13:12). “Forgetting those things behind (the space already past, contrast 2 Timothy 3:7; 2 Peter 1:9) and reaching forth unto those things before,” like a race runner with body bent forward, the eye reaching before and drawing on the hand, the hand reaching before and drawing on the foot. The “crown (garland) of righteousness,” “of life,” “of glory,” is “the prize of the high calling (the calling that is above, coming from, and leading to, heaven) of God in Christ Jesus” ( 1 Thessalonians 2:12), given by “the righteous Judge” ( Timothy 4:8; 1 Peter 5:4). The false teacher, as a self constituted umpire, would “defraud you of your prize” ([katabrabeueto ), by drawing you away from Christ to angel worship ( Colossians 2:18). Therefore “let the peace of God as umpire rule ([brabeueto ) in your hearts” and restrain wrong passions, that so you may attain the prize “to the which ye are called” ( Colossians 3:15).
In 1 Corinthians 9:24 the Isthmian games, celebrated on the isthmus of Corinth, are vividly alluded to. They were a subject of patriotic pride to the Corinthians, a passion rather than a pastime; so a suitable image of Christian earnestness. Paul wrote 1 Corinthians at Ephesus, and in addressing the Ephesian elders he uses naturally the same image, an undesigned coincidence ( Acts 20:24). “So (with the determined earnestness of the ONE earthly winner) run, that ye may obtain” is such language as instructors in the gymnasts and spectators on the race-course would urge on the runners with. The competitor had to “strive lawfully” ( 2 Timothy 2:5), i.e. observing the conditions of the contest, keeping to the bounds of the course, and stripped of clothes, and previously training himself with chastity, abstemious diet, anointing, enduring cold, heat, and severe exercise. As a soldier the believer is one of many; as an athlete he has to wage an individual struggle continually, as if (which is the case in a race) one alone could win; “they who run in the stadium (racecourse, oblong, at one end semicircular, where the tiers of spectators sat), run all, but one receiveth the prize.”
Paul further urges Christians, run so as not only to receive salvation but a full reward (compare 1 Corinthians 3:14,15; 2 John 1:8). Pugilism is the allusion in “I keep under (Greek: I bruise under the eyes, so as to disable) my body (the old flesh, whereas the games competitor boxed another I box myself), and bring it into subjection as a slave, lest that by any means, when I have preached (heralded, as the heralds summoned the candidates to the race) to others, I myself should be a castaway” (Greek: rejected), namely, not as to his personal salvation of which he had no doubts ( Galatians 1:15; Ephesians 1:4,7; Philippians 1:6; Titus 1:2; 2 Timothy 1:12), but as to the special reward of those who “turn many to righteousness” ( Daniel 12:3; 1 Thessalonians 2:19). So Paul denied himself, in not claiming sustenance, in view of “reward,” namely, “to gain the more” ( 1 Corinthians 9:18-23). Corinthians 9:25: “striveth for the mastery,” namely, in wrestling, more severe than the foot-race. The “crown” (garland, not a king’s diadem) is termed “corruptible,” being made of the soon withering fir leaves from the groves round the Isthmian racecourse. Our crown is “incorruptible” ( Peter 1:4). “I run not as uncertainly,” i.e. not without a definite goal, in “becoming all things to all men” I aim at “gaining the more.” Ye gain no end, he implies to the Corinthians, in your eating idol meats. He who knows what to aim at, and how to aim, looks straight to the goal, and casts away every encumbrance ( Hebrews 12:1). So the believer must cast aside not only sinful lusts, but even harmless and otherwise useful things which would retard him ( Mark 9:42-48; 10:50; Ephesians 4:22; Colossians 3:9). “He must run with enduring perseverance the race set before him.” “Not as one that beateth the air,” in a [skiamachia , or sparring in sham fight, striking the air as if an adversary. Satan is a real adversary, acting through the flesh.
The “so great a cloud of witnesses” ( Hebrews 12:1,2) that “we are compassed about with” attest by their own case God’s faithfulness to His people ( Hebrews 6:12). A second sense is nowhere positively sustained by Scripture, namely, that, as the crowd of surrounding spectators gave fresh spirit to the combatants, so the deceased saints who once were in the same contest, and who now are witnessing our struggle of faith, ought to increase our earnestness, testifying as they do to God’s faith. fullness; but see Job 14:21; Ecclesiastes 9:5; Isaiah 63:16, which seemingly deny to disembodied spirits consciousness of earthly affairs. “Looking off unto Jesus ([aforontes , with eye fixed on the distant goal) the Prince-leader and Finisher (the Starting point and the Goal, as in the [diaulos race, wherein they doubled back to the starting point) of our faith” ( Timothy 3:7).
GAMMADIMS Ezekiel 27:11. Rather, from a Syriac root (for the Tyrians were Syro- Phoenicians), “men of daring.” Foreigners would hardly be entrusted to watch “in the Tyrian towers.” Others from the Hebrew gomed , a cubit, “short swordsmen”; Ehud carried a sword a cubit long ( Judges 3:16).
GAMUL 1 Chronicles 24:17.
GARDEN An enclosure in the suburbs, fenced with a hedge or wall ( Isaiah 5:5; Proverbs 24:31), planted with flowers, shrubs, and trees, guarded (from whence comes “garden”) by watchmen in a lodge or tower ( Isaiah 1:8, when the lodge is forsaken by the keeper, the bore poles leaning every way and the green boughs of the roof scattered, there could scarcely be a more vivid picture of Zion’s desolation, Mark 12:1) to drive away wild beasts and robbers ( Job 27:18). The quince, citron, almond, and other fruits, also herbs ( 1 Kings 21:2), cucumbers, lettuce, mustard, are mentioned as in gardens. The balsam, according to Pliny, grew only in two royal gardens of Judea, not elsewhere. Syria was so famed for gardens that the Greeks had a proverb, “the many garden herbs of the Syrians.” The rose garden W. of the temple was peculiar in being within the walls; the smell from weeds and manure was the cause of gardens being usually forbidden within the walls. A reservoir cistern, or still better a fountain of water, was essential to a good garden. Compare Song 4:15, “a fountain of gardens,” ayin ganim [see EN-GANNIM , Jenin now], i.e. a fountain sufficient to water man “gardens,” “a well of living waters?
Spiritually, the believer is the garden the Holy Spirit the living water ( Jeremiah 2:18; 17:8; John 4:13,14; 7:37-39); “A well watered garden” expresses abundant happiness and prosperity ( Isaiah 58:11; Jeremiah 17:8; 31:12), as “a garden that hath no water” ( Isaiah 1:30) expresses spiritual, national, and individual barrenness and misery. Psalm 1:3, the righteous “shall be like a tree planted by the rivers of waters (literally, the divisions of waters, the water being divided into rivulets to run along the rows of trees for irrigation) that bringeth forth his fruit in his season.” Not only are his fruits (the tree’s proper fruit, Revelation 22:2) good in themselves, but are in season ( Ecclesiastes 3:1-11; contrast Matthew 21:19). “His leaf” also has its beauty and use and is “unwithering” ( Ezekiel 47:12); even his minor traits of character are good after their kind, and his smallest undertaking, blessed because done unto the Lord and so shall abide.
The law against mixing diverse seeds was observed by separating the various productions by light fences of reed. The “orchards” (Hebrew: paradises) were especially for fruit trees, dates, figs, sycamores, etc. The occurrence of no less than 250 botanical terms in Old Testament shows the Israelite predilection for flowers, fruits, and pleasure grounds. The vine wound round the trellis or outer staircase, the emblem of the loving and fruitful wife and the happy home ( <19C803> Psalm 128:3). The house court or area generally had its shady terebinth. Under the shadowing fig leaves Nathanael communed with his God ( John 1:48). The ripe grain in harvest joy was decorated with lilies; Song 7:2, “thy bodice (of amber color) is a heap of wheat set about with lilies” (white or scarlet, answering to her scarf round her person).
Machpelah’s field, Abraham’s burial ground, was a garden with “trees in it, and in all the borders round about it” ( Genesis 23:17). The garden of Gethsemane was Jesus’ favorite resort for devotion ( Matthew 26:36; John 18:1). Gardens were in idolatrous periods made the scene of superstition and image worship, the awful counterpart of the primitive Eden ( Isaiah 1:29; 65:3; 66:17).
Solomon’s gardens and orchards with all kinds of fruits and pools of water for irrigation ( Ecclesiastes 2:4-6) doubtless suggested the imagery Song 4:12-15. It was in a garden of light Adam fell; in a garden of darkness, Gethsemane, the Second Adam overcame the tempter and retrieved us.
The “streams from Lebanon” imply that the fountain is lowly, the source lofty. Christ (and so Christ’s church) springs up on the earth, but has His source in heaven; no longer “sealed” but “open” streams ( Revelation 22:10,17). The site near Bethlehem assigned to Solomon’s garden is probably correct. It is a suitable retreat, near the capital, and the names of localities about confirm the tradition: wady Urtas, “the valley of the garden”; gebel-el-Fureidis, “the hill of the little paradise”; “fig vale”; “peach hill”; “walnut walk”; “garden of nuts.” The “king’s garden” ( Kings 25:4; Nehemiah 3:15; Jeremiah 34:4; 52:7) was near the pool of Siloam, at the Tyropoeon valley, where the valleys of Jehoshaphat and Hinnom met.
GAREB 1. 2 Samuel 23:38; 1 Chronicles 2:58. 2. The hill near Jerusalem ( Jeremiah 31:39). From Hebrew [gaarab “to scrape,” Syriac, leprosy, the locality outside the city to which lepers were removed, on the N.W. side of the city, W. of the valley of Gihon. Even the localities whose name implies they are now outside shall at last be taken within the new Jerusalem ( Matthew 8:14; Luke 17:11-19).
GARLICK Numbers 11:5. Abounding in Egypt. The Allium sativum (Linnaeus). A fixed allowance of it and other vegetables was appointed to the workmen on the pyramids and publicly inscribed (Herodotus ii. 125). It stimulates the circulation and the system generally.
GARMITE Descended fromGEREM ( 1 Chronicles 4:19).
GARRISON Put in military posts to keep possession of a conquered country, as the Philistines held the land of Israel at the beginning of Saul’s reign ( Samuel 10:5; 13:3); David, Syria ( 2 Samuel 8:6,14). In Ezekiel 26:11, “thy strong garrisons” (matzeboth uzzeek ) literally, the statues of thy strength, i.e. the forts. Or rather (Maurer), the obelisks in honor of the tutelary gods of Tyre (as Melecarte, the Tyrian Hercules whose temple stood in Old Tyre) shall go down to the ground before Nebuchadnezzar, the conqueror, just as he treated Egypt’s idol statues ( Jeremiah 43:11).
GASHMU Geshem. Nehemiah 6:1,2,6.
GATE The oriental resort for business, converse, bargaining, and news ( Genesis 19:1; 23:10; Psalm 69:12), for addresses and reading the law ( 2 Chronicles 32:6; Nehemiah 8:1,3; Proverbs 1:21; Jeremiah 17:19), or administering justice ( Joshua 20:4; Ruth 4:1; Deuteronomy 16:18; 21:19). Proverbs 22:22, “neither oppress the afflicted in the gate,” i.e. in the place of justice, in lawsuits. Psalm 69:12, “they that sit in the gate speak against Me (Messiah), and I was the song of the drunkards,” i.e., not only among drunken revelers, but in the grave deliberations of the judges in the place of justice I was an object of obloquy. Amos 5:12, “they turn aside the poor in the gate,” i.e. they refuse them their right in the place of justice; ( Amos 5:10) “they hate him that rebuketh in the gate,” namely, the judge who condemns them ( Zechariah 8:16). Isaiah 29:21, “they lay a snare for him that reproveth in the gate,” i.e., they try by bribes and misrepresentations to ensnare into a false decision the judge who would in public court reprove them for their iniquity, or to ensnare the prophet who publicly reproves them ( Jeremiah 7:2). “The Sublime Porte,” the title for the Sultan of Turkey, is derived from the eastern usage of dispensing law in the gateway.
The king’s or chief’s place of audience ( 1 Kings 22:10; 2 Samuel 19:8; Job 29:7; Lamentations 5:14). The object of a foe’s attack and therefore strengthened especially ( Judges 5:8; <19E718> Psalm 147:18), shut at nightfall ( Deuteronomy 3:5; Joshua 2:5,7; 1 Samuel 23:7). The market place for country produce ( 2 Kings 7:1; Nehemiah 13:16-19). The open spaces near the gates were used for pagan sacrifices ( Acts 14:13; 2 Kings 23:8). Josiah defiled “the high places of the gates in the entering in of the gate.”
The larger gates had two valves, and were plated with metal and secured with locks and bars. Those without iron plating were easily set on fire ( Judges 9:52). Sentences of the law were inscribed on and above them, to which allusion occurs Deuteronomy 6:9; an usage followed by Muslims in modern times. Some gates were of solid stones ( Revelation 21:21; Isaiah 54:12). Massive stone doors are found in ancient houses of Syria, single slabs, several inches thick, 10 ft. high, turning on stone pivots above and below. The king’s principal gate at Ispahan afforded sanctuary to criminals (Chardin, 7:368). In Esther’s time “none might enter into the king’s gate clothed with sackcloth” ( Esther 4:2). ”The Beautiful Gate” of Herod’s temple ( Acts 3:2) was the outer one, made of Corinthian brass, surpassing in costliness even nine others of the outer court, which were covered with gold and silver. It was so heavy that twenty men were required to close it, but it was found open unexpectedly shortly before the overthrow of Jerusalem (Josephus, B. J., 5:5, sec. 3; 6: 5, sec. 3; contra Apion, 2:9). The doorway consisted of lintel, threshold, and side-posts ( Exodus 12:7,22).
In Genesis 22:17, “thy seed shall possess the gate of his enemies,” the sense is, shall sit in judgment on them, as in the Assyrian sculptures the king is represented sitting in judgment upon prisoners. Thus the Persian satrap in the Lycian Xanthus monument sits at the gate dictating terms to the Greek ambassadors, and Sennacherib, at his tent door, gives judgment on the Jews taken at Lachish (British Museum, 59). In front of the larger edifices in the remains at Persepolis and Nineveh (Khorsabad) are propylaea, or “porches,” like that “for Solomon’s throne where he might judge, even the porch of judgment, covered with cedar from one side of the floor to the other” ( 1 Kings 7:7). The threshold in the Assyrian palaces is one slab of gypsum with cuneatic inscriptions; human-headed bulls with eagles’ wings guard the portals, like and probably borrowed from the cherubim which guarded the gate of Eden; besides there are holes 12 in. square, lined round with tiles, with a brick to cover them above and containing small baked clay idols with lynx head and human body, or human head and lion’s body, probably like the see TERAPHIM , from Arabic tarf “a boundary,” and akin to the Persian “telifin” talismans. Thus the place of going out and coming in was guarded, as especially sacred, from all evil by the inscriptions, the compound figured gods outside, and the hidden teraphim. Daniel “sat in” such a “gate” before the palace of Babylon as “ruler over the whole province of Babylon” ( Daniel 2:48,49) The courtiers of Ahasuerus attended him “in the gate” similarly ( Esther 3:2).
GATH (“a winepress”), Gath being in a vine-abounding country. One of the five great Philistine cities ( Joshua 13:3; 1 Samuel 6:17). Goliath’s abode (1 Samuel 17). Its people were the “Gittites,” of whom was David’s devotedly loyal friend Ittai ( 2 Samuel 15:19-22). In undesigned coincidence with the presence of giants in Gath, according to 1 Samuel 17; 2 Samuel 21:19-22, is Joshua 11:22: “only in Gaza, in Gath, and in Ashdod there remained Anakims.” Gath was one of the five cities to which the Philistines carried about the ark of God (the five formed one political unity), and thereby brought on the people God’s heavy visitation with emerods. It was’ represented by one of the five golden emerods and five golden inlet sent to propitiate Jehovah ( 1 Samuel 5:9; 6:4,5,10-18).
David there reigned madness to save his life; a second time he visited king Achish, and had Ziklag assigned to him as a residence ( 1 Samuel 21:10-15; 27:28). Thence he attached and drew after him 600 Gittite followers, with Ittai their chief ( 2 Samuel 15:18); probably some at the time of his sojourn in Gath, and most when he smote and subdued the Philistines ( <100801> Samuel 8:1). Though tributary to Israel, Gath still retained its own king ( 1 Kings 2:89). Hazael fought against it and took it ( 2 Kings 12:17).
Uzziah gave a heavy blow to Gath, breaking down its wall ( Chronicles 26:6; Amos 6:2). “Hamath ... Gath, be they better than these kingdoms?” Gath, once “better (stronger) than” Israel and Judah, fell; how vain then is your confidence in the strength of mounts Zion and Samaria! In Amos 1:6, etc., Zephaniah 2:4,5; Zechariah 9:5,6, Gath is omitted; probably it had lost by that time its place among the five primary cities.
Saul came down from the hills by the road from Jerusalem to Gaza, which passes near Shocoh, and encountered the Philistines near the bend in the valley. Saul was on the E. of the valley, the Philistines on the W., as they came from the W. Gath was from its strength often alternately in the hands of Judah and of Philistia ( 2 Chronicles 11:8). It lay on a hill at the foot of Judah’s mountains, ten miles E. of Ashdod, and ten S.E. of Ekron.
GATH-HEPHER (“the winepress of the well”). Joshua 19:12,13. On Zebulun’s border, near Japhia (Yafa). Jonah’s birthplace ( 2 Kings 14:25). Now El Meshhad, where his tomb is still shown, two miles E. of Sefurieh (Sepphoris).
A town of Manasseh, W. of Jordan, assigned to the Levites ( Joshua 21:25). But Bileam (i.e. Ibleam, Joshua 17:11) in 1 Chronicles 6:70, which is probably the true reading in Joshua, the copyist’s eye catching “Gath-rimmon” in the previous verse.
GAZA (“fortified”). One of the five Philistine cities, Mentioned in the first and latest books of Scripture, and even now exceeding Jerusalem in size. It is the most southwesterly town toward Egypt, and lay on the great route between Syria and that country, being in position and strength (as its name means) the key of the line of communication. It withstood Alexander’s siege with all his resources for five months. It is called Azzah Genesis 10:19 margin; Deuteronomy 2:23; Jeremiah 25:20. Gaza was assigned by Joshua to Judah ( Joshua 15:47), but not occupied until afterward ( Judges 1:18; compare Joshua 10:41), the Anakims occupying it still ( Joshua 11:22; 13:8). The Philistines soon recovered it ( Judges 13:1; 16:1,21), and there Samson perished while destroying his captors. Solomon ruled over it ( 1 Kings 4:24). Hezekiah gave the decisive blow to the Philistines, “even unto Gaza and the borders thereof, from the tower of the watchmen to the fenced city” ( 2 Kings 18:8).
Amos (Amos 1:6) threatened from God. “for three transgressions of Gaza and for four (i.e. for sin multiplied on sin, Exodus 20:5; Proverbs 30:15. Three and four make seven, the number implying completion of the measure of guilt) I will not turn away the punishment thereof, because they carried away captive the whole captivity (i.e. they carried all away and left none; see 2 Chronicles 21:17; 28:18) to deliver them up to Edom (the Philistines of Gaza, instead of hospitably sheltering the Jewish refugees fleeing before Sennacherib and other Assyrian, invaders, sold them as captives to their bitter foes, the Edomites; compare Isaiah 16:4). But I will send a fire on the wall of Gaza, which shall devour the palaces thereof.” “Pharaoh” Necho fulfilled the prophecy on returning from slaying Josiah at Megiddo ( 2 Chronicles 35:20) (Grotius). Or “Pharaoh” Hophra, on his return from the unavailing attempt to save Jerusalem from Nebuchadnezzar ( Jeremiah 37:5,7; 47:1) (Calvin) In Zephaniah 2:4 there is a play on like sounds; Gazah gazuwbah , “Gaza shall be forsaken.” In Zechariah 9:5 “the king shall perish from Gaza,” i.e., its Persian satrap, or petty “king,” subordinate to the great king of Persia, shall perish, and it shall cease to have one. Alexander having taken the city, and slain 10,000 of its inhabitants, and sold the rest as slaves, bound Betis the satrap to a chariot by thongs thrust through his soles, and dragged him round the city, as Achilles did to Hector.
In Acts 8:26, “go toward the S. unto the way that goeth down from Jerusalem unto Gaza which (not Gaza, but which way) is desert,” refers to the portion of the road between Eleutheropolis and Gaza, which is without villages and exposed to Bedouin marauders of the desert. The words “which is desert” are the angel’s words (not Luke’s), to inform Philip, then in Samaria, on what route he would find the eunuch, namely, on the S. route, thinly peopled, but favorable for chariots, Robinson (2:748) found an ancient road direct from Jerusalem to Gaza through the wady Musurr, now certainly without villages. The water in wady el Hasy was probably the scene of the eunuch’s baptism.
An extensive olive grove lies N. of the modern Ghuzzeh., from whence arises its manufacture and export of soap. Its trade in grain is considerable, and still is heard the “grinding” of grain with millstones such as Samson was forced to work with in his prison house at Gaza. The Tel el Muntar or “hill of the watchman,” east of Gaza, is the hill to which Samson carried up the gates. It commands a lovely and striking view on every side.
GAZER [See GEZER .] 2 Samuel 5:25.
GAZEZ 1. 1 Chronicles 2:46. 2. Son of Haran, Ephah’s son.
GAZZAM, CHILDREN OF Ezra 2:48.
GEBA (the hill). A town of Benjamin, on its northern boundary, from whence “from Geba to Beersheba” expresses all Judah from N. to S. as “from Dan to Beersheba” expresses all Israel and Judah from N. to S. ( 2 Kings 23:8.) Close to Ramah ( Nehemiah 7:30). As an eastern limit it stands opposed to Gazer ( 2 Samuel 5:25); Gibeon in 1 Chronicles 14:16.
Geba was garrisoned by the Philistines at, the beginning of Saul’s reign ( 1 Samuel 13:3). Jonathan dislodged them in a gallant assault with his armor-bearer alone (1 Samuel 14). Geba was on the S. and Michmash on the N. of the ravine. Now the village Jeba, crowning the steep hill on the edge of the wady Suweinit, facing Mukmas on the N. side. So in Isaiah 10:28-32, “he (Sennacherib) hath laid up his carriages at Michmash,” i.e., the “carriages” (i.e. heavy baggage) could not be got across the wady at Michmash. Then “they are gone over the passage,” i.e., the lighter part of the army pass the ravine which might have been easily guarded against them, and” lodge” malown , “rest for the night,” bivouac) at Geba on the S. side. Asa fortified it, as commanding the pass ( 1 Kings 15:22; Chronicles 16:6). KJV has rendered “Geba” into “Gibeah” rightly Judges 20:10,33; 1 Samuel 13:16.
GEBAL [See SEIR, MOUNT ] = a line, namely, of mountain boundary ( Psalm 83:7). An Idumean clan, on the right of Ammon, as Amalek was on the left; for in the psalm it is coupled with Moab, Ammon, Amalek, and Edom.
Probably the modern Djebal, mountainous region S. of the Dead Sea; the Gebalene of the Romans, the Gobolitis of Josephus. A portion of the range of Edom. The psalm, probably by Jahaziel of the sons of Asaph, is a thanksgiving for the victory anticipated by faith over the hordes of invaders who sought to root Israel out of his inheritance, and who, marching S. round the Dead Sea, let no tidings reach Jehoshaphat until he heard that a great multitude was within his territory at Engedi ( 2 Chronicles 20:2,7- 11,14,18,19). Smith’s Bible Dictionary identifies the Gebal of Psalm with Gebal in Ezekiel 27:9, “the ancients of Gebal and the wise men thereof were in thee thy caulkers” (stoppers of chinks in ships), evidently the Phoenician city and region between Beyrut and Tripoli, famed for skilled workmen, “the Giblites” (stone carvers) ( 1 Kings 5:18 margin).
So “the inhabitants of Phoenician, Tyre” are numbered with the invaders ( Psalm 83:7). But the collocation of Gebal between the “Hagarenes” and “Ammon” favors the men of Gebal being Idumeans. “The Giblites” in Joshua 13:5 were from the region of Lebanon; the Septuagint term them Biblians, namely, of Byblus, on the Phoenician borders, N. of the river Adonis, afterwards a Christian see.
GEBER, SON OF 1. 1 Kings 4:13. 2. 1 Kings 4:19. Having as his commissariat district the part of Gilead forming Sihon’s and Og’s kingdom, now Belka, the great pasture E. of Jordan. Translated not “he was the only officer in the land,” for there were two others ( 1 Kings 4:13,14), but “and one (superior) officer (netsitb ) ‘achad who was in the land,” namely, to superintend the three subordinate officers (compare Hebrews 2 Chronicles 8:10).
GEBIM (“the ditches”). Isaiah 10:31. Between Anathoth and Neh.
GEDALIAH 1. Son of Ahikam, who saved Jeremiah from death ( Jeremiah 26:24); grandson of Shaphan, Josiah’s secretary, whom the king sent to inquire concerning the book of Jehovah’ s law recently found ( 2 Kings 22:12,14). Gedaliah thus inherited from father and grandfather a legacy of the fear of God. Left by Nebuchadnezzar, after the destruction of the temple (588 B.C.), to govern the cities of Judah and the farmers and vinedressers, who were allowed to remain in the land ( Jeremiah 39:10,14; 40:5,6,11; 52:16). He was stationed at the stronghold Mizpah, six miles N. of Jerusalem, with a Chaldean guard (Jeremiah 41). Jeremiah, when given his choice by Nebuzaradan where he should dwell, attached himself to Gedaliah, who was joined also by a promiscuous multitude of “men, women, and children, and of the poor of the land”; also by Ishmael of the blood royal, Johanan and Jonathan, Seraiah, the sons of Ephai, Jezaniah, and their men; also by the Jews who had been driven to Moab, Ammon, and Edom, but who now with reassured confidence began to gather, as formerly, “wine and summer fruits.” This indicates his deserved popularity, while his words imply his loyalty to the supreme monarch to whom God by express prophecy had assigned the world kingdoms, and at the same time his gentleness as a ruler. “Fear not to be servants of the Chaldees; dwell in the land, and serve the king of Babylon, and it shall be well with you.” Even reverence for the temple, though in ruins, revived under him; and men from Shechem, Shiloh, and Samaria came with their offerings and badges of mourning for the destruction of the Lord’s house and the holy city ( Jeremiah 41:5). Johanan warned Gedaliah that Baalis (called from the idol Baal) king of Ammon had sent Ishmael to assassinate him and his retinue. With unsuspecting generosity Gedaliah refused to credit it. So Ishmael, in violation of the sacred rights of hospitality and taking advantage of the opportunity, while eating Gedaliah’s “bread” at Mizpah, smote him two months after his appointment (compare Psalm 41:9). Jealousy of Gedaliah’s presidency was Ishmael’s motive; his royal descent leading him to regard himself as the rightful ruler. Ammon, Israel’s ancient foe, gladly used such a tool. A mystery of providence that God should permit the righteous, in spite of warning, to rush in unsuspecting honesty of purpose into the trap laid for them; Isaiah 57:1 suggests a solution. An enemy’s presence appears in such anomalies. Faith, in spite of them, believes God is ordering all things for the ultimate good of His people, and at the judgment will vindicate His ways and clear up all that is now dark. All suffering nature and disorganized society as well as believers yearn for the advent of Him who shall reign in righteousness (Isaiah 11; Ezekiel 21:27). His death is commemorated in the Jewish calendar as a national calamity; and many Jews under Johanan, fearing Babylon’s vengeance, fled to Egypt, forcing Jeremiah with them ( Jeremiah 41:18). 2. 1 Chronicles 25:3,9. 3. Ezra 10:18. 4. Zephaniah 1:1. 5. Son of Pashur; one of the princes who caused Jeremiah’s imprisonment ( Jeremiah 38:1, etc.).
GEDERAH (“the sheepcote”). A town of Judah in the shephelah, or hills between the mountains and plain ( Joshua 15:36). Near the “valley of the terebinth” [see ELAH ], near Azekah and Socoh.GEDEROTH = sheepcotes, and\parGEDEROTHAIM = two sheepcotes, were in the same region ( Joshua 15:41).
GEDOR 1. Joshua 15:58. A few miles N. of Hebron. Perhaps now Jedur between Bethlehem and Hebron, two miles W. of the road. 2. A town of Benjamin, to which belonged Jeroham, father of Joelah and Zebadiah, who “of Saul’s brethren of Benjamite” joined David at Ziklag ( 1 Chronicles 12:7). 3. Ancestor of Saul ( 1 Chronicles 8:31; 9:37). 4. Among Judah’s posterity ( 1 Chronicles 4:4,18). 5. See GEDER . ( 1 Chronicles 4:39.) Simeonite chiefs in Hezekiah’s reign “went to the entrance of (rather as Keil, ‘westward from’) Gedor unto the eastern side of the valley to seek pasture for their flocks,” and they dislodged the Hamites “dwelling there of old, and dwelt in their room.” On the way between southern Judah and mount Seir. Septuagint reads “Gerar” (but Simeon’s dwellings did not extend westward from Gerar, but were all E. of Gerar).
GEHAZI Elisha’s servant. His messenger to the Shunammite woman (2 Kings 4); suggested the obtaining of a son from the Lord for her, as a meet reward for her kindness to the prophet. Trusted by Elisha with his staff to lay on the face of the lifeless youth. But reanimation was not effected until Elisha himself came: typifying that Moses the messenger, with his rod and the law, could not quicken dead souls, that is reserved for Jesus with His gospel. Gehazi proved himself lying and greedy of filthy lucre, and with his great spiritual privileges a sad contrast to Naaman’s servants, who had none (2 Kings 5). They by wise counsel induced their master to subdue pride, and humbly to wash in the Jordan, according to the prophet’s word.
Gehazi presumptuously stifled conscience with the plea that a “Syrian” pagan ought not to have been” spared,” as his master had “spared this Naaman,” and even dared to invoke Jehovah’s name, as though his obtaining money by false pretenses from him would be a meritorious act: “as the Lord liveth, I will take somewhat of him.” In his master’s name, under pretense of charity (!), as if wanting presents for “two sons of the prophets from mount Ephraim,” he obtained from Naaman two talents of silver and two changes of raiment. Coveting, lying, taking, and hiding, followed in the order of sin’s normal and awful development; as in Adam’s and Achan’s cases (Genesis 3; Joshua 7). Then God’s detection: Elisha said, “Whence comest thou?” The liar was at no loss for a reply: “Thy servant went no where.” Elisha sternly answered, “Went not mine heart with thee, when the man turned again, (compare Psalm 139)? Is it a time to receive money,” etc.? Compare as to our times 1 Peter 4:3. Naaman from being a leper became newborn as “a little child” by believing obedience; Gehazi from being clean, by unbelieving disobedience, became a leper: if he must have Naaman’s lucre, he must have Naaman’s leprosy: “the leprosy of Naaman shall cleave unto thee for ever.” Still in 2 Kings 8:4 Gehazi appears as “servant of the man of God,” narrating to king Joram the great acts of Elisha and the restoration to life of the Shunammite’s son, when lo! she herself appeared. Doubtless affliction brought Gehazi to sincere repentance, and repentance brought removal of the leprosy, which otherwise would have been “for ever.” Compare Hezekiah’s divinely foretold death averted by penitent prayer ( 2 Kings 20:1-5). This seems a more likely solution than supposing that this incident occurred before Gehazi’s leprosy and has been transposed.
GELILOTH Joshua 18:17. One of the southern bounds of Benjamin, “over against the going up (ascent) of Adummim.” Gilgal occupied the same position “before the going up of Adummim” ( Joshua 15:7) on the northern boundary of Judah, which is the southern bound of Benjamin; therefore Grove would substitute “Gilgal” for “Geliloth.” Its derivation is gaalal “to roll”; like the Scotch “links,” meaning both the windings of the stream (Geliloth is near the Jordan) and the coasts; whereas Ciccar is the circle of vegetation or dwellings round the bends of the water. Conder connects Geliloth with the “tells” or mounds of Palestine, which he thinks to be the accumulated refuse of sun-dried bricks, which served as a platform on which others were baked, as at the present day in India and Egypt. They are found in the Jordan valley, and in the plain of Esdraelon. They always occur near water, and in alluvial clay plains, as in the clay lands between Succoth and Zarthan, where Solomon east his temple brasswork.
GEMALLI Numbers 13:12.
GEMARIAH 1. Shaphan the scribe’s son, Michaiah’s father. From his chamber in the Lord’s house Baruch read Jeremiah’s threatening prophecy in the people’s hearing (Jeremiah 36). Michaiah reported it, anti Baruch being summoned read it again before the princes seated in council in the scribe’s chamber in the king’s house. Gemariah, as the other princes, was “afraid” thereat, and said, “We will surely tell the king of all these words” (not a threat, but implying that so momentous a prophecy ought to be told the king).
Gemariah had some fear of God and moral courage, for he, with Elnathan and Delaiah, interceded with king Jehoiakim not to burn the roll; but he would not hear them. 2. Son of Hilkiah, the high priest who found the book of the law in the Lord’s house, and showed it to Shaphan ( 2 Kings 22:8); sent by king Zedekiah on an embassy to Nebuchadnezzar; entrusted by Jeremiah with a letter to the captives in Babylon. Inheriting from his father, like the former Gemariah, some regard for sacred things ( Jeremiah 29:1-3).
GENEALOGY Hebrew “the book of theGENERATIONS,” ceepher toledowt [see ADOPTION and see GENERATION ]. Fuller (Pisgah Sight of Palestine, 1650) says on Acts 17:26: “we may see Divinity, the queen, Waited on by three of her principal ladies of honor, namely: (1) skill inGENEALOGIES, ‘of one blood all nations,’ (2) CHRONOLOGY, in the exact computation of ‘the times appointed,’ (3) GEOGRAPHY, measuring out to the nations ‘the bounds of their habitation.’” History, in ancient times, being based on genealogies, the phrase became a title for a history; so Genesis 2:4, “these are the generations of the heavens and of the earth”; as the history of a man’s family is “the book of his generations,” so that of the world’s productions is “the generations (not the creation, which had been previously described) of the heavens and the earth.” “Generations” is the heading of every chief section of Genesis (probably they were original family memoirs preserved and used by Moses under inspiration in writing Genesis). So Genesis 5:1, “the book of the generations of Adam,” wherein his descendants are traced down to Noah; Genesis 6:9, “the generations of Noah,” the history of Noah and his sons; Genesis 10:1, “the generations of the sons of Noah,” Shem, Ham, and Japhet, the oldest and most precious existing ethnological record; Genesis 11:10-26 “the generations of Shem,” Genesis 11:27 “the generations of Terah,” Abram’s father; Genesis 25:12 “the generations of Ishmael,” Genesis 25:19 “the generations of Isaac”; Genesis 36:1, “the generations of Esau”; Genesis 37:2, “the generations of Jacob”; Genesis 35:22-26, “the sons of Jacob,” etc., repeated Exodus 1:1-5; also Exodus 46:8, a genealogical census of Israel when Jacob came down to Egypt; repeated in Exodus 6:16, etc., probably transcribed from a document, for the first part concerning Reuben and Simeon is quoted though Levi is the only tribe in question. The promise of Canaan, Israel’s separation from the Gentiles, the prophecy of Messiah’s descent from Judah, the hereditary priesthood in Aaron’s family, and the limitation of ministerial offices to Levi, the promises to David’s seed, and the division of Canaan by tribes and families, all combined to make Israel more careful of genealogies than: any other nation. Israel’s census was taken early in the wilderness 40 years sojourn, the second month of the second year, “by their generations, after their families, by the house of their fathers” ( Numbers 1:2,20, etc., Numbers 2—3). Again, 38 years later, in the plains of Moab, the names of the families being added (Numbers 26).
At the same time we must remember many became incorporated in a tribe or family by marriage, service, or friendship, besides those belonging to it by birth. See BECHER , see CALEB , and 1 Chronicles 3:21, for instances. The genealogies refer often to political and territorial divisions, and not strictly to natural descent, so that “sons” of a patriarch are not necessarily restricted to those so by birth. So Manasseh and Ephraim were numbered among Jacob’s “sons,” though only grandsons ( Genesis 48:5). See BELA (whose two sons Naaman and Ard are called “sons of Benjamin,” Numbers 26:40,41) and see BENJAMIN respecting Genesis 46; Numbers 26; Exodus 6:24 enumerates Assir’s son and grandson as heads, with their father, of the Korhites. In the list (Genesis 46) grandsons (e.g. all Benjamin’s ten sons) and great grandson, s of Jacob (Hezron and Hamul, grandsons of Judah) are named, born afterward in Egypt and who came into that country in the loins of their fathers, and who there became founders of mishpachowt , i.e. independent families, and were therefore counted grandsons of Jacob as regards the national organization. By comprising Jacob himself with all the founders of tribes and families, the significant number 70 results; seven (expressing God’s covenant relation to Israel, made up of three the divine number and four the worldwide extension number) multiplied by ten the seal of completeness; implying that these 70 comprised the whole nation of God ( Exodus 1:5; Deuteronomy 10:22). Levi alone was free front foreign admixture. Iddo the seer wrote a book “concerning genealogies” ( 2 Chronicles 12:15).
Hezekiah took a census of priests and Levites according to genealogies, and apparently from 1 Chronicles 4:41; 9:1, a census also of the nation by genealogies; he had a staff of scribes for such purposes ( Proverbs 25:1). Genealogies were need in reckoning Reuben and Gad, “in the days of Jotham king of: Judah [perhaps in connection with his wars against Ammon, 2 Chronicles 27:5], and of Jeroboam king of Israel” ( Chronicles 5:17). Zerubbabel, on the return from Babylon, made it a first care to settle the people according to genealogy. Nehemiah did the same as an essential to his great work, the restoration of the national polity ( Chronicles 3:19,21-24; 9; compare Nehemiah 7:5,11; 12:1-26), which shows that the genealogical system was continued afterward. Ezra contains an abstract of the post-captivity census.
In New Testament times, when Augustus ordered the registration for taxing, the Jews went severally to the town of their tribe, family, and father; and so Joseph and Mary to Bethlehem, the town of their forefather David (Luke 2). Further traces of genealogies being preserved still appear in the mention of Zacharias as of “the course of Abra,” Elizabeth as “of the daughters of Aaron,” Anna, daughter of Phanuel, as “of the tribe of Aser.”
Apion, 1:7) the priests had to verify the descent of their intended wives from the archives at Jerusalem, and to make new genealogical tables after every war, in order to ascertain what women had been made captives, as such were excluded from marrying priests; the list of high priests for 2,000 years backward was preserved in the archives in his day. The destruction of Jerusalem by Rome must have involved the loss of these registers, except such partial records of genealogy as remained in a few of the priestly families after the last dispersion. Benjamin of Tudela says that the princes still professed to trace their descent up to David. The present impossibility of verifying the genealogies of the Jews’ tribes and families is a divine indication that Christ the antitypical High Priest and the Heir of David’s throne having come supersedes the polity of typical priests and kings, which, in ancient times, required the careful preservation of pedigrees. Paul therefore condemns the study of “endless genealogies” ( 1 Timothy 1:4), though probably he aims also at Gnostic genealogies of spirits.
In interpreting a genealogy it is to be remembered that the list may represent the succession to an inheritance or headship of tribe or family, rather than natural descent. In an Assyrian inscription similarly “Jehu,” successor of Omri’s race, is called “son of Omri.” Again pedigrees are abbreviated so as to specify the generations alone which show from what leading houses the person sprang. The register of Levi in Exodus 6:16-20 gives only two links between Levi and Moses, namely, Kohath and Amram; which has been made an argument for Israel’s sojourn in Egypt only half the 430 years specified ( Exodus 12:40). But the Kohathites ( Numbers 3:27) in Moses’ time were divided into four families, Amramites, Jehezarites, Hebronites, and Ussielites, 8,600 men and boys independent of women; the fourth would be Amramites. Now Moses had only two sons; therefore if Amram his father were the Amram Kohath’s father, Moses must have had 2,147 brothers and brothers’ sons, which is impossible; therefore between the two Amrams a number of generations must have dropped out. So in Ezra’s genealogy ( Ezra 7:1-5, compare 1 Chronicles 6:4-15) five descents are omitted between Azariah Meraloth’s son and Azariah Johanan’s son; and several between Ezra himself and Seraiah, put to death 150 years before Ezra by Nebuchadnezzar. In Exodus 6 the sons of three of Kohath’s sons are given, but not of Hebron (though in 2 Chronicles 23 four sons are assigned to him), probably because no family sprang from him as the head. The object of genealogies was not chronology, but to mark ramifications of tribal and family relationship. Thus, the genealogy of Ruth 4:18-22 makes but four intervening links between Nahshon at the exodus ( Numbers 1:7) and David, namely, Salmon, Boaz, Obed, Jesse; whereas the genealogy of Levi has double that number in the same period, seven between Phinehas and Zadok, and more in Gershon’s line (1 Chronicles 6). Therefore some names must have been omitted of David’s genealogy. Genealogies are clear measures of time only when complete; and the marks of completeness are, when the mother as well as the father is named, or when historical facts define the relationship, or when a genealogy is confirmed by one or more besides, giving the same number of generations within the same bounds.
Early marriage will in the case of some, as princes, make 30 years too long for a generation. In the descending form of genealogy, when direct heirs failed collateral ones were inserted, and the heir would put his name next after his predecessor though not his father ( Ruth 4:18; 1 Chronicles 3).
Females were reckoned when rights or possessions were transmitted through them. Corruptions of the text are frequent in genealogies. Christ’s descent through David, from Abraham and Adam, is given in an unbroken line of genealogy.
GENEALOGY OF JESUS CHRIST Needed, to show that redemption was no afterthought, but designed from the first. Abraham and David in Matthew’s Gospel are singled out to prove the fulfillment in Christ of the promises made to Abraham 2,000 years previously, and to David 1,000. The Old Testament begins with “Genesis” (“generation”); so also the New Testament begins with the genesis (“generation,” Matthew 1:1) of Jesus Christ. Matthew’s Gospel contains, not Joseph’s direct ancestors, but the succession of heirs to David’s and Solomon’s throne. The tracing of Christ’s descent through Judah’s royal line harmonizes with the kingly aspect of Jesus Christ in Matthew’s Gospel. The steps of Joseph’s direct parentage did not coincide with those of the succession to the throne. Solomon’s line failed, and Nathan’s and Neri’s succeeded as legal heirs. Hence the need of two genealogies, one (Matthew) of the succession, the other (Luke) of the parentage. Jeremiah ( Jeremiah 22:30) declares Jeconiah, Coniah, or Jehoiachin was to be childless. He cannot therefore have been lineal progenitor of Jesus Christ. It is at this point in the genealogy, i.e. after Jehoiachin, the same names occur in both lists, Salathiel and Zerubbabel taken (in Matthew) from the line of Nathan (Luke) to supply the failure of Jehoiachin’s issue. The promise was, Messiah was to be “of the fruit of the loins of David” ( Acts 2:30), but to Solomon only that “his throne should be established evermore” ( 1 Chronicles 17:14). So a double genealogy of Jair is given, one of the inheritance, the other of birth ( Chronicles 2:4,5,21,22; Numbers 32:41). Matthew appropriately, as writing for Jews, gives Christ’s legal descent; Luke, for Gentiles, the natural descent. Matthew downward, from Abraham the father of the Jews (naturally, but of the Gentiles also spiritually: Genesis 17:5; Romans 4:16,17); Luke upward, to Adam, “who was the son of God” and the father of Gentiles and Jews alike.
The words “as was supposed” ( Luke 3:23) imply that Christ’s sonship to Joseph was only a reputed not a real one. Yet He was God’s extraordinary gift to Joseph through his proper wife Mary, and the fruit of his marriage to her, not as natural offspring of his body but as supernatural fruit. Hence attention is drawn to Joseph’s being “son of David” ( Matthew 1:20), “of the house and lineage of David” ( Luke 2:4, compare Luke 1:32).
Matthew omits three links of the pedigree. “Joram begat Ozias,” i.e.
Clearly men in that day saw nothing irreconcilable in them. From Abraham to David both agree, thenceforward the names differ. Luke has 42 names from David, Matthew only 27 names. The less number in Matthew is intelligible, if he be only tracing the heir’s to the throne; for “the heir of my heir is my heir.” So intermediate heirs are omitted without risk of misconception, for spiritual reasons; e.g., Simeon is omitted in Moses’ blessing (Deuteronomy 33) on account of his cruelty, Dan in Revelation for his idolatry. The full number is given in Luke, as naming the natural line.
Mary must have been of the same tribe and family as Joseph, according to the law ( Numbers 36:8). Isaiah 11:1 implies that Messiah was the seed of David by natural as well as legal descent. Probably Matthan of Matthew is the Matthat of Luke, and Jacob and Heli were brothers; and Heli’s son Joseph, and Jacob’s daughter Mary, first cousins. Joseph, as male heir of his uncle Jacob, who had only one child, Mary, would marry her according to the law ( Numbers 36:8). Thus the genealogy of the inheritance (Matthew’s) and that of natural descent (Luke’s) would be primarily Joseph’s, then Mary’s also.
The number 14 has some mystic signification (compare Numbers 29:13; 1 Kings 8:65). It is the double of seven the number for completeness; the periods of 14 in Matthew are the sacred three. The period from Abraham to David is that of patriarchs; from David to the Babylonian captivity that of kings; from the captivity to Christ private individuals. The first and second tessaradecade have an illustrious beginning; the third not so, that its ending in Messiah might stand forth pre-eminent above all that went before. The first is that of promise, beginning with. Abraham and ending with David, the receivers of the promise; the second adumbrates Christ’s eternal kingdom through the temporary kingdom of David’s line; the third period is that of expectation.
On Cainan in Luke’s Gospel, see CAINAN . The name Jehoiakim seemingly has dropped out, Josiah’s son and Jeconiah’s father; otherwise David would have to be counted twice to make up the second 14. Five females are in Matthew’s Gospel: incestuous Tamar, Rahab the Moabitess and a harlot, Ruth, Uriah’s wife Bathsheba the object of David’s adulterous love, and above all Mary; all extraordinary monuments of God’s grace, that chooses out of the vilest to make vessels unto honor, for the bringing forth of the promised Seed, who was to save sinners of every type and race.
GENERATION Hebrew dowr , “revolution,” period of time; 100 years in the patriarchal age ( Genesis 15:13,16; Exodus 12:40), afterward 30 or 40 years ( Job 42:16; Luke 1:50). On the pluralGENERATIONS, Hebrew toledowt , see GENEALOGY . Mankind is ethnologically ranged under three heads in Genesis 10:3,6,22, “the sons of Japhet, Ham, Shem.” Modern science by independent research arrives at a similar three fold division into Semitic, Aryan, and Turanian (Allophylian). Genesis, in accordance with modern ethnology, classifies together the Cymry or Celts (Gomer), the Medes (Madai), and the Ionians or Greeks (Javan); thus anticipating the Indo- European theory, which makes the European races (represented by the Celts and the Ionians) akin to the Aryans (represented by the Asiatic Madai or Medes). Also Scripture, in agreement with ethnology, groups together as “children of Shem” (i.e. Semitics) Asshur (Assyrians), Aram (Syrians), Eber (Hebrews), and Joktan (the Joktanian Arabs). Also it rightly classifies under the “sons of Ham” Cash (Ethiopians), Mizraim (Egyptians), Sheba and Dedan (certain southern Arabs), and Nimrod (i.e. the oldest Babylonians). [See BABEL ] Sir H. Rawlinson truly terms “the generations (genealogy) of the sons of Noah” “the most authentic record we possess for the affiliation of nations” (Journal of the Asiatic Society, 15:230).
Generation means also the men of an age: as Isaiah 53:8, “who shall declare His generation?” i.e. their wickedness, in parallelism to their oppressive “judgment.” In Jeremiah 7:29, “generation of His wrath,” i.e. with whom He is angry. Also generation is used with reference to the characteristic disposition of the age, “adulterous,” “unbelieving,” “untoward” ( Matthew 11:16; 12:39; 17:17; Acts 2:40). In Luke 16:8, “the children of this world are in respect to their own (so the Greek) generation (i.e. in relation to men of their own kind, men of this world) wiser than the children of light,” are in respect to their generation (men of their kind, godly, men of the world to come). In Matthew 3:7 generation means “brood of vipers.”
In Matthew 24:34 “this generation shall not pass (namely, the Jewish race, of which the generation in Christ’s days was a sample in character; compare Christ’s address to the generation, Matthew 23:35,36, in proof that generation means at times the whole Jewish race) until all these things be fulfilled,” a prophecy that the Jews shall be a distinct people still when He shall come again.
GENESIS The Hebrew name is Bereeshit , from its opening word “in the beginning.”
Septuagint Genesis means generation, i.e. creation and birth of the universe, man, and history. It is a religious history, therefore it omits accounts in detail of other nations, and concentrates attention on the origin of that one from whom the promised Redeemer of man from the deadly consequences of the fall (which is detailed at the beginning) sprang. While a bare catalogue is given of whole genealogies of nations, minute details are given of the godly patriarchs in the line of the promised Savior, for these details are of more everlasting moment to us than the rise and fall of the mightiest empires. Again, the details in the patriarchs’ history selected for narration are not the merely personal facts, but those illustrating religious principles and furthering God’s gracious purpose of redemption.
Thus Adam’s history before and in the fall is minutely given, as affecting the whole race whom he represented; but after the fall only a few brief notices, but these of important bearing on mankind’s spiritual prospects ( Genesis 3:20-24; 4:1; 5:1-5). So the early development of the enmity between the serpent’s seed and the seed of the woman, and the separation of the church from the world ( Genesis 4:1-16,25,26). The divine prophetic germs in Genesis are the foundation of all the subsequent prophecies throughout the Bible, and receive their consummation in the restored tree of life, waters of life, communion with God face to face in the world delivered from the curse, at the close of Revelation.
Astruc, a Belgian physician (A.D. 1753), inferred from the varying use of the names of God, Elohim (E) and Jehovah (J), the existence of documents or memoirs used by Moses in compiling Genesis. Probably Moses under inspiration used such ancient memoirs, e.g. genealogies; but he certainly has composed no loosely joined chronicle, but a history with unity of plan throughout, and using the names of God not arbitrarily but with the most accurate propriety.
The oldest part of the Hindu Vedas is hardly as old as the time of Moses, and his work embodies genealogical and other memoirs, probably handed down from the earliest period of man’s history. Genesis is the first of the five parts of the Pentateuch, the grand subject of which is the setting up of the theocratic kingdom, Israel, amidst the nations as the repository of the divine promise until its fulfillment in Messiah, who should be a “light to lighten the Gentiles, and the glory of His people Israel.” Genesis begins with creation, then proceeds to show that the Elohim of creation is the Jehovah in covenant with His people in redemption. So in Colossians 1:16,17, Christ the Head of creation, BY whom and IN whom as the divine Word carrying in Himself the arche-type of all existence, and FOR whom the universe of things have their being, is also the Head and Originator of the new creation. Appropriately therefore Elohim (the name for Divine Might, from alah “mighty”) occurs throughout the first general account of creation ( Genesis 1:1—2:3); but Jehovah (Yahweh ), the faithful covenant keeping I AM, in the special account of creation affecting His covenant with man.
The organic unity of Genesis appears from its structure: (1) introduction ( Genesis 1:1—2:3), wherein the moral superiority of the Bible cosmogony stands preeminent. Pagan cosmogonies abound in crude poetical and philosophical speculations, either representing God and matter as co-eternal, or pantheistically confounding God and matter, making Him its pervading spirit. Genesis alone recognizes God’s personality and God’s unity.
Another marked distinction between the oldest pagan compositions and Genesis is they are palpably mythical in substance and poetical in form, history not arising until a later stage of national development. But Genesis is thoroughly historical in matter and prose in its form; Hebrew developed poetry not appearing until a later age, when the mythical element could have no place; a powerful confirmation of the historical trustworthiness of Scripture. Its sublime simplicity stamps Genesis as history, not poetical myth or subtle speculation.
Moreover, Genesis alone describes creation out of nothing, as distinguished from creation out of preexisting materials. Genesis alone recognizes the law of progress in creation: first light, then order, then life, vegetable, grass, herb, fruit tree; then animal life. Again (1) the waters, (2) the dry land, (3) the heavenly bodies.
The advance is orderly, from the lower to the higher organizations. Genesis is distinguished from the world’s cosmogonies in connecting the Creator with His work in a relation of love; God contemplating “everything that He had. made, and behold it was very good” ( Genesis 1:31).
Traditions of widely separated nations over the earth retain fragments of the account of the fall, the tree, the serpent, the first pair, the flood. The Bible version of the story is simplest, purest, and the one that presents the only common ground from which all the others are likely to have emanated; it represents the facts in a universal worldwide aspect, and the groans of suffering creation and the sighing of every heart confirm its literal truth. The universality of the deluge over the area, then occupied by man is attested by the traditions of widely scattered nations, preserved from the times when as yet the forefathers of mankind were undispersed. Philology and ethnology remarkably confirm the oldest extant genealogy of races in Genesis 10. Egyptology similarly confirms the abundant notices of Egypt in Genesis and Exodus.
After the introduction, Genesis consists of successive genealogical histories (toledot ) [see GENEALOGY ]. The larger sections have subdivisions carefully marked (the Jewish [perashiym] or sections of the Pentateuch, as our chapters, often obscure the true divisions). In each successive genealogical portion the history is carried down to the close of the period, and generally at the commencement of the succeeding one the previous account is, so far as necessary, summarily repeated with a note of time.
Thus Genesis 2:4 refers back summarily to the previous record of creation: so Genesis 5:1; 6:9; 11:10,27; 25:12,19; 36:1; 37:1,2,3, where Jacob’s position is stated and we are taken back to the time, 12 years before Isaac’s death previously recorded, when Joseph was 17 years old, that so a new starting point for the history might be presented.
The names of God occurring are: EL , the shortened form of ELOHIM ; ELION , “Most High” (only in Genesis 14:18 EL ELION , but in Psalms found alone, and with ELOHIM andJEHOVAH Yahweh ); and SHADDAI “Almighty,” in the Pentateuch generally with EL, The plural is that of excellence and majesty; Elohim combining in Himself the several attributes assigned to distinct gods by the pagan false gods as well as to the true God; and is the word used where pagan people, as the Egyptians, or foreigners, as Hagar, Eliezer of Damascus, the Egyptians, etc., are introduced. But Jehovah is a proper name restricted to the one God in covenant with His people, and therefore is the predominant name in those sections which concern them.
From Exodus 6:2,3, “I amJEHOVAH; I appeared unto Abraham, by the name of God Almighty (El Shaday ), but by My name Jehovah was I not known to them,” rationalists infer that the passages in Genesis (e.g.
Genesis 2) containing”JEHOVAH” were a later insertion. But the Jah Yah occurs in the composition of “Jochebed,” “Joshua,” “Moriah.” Moreover, JEHOVAH is from haawah , the form of “to be” existing only in the oldest Hebrew previous to its separation from Syriac and Chaldee; for after the separation these two dialects have it, but the Hebrew has haayah not haawah . The sense of Exodus 6:2,3 must be, “I was manifested to Abraham ... as the almighty One, able to do all I promised; but in My character of Jehovah, the unchanging I AM ( Exodus 3:14), the fulfiller of My covenanted promises, I was not in act made known, as I am now about to make Myself known to My people.” In Genesis 2:4 to the end of Genesis 3JEHOVAH ELOHIM are combined, marking that the mighty Creator is the sameJEHOVAH who revealed Himself to Adam as subsequently to Moses. The tone of deliberation, “Let us make man” ( Genesis 1:26, in the so-called Elohistic portion) accords with that of Genesis 3:22, “behold the man is become as one of us” (in the so-called Jehovistic portion); also Genesis 11:6. Eve’s exclamation ( Genesis 4:1), “I have gotten a man by the help of (Gesenius)JEHOVAH,” marks her hope of her firstborn proving one link toward the birth of the Messiah covenanted by God to His people. Again, in Genesis 5:29, a so-called Elohistic portion,JEHOVAH occurs in connection with Noah, marking him as a second depository of the covenanted promise. Again, in Genesis Melchizedek, the king-priest of the Canaanite Salem, worshipsEL ELION, “God must high,” and Abram identifies Him withJEHOVAH the Hebrews’ God of the covenant, “I have lift up my hand toJEHOVAH,EL ELION, possessor of heaven and earth.” H. Browne truly says, “it is doubtful whether an author in the time of Samuel could have written the history of the forefathers of his race with all the truthfulness, simplicity, and accuracy of detail to be found in the book called the first book of Moses.”
The genealogies probably present us only with the names of representative men; links probably have been omitted; and the text in respect to numbers and genealogies was open to transcribers’ errors in the transmission.
GENNESARET, SEA OF [See CINNEROTH and see GALILEE, SEA OF ]. At the N.W. angle was the fertile plain “Gennesaret.” Crescent in shape, extending from Khan Minyeh on the N. to the steep hill behind Mejdel on the S., called el Ghuweir, “the little ghor,” watered by the spring Capharnaum (B. J., 3:10, sec. 8). It is also called “the Sea of Tiberias.” All its names are drawn from places on the W. side. “The land of Gennesaret” was close to see CAPERNAUM on the opposite side to the N.E. of the lake, where the feeding of the 5,000 took place ( John 6:1,17,24,25). In the land of Gennesaret was spoken the parable of the sower. There was the grainfield descending to the water’s edge, the trodden path through its midst, without fence to prevent the seed from falling on either side or on it, itself hardened with treading; there was the rich soil of the plain, the rocky hillside protruding here and there, the stony soil, and the thorn bushes springing up in the midst of the grain.
GENTILES Hebrew Gowy , “the nations” (or “pagan,” derived from the Greek [ethnee ), as opposed to Israel ( Nehemiah 5:8). In Genesis 10:5, “isles of the Gentiles,” the term is used geographically in no invidious sense. In Genesis 14:1, Tidal “king of nations” was probably chief of several nomadic wandering tribes of western Asia. In Joshua 12:23 we read, “the king of the nations (the gentile foreigners) of Gilgal,” the modern Moslem village Jiljule, six Roman miles N. of Antipatris. Goim is especially used of see GALILEE , bordering on and, even in Israelite times, much peopled with the Gilgal ( Judges 4:2; Isaiah 9:1.) ”Greeks” in New Testament is used for Gentiles ( Acts 14:1; 17:4; Romans 1:16; 10:12; 2:9,10; 1 Corinthians 10:32 margin). With all the superiority of the gentile great world kingdoms, in military prowess, commerce, luxury, and the fine arts, Israel stood on an immense moral elevation above them, in the one point, nearness to God, and possession of His revealed will and word ( Exodus 19:5,6; <19E719> Psalm 147:19,20; 148:14; Romans 3:1,2). But this superiority was in order that Israel, as priests unto God, might be mediator of blessings unto all nations ( Isaiah 61:6). The covenant from the first with Abraham contemplated that “in his seed all the nations of the earth should be blessed” ( Genesis 22:18). The Jews in national pride failed to see this, and despised the Gentiles Rejecting Messiah, they were “broken oft” from the olive, that the Gentiles might be” grafted in” ( Romans 11:11-35). “The times of the Gentiles” began with Judah’s depression and captivity under Nebuchadnezzar, to whom God delegated the world empire ( Jeremiah 27:6,7), from whence Jeremiah’s counsel to the Jews to submit to hint was true patriotism, not cowardice.
Jerusalem has more or less been ever since “trodden down of the Gentiles,” and shall be so “until the times of the Gentiles be fulfilled” ( Luke 21:24). Then shall the times of Israel begin with a glory eclipsing her past glory. “All Israel shall be saved.” “The receiving of them shall be life from the dead” to the whole world ( Micah 5:7; Isaiah 2:2-4; Revelation 11:2-15). The theocracy shall be restored with unparalleled splendor at the coming of Him “whose right it is” ( Ezekiel 21:27). The times of the gentile monarchies answer to Israel’s seven times punishment ( Leviticus 26:18,21,24).
GENUBATH Son of Hadad, an Edomite of the king’s seed, by an Egyptian princess, sister of Tahpenes, queen of the Pharaoh who ruled Egypt in David’s reign ( 1 Kings 11:14-20). Born and weaned by the queen in the palace, and reckoned in the household among Pharaoh’s sons.
GERA Son, i.e. descendant, of Benjamin; enumerated in the list when Jacob went into Egypt ( Genesis 46:21); son of Bela ( 1 Chronicles 8:3, where probably but one Gera is genuine); in the loins of his grandfather Benjamin then, but not actually born until after the going to Egypt and before Jacob’s death. Numbers 26 omits Gera as not being head of a family hut being one of the Belaites; his mention in Genesis implies that ultimately he became head of a family. Gera, Ehud’s ancestor, and Gera, Shimei’s ancestor, is the same person ( Judges 3:15; 2 Samuel 16:5).
GERAR Chief city of the Philistines in Abraham’s and Isaac’s time; now Khirbet el Gerar. The fertile region between the two deserts of Kadesh and Shut; resorted to therefore by Abraham and Isaac in time of famine. On the southern border of Canaan, near Gaza and Beersheba ( Genesis 10:19; 20:1; 26:1,26). Near the deep wady Jurf el Gerar, “the rapid of Gerar” ( 2 Chronicles 14:13,14.) The people were pastoral in the times of Abraham, but warlike, with a regular “chief captain of the army,” Phichol (the “mouth of all,” implying a commanding voice as commander-in-chief.
Abimelech (“father of kings,” implying an hereditary not an elective monarchy) was the common royal title (Psalm 34 title, compare the margin). Condor (Palestine Exploration, August, 1875) identifies it rather with Tel-Jema, an enormous mound covered with broken pottery, immediately S. of Khirbet el Gerar. The name, lost to this the proper site, lingers in the neighboring Khirbet el Gerar.
GERASA ”Gerasenes” is read in Mark 5:1 by the Vaticanus and Sinaiticus manuscripts; also in Luke 8:26 by the Vaticanus A city on the eastern border of Peraea amid the Gilead mountains,20 miles E. of Jordan,25 N. of Rubbath Ammon, now Philadelphia. If Gerasa be read for Gadara, “the region of Gerasa” must include Gadara and the coasts of the sea of Tiberius which lay far W. of Gerasa. The ruins are the finest on the E. of Jordan. However Dr. Thomson identifies Gerasa with the Arab Gersa, close to the shore, with a mountain rising at the back, down which the swine might rush and be unable to stop themselves from rushing into the water. In the mountain are ancient tombs which may have been the demoniac’s dwelling.
GERIZIM (See EBAL .) The mount of the Gerazim, i.e. the dwellers in a shorn (desert) land; subdued by David. 1 Samuel 27:8, “Gezrites” or “Gerzites.” Smith’s Bible Dictionary identifies Gerazim with the mount on which Abraham offered Isaac, see MORIAH ; it is objected to the temple mount being the site of Isaac’s offering that “Abraham lifted up his eyes, and saw the place afar off,” whereas the temple mount is not conspicuous from afar; also the Samaritans identify the site of the sacrifice with the natural altar on Gerazim. But Genesis 22:4 means simply that Abraham saw the spot at such a distance as the place admitted. Abraham had uttered an unconscious prophecy, Genesis 22:8, “God will provide (or ‘see’) a lamb.” Now in Genesis 22:14 he sees that “God” (the Elohim whose resources he knew to be infinite) proves Himself to beJEHOVAH the Provider for the people in covenant with Him, “Jehovah-jireh.” The meaning of “Moriah” = what Jehovah has made one see, alluding to “the mount of the vision of Jehovah” ( Genesis 22:14), favors the view that the name “Moriah” in Genesis 22:2 is used by anticipation, and originated in Abraham’s words, Genesis 22:14. The identity of name favors the temple mount being the site ( 2 Chronicles 3:1). The distance, two days journey from Beersheba, which would bring him in sight of the temple mount at Jerusalem on the third day whereas Gerazim could not be reached on the third day from Beersheba, favors the same view.
Gerazim commands one of the finest views in Palestine, being 2,500 ft. above the Mediterranean on the W. Hermon’s snow-clad heights lie on the N., and the trans-jordanic mountains, cleft by the Jabbok, on the E.
Manasseh, brother of Jaddua the high priest, married the daughter of Sanballat the Cuthaean ( 2 Kings 17:24), who in order to reconcile his son-in-law to this forbidden affinity obtained leave from Alexander the Great to build a temple on Gerazim (Josephus, Ant. 11:8, sections 2-4.)
Henceforward the Samaritans and Jews assumed mutual antagonism; but whereas the Jerusalem temple and worship were overthrown soon after our Lord’s crucifixion, the Samaritan on Gerazim have continued from age to age, and the paschal lamb has been yearly offered by this interesting community; they possess a copy of the law, attributed to Manasseh, and known to the Christian fathers of the second and third centuries. To Gerazim our Lord alludes: “Woman, believe Me, the hour cometh when ye shall neither in this mountain nor yet at Jerusalem (exclusively) worship the Father” ( John 4:21). Lieut. Anderson within the ruin called “the castle” excavated the foundations and piers of an octagonal church, probably that built by Justinian. The church and castle were built on a rough platform of stones without mortar, including the so-called “twelve stones.” On this platform perhaps the Samaritan temple stood.
GERSHOM Gershon. 1 Chronicles 6:1,16. Firstborn of Moses and Zipporah = “a sojourner in a foreign land” (geer ),” sojourner,” is common to Hebrew and Egyptian; shom is not from Hebrew sham “there,” as margin, but shem, Coptic, “a strange land”); alluding to Moses’ sojourn in Midian “for, he said, I have been a stranger in a strange land” ( Exodus 2:22; 18:3). (See CIRCUMCISION and Exodus 4:25.) Gershom was founder of a family, of which was “Jonathan, son (descendant) of Gershom,” the “young man the Levite,” who became Micah’s priest to the image ( Judges 17:7; 18:18-30), and subsequently the Danites’ priest. His descendants held this priesthood until the taking of the ark by the Philistines, which is called “the day of the captivity of the land.” Gershom in the Hebrew text (kethib) is called “son of Moses.” The name is altered into Manasseh with a hanging n (raised above the line to show it might either be inserted or omitted) in the Masoretic keri, or margin Hebrew “He did the deeds of idolatrous Manasseh,” says the Talmud (Baba bathra, 109 b.), “therefore Scripture assigns him to the family of Manasseh.” Rabbabar bar Channa says “it would have been ignominious to Moses to have had an ungodly son; he was the son of Manasseh in impiety, of Moses in descent.” But other of Moses’ descendants through Gershom reflected the piety of “the man of God.” Shebuel Gershom’s descendant was “ruler of the treasures” dedicated in the sanctuary under David ( 1 Chronicles 23:15-17; 26:24- 28). One accompanied Ezra from Babylon ( Ezra 8:2).
GERSHON Oldest of Levi’s three sons, born apparently before Jacob’s going down to Egypt ( Genesis 46:11). Kohath and his descendants Moses and Aaron’s priestly line eclipsed Gershon’s line. Gershon’s sons were Libni and Shimei ( 1 Chronicles 6:17,20,21,39-43). Some of his descendants took part in the service of the sanctuary ( 1 Chronicles 23:7-11). Asaph, the famous sacred singer and seer, was one of them. Compare also under Hezekiah ( 2 Chronicles 29:12). At the Sinai census the males of the sons of Gershon were 7500 ( Numbers 3:21,22). The serving men were 2,630 ( Numbers 4:38-41). They had charge of the tabernacle, tent, covering, hangings, curtain of the door, and cords ( Numbers 3:25,26; 4:25,26).
They had two covered wagons and four oxen for the service ( Numbers 7:3,7,8). The Merarites had twice as many wagons and oxen. The reason for this unequal division is not expressed; but on turning to Numbers 2 the reason undesignedly appears (an unstudied propriety attesting the truth of the narrative); the Gershonites had the lighter parts to bear, the “curtains,” “tabernacle,” i.e. the mishkan or great woven cloth consisting of ten breadths, the “tent” of goats’ hair cloth, and the “covering” of rams’ skins, and see BADGERS (tachash ) skins, the hangings and their cords. But the Merarites had the heavier and more solid framework to bear, the boards, bars, pillars, sockets, pins, their cords and instruments. Their station was “behind the tabernacle westward” ( Numbers 3:23); on march they were in the rear of the first three tribes. Thirteen of the Levitical cities were allotted to them; all in the northern tribes, two of them cities of refuge ( Joshua 21:27-33; 1 Chronicles 6:62,71-76).
GERZITES Gizrites, or Gerizzites. A Bedouin tribe once dwelling in central Palestine, from whom mount Gerizim took its name, as another mount was named from the Amalekites when dwelling in ancient times in Ephraim ( Judges 12:15). Afterward driven to the southern border of Palestine, where with the Geshurites and Amalekites they were found by David in Saul’s days ( 1 Samuel 27:8), rich in “sheep, oxen, asses, camels, and apparel.” Read “Gerizzites.”
GESHAM 1 Chronicles 2:47.
GESHEM An Arab who, with Sanballat of Horonaim, and Tobiah the servant, the Ammonite, opposed Nehemiah in repairing Jerusalem. ( Nehemiah 2:19; 6:1, etc.) Frustrated in this as well as in the plot against Nehemiah’s life. It was for the interest of the wandering marauders of the frontier of Palestine to prevent its restoration as a kingdom.
GESHUR (“bridge”). A region N.E. of Bashan, adjoining Argob and Aram, conquered by Jair of Manasseh, but left in the hands of the original inhabitants ( Joshua 13:13; Deuteronomy 3:14; 2 Samuel 15:8). “Geshur at Aram” (Hebrew), i.e. bordering on Syria of Damascus ( Chronicles 2:23). The Geshuri bordering on the Philistines ( Joshua 13:2), and invaded by David ( 1 Samuel 27:8), were distinct from those N.E. of Gilead. Yet there may have been some connection, a portion of the Geshurites possibly passing southwards. At least David in his wandering life formed an alliance with Talmai king of Geshur by marrying Maachah his daughter, by whom he had his handsome but worthless son Absalom and his daughter Tamar. David’s attack on the southern Geshurites, or else his stay near Moab (1 Samuel 22), may have first brought him into connection with Talmai king of the northeastern Geshur ( 2 Samuel 3:3; 13:37.) The wild nature of Absalom accords with the wild home and stock from whence he sprang; there he fled after murdering Amnon. Geshur was probably part of the rugged see ARGOB , now Lejah, where amidst those basaltic fastness the Geshurites would be secure from the Israelites in the plains.
GETHER Third of Aram’s sons ( Genesis 10:23).
GETHSEMANE (“oil-press”). Beyond the brook Kedron at the foot of the mount of Olives; where probably oil was made from the olives of the adjoining hill ( Luke 22:39; John 18:1). Called a “place” or farm (choorion ), Matthew 26:36, to which probably the “garden” was attached. E. of Jerusalem, from the walls of which it was half a mile distant. It was the favorite resort of our Lord with His disciples ( John 18:2), the shade of its trees affording shelter from the heat and the privacy so congenial to Him. Bethany lay on the E. of Jerusalem, and toward it our Lord led His disciples before the ascension. In Luke 24:50 the sense is, He led them to the side of the hill where the road strikes downward to Bethany; for Acts 1:12 shows He ascended from the mount of Olives. “Bethany probably includes not only the village but the district and side of the mount adjoining it; even still the adjoining mountain side is called by the same name as the village, el- Azariyeh. This reconciles Luke 24:50 with Acts 1:12. Gardens and pleasure grounds abounded then in the suburbs (Josephus, B.J., 6:1, section 1, 5:3, section 32), where now scarcely one is to be seen. In Gethsemane “without the city” Christ “trod the winepress alone” ( Isaiah 63:3; Revelation 14:20). In these passages, however, He is the inflicter, not the sufferer, of vengeance; but in righteous retribution the scene of blood shedding of Christ and His people shall be also the scene of God’s avenging His and their blood on the anti-Christian foe (19:14). The time of the agony was between 11 and 12 o’clock Thursday night (Friday morning in the Jews’ reckoning), two days before the full moon, about the Vernal equinox. The sites assigned by the Latins and Armenians and Greeks respectively are too near the thoroughfare to the city to be probable. Some hundreds of yards further up the vale and N.E. of Mary’s church may be the true site. The fact that Titus cut down all the trees round about Jerusalem (Josephus, B.J., 6:1, section 1) is against the contemporary ancientness of the eight venerable olive trees now pointed out. The tenth legion, moreover, was posted about the mount of Olives (5:2, section 3, 6:2, section 8); and in the siege a wall was carried along the valley of Kedron to the Siloam fountain (5:10, section 2). The olives of Christ’s time may have reproduced themselves.
GEUEL Numbers 13:15.
GEZER (“cut off,” i.e. isolated). An old Canaanite city, whose king, Horam or Elam, helping Lachish, was slain with his people by Joshua ( Joshua 10:33; 12:12). A landmark of Ephraim, between lower Beth-horon and the Mediterranean ( Joshua 16:3), on the S.W. border ( 1 Chronicles 7:28). Now Tell el Djezir near Abou Shusheh (Ganneau). Allotted to the Kohathite Levites ( Joshua 21:21; 1 Chronicles 6:67). At a short distance from Tel el Djezir, on the E. side, engraved on a horizontal rock, is a bilingual Greek and Hebrew inscription marking the limit of Gezer ( Numbers 35:5) as a Levitical city with its portion without the city. The inscription is at least as old as one century B.C.; also a second similar inscription exists on the N.W. Thus the sacred boundary was a square, having its four angles at the four cardinal points (Ganneau). The original inhabitants remained and paid tribute to Israel ( Judges 1:29; 1 Kings 9:16,17). It must have been independent when Pharaoh slew the Canaanite inhabitants, burnt the city, and gave it a present to his daughter, Solomon’s wife. Solomon rebuilt it. Gob is identified with it 1 Chronicles 20:4; compare 2 Samuel 21:18. It lay in the maritime plain, on the coast road to Egypt, an important post to fortify as it lay between Egypt and Jerusalem. It is the last point to which David pursued the Philistines ( Samuel 5:25; 1 Chronicles 14:16). Being 50 miles distant from “the S. of Judah ... and the Kenites,” it cannot be meant in 1 Samuel 27:8. (See GERZITES .) The inscription in the rock discovered by Ganneau, “the boundary of Gezer,” verifies the conjecture that Abou Shusheh on the plain between Jaffa and Jerusalem is the site of Gezer The discovery of the limit outside the city probably defines “a sabbath day’s journey.”
GIANTS Two Hebrew terms.
I. Nephilim ; Hebrew “those who fall on” men; men of violence, robbers, tyrants; compare Genesis 6:13, “the earth is filled with violence through them.” Applied to antediluvians ( Genesis 6:4). Distinct from the gibbowrim , “mighty men of old, men of renown,” the offspring of the intermarriage of the “sons of God” (the Sethites, Genesis 4:26, margin” then men began to call themselves by the name of the Lord”; Deuteronomy 14:1,2; Psalm 73:15; Proverbs 14:26; Hosea 1:10; Romans 8:14) and the “daughters of men.” The Sethites, the church separated from the surrounding world lying in the wicked one, had been the salt of the earth; but when even they intermarried with the corrupted races around the salt lost its savor, there was no seasoning of the universal corruption; (compare Exodus 34:16; Ezra 10:3-19; Nehemiah 13:23-28; Deuteronomy 7:3; 1 Kings 11:1-4;) a flood alone could sweep away the festering mass, out of which one godly seed alone, Noah, was saved. Hence our Lord dwells on the “marrying” in the list of the things lawful, but then unlawfully absorbing men wholly, as characteristic of the age just before the flood, as it shall be of the age when the Son of man shall appear ( Luke 17:27). The Hindu tradition of two races, Suras and Asuras, and the Greek legend that the demi-gods were sons of the gods and that the Titan giants sprang from the union of heaven and earth, flow from the history of Genesis 6 corrupted. Moreover nephilim is applied to the giant see ANAKIM in the report of the spies ( Numbers 13:33); compare on the Anakim (= longnecked) about Hebron, Debir, Ahab, and the mountains of Judah and Israel, Deuteronomy 2:10,21; 9:2.
II. Rephaim : a people defeated by Chedorlaomer at Ashteroth Karnaim ( Genesis 14:5), occupying the N.E. of the Jordan valley (Peraea) before the Canaanites came. Og, the giant king of Bashan, was the last of them ( Deuteronomy 3:11). They once extended to the S.W., for the valley of “Rephaim” was near the valley of Hinnom and Bethlehem, S. of Jerusalem, “the valley of the giants” ( Joshua 15:8; 18:16; 2 Samuel 5:18,22; 23:13). Rephaim was used for “the dead,” or their “ghosts” ( Job 26:5, translated “the souls of the dead tremble; (the places) under the waters, and their inhabitants (tremble)”; Psalm 88:11; Proverbs 2:18; 21:16; Isaiah 14:9; 26:14,19) perhaps because scheol or hades was thought the abode of the buried giants. Raphah “the weak,” or “resolved into their first elements,” expresses the state of the deceased. Whether it has any connection with the tribe Rephaim is doubtful. Possibly “tall” was the primary sense (Gesenius); then the tall national Rephaim; then giants in guilt, as in might; these being doomed to gehenna , the term became the general one for “ghosts.” Or else from ghosts being magnified by fear to more than human size.EMIM = terrors; so-called from their terrible stature by the Moabites, who succeeded them in the region E. of Jordan ( Deuteronomy 2:10). Or rather the word = the Egyptian term Amu, i.e. nomadic Shemites. Smitten by Chedorlaomer at Shaver Kiriathaim ( Genesis 14:5). (See ANAKIM also.)
Connected with the Horim. LeClerc explains the name “wanderers” from zuz “to wander.” Ham may be the original of Rabbath Ammon. The ruined cities of Bashan are thought by many to evidence their possession formerly by giant races. The success of David and his heroes against Goliath and the giants of Philistia (a remnant of the old giant races) illustrates the divine principle that physical might and size are nothing worth, nay are but beaststrength, when severed from God and arrayed against the people of God.
Samson was but of average height ( Judges 16:17), yet was irresistible by the Philistines so long as he was faithful to God. David was chosen above his brothers in spite of their “height of stature” ( 1 Samuel 16:7; 17:36,37,45-47; 2 Samuel 21:15-22).
GIBBAR, CHILDREN OF ”Gibeon” in Nehemiah 7:25.
GIBBETHON (“lofty place”). A town allotted to Dan ( Joshua 19:44), afterwards to the Kohathite Levites ( Joshua 21:23). As bordering on the Philistines, it was soon seized by them, probably when Jeroboam drove all the Levites from northern Israel to Judah. Nadab with all Israel, and afterward Omri, besieged it ( 1 Kings 15:27; 16:17). Baasha smote Nadab there.
GIBEA 1 Chronicles 2:49.
GIBEAH From a root gabah , round, gibbos ; a hill, less than a “mountain,” har .
Applied to the bore rounded hills of central Palestine. 1. A city in the mountain region of Judah, S.E. of Hebron, named with Maon and southern Carmel ( Joshua 15:55,57; 1 Chronicles 2:49). 2. GIBEATH, a town of Benjamin, among the last next Jerusalem ( Joshua 18:28), possibly the “Gibeah of Saul,” only that the latter was close to Gibeon and Ramah, five miles N. of Jerusalem, and if Saul’s Gibeah were meant we should expect it mentioned with those two towns in Joshua 18:25. “Gibeah of Saul” occurs 1 Samuel 10:26; 11:4; 15:34; Samuel 21:6; Isaiah 10:29. Now Tuleil el ful, “the hill of the beans” (a conical peak commanding an extensive view, about an hour from Jerusalem, on the road to Er-Ram, with a large heap of stones on the top, the ruins of a town built of unhewn stones), called by Josephus (B. J., 5:2, section 1) Gabath saoule, 30 stadia from Jerusalem, chosen retributively, as being Saul’s residence, for the hanging of his seven sons “before the Lord” (i.e. as in the presence of Him the righteous Judge who appointed the retributive justice, 2 Samuel 21:14 ff; 21:9), by the Gibeonites in revenge for his attempt to slay them in violation of the covenant. It is the Gibeah of Benjamin destroyed by the other tribes under the Judges (Judges 19; 20) for the flagrant abomination perpetrated there. It was then a “city” with the usual open “street” or square, having its “700 chosen men,” probably the same as the “left handed men who could sling stones at an hair breadth and not miss” ( Judges 20:15,16). The Levite left Bethlehem at “the tent pitching time of day” ( Judges 19:9, margin), about three in the afternoon. At five he would “come over against Jehus,” and at seven would be four miles N. of Jerusalem on the Shechem (Nablus) road toward mount Ephraim. Ramah and Gibeah were now near; Gibeah nearest. The suddenness of sunset in that region made him “turn aside” hither for the night, where the tragedy of the concubine ensued. The track N. of Gibeah branches into two, one leading to Bethel the “house of God,” the other to “Gibeah ( = Geba) in the field” sadeh , “cultivated ground”), now Jeba, below which at the base of the hill from whence Gibeah is named was the cave (Syriac, the Hebrew “treeless meadows” will mean not their place of ambush but the open ground across which they advanced to the town) of Gibeah “where the liers in wait hid” ( Judges 20:31-33, margin). ”Gibeah of Benjamin” was occupied by Jonathan with 1,000 chosen men, three miles in the S. rear of the Philistine camp at Geba on the S. side of the wady Suweinit ( 1 Samuel 13:2). Saul was in their front at Michmash, holding also mount Bethel on the N. side of the wady Suweinit.
Jonathan smote the garrison at Geba, and the Philistines in consequence gathering a vast host drove Saul’s little army before them out of Bethel and Michmash down the eastern passes to Gilgal near Jericho, in the Jordan valley; took Michmash, Saul’s former quarters, and sent out plunderers N.,W., and E. Jonathan however held a force in Gibeah ( 1 Samuel 14:2) where Saul, Samuel, and Ahiah the priest with the ephod joined him from Gilgal ( 1 Samuel 13:7). Then followed the gallant stealthy assault of the Philistine garrison by Jonathan and his armor-bearer, the first knowledge of which was conveyed to Saul by his watchmen in Gibeah, who at dawn saw “the multitude melting away and beating down one another.” Saul first called the muster roll to discover the absentees; next he consulted the oracle of God; but when the noise in the Philistine host increased, with irreverent impatience ( Isaiah 28:16) he desired the priest to stop the consultation, and put himself at the head of the people who, now that the Philistines fled, flocked to him from all their hiding places in Mount Ephraim.
GIBEON Chief of the four Hivite (in 2 Samuel 21 called by the general name “Amorite”) cities which obtained a league from Joshua by guile (Joshua 9). “A great city like one of the royal cities, greater than Ai” ( Joshua 10:2); “all its men were mighty.” Within Benjamin; by the main road. six and a half miles from Jerusalem; allotted to the priests ( Joshua 21:17).
Here the Jews defeated Cestius Gallus and the Romans. Now el Jib, on a rounded chalk hill the limestone strata of which lie horizontally, forming terraces along which olives and vines abound, with a basin of broad valleys and plains below. E. of the hill is a spring and reservoir. The remains of a tank 120 ft. by 100 ft. are visible still amidst the trees lower down; this was “the pool of Gibeon” where Abner’s and Joab’s men had the encounter ending in Asahel’s death and issuing in Abner’s own murder.
At the “great waters of Gibeon” Johanan son of Kareah found the treacherous Ishmael ( Jeremiah 41:12). Here were encamped the five kings of the Amorites when Joshua came down on them from Gilgal (Josephus, Ant. 5:1, section 17). The “wilderness (midbar ), pasture ground) of Gibeon” lay to the E. ( 2 Samuel 2:24.) Here immediately at “the great stone in Gibeon,” some old landmark, Joab pursuing the Benjamite rebel Sheba among the towns of his tribe met and treacherously murdered Amasa ( 2 Samuel 20:5-10). Retributively it was here also that Joab met his doom from Benaiah while clinging to the brazen altar of the tabernacle at Gibeon ( 1 Kings 2:28-34; 1 Chronicles 16:39-41.) To “the great high place” (whether Neby Samwil, the highest eminence about, at a mile’s distance, or the twin mount on the S. and close to el Jib) the tabernacle was removed from Nob after Saul’s slaughter of the priests there. David put the brazen altar before the tabernacle ( 2 Chronicles 1:5) probably at the same time lie removed the ark to Zion and appointed the priests under Zadok to offer the daily sacrifices, and Heman and Jeduthun to direct the music ( 2 Chronicles 1:3). Here Solomon offered a thousand burnt offerings, and God appeared in a dream by night and gave him all and more than he asked (1 Kings 3). Then in a few years the tabernacle was taken down and the holy vessels removed to the temple ( 1 Kings 8:3).
GIBEONITES Their safety was covenanted by Israel (Joshua 9), even though obtained by a deceit, their ambassadors having taken old sacks and mended wineskins (the tear being tied up like a bag) and old mended sandals (“clouted,” i.e. mended coarsely); but they were made “hewers of wood and drawers of water.” Israel’s error was in making the treaty without inquiring of the Lord; a warning to the church of all ages against the dissimulation of the world, which seeks admission and union with the kingdom of God without real conversion, faith, and sanctification, when it suits its own carnal advantage. Saul in his zeal for Israel where God sanctioned it not, though wanting in zeal against Israel’s foe Amalek ( 1 Samuel 15:18-20) where God commanded it, sought to slay them, probably (2 Samuel 21) in the dark closing period of his reign seeking to atone for his deficiency as to Amalek and to win the divine favor and popularity with his people by this mis-timed and misplaced zeal. God remembers the sins of the fathers upon the children, and vindicates His righteousness as Ruler of the nations by making an entail of curse go down from one generation to another for the unexpiated guilt of bloodshed and violation of covenants. The three years’ famine, the Lord’s answer when consulted as to the cause, that it was “for Saul and his bloody house because he slew the Gibeonites,” and after the execution of Saul’s seven (seven, the sacred number, denotes the performance of a work of God) sons “the Lord being entreated for the hind,” prove that David did not contrive or eagerly fall in with this device for ridding himself of the remainder of Saul’s royal line. Nay, he showed by the honorable burial he gave their remains, and by sparing Mephibosheth, that he entertained no such feeling, nor had he by this time anything to fear from Saul’s family. The whole matter was divinely ordered to teach solemn moral lessons of God’s government to the king and the nation ( Exodus 20:5; 34:7; Leviticus 26:34-40; Numbers 14:18-34, especially Numbers 35:33, “blood it defileth the land, and the land cannot be cleansed of the blood that is shed therein but by the blood of him that shed it”; Isaiah 14:20,21; 65:6,7; Jeremiah 2:9; 32:18). The “water dropping upon them (the hanged or crucified seven) out of heaven” marked the cessation of the heaven sent drought and the point of time when the bodies might be taken down from the stakes and buried.
Ordinarily bodies were taken down for burial before night ( Deuteronomy 21:22,23); but in this case guilt rested on the whole land, and therefore the expiatory sacrifice was to remain exposed to birds of prey (the greatest ignominy, 1 Samuel 17:44) before Jehovah, until the cessation of the drought showed that His wrath was appeased.
GIBLITES Joshua 13:5, which shows how wide were the limits designed for Israel which as yet it has not inherited. Of Gebal on the sea coast, at the foot Of the northern slopes of Lebanon (margin 1 Kings 5:18; Psalm 83:7; Ezekiel 27:9). (But see GEBAL ). Biblus was the seat of worship of the Syrian Adonis, Tammuz, which the Jews were seduced to worship ( Ezekiel 8:14).
GIDDALTI 1 Chronicles 25:4; 6:33.
GIDEON (“a hewer”), i.e. warrior, or the hewer down of Baal ( Isaiah 10:33). Of Manasseh; youngest son of Joash, of the Abiezrite family at Ophrah ( Judges 6:11,15). Fifth of the judges of Israel, called by the angel of the Lord to deliver Israel from the seven years’ yoke of the Midianite hosts, which like swarming locusts consumed all their produce except what they could hide in caves and holes ( Judges 6:2,5,6,11). There they fled, and “made” artificial caves besides enlarging natural caves for their purpose, God permitting them to be brought so low that their extremity might be His opportunity. Midian had long before with Moab besought Balaam to curse Israel, and through his counsel, by tempting Israel to whoredom with their and the Moabite women, had brought a plague on Israel, and had then by God’s command been smitten sorely by Israel ( Numbers 25:17,18; 31:1-16, etc.). But now after 200 years, in renewed strength, with the Amalekite and other plundering children of the E. they were used as God’s instrument to chastise His apostate people. Crossing Jordan from the E. they spread themselves from the plain of Jezreel to the sea coast of Gaza.
Affliction led Israel to crying in prayer. Prayer brought first a prophet from Jehovah to awaken them to a sense of God’s grace in their former deliverances and of their own apostasy. Next the Angel of Jehovah came. i.e. Jehovah the Second Person Himself. Former judges, Othniel, Ehud, Barak, had been moved by the Spirit of God to their work; but to Gideon alone under a terebinth in Ophrah, a town belonging to Joash, Jehovah appeared in person to show that the God who had made theophanies to the patriarchs was the same Jehovah, ready to save their descendants if they would return to the covenants. His second revelation was in a dream, commanding him to overthrow his father’s altar to Baal and to erect an altar to Jehovah and offer a burnt sacrifice with the wood of the Asherah (“grove”) or idol goddess of nature, probably a wooden pillar ( Deuteronomy 16:21). (See ASHTORETH ) In the first revelation Jehovah acknowledged Gideon, in the second He commanded Gideon to acknowledge Him. As God alone, Jehovah will not be worshipped along with Baal ( 1 Kings 18:21; Ezekiel 20:39). Gideon at the first revelation was knocking out (habat ) with a stick wheat in the winepress, sunk in the ground or hewn in the rock to make it safe from the Midianites; for he did not dare to thresh upon an open floor or hardened area in the open field, but like poor gleaners ( Ruth 2:17) knocked out the little grain with a stick. The address, “Jehovah is with thee thou mighty man,” seemed to Gideon, ruminating on the Midianite oppression which his occupation was a proof of, in ironical and sad contrast with facts. “If Jehovah be with us why is all this befallen us?” alluding to Deuteronomy 31:17. But God’s words guarantee their own accomplishment.JEHOVAH (no longer under His character. “Angel of Jehovah,” but manifested asJEHOVAH) replied, “Go in this thy might (the might now given thee byME, Isaiah 40:29), and thou shalt save Israel from the hand of the Midianites; have not I sent thee?” Then followed the requested “sign,” the Angel of the Lord with the end of the staff in His hand consuming with fire Gideon’s “offering” (minchah ), not a strict sacrifice but a sacrificial gift), the kid and unleavened cakes (compare Genesis 18, the theophany to Abraham very similar). Compare and contrast the conduct of the angel and the acceptance of Manoah’s sacrifice in Judges 13:20. Gideon in gratitude built an altar and called it “Jehovah Shalom,” a pledge of “Jehovah” being now at “peace” with Israel again ( Jeremiah 29:11; 33:16). The “second” in age of Joash’s bullocks, “seven years old,” was appointed in the dream for an offering to Jehovah, to correspond to Midian’s seven years’ oppression because of Israel’s apostasy. Gideon with ten servants overthrew Baal’s altar and Asherah in the night, for he durst not do it in the day through fear of his family and townsmen. Joash, when required to bring out his son to die for the sacrilege, replied, “Will ye plead for Baal? .... he that will plead for him shall be put, to death himself, let us wait until the morning (not ‘shall be put to death while it is yet morning’) and see whether Baal, if he be a god, will plead for himself.” So Gideon got the surname “Jerubbaal,” “Let Baal fight,” i.e. vindicate his own cause on the destroyer of his altar; and as the Jews in contempt changed Baal in compounds to besheth, “Jerubbesheth,” “Let the shameful idol light.” Then the Spirit of God “clothed” Gideon as his coat of mail ( 1 Chronicles 12:18; 2 Chronicles 24:20; Luke 24:49; Isaiah 61:10). His own clan the Abiezrites, Manasseh W. of Jordan, Zebulun, and Naphtali followed him. At his prayer the sign followed, the woolen fleece becoming saturated with dew while the earth around was dry, then the ground around being wet while the fleece was dry. Dew symbolizes God’s reviving grace: Israel was heretofore the dry fleece, while the nations around were flourishing; now she is to become filled with the Lord’s vigor, while the nations around lose it. The fleece becoming afterward dry while the ground around was wet symbolizes Israel’s rejection of the gospel while the Gentile world is receiving the gracious dew. Afterward Israel in its turn shall be the dew to the Gentile world ( Micah 5:7). Gideon pitched on a height at the foot of which the fountain Harod (“the spring of trembling,” now perhaps Ain Jahlood) sprang ( 2 Samuel 23:25). Midian pitched in the valley of Jezreel ( Judges 6:33). The timid were first thinned out of Gideon’s army ( Deuteronomy 20:8). In Judges 7:3, “whosoever is fearful let him return from mount Gilead,” as they were then W. of Jordan, the mount in eastern Palestine cannot be meant; but the phrase was a familiar designation of the Manassites. To take away still further all attribution of the victory to man not God, the army was reduced to 300 by retaining those alone whose energy was shown by their drinking what water they lifted with their hands, not delaying to kneel and drink (compare as to Messiah <19B007> Psalm 110:7). Then followed Gideon’s going with Phurah his servant into the Midianite host, and hearing the Midianite’s dream of a barley cake overturning the tent, that being poor men’s food, so symbolizing despised Israel, the “tent” symbolizing Midian’s nomadic life of freedom and power. The Moabite stone shows how similar to Hebrew was the language of Moab, and the same similarity to the Midianite tongue appears from Gideon understanding them. Dividing his 300 into three attacking columns, Gideon desired them in the beginning of the middle watch, i.e. at midnight (this and the morning watch dividing the night into three watches in the Old Testament), after him to blow the trumpets, break the pitchers, and let the lamps in their left hand previously covered with. the pitchers (a type of the gospel light in earthen vessels, 2 Corinthians 4:6,7), suddenly flash on the foe, and to cry “the sword of Jehovah and of Gideon,” and to stand without moving round about the Midianite camp. A mutual slaughter arose from panic among the Midianites (a type of Christ’s final overthrow of antichrist, Isaiah 9:4-7), each trumpet holder seeming to have a company at his back. The remnant fled to the bank of the Jordan at see ABELMEHOLAH , etc. Then the men of Asher, Naphtali, and all Manasseh, who had been dismissed, returned to join in the pursuit. Gideon requested Ephraim to intercept the fleeing Midianites at the waters of Bethbarah and Jordan, namely, at the tributary streams which they would have to cross to reach the Jordan. A second fight ensued there, and they slew Oreb (the raven) and Zeeb (the wolf). Conder (Palestine Exploration, July, 1874, p. 182) observes that the nomadic hordes of Midian, like the modern Beni Suggar and Ghazawiyeh Arabs, come up the broad and fertile valley of Jezreel; their encampment lay, as the black Arab tents do now in spring, at the foot of the hill March (Nebi Dahy) opposite to the limestone knoll on which Jezreel (Zer’ain) stands. The well Harod, where occurred the trial which separated 300 men of endurance from the worthless rabble, was the Ain Jalud, a fine spring at the foot of mount Gilboa, issuing blue and clear from a cavern, and forming a pool with rushy banks and a pebbly bottom, 100 yards long. The water is sweet, though slightly tasting of sulphur, and there is ample space for gathering a great number of men.
Concealed by the folds of the rolling ground the 300 crept down to Midian’s camp in the valley. The Midianite host fled to Bethshittah (the modern village Shatta), in Zererath (a district connected with Zerthan or Zeretan, a name still appearing in Ain Zahrah, three miles W. of Beisan), and to the border of Beth Meholah (wady Maleh), a course directly down the main road to Jordan and Beisan. Thus, Midian fled ten or fifteen miles toward the Jordan. A systematic advance followed. Messengers went S. two days’ journey to Ephraim; the lower fords of Jordan at Bethbarah were taken (Bethabara of the New Testament). Meantime Gideon, having cleared the Bethshan valley of Midianites, crossed at the southern end of Succoth (now Makhathet Abu Sus), and continued the pursuit along the eastern bank. The Midianites followed the right bank S. toward Midian, intending to cross near Jericho. Here the men of Ephraim met them and executed Oreb and Zeeb, and sent their heads to Gideon “on the other side.” Thus, “the Raven’s Peak” and “the Wolf’s Den” seem identical with Ash el Ghorab and Tuweil el Dhiab.
Gideon’s victory over self was still greater than that over Midian; by a soft answer he turned aside Ephraim’s proud and unreasonable wrath at his not summoning them at the first: “is not the gleaning of grapes of Ephraim (their subsequent victory over the fleeing Midianites) better than the vintage of Abiezer?” than my first victory over them ( Isaiah 10:26; Proverbs 15:1; 16:32). Contrast the unyielding temper of Jephthah ( Judges 12:1, etc.). Then followed the churlish unpatriotic cowardice of Succoth and Penuel, in answer to his request for provisions, through fear of Midian and disbelief of God’s power to make victorious so small and so “faint” a force as Gideon’s 300. Coming unexpectedly on the host which thought itself “secure” amidst their Bedouin countrymen at Karkor, in a third battle he defeated them and slew Zebah and Zalmunnah the two kings (emirs) after battle, in just retribution for their having slain his kingly brothers in cold blood at Tabor; then he taught by corporal punishment with thorns the elders of Succoth to know their error, and beat down the tower of Penuel. Of 120,000 Midianites only 15,000 survived.
Declining the proffered kingdom because Jehovah was their king, Gideon yet made a gorgeous jeweled ephod with the golden rings the Israelites had got as booty, besides the ornaments (verse 21, golden crescents or little moons), and collars (ear pendants), and purple raiment, and collars about their camels’ necks. The ephod had the breastplate (choshen ) and Urim and Thummim. Gideon “kept” it in his city Ophrah; wearing the breastplate, he made it and the holy ‘lot his means of obtaining revelations from Jehovah whom he worshipped at the altar. His sin which became a “snare” (means of ruin) to him and his house was his usurping the Aaronic priesthood, and drawing off the people from the one lawful sanctuary, the center of theocratic unity, and so preparing the way for the relapse to Baal warship at his death. But his unambitious spirit is praiseworthy; he, the great Baal fighter, “Jerubbaal,” instead of ambitiously accepting the crown, “went and dwelt in his own house” quietly, and died “in a good old age,” having secured for his country “quietness” for 40 years, leaving, besides 70 sons by wives, a son by a concubine, Abimelech, doomed to be by ambition as great a curse to his country as his father was in the main a blessing.
GIDEONI Numbers 1:11; 2:22; 7:60,65; 10:24.
GIER EAGLE racham = unclean ( Leviticus 11:18; Deuteronomy 14:17). The Egyptian vulture (Bruce), Neophron perenopterus; “Pharaoh’s chicken,” sacred to Isis, and noted for parental affection, which the Hebrew name, still applied commonly, ra chamah , means. Its usefulness as the scavenger of cities has secured for it legal protection, so that it is penal to kill it. It feeds on carrion, lizards, etc. Unprepossessing in look; disgusting in habits.
GIFTS So common in the East that there are 15 distinct Hebrew words for them. Minchah , from an inferior to a superior ( Judges 3:15). Maseeth , vice versa ( Esther 2:18). Berakah , “a blessing,” i.e. complimentary ( Kings 5:15). Shochad , a bribe ( Exodus 23:8; 2 Kings 16:8). Many were not voluntary, but a compulsory exaction: tribute ( 2 Kings 17:3). “To bring presents” is to own submission ( Psalm 68:29). That to a prophet was his consulting fee ( 1 Samuel 9:7), not a bribe ( 1 Samuel 12:3). To refuse a present was an insult; the wedding robe offered and slighted was the condemnation of the disrobed guest ( Matthew 22:11).
GIHON 1. Genesis 2:13. (See EDEN .) The Septuagint, Jeremiah 2:18, identify it with the Nile; but the writer of Genesis, so well acquainted with Egypt, would never have connected the Nile with the Euphrates. The Cush which the Gihon “compassed” was the Asiatic not the African Cush ( Genesis 10:7-10); The Septuagint being Alexandrian Jews, to glorify their adopted country, made the Nile one of the rivers of paradise. 2. A fountain near Jerusalem, where Solomon was anointed king ( 1 Kings 1:33,38,45). The “down” in going and “up” in returning show it was below the city. Manasseh built a wall outside the city of David from the W. of Gihon in the valley (nachal ), wady, or torrent, the word employed for the valley of Kedron or Jehoshaphat E. of Jerusalem; ge being employed for the valley of Hinnom S.W. of Jerusalem) to the entrance of the fish gate.”
Hezekiah stopped its upper source, at some distance off, at a higher level ( 2 Chronicles 32:30), and “brought it straight down to the W. side of the city of David” ( 2 Chronicles 33:14). The Targum of Jonathan, Arable and Syriac, has Siloam for Gihon in 1 Kings 1. A wall from W. of Gihon to the fish gate (near the Jaffa gate, Jerome) would be the course of a wall enclosing the city of David ( 2 Chronicles 33:14). An aqueduct discovered lately (1872) runs from near the Damascus gate, on the Bezetha hill, to the souterrain at the convent of the Sisters of Zion. It probably brought the water from the pool N. of the tombs of the kings (probably the “upper pool,” 2 Kings 18:17; Isaiah 7:3; 36:2, and “upper watercourse of Gihon” stopped by Hezekiah) to the pool of Bethesda.
Siloam was the lower Gihon. It is suggested that the city of David was on the eastern hill, so Hezekiah by bringing it W. of the city of David brought it within the city, and so out of the enemy’s reach. Psalm 48:2 confirms the view that mount Zion was to the N. of Moriah, the temple hill: “the joy of the whole earth is mount Zion, on the sides of the N. the city of the great Kine.”
GILALAI Nehemiah 12:36.
GILBOA (“bubbling fountain”), namely, of Jezreel; see below. The mountain range N.E. of the plain, and over the city, of Jezreel, extending ten miles from W. to E. ( 1 Samuel 28:4; 29:1.) The scene of the death of Saul and Jonathan ( 1 Samuel 31:1; 2 Samuel 1:6,21: “ye mountains (for there is not merely one mountain) of Gilboa, let there be no dew, neither rain upon you, nor fields of firstfruit offerings,” i.e. producing fruit from which firstfruits are offered; 1 Samuel 21:12; 1 Chronicles 10:1,8). The Philistines encamped on the N. side of the plain at Shunem; Saul on the S. side, round the fount of Jezreel (Harod, Judges 7:1) at the foot of Gilboa. The fountain is still to be seen half a mile from Jezreel’s ruins. The village Jelbou is on the mountain top. The height of the hill is about 500 ft. above the plain; the sides are as bore and barren as David’s poetical elegy desired them to be (excepting one green table land where perhaps the last struggle took place), and contrast strongly with the fertile plain beneath.
GILEAD (“a hard rocky region”). The mountainous range and the region E. of Jordan are meant by “mount Gilead,” not some one mountain. Bashan (“soft level soil”), a fertile plateau, bounds it on the N.; the Arabian table land on the E.; Moab and Ammon on the S. ( Deuteronomy 3:12-17); Jordan on the W.; Hieromax river (now Sheriat’el Mandhur) divides it from Bashan. The Jabbok divided Og’s northern half of Gilead (now Jebel Ajlun) from Sihon’s southern half (now Belka.). The valley of Heshbon was probably Gilead’s southern bound. Mishor, “a table land,” is used to denote the plateau S. and E. of Gilead. Thus Bezer was in the country of the Mishor (“plain country,” KJV Deuteronomy 4:43), the smooth downs of Moab contrasting with the higher districts of Bashan northwards and the rugged country W. of the Jordan. One prominent peak is still called Jebel Jil’ad, “mount Gilead,” the probable site of Ramath Mizpeh ( Joshua 13:26), and the “Mizpeh of Gilead” from whence Jephthah passed over to Ammon ( Judges 11:29), an admirable place for assembling forces for war. Es-Salt, a town close by, is on the site of “Ramoth Gilead,” the city of refuge in Gad. The mountains of Gilead, 2,000 or 3,000 ft. high, appear still more elevated from the W. owing to the depression of the Jordan valley 1,000 ft., and resemble a massive wall along the horizon; but when ascended they present a” wide table land tossed about in wild confusion of undulating downs, clothed with rich grass and magnificent forests, and broken by three deep defiles, those of the Jarmuk, Jabbok, and Arnon” (Stanley, Sinai and Palestine) The high Arabian plateau makes them look low from the E. Pasturage abounds in Gilead more than in western Palestine, from whence Reuben and Gad chose it for their numerous flocks and herds (Numbers 32). The physical nature of the country affected the character of its people, who ever retained nomadic pastoral habits. (See GAD , which lay S. and W. by Jordan, stretching N. as far as the sea of Galilee.) Manasseh lay N. and E., and stretched S. to Mahanaim. Gilead’s isolation kept its people in the background in Israel’s history. Its aromatic spices and balm were exported to Egypt ( Genesis 37:25; Jeremiah 8:22).
Chedorlaomer attacked the giant Zuzim in Ham, i.e. probably Gilead; having first attacked the Rephaim in Ashteroth Karnaim, now the Hauran, afterward the Emim in Shaveh Kiriathaim, the country subsequently of Moab. In Gilead Saul’s son at Mahanaim tried to gain his father’s throne ( 2 Samuel 2:8,9). Here David found shelter and hospitality while fleeing from Absalom ( 2 Samuel 17:22,27-29). Elijah the Tishbite was of Gilead, and in garb, abruptness, and active energy reflected his country’s characteristics. Being a border land, it was exposed to the marauding tribes of the desert ( Joshua 17:1), and see RAMOTH GILEAD was thought the eastern key of Palestine ( 1 Kings 22:3-6). Twice our Lord withdrew to the trans-jordanic hills: after His baptism; again just before His last stay at Jerusalem ( John 10:39,40). At Pella in the same region the disciples found the refuge from the siege of Jerusalem which their Lord had told them of beforehand; Cestius Gallus having providentially retired, and so given them the opportunity of fleeing ( Matthew 24:15,16).
GILGAL 1. Hebrew: “the Gilgal,” i.e. rolling. Israel’s first encampment W. of Jordan (five miles) where they passed their first night after crossing, and set up the twelve stones taken from the river bed ( Joshua 4:3,19,20). Here they kept the first Passoverin Canaan ( Joshua 5:10). On arising ground (“hill,” Joshua 5:3,9) in the hot sunken Ghor between Jericho and the Jordan, one mile and a half E. of Jericho; five miles and a half W. of Jordan (Josephus, Ant. 5:1, 4, 11). On the N. side of wady Kelt, one mile and a third from the tower of modern Jericho (Eriha); toward the E. is a tamarisk, “Shejaret el Ithleh,” which tradition makes the site of “the city of brass,” whose walls fell on their besiegers marching round them. A pool is 150 yards S.E. of the tree, such as Israel would need in their long encampment at Gilgal; it is built with well packed pebbles without cement.
S.E. of this are twelve or more small mounds, Tell ayla’t Jiljulieh, eight or ten ft. diameter, and three or four high, possibly remains of Israel’s camp (Conder, Palestine Exploration). The distances stated by Josephus accord with this site.
The Israelites born in the wilderness were here circumcised with stone knives ( Joshua 5:2 margin; Exodus 4:25), which “rolling” away of the reproach of uncircumcision gave the name. The sons under 20 years, when at Kadesh in the second year of the wilderness journey the murmuring nation was rejected (Numbers 14), had been already circumcised; those born subsequently needed circumcision. As God abrogated at Kadesh the covenant, the sons of the rejected generation were not to receive the covenant rite. The manna and pillar of cloud were not withdrawn, because God would sustain the rising generation with the prospect of the ban being removed, and of the covenant temporarily suspended being renewed. The sentence was exhausted when they crossed the Zered and entered the Amorites’ land ( Deuteronomy 2:14; Numbers 21:12,13), when all the sentenced generation was dead ( Numbers 26:63-65). Moses, himself under sentence to die, did not venture on the steppes of Moab to direct the circumcision of the younger generation without Jehovah’s command. And the rule of divine grace is first to give, then to require; so first He showed His grace to Abraham by leading him to Canaan and giving the promises, then enjoined circumcision; also He did not give the law to Israel at Sinai until first He had redeemed them from Egypt, and thereby made them willing to promise obedience. So now He did not require the renewal of circumcision, the covenant sign of subjection to the law ( Galatians 5:3), until He had first showed His grace in giving them victory over Og and Sihon, and in making a way through Jordan, a pledge that He would fulfill all His promises and finally give them the whole land. The circumcision was performed the day after crossing Jordan, i.e. the 11th day of the first month (4:19). The Passover was kept on the 14th (verse 10). The objection that all could not have been circumcised in one day is futile. For the males in Israel at the census in Moab shortly before were 601,730 upward of 20 years old, besides 23,000 Levites of a month old and upward; at the outside all the males would be less than one million. Of these about 300,000 were 38 years old, therefore born before the census at Kadesh and circumcised already; so that only 600,000 would remain to be circumcised. The uncircumcised could easily be circumcised in one day with the help of the circumcised; the latter would prepare and kill the Passover lamb for their brethren whose soreness ( Genesis 34:25) would be no bar to their joining in the feast. The “reproach of Egypt rolled off” is (like “the reproach of Moab” Zephaniah 2:8, and “Syria” Ezekiel 16:57) that heaped on Israel by Egypt, namely, that Jehovah had brought them into the wilderness to slay them ( Exodus 32:12; Numbers 14:13-16; Deuteronomy 9:28).
This “reproach of Egypt” rested on them so long as they were under the sentence of wandering and dying in the desert. The circumcision at Gilgal was a practical restoration of the covenant, and a pledge of their now receiving Canaan. No village was, or is, at Gilgal.
In Micah 6:5, “O My people, remember ... what Balak ... consulted, and what Balaam ... answered ... from Shittim unto Gilgal,” the sense is, Remember My kindness from Shittim. the scene of Balaam’s wicked counsel taking effect in Israel’s sin, from the fatal effects of which I saved thee, all along to Gilgal where I renewed the covenant with Israel by circumcision ( 2 Samuel 19:15). 2. Gilgal from which Elijah and Elisha went down to Bethel ( 2 Kings 2:1,2). Clearly distinct from: 1. Gilgal, which is below in the Ghor along Jordan, not above Bethel, which is 1,000 ft. above Jordan. Now perhaps the ruins Jiljilieh, a few miles N. of Bethel. Another Gilgal has been found four miles from Shiloh, and five from Bethel, which is 500 ft. lower; this may be the Gilgal of 2 Kings 2:3. Gilgal not far from Shechem, beside the plains of Moreh ( Deuteronomy 11:30). Joshua 12:23, “king of the nations (goim ) of Gilgal,” i.e. of the nomadic tribes, the aboriginal inhabitants of the country whose center was Gilgal. 4. To the N. of Judah ( Joshua 15:7). (See GELILOTH ).
GIMZO Taken with its dependent villages by the Philistines under Ahaz ( Chronicles 28:18). N.W. of Judah, or in Dan; now Jimzu, a large village on a height surrounded by trees, S. of the road between Jerusalem and Jaffa, where the highlands sink down into the maritime plain.
GINATH 1 Kings 16:21,22.
GIRDLE Worn by men and women. The meezach was worn by men alone ( Job 12:21, margin). The common girdle was of leather, as the Bedouins now wear a red leather girdle with a long crooked knife and a pistol stuck in.
The finer girdle was of linen ( Jeremiah 13:1), often embroidered with gold ( Daniel 10:5; Revelation 1:13). Girded up, so as to confine the otherwise flowing robes, when active exertion was needed; from whence “gird up the hands” means “be in readiness for action” ( Luke 12:35; 1 Peter 1:13; Ephesians 6:14). Fastened by a clasp, or tied in a knot, so that the ends hung in front. A costly present ( 1 Samuel 18:4). One end being folded back made a purse ( Matthew 10:9). The abneeyt was the priest’s girdle of linen embroidered with wool; the high priest’s girdle on the day of atonement was of white linen only. The “needlework” on it was figuring on one side only, “cunning work” on two sides ( Exodus 28:39; the Mishna); or the “needlework” had the figures on both sides the same girdle, the “cunning work” different (Jarchi). Exodus 26:31, “needlework” was of the embroiderer, “cunning work” of the skilled weaver. The “curious girdle” was made, as the ephod, of “gold, blue, purple, scarlet, and fine twined linen” ( Exodus 28:8), it was the band for fastening the ephod, which is upon it, and of the same work, of one piece with it.
GISPA Nehemiah 11:21.
GITTAIM (“two winepresses”). The dual of Gath ( 2 Samuel 4:3). The men of Beeroth, one of the Gibeonite towns ( Joshua 9:17), took refuge, probably when persecuted by Saul ( 2 Samuel 21:2), in Gittaim.
GITTITES (See GATH ) The 600 who followed David from Gath under “Ittai the Gittites,” “a stranger and an exile” ( 2 Samuel 15:18-20). Obed Edom, being a Levite, must have derived his title “the Gittite” from some incidental connection with Gath; others derive his name from the Levitical city of Gath-rimmon ( 2 Samuel 6:10); but it seems strange if “Gittite” be used in one sense of Ittai of Gath, and in a different sense of Obed Edom ( 1 Chronicles 26:4).
GITTITH Title Psalm 8; Psalm 81; Psalm 84: An instrument, or else tune, invented in Gath, from whence David brought it after his sojourn there with Achish ( 1 Samuel 27:2). Others take it from garb, “a winepress,” being used on occasions of joy like the vintage; all three psalms having a joyous character. There may be an enigmatical reference to Messiah treading the winepress ( Isaiah 63:3; Revelation 19:15):
Kennicott would read the proper name Gouni.
GLASS Job 28:17, “crystal” or glass, the only allusion to glass in Old Testament The paintings at Benihassan and in tombs show that it was known in the reign of Osirtasin I, 1600 B.C. Egypt was probably the land of its discovery. A bead of 1500 B.C. was found at Thebes, of the same specific gravity as crown glass in England. Relics of the Phoenician trade in the shape of glass beads have been found in Cornwall and Ireland. A glass bottle with Sargon’s name was found in the N.W. Nimrud palace, the oldest specimen of transparent glass, older than 700 B.C. Pliny attributes the discovery to Phoenician sailors using natron to support saucepans (H.
N., 36:65). Probably vitreous matter was formed in lighting fires on the sand in a country producing natron or subcarbonate of soda. Pliny’s story may have originated in the suitability of the sand at the mouth of the Syrian river Belus for making glass, for which accordingly it was exported to Sidon and Alexandria, the centers of that manufacture. In Deuteronomy 33:19 there seems allusion to the same: “they (of Zebulun on the N.W. seacoast) shall suck of the abundance of the seas, and of treasures hid in the sand”; glass being a precious “treasure” in ancient times, and the sand of that coast being especially prized for its manufacture. The Egyptians could inlay it with gold and enamel, and permeate opaque glass with variously colored designs, and make the same hue and devices pass in right lines directly through the substance; and imitate precious stones. Glass is an emblem of brightness and colored glitter, rather than transparency, which “crystal” represents ( Revelation 4:6). Hence it was not used for windows, which were simply openings furnished with shutters. LOOKING GLASSES were made of polished metal, generally tin and copper mixed, not glass ( Exodus 38:8 margin). Job 37:18, “the sky ... as a molten looking glass”; the polish of the metal representing the bright sky.
In 1 Corinthians 13:12 the sense is: “now (in our present state) we see in a mirror (the reflection seeming behind, so that we see it through the mirror) darkly (in enigma)”; the ancient mirrors being at best unequal to ours, and often being tarnished and dim. The inadequate knowledge of an object gained by seeing it reflected in the ancient mirror, compared with the perfect idea formed by seeing itself directly, happily represents the contrast between the saint’s present reflected and his future direct, immediate, and intuitive knowledge. Compare 2 Corinthians 3:18; James 1:23. The word of God is a perfect mirror; but our minds imperfectly apprehend it, and at best see but the image indirectly, not the reality face to face. The luster of some mirrors found at Thebes, though buried for centuries, has been partially restored.
GLEDE The kite ( Deuteronomy 14:13). Raah, so-called from its acute vision.
GLORY Hebrew kabod , “weight,” alluded to 2 Corinthians 4:17; “our lightness of affliction worketh out for us a weight of glory,” exceeding beyond all measure the affliction. “My glory” is my soul, man’s noblest part; rather my tongue, as explained in Acts 2:26. So Psalm 30:12 margin; 57:8; 108:1. The tongue, as the soul’s interpreter, is the glory of man above the brute, and the instrument of glorifying God, man’s highest glory. David not only exults inwardly, but makes his “tongue” and “flesh” sharers of his joy.
GOAD A pointed instrument, eight feet long, often headed with iron ( 1 Samuel 13:21; Ecclesiastes 12:11). To “kick against the pricks” expresses unavailing resistance, as if cattle were to kick against the goads of their driver Who has them wholly in his power, as God has the recalcitrant sinner ( Acts 9:5).
GOAT 1. Wild goat, yeliym , the ibex of ancient Moab. 2. The goat deer, or else gazelle, aqow . 3. The atuwd , he goat, the leader of the flock; hence the chief ones of the earth, leaders in mighty wickedness; the ram represents headstrong wantonness and offensive lust ( Isaiah 14:9; Zechariah 10:3; compare Matthew 25:32,33; Ezekiel 34:17). As the word “shepherds” describes what they ought to have been, so “he goats” what they were; heading the flock, they were foremost in sin, so they shall be foremost in punishment. In Song 4:1 the hair of the bride is said to be “as a flock of goats that appear from mount Gilead,” alluding to the fine silky hair of some breeds of goat, the angora and others. Amos ( Amos 3:12) speaks of a shepherd “taking out of the mouth of the lion a piece of an ear,” alluding to the long pendulous ears of the Syrian breed. In Proverbs 30:31 a he goat is mentioned as one of the “four things comely in going,” in allusion to the stately march of the leader of the flock. 4. Sair , the goat of the sin-offering ( Leviticus 9:3), “the rough hairy goat” ( Daniel 8:21). Sa’ir is used of devils ( Leviticus 17:7), “the evil spirits of the desert” ( Isaiah 13:21; 34:14). 5. Azazeel , “the scapegoat” ( Leviticus 16:8,10,26 margin) (see ATONEMENT, DAY OF ). The “he goat” represented Graeco-Macedonia; Caranus, the first king of Macedon, was in legend led by goats to Edessa, his capital, which he named “the goat city.” The one-horned goat is on coins of Archclaus king of Macedon, and a pilaster of Persepolis. So Daniel 8:5.
GOATH Jeremiah 31:39. Named with the hill Garth. From gaah , “to low” as a cow, “the heifer’s pool” (Targum). But Syriac version, “to the eminence,” from gawah “to lose one’s breath,” namely, with ascending. S.W. outside the city of David, as Gareb was N.W. (Junius, in Poli Synopsis). Rather N.W. (Fergusson) [see JERUSALEM .] GOB (“a pit”). The scene of encounter between David’s heroes and the Philistines ( 2 Samuel 21:18,19). “Gezer” in 1 Chronicles 20:4. In Septuagint and Syriac “Gath”; compare 2 Samuel 21:20; Chronicles 20:6.
GOD (See GENESIS , on Elohim and Yahweh ) ELOHIM expresses the might of the Creator and Sustainer of the universe. ELYON , His sublimity, ( Genesis 14:22), “the Most High.” SHADDAI , the “Almighty,” His all sufficiency ( Genesis 17:1; Philippians 4:19; 2 Corinthians 3:5; 12:9). JEHOVAH , His unchangeable faithfulness to His covenanted promises to His people. ADONAI , His lordship, which being delegated to others as also is His might asELOHIM,ADONAI andELOHIM are used occasionally of His creatures, angels and men in authority, judges, etc. ( Psalm 8:5; 97:7 (Hebrew); 82:1,6,7.) “Lord” in small letters stands for HebrewADONAI in KJV, but in capitals (“LORD”) forJEHOVAH.ELYON, SHADDAI, andJEHOVAH are never used but ofGOD; Jehovah the personal God of the Jews, and of the church in particular. ELOAH , the singular, is used only in poetry. The derivation is ‘aalah “to fear,” as Genesis 31:42,53, “the fear of Isaac,” or ‘aalah “to be mighty.” The plural\parELOHIM: is the common form in prose and poetry, expressing that He combines in Himself all the fullness of divine perfections in their manifold powers and operations; these the heathen divided among a variety of gods. ELOHIM concentrates all the divine attributes assigned to the idols severally, and, besides those, others which corrupt man never of himself imagined, infinite love, goodness, justice, wisdom, creative power, inexhaustible riches of excellence; unity, self existence, grace, and providence are especially dwelt on, Exodus 3:13-15; 15:11; 34:6,7. The plural form hints at the plurality of Persons, the singular verb implies the unity of Godhead. The personal acts attributed to the Son ( John 1:3; Psalm 33:6; Proverbs 8:22-32; 30:4; Malachi 3:1, the Lord the Sender being distinct from the Lord the Sent who “suddenly comes”) and to the Holy Spirit respectively ( Genesis 1:2; <19A430> Psalm 104:30) prove the distinctness of the Persons. The thrice repeated “LORD” ( Numbers 6:25-27) and “Holy” ( Isaiah 6:3) imply the same. But reserve was maintained while the tendency to polytheism prevailed, and as yet the redeeming and sanctifying work of the Son and the blessed Spirit was unaccomplished; when once these had been manifested the doctrine of the Trinity in Unity was fully revealed in New Testament.
The sanctions of the law are temporal rather than spiritual, because a specimen was to be given in Israel of God’s present moral government. So long as they obeyed, Providence engaged national prosperity; dependent not on political rules or military spirit, as in worldly nations, but on religious faithfulness. Their sabbatical year, in which they neither tilled nor gathered, is a sample of the continued interposition of a special providence.
No legislator without a real call from God would have promulgated a code which leans on the sanction of immediate and temporal divine interpositions, besides the spiritual sanctions and future retributions.
GOG 1. 1 Chronicles 5:4. 2. GOG AND MAGOG. Magog was second son of Japhet, connected with Gomer (the Cimmerians) and Madai (Medes). In Ezekiel 38; 39, these two appear in the N. country, their weapon the bow, their warriors horsemen and notorious for cruel rapacity; probably the Scythians, the dominant Japhetic race between the Caucasus (Ghogh and Moghef are names still applied to its heights) and Mesopotamia from 630 to 600 B.C., who invaded Palestine and besieged Ascalon under Psammeticus. Gog is the ideal head of Magog the land and people; also prince of Rosh (Roxolani), Mesech (Moschi), and Tubal (Tibareni); Ezekiel 38:2, “the chief prince,” rather “prince of Rosh” (the Scythian Tauri). Hengstenberg supports KJV. The names resemble Russia and Moscow, but Slavi and Wends were the ancient name of the Russians. In Revelation 20:8 Gog and Magog are both peoples. The Scythians were expelled 596 B.C., just before Ezekiel wrote, after making their name a terror to Asia. The prophet naturally uses their name taken from familiar history to represent the anti- Christian confederacy about, to assail the Jews in the Holy Land before the millennium; Revelation 20:7-9, to represent the confederacy headed by Satan, and about to assail the beloved city after the millennium. Antiochus Epiphanes, the Old Testament antichrist, the “little horn” of the third world empire, who defiled Jehovah’s temple and altar with swine sacrifices and set up Jupiter’s altar there, prefigures the “king of fierce countenance” who, “when the transgressors shall come to the full, shall destroy the holy people” ( Daniel 8:10-26); “the king of the N.” (compare Ezekiel 39:2), who “shall do according to his will, and exalt and magnify himself above every god, and speak marvelous things against the God of gods, and shall enter also into the glorious land and plant the tabernacles of his palaces between the seas in the glorious holy mountain, and shall come to his end,” through Michael’s interposition, after a “time of trouble such as never was since there was a nation” ( Daniel 11:21-45; 12:1; Zechariah 13:9; 14:2,3). Gog represents antichrist the beast; Magog the ten kingdoms leagued under him (Revelation 16—17). Haughty, blasphemous self confidence is his characteristic (2 Thessalonians 2).
Sheba, Dedan, Tarshish, mercantile peoples, though not openly joining his invasion of Israel, yet from selfish love of gain, sympathize with it secretly ( Ezekiel 38:13; 39:6, “the isles”); they shall therefore share antichrist’s doom, the robber shall be robbed in righteous retribution, the spoiler spoiled, and the slayer slain. Where antichrist thought to find an inheritance he shall only find a grave, and that near his prototypes, the fire blasted cities of the Dead Sea. No weapon formed against God’s people shall prosper ( Isaiah 54:17); not a fragment shall be left to defile the Holy Land.
GOLAN A city of Bashan ( Deuteronomy 4:43), allotted out of Manasseh to the Levites; one of the three cities of refuge E. of Jordan ( Joshua 20:8; 21:27). Gaulanitis the province was named from it; E. of Galilee, N. of Hieromax separating it from Gadaritis. Jordan, from the sea of Galilee to its source at Dan and Caesarea Philippi, was its western boundary. Now Jaulan, bounded on N. by Jedur (Ituraea) and on E. by Hauran. It is a well watered, grassy table land, once densely peopled, having numerous towns and villages, of which 11 are now inhabited. The western side, the supporting wall of the plateau, along the sea of Galilee, is steep and rugged. Og or his predecessors united principalities that were before distinct; after the Babylonian captivity the four provinces of Bashan became distinct; Gaulanitis, Trachonitis, Auranitis, and Batanaea.
GOLD Emblem of purity ( Job 23:10), of nobility ( Lamentations 4:1). Zaahaab , “yellow gold,” as geld from gel , yellow. Sagur , “treasured gold “ ( 1 Kings 6:20). Paz , “native gold” ( Job 28:17; Song 5:15). Betser , “gold earth,” i.e. raw ore ( Job 22:24). Kethem , figuratively ( Job 37:22 margin) “golden splendor”; but Maurer literally, “gold is to be found in northern regions, but God cannot, be found out because of His majesty” (compare Job 28). Charuts , “dug out gold” ( Proverbs 8:10). It was not coined in ancient times, but is represented on Egyptian tombs as weighed out in the form of rings of fixed weight ( Genesis 43:21). Simon Maccabeus (1 Macc. 15) was the first who coined Jewish money. Arabia, Sheba, and Ophir, Uphaz, and Parvaim (used for “gold” in Job 22:24), were the gold producing countries. It is no longer found in Arabia. The Asiatics have always possessed more gold in ornaments than in money.
GOLGOTHA Aramaic, Gulgaltha, Hebrew Gulgoleth . (See CALVARY , Latin) Greek ( Luke 23:33) Cranion, “a skull”; “Calvary” is from Vulgate The “place” of our Lord’s crucifixion and burial, not called in the Gospels a mount, as it is now commonly. “In the place where He was crucified was a garden, and in the garden a new sepulchre, ... hewn in stone wherein never man before was laid” ( Luke 23:53; John 19:41). The stone or rock perhaps suggested the notion of a hill. Moreover, the derivation of Golgotha (not “a place of skulls,” but “of a skull,” Matthew 27:33) implies a bald, round, skull-like mound or hillock, not a mount literally, but spiritually entitled to the name as being that sacred elevation to which our lifted up Lord would draw all hearts ( John 12:32). “Without the gate” ( Hebrews 13:12); “nigh to the city” ( John 19:20); near a thoroughfare where “they that passed by reviled Him” ( Matthew 27:39), and where “Simon a Cyrenian who passed by, coming out of the country,” was compelled to bear His cross ( Mark 15:21). Ellicott thinks the arguments in favor of its proximity to the present traditional site preponderate; the nearness of the assumed site to that of Herod’s palace is important. (But see JERUSALEM ) The explorations of Capt. Warren favor a site N. of Jerusalem.
GOLIATH Perhaps a descendant of the old Rephaim, a remnant of whom, when dispersed by Ammon, took refuge with the Philistines ( Deuteronomy 2:20,21; 2 Samuel 21:22). Hebrew golleh means an exile. Simonis derives it from an Arabic root, “stout.” Gath is incidentally mentioned in Samuel as Goliath’s city. Now Moses records the spies’ report ( Numbers 13:32,33) of Canaan, “there we saw the giants, the sons of Anak, which came of the giants; and we were in our own sight as grasshoppers.” Again in Joshua 11:21,22 it is written, “Joshua cut off the Anakims from the mountains, from Hebron, ... there was none of the Anakims left in the land of Israel, only in Gath and in Ashdod there remained.” Thus three independent witnesses, Moses, Joshua, and Samuel, in the most undesigned way confirm the fact that Goliath was a giant of Gath. His height, six cubits and a span, would make 9 ft. 2 in. Parisian measure, a height not unparalleled. But Septuagint and Josephus read four cubits and a span. His coat of mail, covering chest, back, and lower parts of the body, was “scale armor,” qasqeseth (compare Leviticus 11:9,10).
Keil and Delitzsch for “target of brass” translated (kidown ) “a brazen lance.” Goliath needed no target to cover his back, as this was protected by the coat of mail. [On the scene of battle see ELAH ; on the battle, etc., see DAVID and see ELHANAN .] GOMER 1. Japhet’s oldest; son; father of Ashkenaz, Riphath, and Togarmah ( Genesis 10:2,3). A warlike ally of Magog (Scythia) Gog ( Ezekiel 38:6), coming from the N. The Cimmerians warred in northwestern Asia from 670 to 570 B.C. Originally dwelling in what is now southern Russia, the Ukraine (the Crimea betrays their name, the Cimmerian Bosphorus); then being dispossessed by the Scythians, they fled across the Caucasus into Armenia and Asia Minor; they warred with Lydia, and burnt the temple of Diana of Ephesus. They are the stock of the Cymry (as the Welsh call themselves; the English gave them the name “Welsh,” i.e. foreigners, though originally they occupied the whole of the British isles but were driven back by succeeding invaders to the northwestern extremities, which their two divisions, the Gael of Ireland and Scotland and the Cymry of Wales, occupy), and gave their name to Cumber-land. They once occupied the Cimbrie Chersonese (Denmark). The Galatians were Celts, and so sprung from Gomer. 2. Daughter of Diblaim. Gomer = completion or ripeness, namely, of consummate wickedness; daughter of doubled layers of grape-cake ( Hosea 1:3). One completely given up to sensuality. Hosea in vision (not in external act, which would be revolting to purity)takes by God’s command Gomer to wife, though a woman “of whoredoms”; symbolically teaching that out of this world, which whorishly has departed from the Lord, God takes a church to be sanctified by communion with Himself in Christ, as Gomer was sanctified by communion with the prophet, ( Corinthians 7:14). The Savior unites to Himself the unholy, to make it holy. [But see HOSEA .] GOMORRAH Traces of the catastrophe recorded in Genesis 19 are visible in the whole region about the Dead, or as Scripture calls it, the see SALT SEA .
Volcanic agency and earthquake, accompanying the fire shower, may have produced the deep depression of the sea, and so arrested the Jordan’s original onward course through the Arabah into the gulf of Akabah. The northern end of the lake is 1,300 ft. deep, the southern only 13 ft. below the surface. The southern division or bay of the sea most probably was formed at a late date. It abounds with salt, throws up bitumen, sulphur, and nitre on its shores. This answers to the vale of Siddim, “full of slime pits” ( Genesis 14:10); and it accords with the destruction of the four cities of the plain by fire and brimstone, and with the turning of Lot’s wife into a pillar of salt. Scripture does not say the cities were immersed in the sea, but that they were destroyed by fire from heaven ( Deuteronomy 29:23; Jeremiah 49:18; 50:40; Zephaniah 2:9; 2 Peter 2:6; Jude 1:4-7, “an example unto those that after should live ungodly”; Amos 4:11).
So Josephus, B. J., 4:8, section 4. The traditional names of Usdum, and site of Zoar, the hill of salt, said to have been Lot’s wife, favor the view that the cities lay either in or around the present southern bay. Grove argues for the northern site that Abram and Lot near Bethel could not have seen the southern valleys ( Genesis 13:10) but could see the northern, and that what they saw was “the Ciccar of the Jordan,” whereas Jordan flowed into the northern end of the Dead Sea but not into the southern.
But Genesis 13 probably means only that Lot, seeing the Jordan N. of the Dead Sea, and knowing the whole valley N. and S. to be well watered, chose it. Moreover, the catastrophes palpable to sight all round the southern end imply that the Jordan once flowed to the S. of that sea.
Gomorrah means submersion; Arabic ghamara, to “overwhelm with water.” Gomorrah was one of the five cities of the vale of Siddim whose forces were routed by Chedorlaomer, until Abram helped them. Zoar or Bela alone of the five, at Lot’s request, escaped destruction by the fire from the Lord.
Jerusalem when corrupted (for “the corruption of the best is the worst of all corruptions”) is termed Sodom and her people Gomer ( Isaiah 1:9,10); as the church apostate corrupted is termed “Babylon” (Revelation 17). Worse still are they who see Christ’s “mighty works” yet “repent not,” and who receive not the apostles’ teaching ( Matthew 10:15; Mark 6:11). The profound depression of the plain of Gomorrah, the deepest on the earth, and its stagnant tropical air, answered to its sunken morals.
Rather in wady Amrah is to be sought a connection with Gomorrah.
Tristram objects to the southern site for Sodom and Gomorrah that Chedorlaomer marching from mount Seir to Hazezon Tamar (Engedi) afterward meets the king of Sodom in the vale of Siddim, which therefore in the order ought to be rather at the northern end of the Dead Sea. Also Moses saw Zoar from mount Nebo ( Deuteronomy 34:3), which he could not had it been at the S.E. of Dead Sea. He thinks that the southern bed of the sea was formerly deeper than now, and that it was raised by deposits brought from the Arabah. Lightning probably kindled the masses of sulphurous bitumen abounding around. Combining with an earthquake, the storm cast showers of ignited bitumen on the cities, so that “the smoke of the country” was “as the smoke of a furnace,” as beheld by Abraham.
GOPHER WOOD Genesis 6:14. Perhaps cypress, kupar resembling gopher; suitable for shipbuilding; abounding in Babylonia and Adiabene, the region which may have been that of Noah’s building. It was here Alexander obtained timber for building his fleet.
GOSHEN 1. Three Egyptian homes in the Delta, and extending over part of Goshen, bore a name beginning with ka or ga, “a bull,” namely, Mnevis, worshipped at On, representing Turn the unknown source of all existence. N.E. of Lower Egypt, having the Mediterranean on N., the desert on E., the Delta and the Tanitic branch of the Nile on W. (hence called the field of Zoan or Tanis, Psalm 78:12,43), extending S. to the head of the Red Sea and nearly to Memphis. Also called the land of Rameses, in which Israel built (i.e. fortified anew) for Pharaoh Raamses and Pithom as treasure cities ( Genesis 47:11; Exodus 1:11). Joseph naturally placed his family on the border land between Egypt and Palestine, the promised land, and at the same time near himself at Tunis or else Memphis the capital of Egypt.
Goshen corresponded to Wady-’t-Tumeylat. The fresh water canal runs through it from the Nile to Ismailia. From El Wady to the head of the gulf of Suez is three days’ journey, the distance assigned in Exodus. The answer of Joseph’s brethren to Pharaoh ( Genesis 46:28,34), “thy servants have been herdsmen from our youth,” (Joseph so instructing them “that ye may dwell in ... Goshen, for every shepherd is an abomination to the Egyptians,”) proves that Goshen was regarded by Egyptians as scarcely Egypt proper, though having many Egyptians in it, as is recorded during the ten plagues; also foreigners. [See BERIAH .] The names of sonic places in Goshen are Semitic, as Migdol and Baal-zephon. Joseph lived under the 12th or 13th dynasty, a native not a shepherd dynasty (as Genesis 46:34 proves). Pharaoh calls Goshen “the best of the land” ( Genesis 47:5-11), namely, for a pastoral people as Israel; for in tillage the parts of Egypt next the Nile are more fertile than Goshen. In Goshen Pharaoh implies he kept some of his cattle, over which he proposes to set Israelites as rulers of herdsmen. The separation of Israel from the plagues marks the distinctness of the land. Israel setting out from Rameses in Goshen in two days reached the edge of the Wilderness, and in one day more the Red Sea, i.e. from Rameses (on the old canal from the Tanitic arm of the Nile to lake Timsah) 30 miles direct to the ancient western shore. The Septuagint call Goshen “Gesen of Arabia;” and Pliny “the Arabic nome” from its bordering on Arabia. Now Esh-Shurkiyeh, well intersected by canals; Egypt’s best province, yielding the largest revenue. 2. A district in S. Palestine, between Gaza and Gibeon ( Joshua 10:41; 11:16), and a city ( Joshua 15:51); between the S. country (the Negeb) and the shephelah (the low hills between the mountain and plain, not as KJV “the valley “) of Judah.
Doubtless named in remembrance of Israel’s original place of sojourn in Egypt.
GOSPELS From the Old English god spel, “good news.” The providential preparations for the gospel attest its divine origin. (1) The translation at Alexandria of the Old Testament into Greek (by the Septuagint), rendering the Jewish Scriptures accessible through that then universal language of the refined and polite to the literary of all nations. All possibility of questioning the existence or falsifying the contents of Old Testament prophecy was precluded thereby, however much the Jews who rejected Jesus would have wished to alter the prophecies which plainly identified Him as the foretold Messiah. The canon of the Old Testament having been completed, and prophecy having ceased before the Sept. translation, they could not deny that the divine knowledge derivable from it was complete. (2) Greek and oriental philosophy had drawn attention to religious and moral speculations, which at once exposed and undermined paganism, and yet with all its endless labors gave no satisfactory answer to the questionings and cravings of man’s spiritual being. (3) The Roman empire had broken down the barriers between E. and W. and united almost the whole world, Asia, Africa, and Europe, in one, and established peace and good order, making possible the rapid transmission of the glad tidings from country to country; compare Luke 2:1; Matthew 22:21. (4) The universal expectation in the East of a great king to arise in Judea, probably due to fragments of revelation (as the prophecy of Balsam, Numbers 24:17) such as led the wise men of the East to conic seeking “the king of the Jews.” (5) The settling of the Jews, and the consequent erection of synagogues, throughout all the towns of Asia. Greece, Italy, Africa, and western Europe. Hence by the reading of the law and the prophets in the synagogues everywhere each sabbath proselytes of righteousness were gathered from the Gentiles, such as the eunuch or chamberlain of Candace, queen of the Ethiopians, a student of Scripture, Cornelius the centurion who “feared God with all his house, and gave much alms to the people, and prayed to God always.” These not being bound under the ceremonial yoke, as the original Jews, formed a connecting link with the Gentiles; and hence at Antioch in Pisidia, when the Jews rejected the preaching of Paul and Barnabas, these proselytes, with the Gentiles, “besought that these words might be preached to them the next sabbath, ... and on that day came almost the whole city together to hear the word of God” ( Acts 13:15-44). So at Iconium ( Acts 14:1), and at Thessalonica ( Acts 17:1-4).
Such were the “devout men, out of every nation under heaven,” the collected representatives of the world, to whom Peter preached with such success ( Acts 2:4-11). The 3,000 converts of that day and the 5,000 of a few days after ( Acts 4:4) would act as missionaries on their return to their several nations. To the Jews first in each synagogue abroad the apostles preached, and gathered many converts from among them; and then to the Gentiles. The Jews’ national rejection of Jesus is no valid objection to the gospel, since He foretold it Himself (Matt 16:21; 26:2), and the Old Testament prophets did so too ( Isaiah 49:16; 21; 52; 53; Psalm 22); so that, fixing their eyes on the prophecies of Messiah’s glory and kingdom which they wrested to mean His setting up a temporal kingdom at Jerusalem and overthrowing the Roman existing dominion, and shutting their eyes to the prophecies of His humiliation, “they knew Him not, nor yet the voices of the prophets which are read every sabbath,” and yet in spite of themselves, like their types Joseph’s brethren ( Genesis 50:20), “they have fulfilled them in condemning Him” ( Acts 13:27; 3:18). The harmony in Christ of prophecies seemingly so opposite, His temporal and temporary humiliation, and yet His spiritual dominion now and His final visible and everlasting kingdom, furnish conclusive proof of the Divinity of prophecies which no human sagacity could have anticipated or human agency fulfilled. The correspondence of the gospel event to the predictions of the Old Testament is thus established by the Jews, unwilling witnesses and therefore beyond suspicion. Graves (Pentateuch, 2:3,6) well says, had they universally embraced the gospel at its first publication, the sceptic might allege the prophecies to have been fabricated or altered to fit them to the events; the contrary is now certain. This is one great cause why the national conversion of the Jews is delayed “until the fullness of the Gentiles shall come in” ( Romans 11:35). They continue guardians of the prophetic records until these shall have had their contents examined, and their application ascertained, by every other nation in the world.
Genuineness and inspiration of the Four Gospels. The “prophets” in the Christian church who had the spiritual gift of “discerning spirits” were an effectual check on the introduction of a pseudo-inspired writing. Paul appeals to them on the inspiration of his letters ( 1 Corinthians 14:37; 12:10; compare 1 John 4:1). Thus, by the two-fold inspiration, that of the authors and that of the judges, the canonicity of the four Gospels, as of the other books of New Testament, is established. The anonymous fragment of the canon of the New Testament attributed to Caius a presbyter of Rome (published by Muratori, Antiq. Ital., iii. 854, and known as the Muratorian Fragment), recognizes the Gospels (Luke and John, the sentences as to Matthew and Mark are obliterated) as inspired, and condemns as uninspired the Shepherd by Hermes, “written very recently in our own times,” i.e. in the first part of the second century, the age in which John the last apostle died. Theophilus (Ad Autol., iii. 11), Bishop of Antioch A.D. 168, refers to “the evangelists” and “the Holy Scriptures” of the New Testament. Clement of Alexandria in the latter part of the second century refers to the collection of Gospels as one whole, “the gospel” (Quis Dives Salvus?). The anonymous letter to Diognetus (sec. 11 ed.
Hefele) attributed to Justin Martyr refers to “the Gospels and the Apostles” (i.e. the letters). Ignatius of Antioch, a hearer of John (Ep. ad Philad., sec. 5), calls “the (written) Gospel the flesh of Jesus,” and classes it with the Old Testament prophets. Tertullian (Adv. Marc. iv. 2), mentioning the Four Gospels two as the work of apostles and two as that of apostolic men (A.D. 208); Irenaeus (Adv. Haer., ii. 27; iii. 11, sec. 7); martyred A.D. 202; Origen, speaking of the four Gospels as “the elements of the church’s faith”; Eusebius; and not only these orthodox writers but heretics, Marcion dud others, appeal to the Gospels as the inspired standard [see CANON].
They were translated into Syriac in the second century, and into Latin and the two Egyptian dialects by the fourth century. We have better evidence for their genuineness than for any other ancient writing. Theophilus arranged the Four Gospels so as to form one work (Jerome, Ep. ad Algas., iv. 197). Tartan, who died A.D. 170, formed a Diatessaron or harmony of the Four Gospels. Barnabas (Paul’s companion), Clement of Rome ( Philippians 4:3), and Polycarp quote the Gospels, though not with verbal exactness. Justin Martyr quotes Matthew, Luke, and John largely and exactly. As the heretic Gnostics and Marcion arose early in the second century their acceptance of the Gospels proves that these had been promulgated some time before (i.e. in the apostolic age itself), for after the dissensions between the orthodox and heretics had arisen the Gospels would never have been accepted by mutually hostile parties. A distinct line was drawn between the apocryphal and the genuine Gospels. Unbelievers, as Celsus in controversy with Origen, could not deny the genuineness of the four even while rejecting their contents. The fathers’ large quotations (Origen’s especially) prove our Gospels were the same as theirs. Our Saviour wrote nothing Himself, the alleged letter to Abgarus, king of Edessa, being probably spurious. If He had (like Muhammed) recorded His own miracles and teachings, internal consistency would have been nothing marvelous. People would have deified the form, while failing to discern the inner essence. “If I bear witness of Myself My witness is not true” ( John 5:31). There would be lost the powerful proof we now have, from the mutual coherency of writings not composed by the Founder of Christianity nor in His lifetime, but by Jews, unlearned mostly, giving independent yet marvelously agreeing accounts of miraculous works, and a spiritual system of doctrine unheard before, themselves willing to lay down their lives for the truths they witnessed to; these writings received and accepted too by numerous congregations, living at the time and in the very places where the miracles alleged in proof of their inspiration were wrought, and producing worldwide effects now for ages. The reality of their inspiration alone can account for all this. The Jews and Gentiles had attained high civilization when Christ came; it is not in such an age that myths spring up and are accepted, but in a people’s infancy ( 2 Peter 1:16).
Mutual relationship of the Four Gospels. — They differ in language and details, so that the later cannot have been mere copyists of their predecessors. Their accordance in unusual expressions and in choice of incidents implies at the same time that the later evangelists were acquainted, with the Gospels that preceded. The four have by the Holy Spirit’s design, if not by that of the writers, a supplementary relation to each other. Each later evangelist has a two-fold aim: (1) to confirm by his own independent witness the facts recorded in the preceding Gospel; (2) to give new facts, and to place those already recorded in a new light.
The former aim accounts for the agreements, the latter for the variations.
In the first three, called the Synoptic Gospels, from the main outline being the same and the scene of Christ’s ministry mainly Galilee, the first aim is prominent. In the fourth, written long after, all is new except the events of passion week and the feeding of the 5,000 (and the storm at sea) recorded to introduce the discourse in Galilean Capernaum (John 6); and the scene is mainly not in Galilee but Judea. But they hint also at Christ’s ministry in Judea ( Matthew 23:37, Luke 13:34); John too occasionally describes His Galilean ministry (John 2; John 6; John 7; John 21). Of portions in Matthew and 93 portions in Mark, 78 sections are common to both Matthew and Mark; also, of 65 particulars in Mark, 54 of them appear in Matthew in the same relative order. Yet that Mark does not copy Matthew appears from his restoring the true order of events before the Baptist’s death, from which Matthew had departed to give prominence to the Sermon on the Mount and the apostolic commission, and to make less prominent the narrative, which is but one third of the whole. Mark too, of all Four Gospels, abounds in the most minute graphic touches as an eyewitness of the scenes, though his Gospel is the shortest. In 42 sections the three Synoptists coincide; 12 more sections are given by Matthew and Mark alone; five sections are given by Mark and Luke alone, 14 sections are given by Matthew and Luke. Besides, five sections are unique to Matthew, two sections are unique to Mark, and nine sections are unique to Luke. The verbal coincidences are chiefly in reciting the words of Jesus or of others in connection with, Him, seldom in the narrative of the evangelists themselves. In Matthew the proportion is as one to more than two, in Mark one to four, in Luke one to ten (Norton, Genuineness, I. 240). Stroud thus tabulates the four, taking 100 as the sum:
PORTIONS UNIQUE TO COINCIDENCES TOTAL EACH GOSPEL Mark 7 93 Matthew 42 58 Luke 59 41 John 92 8 John’s narrative of Mary’s anointing of Jesus’ feet combines her actions drawn from Luke, the ointment and its value from Mark, and the admonition to Judas from Matthew. His chief aim is to set forth Jesus as the Incarnate Word, the everlasting Son of God, a truth which some gnostics preceding Cerinthus even already began to impugn. Yet he omits facts recorded by the Synoptists which would have suited his purpose, just; because he knew they had sufficiently recorded them already.
That Luke wrote chronologically in his general facts is probable from his phrase “in order” ( Luke 1:1; unique to him, expressing succession Luke 8:1, “afterward,” Greek “in order,” Acts 18:23). His “Acts” are in chronological order. Notes of time occur in his Gospel ( Luke 1:26,56; 3:1,23; 6:1). Of the 44 particulars in Mark and the 42 particulars in Luke, (forming the latter’s main part ending with Luke 9:50,) particulars are common to both gospels, and with one exception in the same order; the more remarkable as 10 new particulars are inserted into Luke, 12 particulars are in Mark; the true succession alone would admit of such insertions without irregularity ensuing. At Luke 18:15, the blessing of the children, Luke’s narrative rejoins Matthew and Mark. The middle portion relates to the last half year of Jesus’ ministry, Luke 9:51 refers to His last journey to Jerusalem. His mission of the 70 (the better manuscripts have: 72) before Him (Luke 10), also Luke 13:22,23; 17:11; 23:5 confirm this. His route was through Samaria into Galilee from Ephraim ( Luke 9:51, John 11:54) as the starting point, then along the border between Galilee and Samaria into Peraea ( Luke 17:11; 13:31), so by Jericho to Bethany and Jerusalem (Birks’ Horae Evangel. and Greswell; but see JESUS CHRIST ).
Mark wrote before Luke, for except 24 verses all his Gospel is in one of the two other Synoptists; he never, if he was after Luke, would for the sake of 24 verses of original matter have published a distinct Gospel. His graphic vividness indicates an eyewitness not a compiler. Matthew, the earlier, omits the ascension as involved in the resurrection. Luke, the later writer, supplies the omission. Matthew, writing for Judea, dwells on facts less known there, Christ’s appearing in Galilee, omitting the ascension as known to most of his readers. Luke, writing for Gentile converts, describes facts less familiar to them which occurred after the resurrection in and about Jerusalem. Matthew selects facts suitable for Jews, the fulfillment of Old Testament prophecy in Jesus’ descent from Abraham and David and His legal title to Solomon’s throne. Luke shows the Gentiles that He was sprung from Adam, the common father of Gentiles and Jews. Matthew is more copious in discourses, the facts being taken for granted as notorious to his readers, the first thing needed being to show the Jews in what relationship with Christ’s teaching had with the law. Luke is copious in facts less known to the Gentiles and on Christ’s later ministry; Matthew having already dwelt more on His earlier ministry. Mark uses “gospel” for Christ’s doctrine; a later usage, not in Matthew [see MATTHEW and see MARK ]. Matthew in naming the twelve ( Matthew 10:3) modestly places himself after Thomas as “Matthew the publican.” Mark and Luke place him before Thomas and omit the humiliating epithet also they do not join his former profession with the apostolic name Matthew, but hide it under his lesser-known name Levi ( Matthew 9:9, Mark 2:14; Luke 5:27). This is an undesigned propriety and mark of truth.
John by his greater fullness on Jesus’ Godhead composed a doctrinal supplement to the Synoptics, who dwelt more on His ministry as the “Son of man” (though they too declare plainly His Godhead: Matthew 16:16,17; Luke 1:32, etc.). John marks Christ’s going up to the feasts at Jerusalem, which they do not. He also supplies the interval, omitted in them, from the temptation to Jesus’ second return to Galilee when His public ministry began, after John was cast into prison. He inserts in this interval Jesus’ “earlier” return to Galilee ( John 1:43) and visit to Jerusalem ( John 2:13) and Judea ( John 3:22,24), before the Baptist’s imprisonment. Then, at John 4:3,43, his Gospel coincides with the Synoptists at Christ’s second visit to Galilee ( Matthew 4:12, Luke 4:14). In John 7:1 he alludes to His 18 months’ ministry in Galilee, recorded by them and therefore omitted by him, between the visit to Jerusalem at the feast of tabernacles ( John 7:2,10) and the former visit ( John 5:1), for John 6:4 compared with John 7:1 implies Christ omitted attending the Passover occurring in that interval lest the Jews should kill Him before the time. John 21:1 evidently supplemerits Matthew 28:16, which it precedes in time. John 21:6,7 supplements Luke 5:6,8, the corresponding miracle before His resurrection.
There are three periods marked in Acts: (1) From the ascension to the rise of the first purely Gentile church at Antioch where the disciples were first called Christians ( Acts 11:26); the first Gospel, Matthew, corresponds to this first and Jewish period, between A.D. 30 and A.D. 41. The second period is from the rise of the Gentile church at Antioch to Paul’s passing over to Europe in obedience to the vision at Troas; the second Gospel, Mark, answers to this Judaeo- Gentile transition period, A.D. 41 or 44 — A.D. 50; hence, there occur (Mark 7) adaptations to Gentile converts by explanations of Jewish usages.
The third period extends from Paul’s first entering Europe down to his reaching Rome; the third Gospel, Luke, answers to this third period, A.D. 50-63, being suited to Greeks not familiar with the geography of Judea; it must have been written before Acts 1:1 which refers to it (Acts being written probably soon after A.D. 63, the date of the close of Paul’s imprisonment with which it abruptly breaks off). Theophilus probably lived at Antioch (Birks’ Hor. Evang., 192), and Luke perhaps published his Gospel at the close of his first connection with Paul, whom he joined at Troas A.D. 53, and who seems to have helped him as Peter helped Mark.
Philippi, where Luke was left behind, was perhaps the center from which he circulated it among the Greek churches. Compare 2 Corinthians 8:18, “the brother whose praise is in the Gospel throughout all the churches.”
Mark probably wrote while having the opportunity of Peter’s guidance in Palestine, between his return from Perga and his second journey with Barnabas in or for Caesarea, the second center of gospel preaching as Jerusalem was the first and Antioch the third, the scene of Cornelius’ conversion by Peter, Mark’s father in the faith, the head quarters of the Roman forces in Palestine, where Philip the evangelist resided. Latin idioms and Roman energy are characteristic of Mark, whose very name is Roman. Many centurions are honourably noticed in the Gospels and Acts, so that it is likely the gospel made much way among the Romans at Caesarea. In Colossians 4:10 be is identified with John (Hebrew) Mark (Latin) by the addition “sister’s son to Barnabas.” He was with Peter in Mesopotamian Babylon (A.D. 58) when Peter ( 1 Peter 5:18) calls him “Mark (Marcus) my son.” Peter, after escaping from Herod’s prison, went to the house of John Mark’s mother first ( Acts 12:12). Eusebius, from Papins or John Presb., (Hist. Eccles., iii. 39; v. 8) calls Mark “Peter’s interpreter,” “handing down in writing what Peter preached.” Justin Martyr, Dial. Tryph., 106, quotes Mark’s Gospel as “Records (or Memorials, [apomnemoneumata]) of Peter.” Tertullian (Marcion iv. 5) and Jerome (Ad Hedib.) say, “Peter narrated, Mark wrote.” Internal evidence favours this tradition. Mark’s Gospel, except a few verses, is limited to the time of Peter’s attendance on our Lord. The blessing pronounced on him after his confession of Christ is omitted, while the ensuing reproof is retained; his fall is recorded, but not his bitter tears of repentance. For other instances of omitting what tends to Peter’s honour compare Matthew 14:29, 17:24-27; Mark 9:30-33, 14:47; John 18:10; Luke 5:10, 24:34. The angel’s words addressed to Mary Magdalene after Christ’s resurrection, “Go, tell His disciples and Peter,” are recorded owing to Peter’s deep sense of Christ’s pardoning grace after his grievous fall; delicacy forbade his recording his own repentance, gratitude can never forget that Jesus’ first words of special comfort were sent to him, “tell Peter” specially, for his Saviour has risen even for his justification ( Mark 16:7). Mark’s Gospel, brief, vivid, and abounding in acts rather than discourses, was best suited to the Roman character, with fewer Old Testament quotations than Matthew who wrote for the Jews. The tradition of its being written in Rome arose probably from its Roman character; from Caesarea it would soon pass to Rome through Romans sailing from Caesarea there. Mark’s shortcoming was that of his spiritual father — Peter — slowness to admit uncircumcised Gentile Christians to the privileges of full fellowship ( Acts 13:13; 15:38; compare Acts 10:14, Galatians 2:11-14). Mark, from love of ease and home, as well as Jewish prejudice, shrank from carrying the gospel to the heathen of Pamphylia; but by subsequent zeal he so regained Paul’s favour that the apostle desired Luke to bring him, saying “he is profitable to me for the ministry” ( 2 Timothy 4:11).
Matthew presumes his readers are familiar with Jewish usages and localities, and appeals to their prophets continually. This accords with the earliest period of church history. The closing charge “Go ye, teach all nations,” accords with the church’s circumstances at its opening the door to Cornelius and Gentile proselytes, A.D. 41. Eusebius’ Chronicle in some manuscripts gives this date. A written Gospel was not needed when all the apostles were in Jerusalem; but just when they were going abroad a record such as Matthew’s was needed. Isidore and Nicephorus (Hist. Ecclesiastes, ii. 15) fix on 15 years after the ascension as the date.
Thus, in the Jewish aspect of Matthew’s Gospel, the Roman of Mark’s, and the Greek of Luke’s, we observe the conflux of the three chief human civilizations, the Hebrew theocracy, the Roman polity, and the Greek literary and artistic refinement; while in John’s the spiritual verities of the Son of God predominate. The same significant union appears in the Hebrew, Greek, and Latin inscription on the cross.
Gospel harmonies: spiritual relations. Discrepancies have been alleged in the Gospels. But they are not irreconciliable; granting that the ways of harmonizing proposed are not always the true ways, the very variations disprove collusion. Reconciliable diversity is a confirmation of the truth, as alleged by mutually independent witnesses. Entire sameness in all four would make all but the first mere copies. Contradictions would prove one or other inaccurate. Substantial unity, with circumstantial diversity, partial and reconciliable, is the highest kind of internal evidence. As in architecture a front and a side view, a ground plan and an elevation, are different, yet harmonize in viewing the connected whole, so the four, though not facsimiles, have an inner harmony when one first looks to the purpose and the individual spiritual character of each, and then to the mutually connected whole in its fourfold aspect. The variation in the order of the same events as recorded in different Gospels ( Matthew 8:28 compare Mark 5:1, Luke 8:26; Matthew 8:19-22 compare Luke 9:57-61) does not imply discrepancy unless it could be shown that all the evangelists designed a chronological record throughout. The spiritual sequence and connection is the essential thing in a revelation, and is as true in those Gospel passages which do not observe the chronological order as in those which do; for the same truth is manifold in its spiritual bearings, and is therefore put in various connections, under the Spirit’s guidance, for the church’s edification. Fuller information as to all the facts of the case would clear away seeming discrepancies. It is enough for the harmonist to show a possible reconciliation (in the absence of fuller knowledge); this is sufficient even to meet a priori objections against the accurate truth of details, and such objections have no force against the gospel as a whole. “Substantial truth under circumstantial variety” is the most conclusive testimony, as proving the mutual independence of the witnesses, for had all four been alike their testimony would have been that of but one witness. At the same time all four, being supervised by the Spirit of God, are true in their order of events spiritually, though but one order is true chronologically. Mechanical uniformity is no necessary result of inspiration.
The four are not mere annals or biographies, but spiritual records, “memoirs” adapted to various wants of the Christian life. A diatessaron, or continuous record compiled chronologically out of the four, fails in this, viz. the setting forth of the events under their mutual, manifold, spiritual relations. Christ’s life, death and resurrection are represented from four different aspects to complete the view. Each Gospel has its distinctive character; the progression of the four reaches its climax in John, who portrays the divinity of the Son of God, as the former three portray His humanity. They are not four different Gospels, but one fourfold Gospel from the Holy Spirit, through four intelligent agents, each giving that view of the Lord Jesus which belonged to his own character and circumstances, and those of his immediate readers, and so by Divine Providence meeting severally the church’s wants in all ages. Seeming discrepancies area test of faith, whether in spite of difficulties we will, because of the preponderating probabilities, believe all God’s word. They are incentives for us more diligently to “search the Scriptures,” which contain within themselves their own best vindication and harmony. The Gospels are fragmentary, complete spiritually but not historically; hence the seeming discrepancies. Those early churches which collected the canon saw the alleged discrepancies, but saw nothing in them incompatible with inspiration and truth; otherwise they would not have transmitted them: as in nature the seeming variations in the orbits of some planets are found, on fuller knowledge, to be in harmony with the general law. FOURFOLD GOSPEL. — Irenaeus (iii. 11), Athanasius (Syn. Scr., p. 55), Jerome (Matt., prooem.) regarded the four living see CHERUBIM united in one as representing the fourfold gospel. Both are the chariot of God bearing Him into all lands ( Psalm 99:1; 19:4), guided by the Spirit, intertwined with wheels in wheels of coincidences and variations, full of eyes, discerning the thoughts. The four in their spiritual ideal reveal the Saviour under a fourfold aspect. (1) The lion denotes Christ’s kingship, as “lion of the tribe of Judah.”
Matthew traces His line of succession to the throne from “David the king.”
The wise men (Matthew 2), according to Balaam’s prophecy of the “sceptre to arise out of Israel,” sought “the king of the Jews.” The climax of the three temptations (Matthew 4) is Satan’s offer of the kingdom. The Sermon on the Mount has the sententious tone of an authoritative king.
Seven parables illustrate the true nature of the kingdom, for the Jews for whom Matthew writes looked for Messiah’s kingdom. His claim of exemption from tribute, recorded in Matthew alone ( Matthew 17:24), marks Him Son and Heir of the kingdom. Matthew closes with His universal dominion ( Matthew 28:18-20). (2) The ox or calf typifies patient toil ( 1 Corinthians 9:9,10). Mark’s representation of Christ corresponds; homely, earnest, minutely graphic, full of action rather than discourse, suited to the Roman practical character, it. abruptly carries us at once into Christ’s ministry of unceasing toil (Mark 1). The word variously translated “straightway,” “immediately,” “forthwith,” “anon,” “as soon as,” “by and by” (eutheoos occurs 27 times, though in Matthew but eight times, in Luke twice; an illustration of its energetic tone. Minute details are peculiar to his vivid style: “Jesus was with the wild beasts” ( Mark 1:13); “Zebedee with the hired servants” ( Mark 1:20); Boanerges ( Mark 3:17); Jesus’ gestures ( Mark 3:5); His successive acts in curing the deaf ( Mark 7:33,34); the lingering glory on His countenance, and the people’s amazement ( Mark 9:15). It presents the best picture of Jesus’ daily outward life. (3) A man’s face denotes human sympathy. Luke’s Gospel presents the lowly humanity of the Son of man’s conception, birth, and childhood; it traces Him up to Adam, the common father of all men. The parables and miracles unique to Luke exhibit Christ’s human tenderness; the prodigal son, the good Samaritan, the grateful Samaritan leper, the publican’s prayer, Zaccheus, the raising of the Nain widow’s son. (4) The eagle denotes high soaring heavenliness. John’s Gospel, say the fathers, is “the Gospel after the Spirit,” as the others are “after the flesh.”
John supplies details of Andrew, Philip, Nathanael, Thomas, and Judas, unmentioned by the others; also details of time, place, and numbers; also supplemental matter ( John 2:19), “destroy this temple,” accounting for the charge of the false witnesses unexplained in Matthew 26:61. In the prologue and elsewhere Christ’s characteristic aspect is His Divine glory breaking forth the brighter amidst the darkness of the Jews’ opposition.
Each of the four, while recognizing the Lord’s other aspects, has one aspect prominent; and the four combine in one harmonious whole, joined by a spiritual not a mechanical unity. “Mutual intertexture is characteristic of Scripture. The second and third evangelists warranted the genuineness of each former Gospel with all the authority of the latter, by quoting its words. Thus they became joint vouchers for the genuine Gospels and joint opposers of the spurious. John authenticates the foregoing ones not by adopting but by omitting what they had related, and supplying what they omitted.” (Wordsworth.)
In gardens the arbor is often shaded with leaves of the bottle gourd; but the treelike sudden growth of the Ricinus, Palma Christi, or castor oil plant make it the more likely; so Jerome describes it, “within a few days you see the plant grown into a little tree”; and Celsius identifies it with the Punic and Syriac el keroa, or Ricinus, and the Hebrew is evidently from the Egyptian kiki, the same plant. The leaves are large and palmate, like a hand with outspread fingers (whence comes the name, Palma Christi), with serrated lobes. Castor oil is made from the seeds. 2. Wild gourds ( 2 Kings 4:38-41), paqot . It resembles the vine; and as several of the Cucurbitaceoe, melons, pumpkins, etc., from their juiciness, in a hot climate are favourite articles of food, a noxious sort might easily be mistaken for a wholesome kind. The squirting or wild cucumber (Ecbalium elaterium; the fruit opening, from paaqah “to open,” and scattering its seeds when touched) and the colocynth (about the size of an orange) are such. The latter is favoured by the old versions, and its derivation also suits the dry gourds, when crushed, bursting or opening with a crashing noise.
Gozan. A river ( 1 Chronicles 5:26; 2 Kings 17:6; 18:11). There the captive Israelites were transported by Shalmaneser and Esarhaddon. Now the Kizzit Ozan, the golden river of Media, which rises in Kurdistan and ultimately falls into the White River, and so into the Caspian Sea. A country also bore the name of the river, Gauzanitis (Ptolemy, Geog. v. 18); Mygdonia is the same name with the “M” prefixed. So Habor was a region and a river (the Khabour, the affluent of the Euphrates). The region is one of great fertility (Layard, Nineveh and Babylon). G. in G. Rawlinson’s view was the district on the river Habor or Khabour.
GRASS Its rapid fading in the heat of Palestine is a frequent image of man’s frailty ( <19A314> Psalm 103:14,15; 90:5,6; Isaiah 40:6,7). In Jeremiah 50:11 for “the heifer at grass” (i.e., fat and frisky), since the gender of “at grass” dasha , confounded with desha “grass”) does not agree with eglah “a heifer,” translated “a heifer threshing (treading out) grain.” The strongest were used for threshing, and as the law did not allow their mouth to be muzzled in threshing ( Deuteronomy 25:4) they waxed wanton with superabundant food, an image of Judea’s insolent destroyers.
It is a coincidence undesigned, and therefore a mark of genuineness, that by three evangelists the “grass” is noticed in the miraculous feeding of the 5,000; John ( John 6:10) saying, “there was much grass in the place” (a notable circumstance in Palestine, where grass is neither perennial nor universal; the latter rain and sunshine stimulate its rapid growth, but the scorching summer soon withers it and leaves the hills bare); Mark ( Mark 6:39), with his usual graphic vividness, mentioning “the green grass”; Matthew ( Matthew 14:19) simply stating Christ’s command to “sit down on the grass.” But in the feeding of the 4,000 the multitude in both Gospels ( Matthew 15:35; Mark 8:6) are commanded to “sit down on the ground.” This delicate distinction disproves the notion that the two miracles are really different versions of the same miracle, as also that of the 12 (small) baskets (kofinoi ) in the miracle of the 5,000, and the seven (larger) baskets (spurides ) in that of the 4,000. Compare Matthew 16:9,10 with Matthew 14:20, Luke 9:17; [kofinoi ] being uniformly applied to the former miracle, [spurides ] to the latter (Blunt, Undesigned Coincidences). In Matthew 6:30 “the lily” is classed with “the grass of the field.” “Grass” must here be used for all that grows in the field, wild flowers as well as grasses, herbage.
Joel ( Joel 3:6) mentions the Grecians as the purchasers to whom the Tyrian slave merchants sold the children of Judah (800 B.C.). Ezekiel ( Ezekiel 27:13) mentions Javan (Greece) and Tyre as “trading in the persons of men.” Daniel ( Daniel 8:5,21; 11:3) foretold the rise of Alexander the Great, “the great horn between the eyes of the rough goat” which “came from the W. on the face of the whole earth, and touched not the ground (overrunning the earth with incredible swiftness, the ‘leopard’ 7:6), and smote the ram” (Medo-Persia). Zechariah ( Zechariah 9:13) represents Judah and Ephraim as the arrows filling God’s bow, “when I have raised up thy son, O Zion, against thy sons, O Greece” (Javan) thus foretelling that the Jewish Maccabees would punish Greece in the person of Antiochus Epiphanes, one of Alexander’s successors, in just retribution for her purchasing from Tyre as slaves” the children of Judah and Jerusalem.” Isaiah ( Isaiah 66:19) foretells that the Jews who survive His judgments He will send as missionaries to Javan to “declare My glory among the Gentiles.”
The most important function Greece performed in the gospel scheme was that it furnished the language adapted by its wide use among the refined of all nations, as also by its marvelous flexibility, capability of forming new theological terms, and power of expressing the most delicate shades of meaning, for conveying to the world the glad news of salvation through Christ. Orally, it was generally used by the apostles in preaching, being then widely spoken; and it is the sole medium of the New Testament written word. The Greek of the New Testament and of the Grecians or Hellenist Jews was not Classical Greek, but Hebrew modes of thought and idiom clothed with Greek words. The Septuagint and the Hebrew are a necessary key to this New Testament Hellenistic Greek. The Grecians or Greek-speaking Jews were at once Jewish missionaries to the pagan, witnessing everywhere against the prevalent polytheism, and pioneers to prepare unconsciously the way for the gospel missionary. They formed the connecting link between the Hebrew Jews and the Gentiles.
In New Testament “Greek” (HElleen is distinguished from “Grecian” (Hellenist). “Greek” means either a native of Greece or else a Gentile in general ( Romans 10:12; 2:9,10, margin) “Grecian” is a foreign Jew, literally, one who speaks Greek, as contrasted with a home Jew, a “Hebrew,” dwelling in Palestine, or rather one speaking the sacred tongue, Hebrew, whether dwelling in Palestine or elsewhere. So Paul though of the Greek city Tarsus, calls himself a “Hebrew” and “of the Hebrews,” i.e. having neither parent Gentile ( Philippians 3:5; 2 Corinthians 11:22).
The first church at Jerusalem was composed of these two classes, the “Hebrew” and the “Grecian” Jews; from whence, when the Grecian widows complained of being “neglected in the daily ministrations” of alms, the seven chosen to rectify matters were all “Grecians,” judging from their Greek names, Stephen, Prochorus, etc. ”Greeks” in the strict sense, whether native Greeks or Gentiles in general, were not admitted to the Christian church until later. Acts 11:20, “Greeks” is the reading of the Alexandrinus manuscript rightly for “Grecians,” for the “Grecians”,were long before a recognized portion of the church ( Acts 6:1), and some of those “scattered abroad” were among them (for none of the seven” Grecian” deacons, except Stephen, was as yet martyred) [see CHRISTIAN ]; the new name marking the new epoch in the church. At first those scattered abroad “preached to, the Jews only” (the word is not “Hebrews” but “Jews,” including “Grecians”); afterward some of them preached to pagan “Greeks.” Their conversation was a new thing, a special “grace of God,” tidings of which reaching the Jerusalem church constrained them to send Barnabas as far as Antioch, who “when he had seen the GRACE of God was glad” and enlisted the cooperation of Paul who had been in vision already called to “bear Christ’s name unto the Gentiles” ( Acts 9:15). “Spake ALSO unto” is the true reading ( Acts 11:20, the Alexandrinus, the Vaticanus, the Sinaiticus manuscripts, and the Vulgate version). The “also” marks a further step than their “preaching unto the Jews (including ‘Grecians’) only.” It was with the Grecians (Hellenists) that Paul came into controversy at his first visit to Jerusalem ( Acts 9:29). Their Grecian or foreign culture and education made them clever disputants; hence, their keenness in controverting the new convert who had before sided with them against Stephen; the latter also was once a Grecian (Hellenist) Jew before his conversion to Christianity ( Acts 7:58; 6:9-14).
GREYHOUND Proverbs 30:31, margin, “girt in the loins,” referring to the slenderness of its body at the loins, as if tightly girt for grace and swiftness in running, so that it is classed among the “things which go well.” The ancient Egyptian paintings represent such close-girt hounds used in coursing.
Gesenius understands Proverbs 30:31 “a war horse with ornamental trappings girt on its loins.” Maurer, “a wrestler with loins girt for the struggle.” Grove. [See ASHTORETH .] Translated rather “Asherah,” the image of the goddess. So 2 Kings 23:6, where it is nonsense “Josiah brought out the grove (Asherah) from the house of the Lord”; Manasseh had “set this graven image of Asherah in the house” ( 2 Kings 21:7; 22:7; compare Judges 3:7). Also a “grove” could not be “set up under every green tree” ( 2 Kings 17:10; 1 Kings 14:23; 18:19; Exodus 34:13). In Genesis 21:33 it is a different word, “Abraham planted a grove (eshowl ) in Beersheba,” rather “a tamarisk tree,” a hardy evergreen fitted to be a memorial to his posterity that the well was theirs. The Asherah was upright, fixed or planted in the ground; of wood, so that it was capable of being “cut down and burned” ( Judges 6:25,26; see Kings 15:13). “Maacbah had made an idol Asherah” (not” IN grove”). The worship of Asherah like that of Astarte or Ashtoreth, was associated with Baal worship. Astarte is the personal goddess, Ashcrah her conventional symbol in some one of her attributes. The sacred tree in Assyrian sculptures is similar, a symbol of the goddess of nature. The stone “pillar” (as the Hebrew for “image” ought to be translated, Exodus 34:13) was Baal’s symbol; as the wooden pillar or tree was Astarte’s ( 2 Kings 18:4). The attempt to combine this with Jehovah worship is the subject of the prohibition ( Exodus 34:13).
The Hebrew word translated “plain” (elon ) signifies a grove or plantation; that of Mamre ( Genesis 13:18), of Moreh ( Genesis 12:6), of Zaanaim ( Judges 4:11), of the pillar in Shechem ( Judges 9:6), of Meonenim ( Judges 9:37), of Tabor ( 1 Samuel 10:3).
Groves were associated with worship from ancient times, as the passages just quoted show. Pliny states that trees were the first temples. Their shade, solitude, and solemn stillness suggested this use. The superstitious abuse of them to idolatry and licentious rites caused the Divine prohibition of them for religious purposes; which prohibition Israel disregarded ( Jeremiah 17:2; Ezekiel 20:28). Trees were also used for national assemblies ( Judges 9:6,37), for burying the dead ( Genesis 35:8; 1 Samuel 31:14). Some trees are specially-noted: the tamarisk (eeshel ) under which Saul abode in Gibeah ( 1 Samuel 22:6); the terebinth in Shechem under which Joshua, after writing the law of God, set up ( Joshua 24:26) a great stone as a witness; the palm tree of Deborah ( Judges 4:5); the terebinth of enchantments ( Judges 9:37 margin, see MEONENIM ); of wanderers ( Judges 6:11, see ZAANAIM ); 1 Samuel 14:2, “a pomegranate tree in Migron” ( 1 Samuel 10:3). Tree worship, perhaps a distortion of the tradition of the tree of life and the tree of knowledge (Genesis 3), may be traced in Egypt, Arabia, Syria, Assyria, Persia, India, Thibet, Siam, China, Japan, Ceylon, the Philippine isles. The Druids venerated oak groves (Pliny, H. N., xvi. 44; Tacitus, Annals xiv. 30). The black priests in Africa alone may enter the sacred groves. The Etrurians worshipped a palm-tree.
GUARD tabbach . The king’s executioner, literally, cook ( Genesis 37:36, margrin; 2 Kings 25:8; Daniel 2:14). Rats = “the runner” who carried dispatches ( 2 Chronicles 30:6), and also acted as military guard to the Jewish kings ( 2 Samuel 15:1). Mishmereth = “watchmen” ( Nehemiah 4:9,22).
GUDGODAH see HOR HAGIDGAD Deuteronomy 10:7.
GUR, THE GOING UP TO i.e., ascent to Gur or the lion’s whelp, where Ahaziah was killed while fleeing from Jehu ( 2 Kings 9:27). It was “by Ibleam” (now Bel’amek), between Jezreel and “the garden house” (Beth-hag-gan, now Jenin). Now Kefr Kud. The similarity of the Hebrew letter daleth (d) and the Hebrew letter resh (r) led to their frequent interchange.
H HAASHTARI 1 Chronicles 4:6.
HABAKKUK ”The cordially embraced one (favorite of God), or the cordial embracer.” “A man of heart, hearty toward another, taking him into his arms. This Habakkuk does in his prophecy; he comforts and lifts up his people, as one would do with a weeping child, bidding him be quiet, because, please God, it would yet be better with him” (Luther). The psalm (Habakkuk 3) and title “Habakkuk the prophet” favor the opinion that Habakkuk was a Levite. The closing words, “to the chief singer on my stringed instruments,” imply that Habakkuk with his own instruments would accompany the song he wrote under the Spirit; like the Levite seers and singers, Asaph, Heman, and Jeduthun ( 1 Chronicles 25:1-5). A lyrical tone pervades his prophecies, so that he most approaches David in his psalms. The opening phrase ( Habakkuk 1:1) describes his prophecy as “the burden which,” etc., i.e. the weighty, solemn announcement.
Habakkuk “saw” it with the inner eye opened by the Spirit. He probably prophesied in the 12th or 13th year of Josiah (630 or 629 B.C.), for the words “in your days” ( Habakkuk 1:5) imply that the prophecy would come to pass in the lifetime of the persons addressed. In Jeremiah 16:9 the same phrase comprises 20 years, in Ezekiel 12:25 six years. Zephaniah 1:7 is an imitation of Habakkuk 2:20; now Zephaniah ( Zephaniah 1:1) lived under Josiah, and prophesied (compare Zephaniah 3:5,15) after the restoration of Jehovah’s worship, i.e. after the 12th year of Josiah’s reign, about 624 B.C. So Habakkuk must have been before this. Jeremiah moreover began prophesying in Josiah’s 13th year; now Jeremiah borrows from Habakkuk (compare Habakkuk 2:13 with Jeremiah 51:58); thus, it follows that 630 or 629 B.C. is Habakkuk’s date of prophesying (Delitzsch).
Habakkuk complains that the Chaldees are worse than the Jews whom they are to be the instruments of chastising; they deal treacherously, sweep all into their net, and then “they sacrifice unto their net and burn incense unto their drag,” i.e. idolize their own might and military skill, instead of giving the glory to God ( Deuteronomy 8:17; Isaiah 10:13; 37:24,25).
Habakkuk therefore, confident that God is of purer eyes than to behold evil ( Habakkuk 1:13), sets himself in an attitude of waiting for the Lord’s own solution of this perplexing apparent anomaly ( Habakkuk 2:1); Jehovah desires him accordingly, “write the vision” of God’s retributive justice plainly, so “that he may run that readeth it,” namely, “run” to tell to all the good news of the foe’s doom and Judah’s deliverance, or, as Grotius, run through it, i.e. run through the reading without difficulty. The issue must be awaited with patience, for it shall not disappoint; the lifted up soul, as that of the Chaldean foe and the unbelieving apostatizing Jew, is not accounted upright before God and therefore shall perish; but the just shall be accounted just by his faith and so shall live. The Chaldeans’ doom is announced on the ground of this eternal principle of God’s moral government. The oppressed nations “shall take up a parable,” i.e. a derisive song (compare Isaiah 14:4; Micah 2:4), whom Habakkuk copies, against their oppressor. It is a symmetrical whole, five stanzas; three of three verses each, the fourth of four, and the last of two verses. Each stanza, except the last, begins with “woe.” All have a closing verse introduced with “for,” “but,” or “because.” Each strophe begins with the character of the sin, then states the woe, lastly confirms the woe ( Habakkuk 2:2-20). The prayer-song (Habakkuk 3) is the spiritual echo, resuming the previous parts of the prophecy, for the enlightenment of God’s people. Prayer, thanksgiving, and trust, are the spiritual key to unlock the mysteries of God’s present government of the earth. The spirit appears tumultuously to waver (from whence the title “Shigionoth” from shagah, “to wander”) between fear and hope; but faith at the end triumphs joyfully over present trials ( Habakkuk 3:17-19). Upon God’s past manifestations for His people, at Paran, Teman, and the Red Sea, Habakkuk grounds the anticipated deliverance of his people from the foe, through Jehovah’s interposition in sublime majesty; so that the believer can always rejoice in the God of his salvation and his strength. The interests of God’s righteous character, seemingly compromised in the Chaldees’ successful violence, are what Habakkuk has most at heart throughout; to solve this problem is his one grand theme.
Paul quotes Habakkuk1:5 in his warning to the unbelieving Jews at Antioch in Pisidia. Thrice Paul quotes Habakkuk 2:4, “the just shall live by his faith” (one fundamental truth throughout the Bible, beginning with Abram in Genesis 15:6); first in Romans 1:17, where the emphasis rests on “just,” God’s righteousness and the nature of justification being the prominent thought; secondly in Galatians 3:11, where the emphasis is on “faith,” the instrument of justification being prominent; thirdly in Hebrews 10:38, where the emphasis is on “live,” the continued life that flows from justification being prominent.
HABAZINIAH Head of the Rechabites ( Jeremiah 35:3).
HABERGEON Coat of mail, covering the neck and chest. Exodus 28:32: “as the hole of an habergeon,” namely, for the head and neck to go through; the sacerdotal meeil or robe of the ephod resembling it in form, but of linen. Job 41:26, margin, “breastplate.”
HABOR (See GOZAN ). Now the Khabour; omitting “by” in 2 Kings 17:6; 18:11.
But “Halah” a province, going directly before Habor in the same connection, favors KJV It would be awkward to say he put them “in Halah,” a province, and “in Habor,” a river. Probably the river Habor gave its name to the province. It joins the Euphrates at Circesium; the country adjoining abounds in mounds, the remains of Assyrian cities. The Khabour is mentioned in an inscription of the 9th century.
HACHILAH, THE HILL In a wood in the untilled land near Ziph, facing ( 1 Samuel 23:19,24, “south” of) the Jeshimon, i.e. the waste district. David and his 600 men lurked in the fastnesses of the hill; but as Saul approached withdrew to the wood (rather the choresh or village attached to see ZIPH ) below. Saul bivouacked by the way or road which passed over or at the side of the hill.
Then ensued David’s taking of Saul’s spear and cruse (23:14; 26:13). See the title of Psalm 54. There is an undesigned coincidence between David’s language in Psalm 11:1, “how say ye to my soul, Flee as a bird to your mountain,” and the independent history ( 1 Samuel 26:20),” the king of Israel is come out to seek a flea, as when one doth hunt a partridge in the mountains,” a confirmation of the genuineness of both psalm and history.
Both names are still found in southern Judah. Conder (Palestine Exploration) identifies Hachilah with a high hill bounded by deep valleys N. and S. on which stands the ruin Yekin or Harbin, facing Jeshimon on the right. The “trench” where Saul pitched tent is the flat low plot between steep cliffs, the head of a large wady with water. David crossed the valley, and from either of the hill tops called to the hosts. There is only one hill E. of Ziph overlooking the desert, the rest are rolling downs at a lower level; on this one is Yekin, which is “Hachil,” the liquids l and n being interchanged as often. The “trench” in which Saul lay ( 1 Samuel 26:5) was the hollow, with a spring and cave in it, still to be seen beneath the crest of the hill. Another knoll is beyond this hollow; just as the Bedouins take up their quarters, not on a hill where they can be seen, but in a slight hollow so as at will to emerge forth at the right moment on a foe. It is contrary to their customs of war to lie in a trench of an encampment; however the sense may probably be (see margin), he lay within the wagon rampart.
HACHMONI, SON OF THE HACHMONITE ( 1 Chronicles 27:32; 11:11). The former is the correct rendering; the Hebrew in both passages is the same. In 2 Samuel 23:8 “the Tachmonite” names, in Chronicles given with “son of” (ben), are given without it, but with the definite article. Hachmonite was founder of a family; for the actual father of Jashobeam (a Korhite) was Zabdiel ( Chronicles 27:2; 12:6).
HADAD A name often recurring in the Syrian and Edomite dynasties, meaning the sun; so applied as the official title to the king, as supreme on earth as the sun is in the sky. It appears in Ben-hadad, son, i.e. worshipper, of Hadad; Hadad-ezer, helped by Hadad. It appears as see HADAR ( Genesis 25:15; compare 1 Chronicles 1:30,50). Nicolaus of Damascus (Fragm. 31), friend of Augustus Caesar (Josephus, Ant. 7:5, sec. 2), confirms Samuel 8:3 as to David’s defeating Hadadezer or Hadarezer, king of Zobah, “when he went to recover his border at the river Euphrates”; Nicolaus says, “a certain Hadad, a native Syrian, had great power, ruling over Damascus and all Syria except. Phoenicia (this accords with Samuel 8:5, ‘the Syrians of Damascus came to support Hadadezer,’ being his vassals); he contended against David king of Judea in many battles; in the last, which was by the Euphrates, he suffered defeat (making his third defeat: 2 Samuel 8:3,5; 10:18), showing himself a prince of the greatest prowess.” 1. Son of Ishmael ( Genesis 25:15). The Attaei, Attene, Chateni, on W. of Persian gulf, seem his descendants (Ptol. 6:7, section 15; Plin. 6:32).
Hadad, a mountain belonging toTEMA on the borders of the Syrian desert N. of el-Medeenah, corresponds to the dwelling of this tribe. 2. King of Edom; conquered Midian on the field of Moab ( Genesis 36:35); see AVITH was his capital. 3. King of Edom (Pan was his capital: Genesis 36:39); probably living when Moses wrote, for Moses does not record his death as he does that of his predecessors; last of the kings. In the later written 1 Chronicles 1:50 Hadad’s death is recorded. The dukes that follow were not successors, but hereditary sheikhs who chose one emir or king to preside. Hadad’s death does not therefore, as Smith’s Bible Dictionary supposes, mark a change to the dukedom (see EDOM ). “Hadad could hardly have been living after the times of the kings of Israel, to which period those who consider Genesis 36:31-48 an interpolation would assign the genealogy” (Speaker’s Commentary). 4. Of the royal house of Edom ( 1 Kings 11:14, etc.). In childhood escaped the massacre of every Edomite male by Joab, and fled into Egypt.
Pharaoh gave him house, victuals, and land, and his wife Tahpenes the queen’s sister in marriage, who bore him Genubath. At David’s death, in spite of Pharaoh’s entreaties he left Egypt for his own country. The Septuagint read Edom for Aram (Syria), 1 Kings 11:25, thus making Hadad succeed in his attempt to regain rule over Edom, from whence he harassed Israel; but the Septuagint omits all as to Rezon, so that its authority is worth little here. Josephus (Ant. 8:7, section 6) reads as KJV; Hadad thus having failed to recover Edom joined Rezon in assailing Israel and received from him a portion of Syria; “he reigned over Syria” refers to Rezon, and is a repetition of verse 24.
HADAREZER, HADADEZER Son of Rehob, king of Zobah. Helped by the Damascus Syrians (see HADAD ); driven by David beyond the river Euphrates ( 2 Samuel 8:3,5; 10:6-9; 1 Chronicles 18:3; 19:7-19). After Joab’s first repulse of Ammon and their Syrian allies Hadarezer, undaunted by defeat twice ( Samuel 8:3,5), sent a host under the command of Shophach to assist his kinsmen of Maachah, Rehob, and Ishtob; David in person routed them completely at see HELAM ; thus, the Syrian confederacy was overthrown, Hadarezer’s subordinate princes submitted to David who dedicated to Jehovah the 1000 “shields” or” weapons (shelet) of gold” taken in the first war; these were long known as king David’s ( Song of Solomon 4:4; 2 Chronicles 23:9). See REZON of Hadarezer’s retainers escaped, and with “bands” marauded the thinly-peopled district between the Jordan and the Euphrates ( 2 Kings 5:2; 1 Chronicles 5:18-22), then became master of Damascus, and as an “adversary” did “mischief” to Israel in Solomon’s days ( 1 Kings 11:28-25). Edom invaded Israel during David’s absence at the Euphrates; Psalm 44 by the sons of Korah alludes to this. Psalm 60 by David was composed after victory in part had been gained over Aram Naharaim (Syria of the two floods) and Aram (Syria) of Zobah the kingdom of Hadarezer, who had come to help his vassals of Mesopotamia, the region of the two rivers Tigris and Euphrates; after having conquered the two Syrias, Joab returned and smote Edom in the valley of Salt; Psalm 60 refers to the expedition subsequently undertaken to occupy Edom in revenge for Edom’s invasion of Israel.
HADATTAH A town in the extreme S. of Judah ( Joshua 15:25), the Qeri (the Hebrew margin) reads Hazor-hadattah, i.e New Hazor. So Eusebius and Jerome; but they place it near and E. of Ascalon, which is in the shephelah, whereas Joshua places it among towns of S. Judah. Now El-Hudhaira, S. of Jebel Khulil (Robinson).
HADID =“sharp,” as being on a craggy height. Aditha, named by Eusebius, E. of Diospolis (Lydda or Lod, with which it is named Ezra 2:33; Nehemiah 7:37; 11:34), is probably Hadid. In Van de Velde’s map el- Hadithah, three miles E. of Lydda.
HADLAI 2 Chronicles 28:12.
HADORAM 1. Son of Tou or Toi, king of Hamath; sent to congratulate David on his victory over Hadarezer ( 1 Chronicles 28:10), bearing costly presents in gold, silver, and brass (antiques according to Josephus). More likely to be the true name than “Jeram,” which contains the name of Jehovah ( Samuel 8:10). 2. The contracted form of Adoniram ( 2 Samuel 20:24; 1 Kings 4:6; 12:18). Over the tribute, under David, Solomon, and Rehoboam. Stoned to death when sent as one of the old or moderate party, to appease the sedition; the choice of the superintendent of taxes for the purpose was consistent with the general lack of tact in Rehoboam.
Maurer says it means in Syrian enclosed, i.e. Coelo-Syria, the western interior part of Syria; or its capital (Jerome). Hengstenberg makes it a symbolical name of Persia, Zechariah thereby avoiding offence to the government under which he lived; from haad strong, and raq weak; strong then, but soon to be weakened by Alexander its conqueror. But the context implies a Syrian region. Gesenius thinks Hadrach. a Syrian king.
HAGAR Perhaps related to the Arabic hegira, “flight.” Genesis 16; Genesis 21; 25:12. Abram’s bond-woman; an Egyptian received into his household during his sojourn in Egypt,. Taken as legal concubine at Sarai’s suggestion to raise a seed, in hope of his being the promised heir, when Sarai’s age seemingly forbade hope of issue by her. The marriage law was then less definitely recognized than at the beginning, and than subsequently. Lack of faith moved Sarai to suggest, and moved Abram to adopt, a fleshly device instead of waiting the Lord’s time and way. It was punished by consequent family disquiet, and the bad example copied by the Ishmaelites has proved morally and physically a curse to the race. Abraham gave up Hagar, in violation of eastern custom, to Sarai’s ill usage; so Hagar fled toward her native land Egypt, by the way through the wilderness toward Shur, probably Suez. The wilderness is identified with the N.E. part of that of Paran, now Al-jifar. The angel of Jehovah reminded her that as “Sarai’s maid” she owed her submission, and promised that her son Ishmael should be father of a numerous nation. So she called Jehovah that spoke unto her “Thou God seest me” (Hebrew: “Thou art a God of seeing,” a God who allows Himself to be seen), for she said, “Have I also seen (i.e. am I yet living and seeing) here, after seeing (God)?” ( Genesis 32:30; Judges 13:22; Exodus 20:19; 33:20). The adjoining well was named Beer-lahai-roi, “the well of the seeing alive,” i.e. at which one saw God and lived. This explanation involves a change of accents; but the KJV explanation involves a grammatical difficulty; Chald. supports KJV, “Thou art a God of seeing,” i.e. the all seeing, from whose eye the helpless is not hidden in the lonely desert, and Beer-lahairoi, “the well of the living One who sees me,” i.e. of the ever living omnipresent Providence. In either view the words show Hagar was now no pagan, but had become in some degree a believer in the God of Abraham. Ishmael’s mocking at the feast which celebrated Isaac’s weaning was the occasion of Sarah’s saying, “Cast out this bond-woman and her son, for the son of this bond-woman shall not be heir with my son ... Isaac.” As Abram had laughed for joy at the promise of Isaac ( Genesis 17:17), and Sarai for incredulity ( Genesis 18:12-15), but afterward, at Isaac’s birth, for joyful gratitude, so Ishmael in derision and in the spirit of a persecutor, mocking (which contains the germ of persecuting) Isaac’s faith in God’s promises. Being the elder he prided himself above “him that was born after the Spirit,” i.e. by the Spirit-energized promise of God, which made Sarah fruitful out of the course of nature.
The history typifies the truth that the spiritual seed of Abraham by promise, Gentile as well as Jewish believers, take the place of the Jews the natural seed, who imagined that to them exclusively belonged the kingdom of God.
Paul expounds Hagar to answer to Sinai and the law, which generates a spirit of “bondage,” as Hagar was a bond-woman, and that this must give place to the gospel dispensation and the church of grace, the “Jerusalem which is above.” The carnal and legalists shall not be heirs with the free New Testament believers ( Galatians 4:22-31). Abraham, at God’s command, did what Sarah said, though grievous to him. H. wandered with her child (15 years was childhood when human life was so long, he was old enough to “mock”) in the wilderness of Beersheba; the water was spent in the bottle, and she cast him, soon worn out as a growing lad, under a shrub, having previously led him by the hand (for Genesis 21:14 means that Abraham put the bread and bottle, but not also the child, “on her shoulder”; so Genesis 21:18, “hold him in thine hand”). The lad’s own cry, still more than the mother’s, brought “the angel of God” (here only in Gen., usually “angel ofJEHOVAH”), i.e. GOD, the second Person ( Genesis 21:17,19,20), to his and her help. The child’s cry is the more potent with the Omnipotent, just because of its helplessness ( Isaiah 40:29; 41:17,18). God opened her eyes to see water where she had supposed there was only a dry wilderness. In our greatest extremity God has only to open our eyes and we see abundant help near. Real prayer will bring Him to our side ( 2 Kings 6:17-20; Luke 24:16,31). Hagar “took him a wife out of Egypt,” the land of idols and worldliness; untaught by the piety of Abraham and by God’s mercy to herself.
HAGARENES; HAGARITES E. of Palestine. Fell by the hand of Reuben, Gad, and half Manasseh, in the time of Saul; these occupied their tents and land in eastern Gilead ( Chronicles 5:10,18-20). Jetur, Nephish, and Nodab, Hagarites, are mentioned as “delivered into their hand, and all that were with them: for they cried to God in the battle (and they were helped against them), and He was entreated of them; because they put their trust in Him. And they took away their cattle ... camels ... sheep ... donkeys ... for there fell down many slain, because the war was of God. And they dwelt in their steads, until the captivity.” The spoil shows their wealth as nomadic tribes. In Psalm 83:6-8 “the tabernacles of the Hagarenes” are mentioned as distinct from the “Ishmaelites,” with whom and Moab, Gebal, Ammon, Amalek, Philistia, Tyre, and Assur, they confederated to invade suddenly Jehoshaphat’s land and take it in possession. The Hagarenes probably were named not from Ishmael’s mother Hagar directly, but from a district or town so-called; possibly now Hejer, capital and subdivision of the province el-Bahreyn in N.E. Arabia, on the Persian gulf.
HAGGAI =“my feast.” A name given in anticipation of the joyous return from exile.
Perhaps a Levite, as the rabbis say he was buried at Jerusalem among the priests. Tradition represents him as returning with the first exiles from Babylon his birthplace, under Zerubbabel 536 B.C., when see CYRUS , actuated by Isaiah’s prophecies concerning himself (44: 28; 45:1), decreed the Jews’ restoration and the rebuilding of the temple, for which he furnished all necessaries. (See EZRA , see AHASUERUS , see ARTAXERXES , see DARIUS ). In spite of Samaritan opposition the temple building went on under Cyrus and Cambyses (Ahasuerus Ezra 4:6); but under the Magian usurper Smerdis (Artaxerxes Ezra 4:7-23) the Samaritans procured a royal decree suspending the work. Hence, the Jews became so indifferent about it that when Darius came to the throne (521 B.C.), whose accession virtually nullified the usurper’s prohibition, they pretended that as the prophecy of the 70 years applied to the temple as well as to the captivity in Babylon ( Haggai 1:2), they were only in the 68th year, and that, the time not yet having come, they might build splendid cieled mansions for themselves. Haggai first, and Zechariah two months later, were commissioned by Jehovah ( Haggai 1:1) in Darius’ (Hystaspes) second year, 520 B.C., to rouse them from their selfishness to resume the work which had been suspended for 14 years.
The dates of his four distinct prophecies are given.
I. (Haggai 1). On the first day of the 6th month of Darius’ second year of reigning, 520 B.C. Reproves their apathy in leaving the temple in ruins; reminds them of their ill fortune because of their neglect of God’s house. In consequence, within 24 days they began building under Zerubbabel ( Haggai 1:12-15).
II. ( Haggai 2:1-9). Predicts that the new temple’s glory will exceed that of Solomon’s temple; therefore the outward inferiority which had moved the elders to tears at the foundation laying ( Ezra 3:10-13) ought not to discourage them. Isaiah (Isaiah 60; 2:2-4), Jeremiah ( Jeremiah 3:16-18), and Ezekiel (Ezekiel 40—48), similarly, had foretold the glory of the latter house; but the temple then being built so far showed no signs of glory, Haggai shows wherein the glory should consist, namely, in the presence of Him who is “the Desire of all nations.” Many object that the Hebrew “desire” (chemdath ) being singular, and “shall come” being plural (bauw ), the singular must be collective for “desirable things shall come,” namely, silver and gold. But when two nouns come together, one singular the other plural, the verb may agree with the latter. Besides Messiah is “all desires,” containing collectively all desirable things in Himself such as they missed in the present temple, splendor, riches, etc. (Song 5:16). The desires of all nations can find their satisfaction in Him alone. He embodies the “good things to come,” “to Him shall the gathering of the people be” ( Genesis 49:10). He comes in His veiled glory to the temple at His first advent ( Matthew 21:12-14), in His revealed glory at His second advent ( Malachi 3:1). The glory of the latter house did not exceed that of the former except in Messiah’s advent; the silver and gold brought to it scarcely equaled those of Solomon’s temple, and certainly all nations did not bring their desirable things to it. The KJV is therefore right. The masculine plural verb implies that the feminine singular noun is an abstract for a masculine concrete.
III. ( Haggai 2:10-19). On the 24th day of the 9th month, when building materials were collected and the workmen had begun to build; from this time God promises to bless them. He rectifies their past error of thinking that outward observances cleanse away the sin of disobeying God, as for instance in respect to the temple building. (Holy flesh of sacrifice sanctifies the skirt in which it is carried, but cannot sanctify anything beyond, as bread: Leviticus 6:27. On the other hand, an unclean person imparts his uncleanness to anything he touches. So ceremonialism cannot sanctify the unclean person, but the unclean defiles all he touches).
IV. ( Haggai 2:20-23). On the same day as III, addressed to Zerubbabel, the representative of the theocracy, who asked about the national revolutions foretold in II. ( Haggai 2:7). Judah, whose representative Zerubbabel was, shall remain, as a signet ring secure, while God makes an end of other nations ( Jeremiah 46:28). The time occupied by Haggai’s prophecies is three months. The temple was completed in the sixth year of Darius’ reign, 515-516 B.C. ( Ezra 6:14).
The style of Haggai is prose-like but pathetic in exhortation, vehement in reproof, and lofty in contemplating the glorious future, Repetitions (e.g., “saith the Lord, the Lord of hosts” Haggai 1:2,5,7; 2:4 thrice; “the Spirit” thrice in Haggai 1:14) and interrogations impart a simple earnestness of tone calculated to awaken from apathy to solemn attention.
Haggai is referred to in Ezra 5:1; 6:14, and in New Testament, Hebrews 12:26: compare Haggai 2:6,7,22. The final earthly shaking of kingdoms is preparing the way for the “kingdom that cannot be moved.”
The Septuagint associate Haggai and Zechariah in the titles of Psalm 137; Psalm 145—148; the Vulgate in the titles of Psalm 111; 145; the Syriac in those of Psalm 125; Psalm 126; Psalm 145—148. Haggai according to Pseudo-Epiphanius (De Vitis Proph.) first chanted the Hallelujah, the hymn of Haggai and Zechariah, in the second temple. The Hallelujah psalms belong certainly to the period after the return from Babylon.
HAGGIAH 1 Chronicles 6:30.
HAI ( Genesis 12:8; 13:3) = Ai, with the Hebrew article [ha ], which always accompanies Ai.
HAIR Shaved closely by men, worn long by women, in Egypt. The Hebrews wore long beards; the Egyptians only in mourning did so. At the same time the Hebrews kept the distinction of sexes by clipping the hair of men (though hardly so much as we do; Leviticus 10:6; Hebrew: “let not loose (the hair of) your heads,” not “uncover,” etc.), but not of women ( Corinthians 11:6, etc.; Luke 7:38). The law forbad them to “round the corners of their heads, or mar the cornners of the beard”; for the Arabs in honour of the idol Orotal cut the hair from the temples in a circular form, and in mourning marred their beards ( Leviticus 19:27; Jeremiah 9:26 margin, Jeremiah 48:37). See BALDNESS , being often the result of leprosy, disqualified for the priesthood ( Leviticus 21:20, Septuagint).
Absalom’s luxuriant hair is mentioned as a sign of beauty, but was a mark of effeminacy; its weight perhaps was 20, not 200 shekels, the numeral resh (r) having by a copyist’s error been substituted for kaph (k) ( 2 Samuel 14:26). Nazarites wore it uncut, a sign of humiliation and self-denial, at the same time of dedication of all the strength, of which hair was a token, to God ( Numbers 6:5; Judges 13:5; 16:17). Shaving the head was often practiced in fulfillment of a vow, as Paul did, the shaving being usually followed by a sacrifice in 30 days ( Acts 18:18); probably his vow was made in some sickness ( Galatians 4:13). Black was the favorite color.
Song 5:11, the bridegroom’s locks are “bushy” (curled), betokening headship; Son 4:1, the hair of goats in the East being fine like silk and flowing, the token of the bride’s subjection; Song 1:5; 7:5, “purple,” i.e. glossy black. Ecclesiastes 12:5, “the almond tree shall flourish.” does not refer to white hair on the old, for the almond blossom is pink, but to the almond (lit. the wakeful) tree blossoming in winter, i.e. the wakefulness of old age shall set in. But Gesenius, “(the old man) loathes the (sweet) almond.” In Song 7:5, for “galleries” translated “the king is held (fascinated) with the flowing ringlets.” The hair was often platted in braids, kept in their place by a fillet. So Samson’s “seven locks” ( Judges 16:13,19; compare 1 Timothy 2:9; 1 Peter 3:3). Egyptian women swear by their sidelocks, and men by their beards; the Jews’ imitation of this our Lord condemns ( Matthew 5:36). Hair represents what is least valuable ( Matthew 10:30); innumerable to man, but “all numbered” by God’s providence for His children. “Hair as the hair of women” ( Revelation 9:8), long and flowing, a mark of semi-barbarous hosts ( 1 Corinthians 11:14,15).
HAKKATAN = Katan, with [ha-], the article. ( Ezra 8:12).
HAKUPHA, CHILDREN OF Ezra 2:51.
HALAK, THE MOUNT = “the smooth mountain,” “which goeth up to Seir” ( Joshua 11:17; 12:7); the southern extremity of Joshua’s conquests. Keil identifies it with the chalk cliffs crossing the valley of the Ghor, six miles S. of the Dead Sea; the southern limit of the Ghor, the northern limit of the Arabah.
HALHUL A town in the Judah mountains. The hill is still so named, with ruins of walls and foundations, a mile to the left of the road from Jerusalem to Hebron, four miles front the latter. A mosque stands there, named Nebi Yunus, the prophet Jonah ( Joshua 15:58). Close to Beitsur (Bethzur) and Jedur (Gedor).
HALL = aulee , the court or uncovered space, on a lower level than the lowest floor, in the midst of a house, as the high priest’s ( Luke 22:55). The “porch” (proaulion ) was the vestibule leading to it ( Mark 14:68). Also called puloon , the “gate” or “porch” ( Matthew 26:71).
HALLOHESH Lohesh with the article. Sealed the covenant with Nehemiah (10:24).
Father of Shallum (3:12).
HAM = “hot”. 1. The Egyptian see KEM (Egypt is singularly the land of Ham, Psalm 78:51; 105:23), “black”; the sun-burnt and those whose soil is black, as Ethiopia means. Father (i.e. ancestor) of Cush (Ethiopia), Mizraim (see EGYPT ) , Phut (Libya), and Canaan. These mean races. not individuals.
Egypt being the first civilized was singled out as the chief country of Hamite settlements. (On the Hamitic or Cushite origin of Babylon, alleged by Scripture and confirmed by the vocabulary in ancient remains, see CUSH and see BABEL ). Solid grandeur characterizes the Hamitic architecture, as in the earliest of Egypt, Babylonia, and S. Arabia. The first steps in the arts and sciences seemingly are due to the Hamites. The earliest empires were theirs, their power of organization being great. Material rather than moral greatness was theirs. Hence their civilization, though early, decayed sooner than that of the Semitic and Japhetic races. Egypt, fenced on the N. by a sea without good harbours, on the E. and W. by deserts, held its sway the longest. The Hamites of S. Arabia were at a very early date overcome by the Joktanites, and the Babylonians yielded to the Medes. Ammon, the god of N. Africa, is related to Ham. Ham is supposed to be youngest of Noah’s sons from Genesis 9:24, but “younger (Hebrew: little) son” there probably means Noah’s grandson, namely, Canaan, not Ham. Shem is put first, having the spiritual eminence of being father of the promised seed. The names Shem (the man of name or renown), Ham (the settler in hot Africa), and Japbet (father of fair descendants, or of those who spread abroad), may not have been their original names, but derived from subsequent facts of their history. 2. A place where Chedorlaomer smote the Zuzim ( Genesis 14:5). If Zuzim be the same as Zamzummim, who dwelt in the territory afterward occupied by Ammon ( Deuteronomy 2:19-21), Ham answers to Rabbath Ammon. Septuagint and Vulgate read baheem for bHam , i.e. with them, but KJV seems correct. 3. Simeonites went to the eastern entrance of the valley of Gedor in quest of pasture, and dispossessed the previous inhabitants, being men “of Ham” ( 1 Chronicles 4:40). Perhaps an Egyptian settlement, Egypt being closely connected with this southern part of Palestine.
HAMAN (See ESTHER ). Son of Hammedatha “the Agagite,” probably of Amalekite origin ( Numbers 24:7,20; 1 Samuel 15:8). The Amalekites had from the first pursued Israel with unrelenting spite ( Exodus 17:16, margin; Deuteronomy 25:17-19), and were consequently all but exterminated by Israel ( 1 Samuel 15:8; 30:17; 2 Samuel 8:12; 1 Chronicles 4:43).
Elevated by one of those sudden turns which are frequent in despotic states where all depends on the whim of the autocrat, he showed that jealousy of any omission of respect which is characteristic of upstarts. These two motives account for his monstrous scheme of revenge whereby he intended to exterminate a whole nation for the affront of omission of respect on the part of the one individual, Mordecai. God’s retributive judgment and overruling providence are remarkably illustrated; his wicked plot backfired on himself; the honours which he designed for himself he, in spite of himself, heaped on the man whom he so scornfully hated; and the gallows on which he meant to hang Mordecai was that on which he was hanged himself ( Psalm 7:15,16).
HAMATH The chief city of upper Syria, in the valley of the Orontes, commanding the whole valley, from the low hills which form the watershed between the Orontes and the Liturgy, to the defile of Daphne below Antioch; this was “the kingdom of Hamath.” An Hamitie race ( Genesis 10:18). Akin to their neighbours the Hittites. “The entering in of Hamath,” indicates that it (the long valley between Lebanon and Antilebanon) was the point of entrance into the land of Israel for any invading army, as the Assyrians and Babylonians, from the N. The southern approach to Hamath from Coelosyria between Libanus and Antilibanus formed the northern limit to Israel’s inheritance ( Numbers 13:21; 34:8; Joshua 13:5).
It was an independent kingdom under Tou or Toi in David’s time; Toi sent presents to David who had destroyed the power of Hadarezer, Toi’s enemy ( 2 Samuel 8:9-11). Tributary to Solomon who built “store cities” in it ( 2 Chronicles 8:4) as staples for the trade which passed along the Orontes valley. Mentioned as an ally of the Syrians of Damascus in the Assyrian inscriptions of Ahab’s time. Jeroboam II “recovered Hamath” ( 2 Kings 14:25); but it was subjugated soon by Assyria (18:34; Amos 6:2,14), Who calls it “Hamath the great.” Solomon’s feast congregated all Israel “from the entering in of Hamath unto the river of Egypt” ( 1 Kings 8:65). The same point from which Solomon’s kingdom began was the point from which, according to Amos’ prophecy, began the triumph of Israel’s foes for Israel’s sin. From Antiochus Epiphanes it afterward got the name Epiphaneia. It has resumed its old name little changed, Hamah; remarkable for its great waterwheels for raising water from the Orontes for the gardens and houses. The alah or high land of Syria abounds in ruins of villages, 365 according to the Arabs. Hamath stones have been found, four blocks of basalt inscribed with hieroglyphics, first noticed by Burckhardt in 1810; the characters in cameo raised from two to four lines, not incised, as other Syrian inscriptions. The names of Thothroes III and Amenophis I are read by some scholars in them. Burton thinks these inscriptions form a connecting link between picture writing and alphabetic writing. Probably they were Hittite in origin.
HAMMATH A fortified city in Naphtali ( Joshua 19:35). Meaning “hot baths,” namely, of Tiberias. Three hammam still send up hot sulphureous waters about a mile S. of the modern town, at the extremity of the ancient ruins.
HAMMEDATHA Haman’s father. Medatha with the definite article. (See ESTHER and see HAMAN ). In Persian = double.
HAMMELECH Jeremiah 36:26; 38:6. Jehoiakim at this time (the fifth year of his reign) had no grown up son. Jeconiah his successor was then but eleven ( Kings 23:36; compare 2 Kings 24:8). We must not then, with Smith’s Bible Dictionary, translated “the king,” but as a proper name, Hammelech, father of Jerahmeel and Malchiah.
HAMMER Besides its ordinary sense, used for any overwhelming power, earthly ( Jeremiah 50:23, “the hammer of the whole earth,” Babylon, as Martel, “little hammer,” was a title of the Frank king) or spiritual ( Jeremiah 23:29, “is not My word like a hammer that breaketh the rock in pieces?”).
HAMMONAH Ezekiel 39:16. The place near which Gog’s multitudes shall be buried, from whence it gets its name, meaning multitude. Grotius makes Jerusalem to receive the name Hammonah from the multitude of slain. After the cleansing of the land Jerusalem shall be known as the conqueror of multitudes.
HAMMON GOG, THE VALLEY OF =“the ravine (gey of Gog’s multitude.” After the burial of Gog and his multitude there, the ravine shall be so named, which bad been called “the ravine of passengers (from Syria to Petra and Egypt) on the E. of the Dead Sea” ( Ezekiel 39:11,15). Gog shall find a grave where he expected spoil. The publicity of the road, and the multitude of graves, will arrest the many passers by to observe God’s judgments, executed nigh the scene of judgment on Gog’s prototypes, Sodom and Gomorrah.
HAMOR = “a large he-ass.” So ( Genesis 49:14) Issachar. A Hivite; but Alex. manuscript, Septuagint, a Horite; prince of Shechem and the adjoining district, probably named from his son. Head of the clan named from him while yet alive “the children of Hamor.” ( Genesis 33:19.) From them Jacob bought for 100 kesita (i.e. bars or rings of silver of a certain weight, perhaps stamped with a “lamb,” see margin, all the versions translated “lambs,” which were the original representative of wealth) a parcel of a field. Abraham bought only a burying place, Jacob a dwelling place, which long after was also Joseph’s burial place ( Joshua 24:32) referred to by Stephen ( Acts 7:16). “Jacob and our fathers were carried over into Sychem and laid in a sepulchre that Abraham bought ... of the sons of\parEMMOR” (the Greek form of Hamor). Stephen with elliptical brevity sums up from six chaps, of Old Testament in one sentence the double purchase (by Abraham from Ephron the Hittite, Genesis 23; and by Jacob from the children of Hamor), the double burial place ( Abraham’s cave of Machpelah and Jacob’s ground near Shechem), and the double burial (of Jacob in the cave of Machpelah, and of Joseph in the ground at Shechem), just because the details were familiar to both himself and the Jewish council; not, as rationalism objects, because he was ignorant of or forgot the historical facts so notorious from the Old Testament In Judges 9:28 Hamor’s name is made to Shechemites the signal of revolt from Israelite rule. The cruel retaliation by Simeon and Levi of Shechem’s wrong to Dinah (Genesis 34) left a lasting soreness in the minds of the Hivite remnant, who even without such ancient grudge would be ready enough to cast off Israel’s yoke and revert to their original government by Hivite sheikhs. (See GAAL ).
HAMUEL 1 Chronicles 4:26.
HANAMEEL Son of Shallum, Jeremiah’s cousin, from whom the prophet in prison bought a field in Anathoth while Jerusalem was being besieged by the Chaldeans, as a token to assure the Jews that a time of security would hereafter come when their land would once more be a safe possession ( Jeremiah 32:7-12,44). Anathoth being a sacerdotal city with a thousand cubits of suburban fields, the land could not be alienated ( Leviticus 25:25,34); but this did not prevent sales within the tribe of Levi, on the failure of the owner the next of kin could redeem the land.
HANAN 1. 1 Chronicles 8:23. 2. 1 Chronicles 8:38; 9:44. 3. 1 Chronicles 11:43. 4. CHILDREN OF Hanan: Ezra 2:46. 5. Nehemiah 8:7; 10:10. 6. Ezra 10:22. 7. Ezra 10:26. 8. Storekeeper of the tithes (“treasurer of the treasuries”), Nehemiah 13:13, where priests, scribes, Levites, and laymen are represented. 9. Son of Igdaliah, “a man of God” ( Jeremiah 35:4), so reverenced that none would call in question what was transacted in his chamber.
HANANEEL, TOWER OF Nehemiah 3:1,24,32; 12:39. Either the same as “the tower of Meeah,” i.e. the hundred, or next it, between the sheep gate and fish gate S. of Jerusalem. A breach reaching from it to the “gate of the corner” ( Kings 14:13; 2 Chronicles 26:9) Jeremiah foretells ( Jeremiah 31:38) shall be “rebuilt to Jehovah,” and “not thrown down any more for ever.”
Connected with “the corner gate” (which was on the other side of the sheep gate), also in Zechariah 14:10, where Ewald translated “on to the corner gate and tower of Hananeel on to the king’s wine presses.”
HANANI 1. 1 Chronicles 25:4,25. 2. The seer who rebuked see ASA king of Judah, 941 B.C., for buying the alliance of Benhadad I. of Syria, to help him against Baasha of Israel, instead of “relying on the Lord his God,” “whose eyes run to and fro throughout the whole earth to show Himself strong in behalf of those whose heart is perfect toward Him” ( Jeremiah 17:5). So Asa lost the victory over Syria itself which faith would have secured to him. Hanani was imprisoned for his faithfulness ( 2 Chronicles 16:1-4,7-10; compare Jeremiah 20:2; Matthew 14:3). But Asa only thereby sealed his own punishment; by compromising principle to escape war he brought on himself perpetual wars ( 1 Kings 15:32). Jehu his son was equally faithful in reproving Baasha and Asa’s son Jehoshaphat ( 1 Kings 16:1,7; 2 Chronicles 19:2; 20:34). 3. Ezra 10:19,20. 4. Nehemiah’s brother, who returned from Jerusalem to Susa and informed him as to Jerusalem, 446 B.C.; afterward made governor of Jerusalem under Nehemiah (1:2; 7:2). 5. Nehemiah 12:31,36.
HANANIAH 1. One of the singer Heman’s 14 sons; chief of the 16th of the 24 courses into which the 288 Levite musicians were divided by king David; employed chiefly to “lift up the horn” ( 1 Chronicles 25:4,5,23). 2. 2 Chronicles 26:11. 3. Jeremiah 36:12. 4. Son of Azur, the prophet of Gibeon, a priests’ city (Jeremiah 28). In the fourth year of Zedekiah’s reign Hananiah, in opposition to Jeremiah, foretold that Jeconiah and the captives at Babylon would return with all the vessels of the Lord’s house within two years. This hope rested on Pharaoh Hophra (Apries). Judah already had designed a league with Edom, Ammon, Moab, Tyre, and Sidon against Babylon. Their ambassadors had therefore come to Jerusalem, but were sent back with yokes and a divine message from Jeremiah that their several masters must submit to Nebuchadnezzar’s yoke, to whom God had given these lands and the very beasts of the field, or else be punished with sword, famine, and pestilence (Jeremiah 27). Hananiah broke off the yokes on Jeremiah’s neck, in token of God’s breaking off Nebuchadnezzar’s yoke. Compare 1 Kings 22:11,24,25. Jeremiah said Amen, praying it might be so; but warned him that for the broken wooden yokes he should have iron yokes, adding “Hananiah, the Lord hath not sent thee, but thou makest this people trust in a lie ... therefore ... this year thou shalt die, because thou hast taught rebellion against the Lord. So Hananiah died the same year in the 7th month.” In Zedekiah’s 6th year the league with Pharaoh Hophra tempted Zedekiah to open revolt in violation of his oath to Nebuchadnezzar ( Ezekiel 17:12-20). A temporary raising of the siege of Jerusalem, through the Egyptian ally, was soon followed by the return of the Chaldaean army, the capture of Jerusalem, and the blinding of Zedekiah and his removal to Babylon ( Ezekiel 37:5). Each claimant to inspiration, as Hananiah, must stand two tests: does his prophecy accord with past revelations of God’s word? does the event verify it? Hananiah failed in both. Moreover, he promised sinners peace and safety without repentance.
Hananiah’s namesake in New Testament is a similar warning in stance of God’ s vengeance on the man “whosoever loveth and maketh a lie” (Acts 5); a foretaste of the final retribution ( Revelation 22:15). 5. Jeremiah 37:13. 6. 1 Chronicles 8:24. 7. (See SHADRACH , see ANANIAS .) Of the house of David ( Daniel 1:3,6,7,11,19; 2:17). 8. 1 Chronicles 3:19. Identified by some with Joanna (the Jah or Jehovah being put at the beginning instead of at the end, as in Hanan-jah, “graciously given by Jehovah”), Luke 3:27. 9. Ezra 10:28. 10. Exodus 30:22-28; 1 Chronicles 9:30; Nehemiah 3:8,30, compare 12:41. 11. Nehemiah 12:12. 12. Ruler of the palace (as see ELIAKIM “over the house” of Hezekiah) along with Hanani, Nehemiah’s brother, at Jerusalem. Nehemiah 7:2,3, “a faithful man who feared God above many.” Had charge concerning setting watches, and opening and shutting the city gates. Prideaux argues from this Nehemiah at this time returned to Persia; but his presence in Jerusalem some time after the wall’s completion is implied in Nehemiah 7:5,65; 8:9; 10:1. Moreover, Gesenius (from Nehemiah 2:8) thinks habbirah in Nehemiah 7:2 means not the governor’s (tirshatha ) palace, but the fortress of the Lord’s “house”; in this case Hananiah was a priest.
The Hebrew for “over (al ) Jerusalem” may mean simply “concerning.” 13. Nehemiah 10:23.
HAND Symbol of skill, energy, and action. “Strength of hand.” Also control. To “kiss the hand” expresses adoration ( Job 31:27). “Fill one’s hand” is consecrating him a priest ( Exodus 28:41 margin, Judges 17:5; Kings 13:33). To “lift up the hand” is to swear ( Genesis 14:22), the hand being raised in appeal to God above; also the attitude of benediction ( Leviticus 9:22). To “give the hand” assures of faithfulness and friendship ( 2 Kings 10:15); also submission, “she hath given her hand,” i.e. surrendered to her conqueror ( Jeremiah 50:15; Lamentations 5:6). The hand of God is His eternal purpose and executive power ( Acts 4:28,30); His providential bounty ( <19A428> Psalm 104:28); His firm hold preserving His saints ( John 10:28,29; Deuteronomy 33:8). His “heavy hand,” affliction ( Psalm 38:2). God’s “right hand” denotes His omnipotence. “The right hand,” being more proficient than the left hand, is the place of honour ( <19B001> Psalm 110:1; Matthew 25:33), “the left” is the place of dishonour ( Matthew 26:64).
The Hebrews in reckoning the four quarters faced the E. So “in front” or “before them” was E.; “at the back,” or “behind,” W.; “the right hand,” S.; “the left hand,” N. The accuser in a trial stood “at the right hand” of the accused, so Satan at Joshua’s right hand ( Zechariah 3:1; <19A906> Psalm 109:6); but the Advocate Messiah also is at the believer’s “right hand,” to defend his cause effectively ( Psalm 16:8, 109:31); therefore Paul could say ( Romans 8:31,33,34), “If God be for us, who can be against us?
Who shall lay anything to the charge of God’s elect? It is God that justifieth. Who is he that condemneth? It is Christ that died, yea rather, that is risen again, who is even at the right hand of God, who also maketh intercession for us.” ”The hand of the Lord on” the prophets is the Holy Spirit’s extraordinary and powerful impulse, His felt impression inspiring them ( 1 Kings 18:46; 2 Kings 3:15; Ezra 1:3; 3:14). His “good hand upon” His people means His gracious help ( Nehemiah 2:8; Luke 1:66). “Laying on of hands” was usual in blessing; as the Lord Jesus blessing the infants ( Mark 10:16), Jacob blessing Ephraim and Manasseh ( Genesis 48:14); also in laying guilt and punishment upon persons accused ( Deuteronomy 13:9; 17:7); also in constituting magistrates, as Moses did in appointing Joshua his successor ( Numbers 27:18); also setting apart the Levites ( Numbers 8:10). Also the offerer put his hand upon the head of his burnt offering ( Leviticus 1:4), thereby identifying himself with it, and making it his representative to bear typically the death which his sin deserved. Also in ordaining ministers ( Acts 6:6; 13:3; Timothy 4:14; 2 Timothy 1:6). The impartation of the Spirit was connected with the symbolical laying on of hands; “Joshua was full of the spirit of wisdom, FOR Moses had laid his hands upon him” ( Deuteronomy 34:9). The “gift” in Timothy was “BY (did,) the putting on of Paul’s hands” as the chief instrument ( 2 Timothy 1:6), but “WITH (meta ) the laying on of the hands of the presbytery,” implying accompaniment rather than direct instrumentality. Compare Acts 8: 17; 9:17; 19:1-6; the apostles and others specially appointed by God had powers of miraculously conferring spiritual gifts and qualifications, such as have not been transmitted; so in confirming those already baptized. Bishops in confirming and ordaining now can only pray for the gift of the Holy Spirit to be bestowed on the candidates, not give it.
HANDICRAFT (See CIVILIZATION , see BRASS ). Jewish workmen, as distinguished from the pagan workmen in ancient times, were not slaves, nor were their trades hereditary. After the captivity it was deemed at once honourable and necessary for a father to teach his son a trade. (Mishna, Pirke, ab. 2:2).
Hence, Joseph the carpenter taught the holy Jesus his trade; and many of His own country marveled that works so mighty should be wrought by one like themselves, an artisan: “is not this the carpenter?” ( Mark 6:3).
HANDKERCHIEF =“napkin.” The two translations of the same term, [soudarion , the Graecized Latin sudarium, literally, that wherewith the sweat is wiped off. APRON, simikinthion , the Graecized Latin semicinctium (wider than the cinctus). Sudarium means: (1) a wrapper to fold up money in, Luke 19:20; (2) a cloth about a corpse’s head ( John 11:44, Lazarus 20:7, our Lord), brought from the crown under the chin; (3) a handkerchief worn on the head, as the Bedouin’s keffieh ( Acts 19:12). The semicinctium was the artisan’s linen garment for the front of the body.
HANES Isaiah 30:4, the same as Tahpanhes or Daphne, a fortress on the N.E. frontier of Egypt, to which the Jews sent ambassadors with presents for the reigning Pharaoh (perhaps Zet or Sethos of the 23rd dynasty), as also to the neighbouring Zoan his capital. Gesenius, less probably, makes Hanes to be Heracleopolis, W. of the Nile in central Egypt.
HANGING Criminals were usually put to death before hanging, for ignominy ( Joshua 10:26). The bodies were removed before nightfall in order not to defile the land ( Deuteronomy 21:22,23). Hence our Lord’s body as those of the two thieves was taken from the cross before the “high day” of the approaching “sabbath” ( John 19:31).
HANGINGS 1. Masak , “the covering before the door (rather ‘the curtain for the entrance,’ so KJV distinguishes the words rightly at Numbers 3:26) of the tabernacle” ( Exodus 26:36,37); of variegated stuff “wrought with needlework” (“the work of’ the embroiderer”), hung on five pillars of acacia wood; the curtain, unlike the hangings at the sides and back of the court, could be drawn up or aside at pleasure. Another before the entrance of the court ( Exodus 27:16). The term also is used in connection with the veil of the holy of holies, the “veil of the covering” ( Exodus 35:12). 2. Qelaim , hangings of fine twined linen for the walls of the court of the tabernacle, like our tapestry ( Exodus 27:9).
HANIEL 1 Chronicles 7:39,40.
HANNAH = “grace”. The favorite wife of Elkanah, a Levite of Ramathaim Zophim.
His other wife Peninnah, who had sons and daughters, acted as “her adversary provoking her sore for to make her fret, because the Lord had shut up her womb”; and this “year by year when she went up to the house of Jehovah,” and when her husband gave her a double portion of the flesh at the sacrificial meal (Hebrew: one portion for two persons; to show her he loved her as dearly as if she had sons), which aggravated Peninnah’s enmity; “therefore (instead of joy such as a festive season usually produces) she wept and did not eat” (1 Samuel 1). Elkanah comforted her saying, “Am not I better to thee than ten sons?” Polygamy begets jealousies, and is its own punishment ( Genesis 16:4-6). Her sorrow drove her the more closely to God; “in bitterness of soul” she “prayed unto Jehovah and wept sore, and vowed, O Lord of hosts (who hast therefore all powers at Thy command), if Thou wilt, indeed look on the affliction of Thine handmaid and wilt give a man child, then I will give him unto Jehovah all his life, and no razor shall come upon his head.” Her desire for a son was subordinate and subsidiary to her higher desire that he should be the instrument of a religious revival, then so much needed in Israel. As Samson, the last divinely sent deliverer, was a Nazarite from the womb so Hannah desired that her son should have Samsoh’s consecration but without Samson’s declension. Her vow implies how much she felt the need of some extraordinary instrument being raised to stem the tide of evil; hence instead of leaving it optional how long the Nazarite vow should last she destined her son to a vow for life. “Only her lips moved but her voice was not heard (a proof how real prayer may be, though unspoken, for the still water is often deepest while the shallow stream babbles loudest), therefore Eli the high priest thought her drunken.” Hasty judgments are often uncharitable, love thinketh no evil. It had been better if he had been as faultfinding where it was really needed, namely, with his own dissolute sons. To his reproach, which one already overweighted should have been spared, she meekly replied: “No, my lord; I am a woman of a sorrowful spirit, I have drunk no strong drink, but have poured out (emptying of all its contents, the definition of true prayer, Psalm 62:8) my soul before Jehovah.” Eli’s reproof was turned into blessing, “the God of Israel grant thee thy petition.” So she went her way and did eat, and her countenance was no more sad, for prayer dispels care ( Philippians 4:6). In due time “Jehovah remembered her,” and gave her a son whom she namedSAMUEL , i.e. heard of God, “because I have asked him of the Lord.” She did not go up again to the sanctuary until she had weaned him (the Hebrew weaning was not until three years of age) and could present him to the Lord for ever. The mention of Elkanah’s offering “his vow” shows that he too had vowed for the birth of a son by his beloved Hannah His prayer, “only the Lord establish His word,” refers to their joint hopes that their son might be an instrument of spiritual blessing to Israel. The three bullocks offered were, one a burnt offering whereby Samuel was consecrated to Jehovah, the other two the festal offering, i.e. the burnt offering and the thank offering which Elkanah presented yearly. Hannah in presenting the child to Eli made herself known as the woman who had prayed for him in that place years before; “Jehovah hath granted what I asked, therefore I also make him one asked of Jehovah, as long as he liveth he shall be as one asked of Jehorah.” The translation “lent” is unsuitable. Jehovah had given, not “lent,” Samuel to her; still less could she “lend” him to Jehovah. Elkanah then “worshipped Jehovah.”
Hannah followed with her song of praise, the prototype of the Virgin Mary’s song and Zacharias’ song ( Luke 1:46 ff, and Luke 1:68 ff), as Samuel typifies Jesus (compare Psalm 113). Hannah regards her case as an illustration of the eternal principle of God’s moral government which was to find its highest realization in God’s “Anointed,” King Messiah. Joy in the Lord’s salvation is the final portion of the now afflicted righteous, founded on the holiness of God (2:2). Proud speech escapes not God’s cognizance (verse 3); Peninnah’s case is a sample of the universal law, “by God actions are weighed” ( Daniel 5:27). Keil translated “to Him actions are weighed,” i.e. His (God’s) actions are just; alleging that it is men’s hearts not their actions that are weighed ( Proverbs 16:2; 21:2; 24:12).
Israel’s now insulting foes shall yet be brought to account; “the bows of the mighty shall be broken,” and stumbling Israel shall be “girded with strength.” “The barren bears seven,” i.e. many children, seven being the sacred number indicating divinely covenanted fullness and perfection. “And she that hath many children is waxed feeble;” “Jehovah bringeth down to the grave and bringeth up”: soon to be illustrated in Israel’s history under Samuel (1 Samuel 4—7). “He will keep the feet of His saints, and the wicked shall be silent in darkness”: the humble saints will be “kept” finally ( 1 Peter 1:5; 5:5-7), whereas the now loud boasting wicked shall be silenced ( Jude 1:15; Matthew 22:12,13) in perpetual darkness. Her prophetic anticipations have been and are being fulfilled. The Philistine oppressors have long passed into oblivion, but trodden down Israel survives, awaiting the day when “the adversaries of Jehovah shall be broken to pieces,” when “He shall judge the ends of the earth, and give strength unto His King, and exalt His Anointed,” in whom alone the divine kingdom finds its culmination (Psalm 2).
Hannah made and brought Samuel yearly a coat (meeiyl ), the term for the coat of the high priest, which it resembled, though of simpler material and less ornament; it marked his close spiritual relation to Jehovah and His high priest) when she accompanied Elkanah to the yearly sacrifice. Her devoting him to Jehovah was, in accordance with Eli’s prayer, followed by God giving her three more sons and two daughters, for He rewards superabundantly any sacrifice we make for Him ( 2 Chronicles 25:9; 2 Corinthians 9:10,11).
HANNIEL Numbers 34:23.
HANUN 1. Son of Nahash, king of Ammon 1037 B.C. David had in his outlawry by Saul received kindness from Nahash; naturally, as Nahash was (1 Samuel 11) Saul’s enemy and neighbour of Moab with which David’s descent from the Moabitess Ruth connected him. He therefore at Nahash’s death sent a message of condolence to his son Hanun. As gratitude, kindness, and sympathy characterized David’s conduct, so ingratitude, uncharitable suspiciousness, and insolent injustice characterized Hanun. Insulting the ambassadors (by shaving half the beard, which is a foul insult in oriental estimation, and cutting off their skirts) brought on himself and his country a disastrous war which ended in the capture of Rabbah and of the royal crown, and the cruelest retaliations on their fighting men of their own cruelties to Israel (2 Samuel 10; 12:30,31; 1 Chronicles 19—20). 2. Nehemiah 3:13. 3. Nehemiah 3:30.
The name may be akin to Aria and Aryans, the Greek for Media and the Medes. ProbablyHARAN, the Mesopotamian city whither Abram came from Ur, where he received his second call from God (see ABRAHAM ), and where his brother Nahor’s children settled ( Genesis 11:31; 24:10; 27:43; 25:20) in Padan Aram = the low and beautiful region at the foot of the hills below mount Masius, between the Khabour and the Euphrates.
Here still is a town bearing the old name Harran, whose people retained until lately the Chaldean language and idols; upon the Belilk (in ancient times, Bilichus), an affluent of the Euphrates. Called Charran Acts 7:2,4. The scene of Crassus’ defeat. At our Lord’s time in Abgarus’ kingdom of Edessa.
HARAN was Terah’s firstborn son, oldest brother of Abram (who is named first in Genesis 11:27, because heir of the promises), father of Lot, and Milcah who married her uncle Nahor, and Iscah or Sarai who married her uncle Abram, being “daughter (i.e. granddaughter) of his father not of his mother” ( Genesis 20:12). That Haran was oldest brother appears from his brothers marrying his daughters, Sarai being only ten years younger than Abram ( Genesis 17:17). Haran died in Ur, his native place, before his father. In the Hebrew the country Haran begins with ch, the man Haran with h, as also the Haran the Gershonite Levite under David of Shimei’s family ( 1 Chronicles 23:9). Hara begins with h; Caleb’s son by Ephah ( 1 Chronicles 2:46) begins with ch. Jewish tradition makes Haran to have been cast into Nimrod’s furnace for wavering during Abram’s fiery trial.
HARE arnebeth Reckoned unclean on the ground that it “chews the cud, but divideth not the hoof” ( Leviticus 11:6; Deuteronomy 14:7). It brings up from the (esophagus and chews again its food; but there is no genuine rumination, neither it nor the hyrax (“coney”) or shaaphan have the special stomach of the ruminants. Rodent animals, as the hare and the hyrax, keep down the undue growth of their teeth, which grow during life, by grinding with their jaws. The sacred legislator did not design the classification of a scientific naturalist or a comparative anatomist, but to furnish a popular mode of recognizing animals the flesh of which was not to be eaten. The rule in verse 27, “whatsoever goeth upon his paws” (as the dog, cat, and beasts of prey), sufficiently excludes from the clean the hyrax and the hare.
The Parsees still abominate the hare. The hare, though having a divided foot, has not a cloven hoof, which was a requisite for legal cleanness. True ruminants have four stomachs, molar teeth, and a jawbone suited for the circular movement of chewing the cud. The hare has none of these marks, and has in the upper jaw incisor teeth, which ruminants have not. But hares retain the cropped food within the hollows of their cheeks and masticate it at leisure, which in phenomenal language is “chewing the cud,” and is so described by even so close an observer of nature as the poet Cowper. The ancient Britons rejected it as food. The Palestinian hare, Lepus Syriacus, was of a fur buff or yellowish-grey color, the hare of the desert (Sinaiticus) darker and smaller. The rabbit (Lepus cuniculus) seems to be unknown in Syria and Palestine.
HARETH, FOREST OF David’s refuge when by Gad’s counsel he quitted the “hold” of the cave of Adullam, or else Mizpeh of Moab ( 1 Samuel 22:5). Ganneau would identify with Herche (= forests) near Yale; but Septuagint and Josephus speak of “the city of Hareth.” There could have been no forests in that part of Palestine. It answers to Kharas, a mile above Keilah, among inaccessible ravines, but easily reached from the valley of Elah. Ruined walls, cisterns, and caves are to be seen. (Conder, Palestine Exploration) (See KEILAH .)
HARIM 1. 1 Chronicles 24:8. 2. CHILDREN OF Harim; 1017 came up with Zerubbabel from Babylon ( Ezra 2:39; 10:21; Nehemiah 7:42; 10:5). 3. Rehum or Harim (by transposition of letters): Nehemiah 12:3,15. 4. Ezra 2:32; 10:31; Nehemiah 7:35; 10:27.
HARLOT (On the spiritual “harlot” see ANTICHRIST and Isaiah 1:21; Revelation 17; contrast Revelation 12 andBEAST.) Fornication was regarded by the unconverted Gentiles as a thing indifferent in itself, having no moral guilt intrinsically; hence in the Jerusalem decree (Acts 15) it is classed with things which Gentile usage allowed but Jewish law forbade. The moral abomination of it is elsewhere condemned as excluding from heaven ( Corinthians 6:9-20). The general Hebrew term zownah expresses any licentiousness in the married or unmarried; so the Greek porneia in Matthew 5:32. Zarah and nokriyah , “the strange woman,” implies that foreign women were those often found among the harlot class. In Proverbs 5:17-20 “strange” seemingly contrasts with one’s own rightful wife; another term, qudeeshaah , “consecrated woman” (in Genesis 38:21,22; Deuteronomy 23:17; Hosea 4:14), refers to the abominable worship of the Syrian Astarte or Venus by prostitution. By divine retribution in kind Israel’s sin was made its punishment: “My people have gone a whoring (spiritually as well as literally) from under their God ... therefore your daughters shall commit whoredom, and your spouses shall commit adultery.” What ye do of your own will, desert your divine Father and Husband, your daughters and wives shall do against your will, desert you and Him. The people’s idolatry became the source of dishonour to those to whom their honour was dearest, their wives and daughters. “The men of Babylon made Saccoth Benoth” their idol in Samaria ( Kings 17:30); the idol’s name means “booths for their daughters,” referring to their prostitution in this detestable worship. The masculine qadesh , “Sodomites,” implies male prostitution in the same vile worship ( Deuteronomy 23:17; 1 Kings 14:24; 15:12; 22:46; 2 Kings 23:7; Job 36:14). Tamar veiled herself and sat by the wayside as a consecrated harlot (qedeesh ) under a vow, and was so regarded by Judah.
Herodotus (1:199) mentions the impure custom in the Babylonian worship of Mylitta, so that of the Dea Syra at Byblos very anciently. Singing and harping about a city was the badge of a harlot ( Isaiah 23:16). Male relatives exercised unlimited power in punishing unchaste women for the family dishonour ( Genesis 38:24). A priest’s daughter playing the whore was burnt to death ( Leviticus 21:9). The children of a harlot could not inherit with legitimate children ( John 8:41; Deuteronomy 23:2), but “bastard” means probably one born of incest or adultery; so the rabbis explain Judges 11:1,2.
HARNEPHER 1 Chronicles 7:36.
HAROD, THE WELL OF Judges 7:1,3. Gideon’s encampment, where the 300 who drank the water from their hands were selected. The word Harod is played upon,” whosoever is trembling (hared ) let him return.” Now Ain Jalud; the hill Moreh is Jebel Duhy, From it two of David’s 37 warriors of the body guard are called each “theHARODITE,” namely,SHAMMAH andELIKA ( 2 Samuel 23:25).
HAROEH = the seer. 1 Chronicles 2:52.
HAROSHETH OF THE GENTILES So called from the mixed races that inhabited it. A city in Naphtali W. of the lake Merom (El Huleh), from which the Jordan passes in an undivided stream. Sisera, captain of Jabin II king of Canaan, resided there ( Judges 4:2). Jabin’s own residence and seat of government was Hazor, N.W. of Harosheth. To Harosheth Barak pursued Jabin’s routed army. Joshua ( Joshua 11:6,10) had 150 years before routed the confederate kings of northern Canaan, headed by Jabin I, at the waters of Merom, the first occasion of Israel’s having to encounter “chariots and horses.” Joshua “houghed (hamstrung) their horses and burned their chariots with fire” in firm faith and obedience to God’s prohibition against their fighting the foe with his own weapon ( Deuteronomy 17:16). Unbelieving fear subsequently altered Israel’s policy, so that they shrank from battling with the enemy’s chariots in plains such as the Jordan valley, beside which Harosheth stood ( Joshua 17:16-18; Judges 1:19), and at last adopted chariots in their armies under the kings: 2 Samuel 8:4, David; 2 Samuel 15:1, Absalom; 1 Kings 1:5, Adonijah; 1 Kings 4:26, Solomon. Hazor was rebuilt in the interval between Jabin I and Jabin II; the latter of whom was the first who threw off Israel’s yoke and oppressed Israel in turn (for their previous oppressors, the kings of Mesopotamia and Moab, Chushan Rishathaim and Eglon, were outside not within the promised land, as Jabin II). After the defeat by Barak, Hazor and Harosheth and northern Canaan remained permanently in Israel’s hand.
HARP kinnor With ten strings, played on with a plectrum (quill), according to Josephus; but also with the hand by David ( 1 Samuel 16:23; 18:10; 19:9). Jubal invented it, the simplest kind of stringed instrument, and the” organ” (ugab ), rather the “pipe,” the simplest kind of wind instrument; his brother Jabal was” father of such as dwell in tents and have cattle.” The brotherhood accords with the fact that the leisure of a nomad life was well suited to the production and appreciation of music ( Genesis 4:20,21).
The harp was the earliest of all musical instruments, and the national instrument of the Hebrews. They used it, not as the Greeks, for expressing sorrow, but on occasions of joy and praise ( Genesis 31:27; Chronicles 20:28; Psalm 33:2); therefore, it was hung on the willows in the Babylonian captivity (137:2; Job 30:31). The words “My bowels shall sound like an harp” ( Isaiah 16:11) do not allude to the sound as lugubrious, but to the strings vibrating when struck. There was a smaller harp played with the hand, as by the walking prophets ( 1 Samuel 10:5), besides the larger, with more strings, played with the plectrum. Its music, as that of other instruments, was raised to its highest perfection under David ( Amos 6:5). It was an important adjunct to the “schools of the prophets.”
Monogamous and constant in affection ( Proverbs 5:19). In Psalm 42:1 the verb is feminine; the hind therefore, not the hart, is meant; her weakness intensifies her thirst. The emblem of activity ( Isaiah 35:6). So Naphtali is described by Jacob prophetically ( Genesis 49:21), “a hind let loose.” His active energy was shown against Jabin the Canaanite oppressor ( Judges 4:6-9; 5:18). The Targums say he first told Jacob that Joseph was yet alive; “he giveth goodly words.” The Hebrews sheluchim , “the apostles,” answers to shelucha “let loose.” So the prophecy hints at what Isaiah (52:7) more clearly unfolds, “how beautiful upon the mountains are the feet of him that bringeth good tidings.” Easily agitated (Song 2:7; 3:5), so that the hunter must advance on them with breathless caution if he would take them; an emblem of the resting ( Zephaniah 3:17) but easily grieved Holy Spirit ( Ezekiel 16:43; Matthew 18:7; Ephesians 4:30). The thunder so terrifies them that they prematurely bring forth ( Psalm 29:9). The case of their parturition, through the instinct given them by God’s care, stands in contrast to the shepherd’s anxiety in numbering the months of the flock’s pregnancy, and is an argument to convince Job (39:1-3) of God’s consummate wisdom; why then should he harbour for a moment the thought that God, who cares so providentially for the humblest creature, could be capable of harshness and injustice toward His noblest creature, man? The masculine ayal , Septuagint [elafos , is the fallow deer (Dama commonis) or the Barbary deer (Cervus Barbarus) according to Appendix, Smith’s Bible Dictionary Timid and fleet especially when seeking and not able to find pasture ( Lamentations 1:6); emblem of Zion’s captive princes at Babylon. Septuagint and Vulgate read eylim , “rams.” Ajalon abounded in the ayal , whence it took its name.
Aijeleth, “the hind,” in the title Psalm 22 symbolizes one shot at by the archers and persecuted to death, namely, Messiah; as the persecutors are symbolized by “bulls,” “lions,” “dogs.” The addition “of the morning” (shahar ) implies prosperity dawning after suffering. The hind is emblematic of the grace, innocence, and loveliness (Song 2:9) of the Antitype to Joseph ( Genesis 49:23,24). The hind’s sure footing in the rocks typifies the believer’s preservation in high places and difficulties. The Arabs call a deer by a like name to the Hebrew, (iyal ). The deer is represented on the slabs at Nineveh, and seems to have abounded anciently in Syria, though not there now.
HARUM 1 Chronicles 4:8.
HARUMAPH Nehemiah 3:10.
HARUPHITE 1 Chronicles 12:5.
HARUZ 2 Kings 21:19.
HASENUAH Senuah with the article ( 1 Chronicles 9:7).
HASHABIAH 1. “Regarded by Jehovah” ( 1 Chronicles 6:15). 2. Chronicles 9:14. 3. 1 Chronicles 25:3,19. 4. 1 Chronicles 26:30, one of the Hebronites (a chief Levite family sprung from Hebron, Kohath’s son).
With 1,700 men he had charge of all business appertaining to the Lord’s and to king David’s service. Called “ruler of the Levites, son of Kemuel” ( 1 Chronicles 27:17). 5. 2 Chronicles 35:9. 6. Ezra 8:19. 7. Ezra 8:24. 8. Nehemiah 3:17. 9. Nehemiah 10:11; the “chief” (12:24,26). 10. Nehemiah 11:15. 11. Nehemiah 11:22. 12. Nehemiah 12:1,10,21,26.
HASHABNAH Nehemiah 10:25.
HASHBADANA Nehemiah 8:4.
HASHMANNIM Hebrew for “princes shall come out of Egypt” ( Psalm 68:31); rich nobles, whence the Maccabees took their name Asmonaeans. The Egyptian civil name of Hermopolis Magna was Hashmen. The idol of wisdom, Hermes, Thoth, gave his name to the city; thus the derived term Hashmannim means “wisest Egyptian princes.” These as well as distant Ethiopians shall turn to the true God.
HASHMONAH The stage of Israel’s journeyings near Mount Hor, next before Moseroth ( Numbers 33:29; 20:28; Deuteronomy 10:6). Heshmon ( Joshua 15:27), an “uttermost city of Judah toward the coast of Edom southward,” like Kedesh outside the natural frontier of Palestine, in the extreme N. of the desert. At Ain Hasb, N.W. of the Arabah, is a pool still of sweet living water, surrounded by verdure, and with traces of ruins (Robinson, Biblical Research, 2:119).
HASHUBAH See HASADIAH .
HASHUM, CHILDREN OF 1. 223 in Ezra, 328 in Nehemiah, came back with Zerubbabel ( Nehemiah 7:22; Ezra 2:19). Many causes which we can only conjecture may have produced the variation; some gave in their names to go who did not go; others joined the caravan subsequently ( Nehemiah 10:18, Ezra 10:33). 2. Nehemiah 8:4.
HATACH Esther 4:5-10.
HATHATH 1 Chronicles 4:13.
HATTUSH 1. 1 Chronicles 3:22. Lord A. Hervey identifies Shemaiah with Shimei, Zerubbabel’s brother. Thus Hattush would be Zerubbabel’s nephew. An Hattush “of the sons of David” ( Ezra 8:2). An Hattush in Nehemiah 12:2. The one and the same Hattush may be meant in all the passages. But the same name in the same family may be repeated in different generations; the Hattush in 1 Chronicles 3:22 seems distinct from the Hattush of Ezra 8:2; Nehemiah 12:2. 2. Nehemiah 3:10.
HAURAN Ezekiel 47:16,18. Extending from near Damascus southward as far as the Jabbok. The Greek Auranitis. Derived from hur “a cave,” as it abounds in cisterns excavated for storing water or else grain. With rugged Trachonitis (on the N.), mountainous Batanaea (on the E.), and Gaulanitis (on the W.), it formed ancient Bashan. It was N. of the plains of Moab ( Jeremiah 48:21). The country is level and among the richest in Syria, free from stones except on a few low volcanic tells here and there. It is still the granary of Damascus. Ruins of Roman towns abound with buildings untenanted, though perfect with walls, roofs, and doors of black basalt rock, there being no timber in the Hauran. Besides the Roman architectural magnificence traceable in some buildings, each village has its tank and bridge. The style of building in Um er Ruman, in the extreme S., is not Roman but almost like that of Palmyra. El Lejah is a rocky plain N.W. of Hauran proper, and is full of deserted towns and villages. El Gebel is a mountainous region between Hauran and the eastern desert.
HAVILAH 1. Genesis 10:7. 2. Descendants of Havilah, son of tush, probably intermingled with the descendants of Havilah the Joktanite Havilah. So one people was formed, occupying Khawlan, the fertile region in the N.W. portion of Yemen or Arabia Felix. The Joktanite settlement was probably the earliest, the Arabs tracing the name Khawlan (which is another form of Havilah or Chavilah, with the ending n) to a descendant of Kahtan or Joktan. The region is fertile, abounding in myrrh, well watered, and populous. The Havilah bordering on the Ishmaelites “as thou goest to Assyria” ( Genesis 25:18), also on Amalek ( 1 Samuel 15:7), seems distinct. This Havilah is not as the former Havilah in the heart of Yemen, but on the border of Arabia Petrea toward Yemen, between the Nabateans and the Hagarites; the country of the Chauloteans.
HAVOTHJAIR See BASHAN HAVOTH-JAIR .
HAWK neets ; implying strong and rapid flight. Migratory in S. Europe and parts of Asia; so Job 39:26, “doth the hawk fly by thy wisdom, and stretch her wings toward the S.?” Of the dozen lesser raptores, birds, in Palestine nearly all are summer migrants; the Falco saker and lanarius, besides the smaller Falco melanopterus, Hypotriorchis subbuteo or the hobby, etc. The sacred monuments show that one kind was sacred in Egypt. The Greek name implies sacredness, hierax.
HAY The Hebrew has no word for it, chatsir ( Proverbs 27:25; Isaiah 15:6) expressing grass as well as hay. For in the hot East the grass becomes hay as it stands; compare Matthew 6:30. It was cut as it was used, and not stacked ( Psalm 37:2; 72:6; 129:7). Amos 7:1, “the latter growth,” is that which springs up after mowing. Chashash ( Isaiah 5:24) is not “chaff,” but the withered grass. In Isaiah 15:6; Proverbs 27:2, translated “the hay grass.”
HAZAEL King of Damascus from 886 to 840 B.C. Sent by his master Benhadad originally to Elisha to ask if he would recover from his sickness. The prophet answered he might recover (the disease not being fatal), but “that he should surely die.” Then Elisha gazing at Hazael burst into tears (typifying Him who wept over Jerusalem, Luke 19:41), and said his weeping was “because I know the evil thou wilt do unto Israel ... their strongholds wilt thou set on fire, and their young men wilt thou slay with the sword, and wilt dash their children, and rip up their women with child.”
Hazael replied, expressing surprise at such a one as he being about to do so (see EHISHA for the true translated of 2 Kings 8:13). Herein Elisha fulfilled Elijah’s commission, that he should appoint Hazael king of Syria to be the Lord’s scourge of fits guilty people ( 1 Kings 19:15). Hazael having murdered Benhadad became king, and fought with Ahaziah king of Judah, and Jehoram of Israel, for Ramoth Gilead ( 2 Kings 8:28). The atrocities foretold (the same as in Hosea 13:16) were doubtless perpetrated by him when in Jehu’s days “Jehovah cut Israel short, and Hazael smote them in all the coasts of Israel, from Jordan eastward, all ... Gilead, the Gadites, Reubenites, Manassites, from Aroer by the Arnon, even Gilead and Bashan” ( 2 Kings 10:32,33).
Jehovah therefore threatened, and executed his threat, “for three transgressions of Damascus, and for four, I will not turn away the punishment thereof; because they have threshed Gilead with threshing instruments of iron; and I will send a fire into the house of Hazael,” etc. (Amos 1:3.)
The very same image is used in the independent history (an undesigned coincidence and mark of genuineness), concerning the king of Syria’s oppression of Israel under Jehoahaz, Jehu’s son: “he made them like the dust by threshing” ( 2 Kings 13:7).
A black marble obelisk of the central palace of Nimrud, now in the British Museum, is inscribed with the names of Hazael and Benhadad of Syria, and Jehu of Israel, mentioned as tributaries of Shalmauubar king of Assyria.
The tribute from Jehu is mentioned, gold, pearls, precious oil, etc. The name Hazael means “whom God looks on,” implying some connection with the true God (El). El was also in the name of ELisha, who appointed him in the name of El; probably he assumed this name because of this call.
Hazael led the Syrians, we read in the Assyrian monuments, in confederacy with the Hittites, Hamathites, and Phoenicians, against Assyria; at Antilibanus the Assyrians slew 16,000 of his warriors, and took 1,100 chariots. Three years later Hazael submitted to the Assyrians when they again invaded Syria.
It was after this, when the Assyrians were prevented by internal troubles from continuing to invade, that Hazael assailed Gilead toward the close of Jehu’s reign (about 860 B.C.), and held Israel in a kind of subjection ( Kings 13:3-7,22). He took Gath and even “set his face to go up to Jerusalem” (12:17) in Joash’s reign ( 2 Chronicles 24:23,24), “and destroyed all the princes of the people from among the people” (it was God’s righteous retribution, for it was “the princes of Judah” who with flattering “obeisance” at Jehoiada’s death persuaded Joash to “leave the house of the Lord God of their fathers, to serve groves and idols,” ver. 17,18, and stoned Zechariah son of Jehoiada, who “testified against them,” ver. 19-22), and sent all the spoil to Damascus; Jehovah delivering “a very great host into the hand of a small company of Syrians, because the Jews had forsaken the Lord God of their fathers” (ver. 23,24). Joash saved Jerusalem only by “sending to Hazael all the hallowed things that Jehoshaphat, Jehoram, and Ahaziah his fathers had dedicated, and his own hallowed things, and all the gold in the treasures of the house of the Lord, and in the king’s house” ( 2 Kings 12:18).
Jehoash, son of Jehoahaz, recovered from Benhadad, Hazael’s son, the cities taken by Hazael. Jeroboam II still further “restored the coast of Israel from the entering in of Hamath unto the sea of the plain,” according to Jonah’s prophecy, through the Lord’s great compassion ( 2 Kings 13:25; 14:25-27). Hazael’s cruelty and ambition failed to secure a lasting dynasty; see Jeremiah 17:11.
HAZAIAH Nehemiah 11:5.
HAZARAll the compounds ofHAZER were in the wilderness or its borders. Hazer is the “court” or quadrangle of a palace; and applies to the villages of rovers, semi-permanent collections of dwellings, such as still exist, rough stone walls being covered with tent cloths, holding thus a middle place between the tent and the town.
HAZAR-ENAN = “village of springs.” Here the northern boundary terminated ( Numbers 34:9,10), and the eastern boundary began. Identified with Ayun ed Dara, a fountain in the midst of the central chain of Antilibanus; in Van de Velde’s map, latitude 33 degrees 49’, longitude 36 degrees 12’.
Ruins mark the spot. Thus, the E. and W. declivities of the northern part of the Antilibanus range, excluding the Damascus plain and its contiguous valleys, were included in the borders of the promised land (Speaker’s Commentary, Numbers 34:9).
HAZAR-GADDAH probably now El Ghurra (Conder). A town on the S. of Judah ( Joshua 15:27).HAZAR-HATTICON, “the middle village “; on the boundary of Hauran ( Ezekiel 47:16).HAZAR-SHUAL, “fox or jackal village”; in southern Judah, between Hazar-Gaddah and Beersheba ( Joshua 15:28; 19:3; 1 Chronicles 4:28; Nehemiah 11:27); now Saweh.HAZARSUSAH, “horse village”; belonging to Simeon, in southern Judah ( Joshua 19:5; 1 Chronicles 4:31); possibly made a depot for horses in the trade with Egypt in Solomon’s time; the name may be changed from some ancient name, as the import of horses was prohibited, and not practiced until David’s and Solomon’s time. In the Quarterly Statement of the Pal.
Expl. the sites of Hazar-Shual and Hazar-Gaddah are described as walled towns of flint, answering to the meaning of Hazar, an “enclosure.”
Hadramaut, a province in S.E. of Arabia, abounding in myrrh and frankincense, but deadly in climate, whence it derives its name. Called Atramitae by the Romans and Greeks. The most powerful of the Arab tribes. Between the modern Yemen which lies on the W. and the Mahra country. Shibam is its capital.
HAZEL luz . Rather the “almond,” Genesis 30:37 (Gesenius).
HAZELELPONI With the article, “the Tzelelponite” ( 1 Chronicles 4:3).
HAZEROTH The stage after Kibroth Hattaavah in Israel’s wanderings ( Numbers 11:35; 12:16; 33:17; Deuteronomy 1:1). Now El Ain, famed for its spring, on Israel’s probable route (which Ain el Hudherah is not) by the wady es Zulukah. But Clark identifies Hazeroth with Bir eth Themed, many miles further on the march northwards. Several valleys converge round El Ain, which with other springs make this region the oasis of the E. of the peninsula.
HAZEZON TAMAR = “pruning of palms.” The old name of see ENGEDI , famed for palms.
Perhaps this was “the city of palm trees” ( Judges 1:16) (though Jericho is generally called so: Deuteronomy 34:3), from which the Kenites, the tribe of Moses’ father-in-law, went into the wilderness of Judah with the children of Judah. Thus, Balaam standing on a height opposite Jericho, and seeing the western shore of the Dead Sea to Engedi, appropriately speaks of the Kenite as having fixed his “nest” in the cliff there ( Numbers 24:21).
HAZIEL 1 Chronicles 23:9.
HAZOR = “enclosed.” (See HAROSHETH .) 1. In Naphtali, on a height overlooking Lake Merom ( Joshua 11:1,10, “head of all those kingdoms,” i.e. the chief city of northern Palestine; 12:19; 19:36; Judges 4:2,17; 1 Samuel 12:9). Burnt by Joshua in order not to leave such a strong place in his rear; rebuilt and made the second Jabin’s seat whence he oppressed Israel. Fortified by Solomon as a point of defense at the entering into Palestine from Syria and Assyria; its fortification was one among the works which necessitated. a “levy” of taxes ( 1 Kings 9:15). Its inhabitants were carried to Assyria by Tiglath Pileser ( 2 Kings 15:29). Now Tell Khuraibeh, “the ruins,” according to Robinson; but there are no old ruins there and no cisterns. Rather Tel Hara, where is an ancient fortress, and walls, ruins, and pottery (Our Work in Palestine, Palestine Exploration Fund). 2. A city in the extreme S. of Judah ( Joshua 15:23). 3. HAZOR-HADATTAH, “the new Hazor” as distinguished from the former; also in southern Judah ( Joshua 15:25). 4. A city N. of Jerusalem, where the Benjamites resided after the return from Babylon ( Nehemiah 11:33).
HEADDRESS The head was usually uncovered. In Leviticus 10:6 the sense of “uncover (literally, let loose) not your heads” is “let not your hair fall loosely from your head” as in mourning. When needful the head was covered with the mantle; the radid and tsaiph were so used, the veil also.
In Job 29:14, “my judgment (justice) was as ... a diadem,” translated “a turban,” or head-dress of linen rolled around (tsaniph). It and the flowing outer “robe” characterize an oriental grandee or high priest ( Zechariah 3:5). The [tsaniyph ] was worn also by an adorned lady ( Isaiah 3:23, “hoods” or mitres), also by kings, Isaiah 62:3. The pe-eer was a holiday ornamental head-dress; ( Isaiah 61:3) “beauty for ashes” (a play on similar sounds, pe-eer epher), to give them the ornamental headdress worn on joyous occasions ( Ezekiel 24:17) for the ashes cast on the head in mourning ( 2 Samuel 13:19). The high priest’s “mitre” was a twisted band of linen coiled into a cap, like a turban, with a plate or crown of gold in front,. Instead of this the ordinary priests wore “bonnets” (rather caps) “for glory and for beauty.” In Isaiah 61:10, “as a bridegroom decketh himself with ornaments” (pe-eer), translated” with the priests’ ornamental head-dress,” appropriate to the “kingdom of priests,” consecrated to offer spiritual sacrifices to God continually ( Exodus 19:6; Revelation 5:10; 20:6). The pe-eer refers especially to the jewels and ornaments with which the turban is decorated. In Ezekiel 16:10 “I girded thee about with fine linen” may refer to the turban. In Ezekiel 23:15 “exceeding in dyed attire,” translated “redundant in dyed turbans,” i.e. with ample dyed turbans; the Assyrians delighted in ample richly dyed headdresses anti robes. In Daniel 3:21 for” hats” translated “outer mantles.”
HEART Often including the intellect as well as the affections and will; as conversely the “mind” often includes the feeling and will as well as the intellect. Romans 1:21, “their foolish heart was darkened.” Ephesians 1:18, “the eyes of your understanding (the Vaticanus manuscript; but the Sinaiticus and Alexandrinus manuscripts ‘heart’) being enlightened.” Thus, the Scripture implies that the heart and the head act and react on one another; and in men’s unbelief it is the will that perverts the intellectual perceptions. John 7:17, “if any man be willinq to (Greek) do, he shall know.” “Willingness to obey” is the key to spiritual knowledge. See Jeremiah 17:9; Hosea 7:11, “Ephraim is like a silly dove without heart,” i.e. moral understanding.
HEATH Hebrew aroer , arar ; Arabic dnax; the Juniper sabina or savin with small scale-like leaves, close to the stem, a gloomy looking bush on a sterile soil, symbolizing “the man that trusteth in man and maketh flesh his arm, and whose heart departeth from the Lord” ( Jeremiah 17:6); the Hebrew means “naked”; such is he whose defense is other than Jehovah, a shrub in a barren soil, contrasted with the “tree spreading out her roots by the river,” i.e. the man that trusteth in Jehovah ( Jeremiah 17:7,8; compare Jeremiah 48:6, margin).
HEATHEN (See GENTILES .)
HEAVEN From “heaved up;” so “the heights” ( <19E801> Psalm 148:1). The Greek ouranos and the Hebrew shamaim , are similarly derived. It is used of the surrounding air wherein “the fowls of heaven” fly ( Genesis 1:26, compare Genesis 1:20); from whence the rain and hail fall ( Deuteronomy 11:11). “I will make your heaven as iron,” i.e. your sky hard and yielding no rain ( Leviticus 26:19). “The four quarters of heaven” ( Jeremiah 49:36) and “the circuit of heaven” ( Job 22:14) refer to the atmospheric heaven. By metaphor it is represented as a building with foundations and pillars ( 2 Samuel 22:8; Job 26:11), with an entrance gate ( Genesis 28:17) and windows opened to pour down rain ( Genesis 7:11, compare 2 Kings 7:2; Malachi 3:10). Job 37:18, “spread out the sky ... strong ... as a molten looking glass,” not solid as “firmament” would imply, whereas the “expanse” is the true meaning ( Genesis 1:6; Isaiah 44:24), but phenomenally like one of the ancient mirrors made of firm molten polished metal.
Matthew, who is most Hebraistic in style, uses the plural, the Hebrew term for heaven being always so. “The heaven of heavens” ( Deuteronomy 10:14) is a Hebraism for the highest heavens. Paul’s “third heaven” ( Corinthians 12:2) to which he was caught up implies this superlatively high heaven, which he reached after passing through the first heaven the air, and the second the sky of the stars ( Ephesians 4:10). Hebrews 7:26, “made higher than the heavens,” for Christ “passed through the heavens” ( Hebrews 4:14, Greek), namely, the aerial heaven and the starry heaven, the veil through which our High Priest passed into the heaven of heavens, the immediate presence of God, as the Levitical high priest passed through the veil into the holy of belies. The visible heavens shall pass away to give place to the abiding new heaven and earth wherein shall dwell righteousness ( <19A225> Psalm 102:25-27; Isaiah 65:17; 66:22; 2 Peter 3:7,13; Revelation 21:1; Hebrews 12:26-28). “The kingdom of the heavens” in Matthew, for “the kingdom of God” in Mark and Luke, is drawn from Daniel 4:26, “the heavens do rule,” ( Daniel 2:44) “the God of heaven shall set up a kingdom which shall never be destroyed.” It consists of many stages and phases, issuing at last in heaven being brought down fully to earth, and the tabernacle of God being with men ( Revelation 21:2,3,10, etc.). The plurality of the phases is expressed by “the kingdom of the heavens.”
The Bible is distinguished from the sacred books of false religions in not having minute details of heavenly bliss such as men’s curiosity would crave. The grand feature of its blessedness is represented as consisting in holy personal union and immediate face to face communion with God and the Lamb; secondarily, that the saints are led by the Lamb to living fountains of water, and fed with the fruit of the tree of life in the midst of the paradise of God, the antitype of the former Adamic paradise. It is no longer merely a garden as Eden, but a heavenly “city” and garden combined, nature and art no longer mutually destructive, but enhancing each the charm of the other, individuality and society realized perfectly (Revelation 2,3,7,21,22). No separate temple, but the whole forming one vast “temple,” finding its center in the Lord God Almighty and the Lamb, who are the temple to each and all the king-priests reigning and serving there. This was the model Moses was shown on Sinai ( Hebrews 7:1-6).
The “altar” ( Revelation 6:9) and the “censer,” etc. ( Revelation 8:3), the “temple” in heaven ( Revelation 11:19; 14:17; 15:5,8), are preliminary to the final state when there shall be “no temple therein” ( Revelation 21:22), for the whole shall be perfectly consecrated to God.
Negatives of present provisional conditions and evils form a large part of the subordinate description of heaven’s bliss: no marriage ( Luke 20:34-36), no meats for the belly ( 1 Corinthians 6:13), no death, no sorrow, crying, pain; no defilement, no curse, no night, no candle, no light of the sun, for the Lord God giveth them light ( Revelation 21:4,27; 22:3,5).
Heaven is not merely a state but a place. For it is the place where Christ’s glorifed body now is; “the heaven must receive Him until the times of restitution of all things” ( Acts 3:21). Thither He will “receive His people to Himself” after He hath “prepared a place for them” ( John 14:2-4), that where He is there His servants may be ( John 12:26). From heaven, which is God’s court, angels are sent down to this earth, as the multitude of the heavenly host (distinct from the host of heaven,” Acts 7:42), and to which they return ( Luke 2:13-15; 22:43). God Himself is addressed “Our Father who art in heaven.” His home is the parent home, the sacred hearth of the universe.
HEBER EBER means “beyond.” 1. The father of Peleg and ancestor of Abraham ( Genesis 10:24,25); marking that Arphaxad’s descendants were now crossing over or beyond the great rivers on their way to Mesopotamia and thence to Canaan. In Luke 3:35, Heber = Eber. 2. Nehemiah 12:20. 3. 1 Chronicles 5:13. 4. 1 Chronicles 8:12,22. Abed or Obed is substituted in Septuagint for 2,3,4.
HEBER 1. Genesis 46:17, Numbers 26:45. 2. 1 Chronicles 4:18. 3. 1 Chronicles 8:17. 4. Heber the Kenite ( Judges 4:11,17; 5:24), husband of Jael, descendant of Hobab “priest, of Midian,” who was himself a Kenite resident in Midian.
The Kenites migrated with the children of Judah into the wilderness of Judah at the time of the conquest of Canaan ( Judges 1:16). They had accompanied Israel to Canaan at Moses’ request ( Numbers 10:29, etc.). (See HAZEZON TAMAR ) Besides this general migration Heber’s family migrated to Kedesh in Naphtali, the debatable ground between northern Israel and Jabin.
HEBREW; HEBREWS Shem is called “the father of all the children of Eber,” as Ham is called “father of Canaan.” The Hebrews and Canaanites were often brought, into contact, and exhibited the respective characteristics of the Shemites and the Hamites. The term “Hebrews” thus is derived from Eber ( Genesis 10:21, compare Numbers 24:24). The Septuagint translated “passer from beyond” (perates ), taking the name from eeber “beyond.” Abram in Palestine was to the inhabitants the stranger from beyond the river ( Genesis 14:13). In entering Palestine he spoke Chaldee or Syriac ( Genesis 31:47). In Canaan he and his descendants acquired Hebrew from the Hamitic Canaanites, who in their turn had acquired it from an earlier Semitic race. The Moabite stone shows that Moab spoke the same Hebrew tongue as Israel, which their connection with Lot, Abraham’s nephew, would lead us to expect. In the patriarchs’ wanderings they never used interpreters until they went to Egypt. In Israel’s bondages in the time of the judges they never lost their language; but in the 70 years’ captivity in Babylon their language became in a great degree Aramaic or Chaldee, and they adopted the present Hebrew alphabet. Thus it is proved the Israelites spoke the languages of the surrounding peoples. The sense of Genesis 10:21 is: as in Genesis 10:6-20 the three Hamite settlements are mentioned, Babylon, Egypt, Canaan, so next the Shemite races are spoken of as commencing at the most easterly point of the Hamites, namely, Babylon and the Euphrates. Shem was “father of all the children of Eber,” i.e. of the nations settled eastward, starting from beyond the Euphrates.
The name Hebrews, applied to them in relation to the surrounding tribes already long settled in Canaan, continued to be their name among foreigners; whereas “Israelite” was their name among themselves ( Genesis 39:14,17; 43:32; 1 Samuel 4:6,9). In New Testament the contrast is between “Hebrews” and those having foreign characteristics, as especially the Greek or any Gentile language ( Acts 6:1; Philippians 3:5 (see GREEK , see GRECIAN ), 2 Corinthians 11:22; Luke 23:38). The name Hebrews is found in Genesis and Exodus more than in all the other Books of the Bible, for it was the international name linking Jacob’s descendants with the nations; Israel is the name that separates them from the nations. After the constitution of Israel as a separate people (in Exodus) Hebrews rarely occurs; in the national poetry and in the prophets the name does not occur as a designation of the elect people among themselves. If, as seems implied in Genesis 10, Eber be a patronymic, his name must be prophetic (as Peleg is) of the migrations of his descendants.
HEBREW LANGUAGE Called “the language of Canaan” ( Isaiah 19:18), as distinguished from that of Egypt; “the Jewish” as distinguished from Aramean ( 2 Kings 18:26,28). (See HEBREW above.) Internal evidence also favors its Palestinian origin; as yam “the sea,” in oldest documents used for the west.
It is Semitic, as distinguished from the Indo-Germanic, Indo-European, Aryan, or Japhetic languages. The Semitic includes Aramaean or Chaldee and Syriac on the N.E., the Arabic on the S., the Ethiopic between the Hebrew and Arabic, the Hebrew, and kindred Phoenician or Canaanite.
In Hebrew and the other Semitic languages gutturals preponderate.
Consonants are not grouped round one vowel, yet a consonant always begins a syllable. The Semitic languages are less matured and polished, and more impulsive than deliberative. The roots have three letters. The conjugations of verbs are threefold: 1. Expressing intensity or repetition by a change within the root. 2. Reflexiveness or causation by addition to the root. 3. Passives by “u” or “a” in the first syllable. Modifications of the root idea are marked by changes within the root, not by additions. The a sound marks activity; the “e” and “o” sounds rest or passiveness. Intensity and repeated action are expressed by doubling the consonant. The neuter gender is unknown, because Semitic imagination endows with life every object in nature and makes it male or female. Mental qualities are represented by physical members: strength by the “hand” or “arm”; anger by the “nostril” (aph ); favor by the “shining face”; displeasure by the “falling of the countenance.” Go, way, walk, course express spiritual motion. Tenses or times of verbs are twofold (not three as with us, past, present, future). What the mind realizes is put in the past, even though it may be future; what the mind regards as about to be, or being, realized is put in the future; so that the future may be used of the historic past, and the preterite of the prophetic future. The vowels were not originally written; latterly they were put as points under the consonants, which are read from right to left. The particles are few; hence subtle reasonings cannot be expressed. The Greek is the language of philosophy; the Hebrew of imagination and intuition. The sentences are a succession of coordinate propositions, not of propositions molded by interdependence and mutual subordination into complete periods. The style is pictorial: “Behold!” is of frequent occurrence; and the process of doing, as well as the act, is stated, as “he arose and went,” “he put forth his hand and took,” “he lifted up his voice and wept.” Symbolical phrases are frequent: “incline the ear”; “stiffen the neck,” i.e. to be perverse; “to uncover the ear,” i.e. to reveal.
Adam, Eve, Abel, etc., are pictorial names, possibly Hebrew equivalents for the original names. The fall has among its evil effects caused a severance between names and things. The Bible retains some of the original connection, all the ancient names being significant of things. The choice of essentially the same language as that of commercial Sidon and Tyre for the divine revelation was a providential arrangement for diffusing the knowledge of His law widely among the Gentiles. There may be a Hamitic element in Hebrew, considering that the Canaanites who spoke it when Abram entered Canaan were Hamites; even though they probably acquired it from earlier Semitic occupants of Canaan, they would infuse a Hamitic element themselves. The vocabulary of the oldest Babel monuments is Hamitic. The Aramaic is decidedly Semitic, and was Abraham’s original tongue. The Hamites and Nimrod took the lead in building Babel, which entailed the confusion of tongues; their tongue accordingly is found more confounded into endless varieties of dialect than the Semitic and Japhetic, whose dialects bear a nearer resemblance among themselves than the Turanian and other Hamitic dialects. As Hebrew sprang from the confusion of Babel, it cannot have been the language of Adam and the whole earth when there was but one speech; still, though an offshoot like the rest, it may retain most of the primitive type, a view which the Hebrew Bible names favor, though these be modified from the original form. The Shemites and Japhetites have had a higher moral civilization, and so a purer language. The Hebrew terms for see SIN , see ATONEMENT , see GOD , see JEHOVAH , and many such theological ideas, must have conveyed to the Gentiles, wherever fragments of the Hob. revelation reached, many fruitful germs of divine truth. The sacred books of Moses gave a fixity to the language, so that no essential change of language is observable in the books of different ages until the Babylonian captivity; thenceforward Chaldee became largely mixed with Hebrew (See Nehemiah 8:8.)
HEBREWS, EPISTLE TO THE Canonicity . — Clement of Rome (1st century A.D.) refers to it oftener than any other canonical New Testament book, adopting its words as on a level with the rest of the New Testament. As the writer of this epistle claims authority Clement virtually sanctions it, and this in the apostolic age.
Westcott (Canon, 22) observes, it seems transfused into Clement’s mind.
Justin Martyr quotes its authority for applying the titles “apostle” and “angel” to the Son of God. Clement of Alexandria refers it to Paul, on the authority of Pantaenus of Alexandria (in the middle of the second century) saying that as Jesus is called the “apostle” to the Hebrews, Paul does not in it call himself so, being apostle to the Gentiles; also that Paul prudently omitted his name at the beginning, because the Hebrews were prejudiced against him; that it was originally written in Hebrew for the Hebrews, and that Luke translated it into Greek for the Greeks, whence the style resembles that of Acts. He however quotes the Greek epistle as Paul’s, so also Origen; but in his Homilies he regards the style as more Grecian than Paul’s but the thoughts as his. “The ancients who handed down the tradition of its Pauline authorship must have had good reason for doing so, though God alone knows the certainty who was the actual writer,” i.e. probably the transcriber or else interpreter of Paul’s thoughts. The Peshito old Syriac version has it. Tertullian in the beginning of the third century, in the African church, ascribes it to Barnabas. Irenaeus in Eusebius quotes it.
About the same time Caius the presbyter of Rome mentions only epistles of Paul, whereas if epistle to Hebrews were included there would be 14. The see CANON fragment of Muratori omits it, in the beginning of the third century. The Latin church did not recognize it as Paul’s for a long time subsequently. So Victorinus, Novatian of Rome, and Cyprian of Carthage. But in the fourth century Hilary of Poitiers (A.D. 368), Lucifer of Cagliari (A.D. 371), Ambrose of Milan (A.D. 397), and other Latins quote it as Paul’s; the fifth council of Carthage (A.D. 419) formally recognizes it among his 14 epistles.
Style . — The partial resemblance of Luke’s style to it is probably due to his having been companion of Paul: “each imitated his teacher; Luke imitated Paul flowing along with more than river fullness; Mark imitated Peter who studied brevity” (Chrysostom). But more familiarity with Jewish feeling, and with the peculiarities of their schools, appears in this epistle than in Luke’s writings. The Alexandrian phraseology does not prove Apollos’ authorship (Alford’s theory). The Alexandrian church would not have so undoubtingly asserted Paul’s authorship if Apollos their own countryman had really been the author. Paul, from his education in Hebrew at Jerusalem, and in Hellenistic at Tarsus, was familiar with Philo’s modes of thought. At Jerusalem there was an Alexandrian synagogue ( Acts 6:9). Paul knew well how to adapt himself to his readers; to the Greek Corinthians who idolized rhetoric his style is unadorned, that their attention might be fixed on the gospel alone; to the Hebrews who were in no such danger he writes to win them ( 1 Corinthians 9:20) in a style attractive to those imbued with Philo’s Alexandrian conceptions and accustomed to the combination of Alexandrian Greek philosophy and ornament with Judaism. All the Old Testament quotations except two ( Hebrews 10:30; 13:5) are from the Septuagint, which was framed at Alexandria. The interweaving of the Septuagint peculiarities into the argument proves that the Greek epistle is an original, not a translation. The Hebrew Old Testament would have been quoted, had the original epistle been Hebrew Pauline authorship . — This is further favored by internal evidence. The superiority of Christianity to Judaism in that the reality exceeds the type is a favorite topic of Paul. Compare this epistle with 2 Corinthians 3:6-18; Galatians 3:23-25; 4:1-9,21-31. Herein allegorical interpretation, which the Alexandrians strained unduly, is legitimately under divine guidance employed. The divine Son is represented as the image of God; compare 1:3, etc., with Paul’s undoubted epistles, Philippians 2:6; Colossians 1:15-20; His lowering Himself for man’s sake ( Hebrews 2:9) with Corinthians 8:9; Philippians 2:7,8; His final exaltation ( Hebrews 2:8; 10:13; 12:2) with 1 Corinthians 15:25-27; His “mediator” (unique to Paul) office ( Hebrews 8:6) with Galatians 3:19,20; His sacrifice for sin prefigured by the Jewish sacrifices (Hebrews 7—10) with Romans 3:22-26; 1 Corinthians 5:7. “God of peace” is a phrase unique to Paul ( Hebrews 13:20 with Romans 15:33; 1 Thessalonians 5:23). So “distributed gifts of the Holy Spirit” ( Hebrews 2:4) with (Greek) “divisions of gifts ... the same Spirit” ( 1 Corinthians 12:4); “righteousness by faith” (10:38; 11:7) with the same quotation ( Habakkuk 2:4); Romans 1:17; 4:22; 5:1; Galatians 3:11; Philippians 3:9. “The word of God ... the sword of the Spirit” ( Hebrews 4:12) with Ephesians 6:17. Inexperienced Christians are “children needing milk,” i.e. elementary teaching; riper Christians, as full grown men, require strong meat ( Hebrews 5:12,13; 6:1 with <460301> Corinthians 3:1,2; 14:20; Galatians 4:9; Ephesians 4:13). Believers have “boldness of access to God by Christ” ( Hebrews 10:19 with Romans 5:2; Ephesians 2:18; 3:12). Afflictions are a fight (10:32 with Philippians 1:30; Colossians 2:1). The Christian life is a race ( Hebrews 12:1 with 1 Corinthians 9:24; Philippians 3:12-14).
The Jewish ritual is a service ( Hebrews 9:1-6 with Romans 9:4); a “bondage,” as not freeing us from consciousness of sin and fear of death ( Hebrews 2:15 with Galatians 5:1). Paul’s characteristic “going off at a word” into a long parenthesis, playing upon like sounding words, and repeating favorite words, quotations from the Old Testament linked by “and again” ( Hebrews 1:5; 2:12,13, with Romans 15:9-12; 2:8 with 1 Corinthians 15:27; Ephesians 1:22; 10:30 with Romans 12:19).
Reception in the East before the West. — No Greek father ascribes the epistle to any but Paul, for it was to the Hebrews of Alexandria and Palestine it was mainly addressed; but in the western and Latin churches of N. Africa and Rome, which it did not reach for some time, it was long doubted owing to its anonymous form, not opening as other epistles though closing like them; its Jewish argument; and its less distinctively Pauline style. Insufficient evidence for it, not positive evidence against it, led these for the first three centuries not to accept it. The fall of Jerusalem previous to the full growth of Christianity in N. Africa curtailed: contact between its churches and those Jews to whom this epistle is undressed. The epistle was, owing to distance, little known to the Latin churches.
Muratori’s Canon does not notice it. When in the fourth century at last they found it was received as Pauline and canonical (the Alexandrians only doubted its authorship, not its authority) on good grounds in the Greek churches, they universally accepted it. The churches of the East and Jerusalem their center, the quarter to which the epistle was first sent, received it as Paul’s, according to Cyril, bishop of Jerusalem (A.D. 349).
Jerome, though bringing from Rome the Latin prejudice against this epistle, aggravated by its apparent sanction of the Novatian heresy ( Hebrews 6:4-6), was constrained by the almost unanimous testimony of the Greek churches from the first to receive it as Paul’s; after him Rome corrected its past error of rejecting it. Augustine too held its canonicity. What gives especial weight to the testimony for it of the Alexandrian church is, that church was founded by Mark, who was with Paul at Rome in his first confinement, when probably this epistle was written ( Colossians 4:10), and possibly bore it to Jerusalem where his mother resided, visiting Colosse on the way, and from Jerusalem to Alexandria. Peter also ( Peter 3:15,16), the apostle of the circumcision, in addressing the Hebrew Christians of the dispersion in the East, says, “as our beloved brother Paul ... hath written unto you,” i.e. to the Hebrews. By adding “as also in all his epistles” he distinguishes the epistle to the Hebrews from the rest; and by classing it with the “other Scriptures” he asserts at once its Pauline authorship and divine inspiration. A generous testimony of Christian love to one who formerly rebuked him ( Galatians 2:7-14). The apostle of the circumcision attests the gospel preached by the apostle of the uncircumcision; and the latter was chosen by God to confirm the Hebrews, as conversely the former was chosen to open the door to the Gentiles (Acts 10). So perfect is the unity that reigns amidst the diversity of agencies.
Rome originally received this epistle through Clement of Rome, then rejected it, until in the fourth century she saw her error: a refutation of her claim to unchangeableness and infallibility. But for the eastern churches the epistle would have been lost to the world; so it is well for Christendom Rome is not the catholic church.
Place of writing. — The writer was at the time in prison ( Hebrews 13:3,19), had been formerly imprisoned in Palestine ( Hebrews 10:34, “ye had compassion on me in my bonds.” So the Sinaiticus and the Vaticanus manuscripts, but Alexandrinus manuscript “on the prisoners”).
The salutation which he transmits from believers in Italy implies that Rome was the place of writing ( Hebrews 13:24). The rhetorical character of the epistle may be one cause of his waiving the usual epistolary address.
Design . — The superiority of the gospel over Judaism is shown in its introduction by the Son of God, infinitely higher than the angels, or Moses through whom the Hebrews received the law. The legal priesthood and sacrifices did not perfect as to salvation, but those of Christ do. He is the substance and antitype, to which they, the shadow and type, must give place. They kept men removed from immediate communion with God; we have direct access through the opened veil, Christ’s flesh. Hence, as having such privileges we should incur the heavier condemnation if we apostatize (a temptation then pressing upon Hebrew Christians when they saw Christians persecuted, while Judaism was tolerated by the Romans and fanatically upheld by the Jewish authorities). The Old Testament patterns of faith must be their encouragement to persevering endurance. The epistle ends in the Pauline manner with exhortations and prayers for them, and especially his wonted apostolic salutation, “grace be with you all,” his “token (of identification) in every epistle” ( 2 Thessalonians 3:17,18; so 1 Corinthians 16:21,23; Colossians 4:18). Every one of his epistles has the same closing greeting, which is not in any epistle of the other apostles in Paul’s lifetime. After his death it occurs in the last New Testament book, Revelation, and subsequently in the epistle of Clement of Rome. This proves that by whomsoever the body of the epistle was committed to writing (whether an amanuensis or else a companion of Paul, such as Luke was, transfusing Paul’s inspired sentiments into his own inspired diction), Paul by his express “token” at the close sanctions the whole as his own.
Persons addressed and date of writing. — As there was no exclusively Jewish Christian church he does not address the rulers, but the Jews of the Palestinian and adjoining churches, Jerusalem, Judea, and Alexandria, wherein Jewish Christians formed the majority. It was from Alexandria the epistle came to the knowledge of Christendom. The internal notices accord with Jerusalem being the church primarily addressed. He addresses the Jews as “the people of God” ( Hebrews 2:17; 4:9; 13:12), “the seed of Abraham,” the stock on which Gentile Christians are grafted (compare Romans 11:16-24). But they must come out from earthly Jerusalem, and realize their having “come to the heavenly Jerusalem” ( Hebrews 12:18-23; 13:13). Those addressed are presumed to be familiar with temple services, with discussions of Scripture (32 Old Testament quotations occur, including 16 from Psalms), and with the Alexandrian philosophy.
Anticipations of Jerusalem’s doom occur ( Hebrews 6:8; 8:13; 10:25,37; 12:27). A reference to James’s martyrdom at Jerusalem probably occurs ( Hebrews 13:7) (A.D. 62). Paul’s first imprisonment at Rome ended A.D. 63, so that this epistle was probably written in A.D. 63, shortly before his release. It was certainly before Jerusalem’s overthrow, for he implies the temple service was then going on ( Hebrews 13:10; 8:4,5; 9:6,7).
The mode of address, hortatory not commanding, is just such as Paul would have used in addressing Jews. He enjoins obedience to church rulers ( Hebrews 13:7,17,24), thus meeting the possible objection that by writing this epistle he was interfering with the prerogative of Peter the apostle of the circumcision, and with the bishop of Jerusalem (James’s successor, if by this time James was martyred). Hence his delicate mode of address: “I beseech you, brethren, suffer the word of exhortation” ( Hebrews 13:22).
The difference of style from that of his epistles to Gentiles was to be expected. But distinctively Pauline phrases and ideas occur, as shown above. Compare the Greek idiom, Hebrews 13:5, with Romans 12:9; 13:18, “we trust we have a good conscience,” with Acts 23:1; 24:16; 2 Corinthians 1:12; 4:2; 2 Timothy 1:3. He quotes the Old Testament as a “Hebrew of the Hebrews” ( Philippians 3:5) writing to Hebrews, “God spoke to our fathers,” not “it is written.” The use of Greek, not Hebrew, and the quotation of the Septuagint version of Old Testament prove, that it was written not merely for Hebrew but for Hellenistic Jew converts in Palestine and the East. Many had left Jerusalem and settled in Asia Minor in the troubled times that preceded the fall of the city. The epistle comforts them, persecuted as they were by Jewish brethren, and disheartened at the prospect of soon losing their distinctive national privileges, by showing that in Christ they have a better Mediator than Moses, a better sabbath than the Judicial, a better atonement than the sacrifices, and a better Jerusalem than the earthly one. He fortifies them with arguments against their unbelieving brethren. Established in the faith by this epistle they were kept from apostasy; migrating to Pella they escaped the doom of Jerusalem. Throughout the epistle no allusion occurs to the admission of Gentiles to the church, and no direction as to the proper relations of Hebrew to Gentile Christians. The comparative purity of the Greek, the periodic style, and the frequent plays upon similarly sounding words ( Hebrews 6:8, 13:14), confirm the view that the present Greek text is the original one.
The second that He is Aaron’s Antitype in the true holy place, by His previous self sacrifice on earth, and is mediator of the better covenant which the old only typified. The third part that His offering through the Eternal Spirit is of everlasting power, as contrasted with the unavailing cycle of legal offerings. The first half of this third part ( Hebrews 9:13-28) shows that both our present possession of salvation and the future completion of it are as certain as that He is with God, reigning as Priest and King, once more to appear, no longer bearing our sins but bringing consummated salvation; the second half ( Hebrews 10:1-18) reiterates the main position, Christ’s high priesthood, grounded on His self-offering, its kingly character and eternal accomplishment of its end, confirmed by Psalm 40 and Psalm 110 and Jeremiah 31 (Delitzsch.) The first main portion, chapters 1 through 6, prepares the way for the doctrinal. The third ( Hebrews 10:19 through Hebrews 13) resumes the exhortation of the first (compare Hebrews 10:22,23 with Hebrews 4:14-16); its theme is, our duty now while waiting for the Lord’s second advent.
HEBRON 1. Third son of Kohath; younger brother of Amram, father of Moses and Aaron ( Exodus 6:18). The family of Hebronites sprang from him. In the 40th year of David’s reign 2,700 of them, at Jazer in Gilead, “mighty men of valor,” superintended for the king the two and a half tribes “in matters pertaining to God and the king” ( 1 Chronicles 26:30-32); Jerijah was their chief. Also Hashabiah and 1,700 Hebronites were officers “in all the Lord’s business and the king’s service” on the W. of Jordan. 2. 1 Chronicles 2:42,43. 3. A city in the hill country of Judah, originally Kirjath (the city of) Arba ( Joshua 15:13; 14:15). “Arba was a great man among the Anakims, father of Anak.” (See Joshua 21:11; Judges 1:10.) Twenty Roman miles S. of Jerusalem, and twenty N. of Beersheba. Rivaling Damascus in antiquity. Built seven years before Zoan in Egypt ( Numbers 13:22).
Well known at Abram’s entrance into Canaan, 3,780 years ago ( Genesis 42:18). Hebron was the original name, changed to Kirjath Arba during Israel’s sojourn in Egypt, and restored by Caleb, to whom it was given at the conquest of Palestine ( Genesis 23:2; Joshua 14:13-15). The third resting place of Abram; Shechem was the first, Bethel the second. Near Hebron was the cave of Machpelah, where he and Sarah were buried. Now El Khalil, the house of “the friend” of God. Over the cave is now the mosque El Haran, from which all but Muslims are excluded jealously (though the Prince of Wales was admitted), and in which probably lie the remains of Abraham and Isaac, and possibly Jacob’s embalmed body, brought up in state from Egypt ( Genesis 50:13). Near it was the oak or terebinth, a place of pagan worship. Hebron was called for a time also Mamre, from Abram’s ally ( Genesis 23:19; 35:27). It was made a Levite city of refuge ( Joshua 21:11-13). Still there is an oak bearing Abraham’s name, 23 ft. in girth, and covering 90 ft. space in diameter. In Hebron, David reigned over Judah first for seven and a half years ( Samuel 5:5). Here Absalom set up the standard of revolt. On the return from Babylon some of the children of Judah dwelt in Kirjath Arba ( Nehemiah 11:25). After various vicissitudes it fell into the Moslems’ hands in A.D. 1187, and has continued so ever since.
It is picturesquely situated in a narrow valley running from N. to S. (probably that of Eshcol, whence the spies got the great cluster of grapes, Numbers 13:23), surrounded by rocky hills, still famed for fine grapes.
S. of the town in the bottom of the valley is a tank, 130 ft. square by deep. At the western end is another, 85 ft. long by 55 broad. Over the former probably David hung Ishbosheth’s murderers ( 2 Samuel 4:12). 4. A town in Asher; spelled in Hebrew differently from the former Hebron.
Abdon is read in many manuscripts HEDGE geder and mesukah . It was customary to surround vineyards with a wall of loose stones or mud, often crowned with thorns to keep off wild beasts; so Israel fenced by God ( Psalm 80:12; Matthew 21:33). The haunt of serpents ( Ecclesiastes 10:8; “whoso breaketh an hedge a serpent shall bite him,” i.e., maliciously pulling down his neighbour’s hedge wall he brings on himself his own punishment; Deuteronomy 19:14; Amos 5:19), and of locusts in cold weather ( Nahum 3:17), “which camp in the hedges in the cold day (the cold taking away their power of flight), but when the sun ariseth ... fleeaway;” so the Assyrian hosts shall suddenly disappear, not leaving a trace behind. Maundrell describes the walls round the gardens of Damascus, they are built of great pieces of earth hardened in the sun, placed on one another in two rows, making a cheap, expeditious, and in that dry country a durable wall. Isaiah (5:5) distinguishes the “hedge” (mesukah ) and the “wall” (geder ); the prickly tangled “hedge” being an additional fence ( Micah 7:4). Proverbs 15:19, “the way of the slothful is as an hedge of thorns”; it seems to lain as if a hedge of thorns were in his way (20:4; 22:13; 26:13), whereas all is clear to the willing. The narrow path between the hedges of vineyards is distinct from the “highways” ( Luke 14:23; Numbers 22:24).
HEGAI, OR HEGE ( Esther 2:3,8,15.) Eunuch, or chamberlain, in charge of the women of Ahasuerus’ harem. Akin to the Sanskrit aja, eunuch. Hegias is mentioned by the pagan Ctesias as of Xerxes’ (= Ahasuerus) court.
HEIFER eglah , parah . Used, not for plowing, but for the easier work of treading out grain. Cattle were not yoked together but trod it singly, or drew a threshing sledge over it, and were free to eat of it, being unmuzzled ( Deuteronomy 25:4). An image of Israel’s freedom and prosperity; but, saith God, “I passed over upon her fair neck,” i.e. I will put the Assyrian yoke upon it ( Hosea 10:11); in Hosea 4:16 translated “Israel is refractory (tossing off the yoke) as a refractory heifer.” She had represented God under the calf form ( 1 Kings 12:28), but it is herself who is one, refractory and untamed ( Amos 4:1). “Ye kine (cows, feminine, marking effeminacy) of Bashan,” richly fed, effeminate, nobles of Israel; compare Amos 3:9,10,12,15. Jeremiah ( Jeremiah 46:20) says “Egypt is like a very fair heifer” appropriately, as Apis was worshipped there under the form of a fair bull with certain spots; in verse 15 Septuagint and Vulgate read “thy valiant one,” namely, Apis. As the gadfly attacks the heifer so “destruction cometh” on Egypt, namely, Nebuchadnezzar the destroyer or agitator sent by Jehovah; Vulgate translated suitably to the image of a heifer, “a goader,” qerets . Harassing severely may be meant, rather than utter destruction. Isaiah 15:5, Moab’s “fugitives shah flee unto Zoar,” on the extreme boundary S. of the Dead Sea, raising their voices as “an heifer of three years old,” i.e. one in full vigor but not yet brought under the yoke, just as Moab heretofore unsubdued is now about to be subjugated. Maurer translated “Eglath shehshijah” the third Eglath, to distinguish it from two others of the name.
Numbers 19. The ordinance was for cleansing, not atonement. Contact with death, the visible penalty of sin ( Genesis 2:17), was a defilement requiring purgation before one could have communion with the congregation of the living Israel ( Isaiah 4:3). The defilement being but ceremonial (though at the same time conveying instruction as to real defilement) needed only ceremonial cleansing. The victim was a female, whereas the greater offerings for sin were male. No part came on the altar; even the blood was not sprinkled there, but before the tabernacle, and not by the high priest but by his son. No charge was given as to its being burnt in a clean place, but simply “without the camp,” entire with skin and dung.
The “red” pointed not so much to the blood of Christ as to the earth color (adam ) meaning “red earth”), the flesh being the object of the purifying; also to sin, deep dyed as “scarlet,” and associated with the flesh ( Isaiah 1:18). The Mishna, Parah 3:2, states that the children sent to fetch water for the red heifer sacrifice from Siloam were mounted on bulls in order to have their feet off the ground, so as to escape pollution. Not the blood but the “ashes” were what purified the flesh; the blood-sprinkling before the tabernacle indicated a connection with atonement. The priest and the gatherer of the ashes remained unclean until evening, because the whole rite referred to defilement. A portion of the ashes mixed with running water was sprinkled on the unclean person, on the third and seventh days (a week, one revolution of time, being required before the cleansing was complete), with a bunch of hyssop; cedar wood and a bit of scarlet were also thrown into the fire that burnt the heifer. The hyssop’s supposed detergent properties were the reason for its use; cedar from its durability and its odor counteracting corruption; scarlet, as being the life color and used as medicine to strengthen the heart, symbolized life. The meaning of the rite is divinely declared in Hebrew 9:13, “if the ashes of an heifer sprinkling the unclean sanctifieth to the purifying of the flesh, how much more shall the blood of Christ, who through the eternal Spirit offered Himself without spot to God, purge your conscience from dead works to serve the living God?” The Egyptian priests, the Persians according to the Zendavesta, the Romans, and Greeks, and the modern New Zealanders, have had strict rules as to defilement by contact with the dead. The widespread deaths in the camp owing to Korah’s rebellion and its sequel suggested the enactment of a ceremony presently after, relieving the people of the dread of further penalty because of the defilement contracted by the presence of so many corpses, the sad evidences of sin’s awful penalty, and perpetually teaching them to look forward to a deeper purgation by a greater atonement. The sinless Antitype had to bear the reproach of associating with sinners ( Luke 5:30; 15:2). As the heifer was east “without the camp,” so Christ was cut off from fellowship with the representatives of the theocracy, and crucified between two thieves outside of Jerusalem ( Hebrews 13:11,12).
HEIR (See BIRTHRIGHT . See INHERITANCE refers exclusively to land.) The Mosaic law enforced a strict entail; the property was divided among the sons, the oldest receiving a double portion (the father not having the right, as the patriarchs had, of giving a special portion to a favorite son: Genesis 48:22), the rest equal shares ( Deuteronomy 21:17). If there were no sons it went to the daughters, on condition that they married in their own tribe; otherwise they forfeited the inheritance ( Numbers 27:8 ff; Numbers 36:6 ff). The son of an heiress, as with the Athenians, bore the name not of his father but of his maternal grandfather. If there were no daughters the property went to the brother; if no brother, to the paternal uncle; lastly, to the next of kin. The aim was to keep the land in the family and tribe. Succession thus was a matter of right, not of favor; the Hebrew yarash , “to inherit,” means possession and even forcible possession ( Deuteronomy 2:12; Judges 11:24). A distribution of goods (personal, ousia ) was sometimes made in the father’s lifetime ( Luke 15:11-13); the land (real property, kleeronomia ) could only be divided after the father’s death ( Luke 12:13). If a brother died childless the surviving brother should wed his widow and raise seed to his brother. The Mosaic law herein adopted existing usages, which also prevail still in S.
Africa, Arabia, among the Druses and tribes of the Caucasus ( Genesis 38:8,9; Deuteronomy 25:5-10; Matthew 22:23-25). Childlessness was regarded as such a calamity that the ordinary laws of forbidden degrees of affinity in marriage ( Leviticus 18:16) were set aside. Moses allowed the obligation to be evaded, if the brother-in-law preferred the indignity of the widow loosing his shoe off his foot, in token of forfeiting all right over the wife and property of the deceased, as casting the shoe over a place implies taking possession of it ( Psalm 60:8; 108:9); also the indignity of her spitting in his face, so that his name becomes a byword as the barefooted one, implying abject meanness. The office then devolved on the nearest kinsman ( Ruth 2:20; 3:9-13; 4:1-12). Naomi, being past age of marriage, Boaz takes Ruth her daughter-in-law, and has also to redeem the sold inheritance of Elimelech, Naomi’s husband. The child born is reckoned that of Naomi and Elimelech ( Ruth 4:17), Chilion being passed over. Naomi, not Ruth, sells the land ( Ruth 4:3).
A kinsman, or the owner, could at any time redeem it at a regulated charge ( Leviticus 25:23-27). At the year of jubilee it reverted without charge ( Leviticus 25:28). Jeremiah 32:6-9: Elimelech’s nearest kinsman would not exercise his right of redemption, lest he should mar his own inheritance; namely, if he should have but one son by her, that son would be Elimelech’s legal son, not his; so the succession of his own name would be endangered. The inalienability of land made Naboth reject as impious Ahab’s proposal ( 1 Kings 21:3); typifying Christ’s inalienable inheritance of a name more excellent than that of the angels ( Hebrews 1:4). Houses in walled towns (not in unwalled villages, as being connected with the land) and movables could be alienated for ever; a wise law, essential to progress and marking the superiority of Jewish legislation to that of most nations. Wills were unknown among the Jews until Herod made one. The subdivision of land by the absence of the law of primogeniture, and the equal division among sons except double to the oldest, suited a country like Palestine of hills and valleys, not admitting much horse labour and agricultural machinery on the large scale which large farms require. Small farms suited the hand labour required for the terraces reaching to the tops of the hills. The numerous towns in Galilee, moreover, had their wants best supplied by numerous petty farms.
Subdivision tends also to the multiplication of population, and so to repairing the waste of life caused by wars. It attaches large numbers to their country, as proprietors, eager to defend the soil which is their own, and on which each ate of his own vine and fig tree ( Isaiah 36:16).
HELAH 1 Chronicles 4:5.
HELBON =“fat.” “The wine of Helbon and white wool” Ezekiel ( Ezekiel 27:18) makes Damascus supply to Tyre. Not Aleppo, which is a long overland journey from Damascus, but a village still called Helbon, three hours and a half journey N. of Damascus, high up in a wild glen of Anti-Lebanon; still famed for the finest grapes, also a depot for wool through its trade with the Bedouin shepherds.
HELDAI 1. 1 Chronicles 27:15. 2. A Jew from Babylon, from whom and Tobijah and Jedaiah the gold and silver which they presented toward building the temple were to be taken, and crowns made for Joshua’s head, afterward to be deposited in the temple as a memorial of the donors (as Cornelius’ prayers and ahns of faith “came up for a memorial before God,” Acts 10:4), until Messiah should come. Heldai means “robust”; called also Helem ( Zechariah 6:10,14).
HELEPH The place from which Naphtali’s boundary commenced ( Joshua 19:33).
Now the ancient site called Beitlif (Van de Velde).
HELKAI Nehemiah 12:3,10,12,15.
HELKATH HAZZURIM =“the field of strong men” (Vulgate), “the field of swords” (Gesenius). The smooth ground near the pool of Gibeon, where Joab’s men and Abner’s men fought and slew one another, and so brought on a general engagement.
HELL Representing two distinct words: Gehenna and Hades (Greek), Shoel (Hebrew). [Gehenna ] is strictly “the valley of Hinnom” ( Joshua 15:8; Nehemiah 11:30); “the valley of the children of Hinnom” ( 2 Kings 23:10); “the valley of the son of Hinnom” ( 2 Chronicles 28:3); “the valley of dead bodies,” or Tophet, where malefactors’ dead bodies were cast, S. of the city ( Jeremiah 31:40). A deep narrow glen S. of Jerusalem, where, after Ahaz introduced the worship of the fire gods, the sun, Baal, Moloch, the Jews under Manasseh made their children to pass through the fire ( 2 Chronicles 33:6), and offered them as burntofferings ( Jeremiah 7:31; 19:2-6). So the godly Josiah defiled the valley, making it a receptacle of carcass and criminals’ corpses, in which worms were continually gendering. A perpetual fire was kept to consume this putrefying matter; hence it became the image of that awful place where all that are unfit for the holy city are cast out a prey to the ever gnawing “worm” of conscience from within and the “unquenchable fire” of torments from without. Mark 9:42-50, “their worm dieth not.” implies that not only the worm but they also on whom it preys die not; the language is figurative, but it represents corresponding realities never yet experienced, and therefore capable of being conveyed to us only by figures. The phrase “forever and ever “ (eis tous aionas aioonoon ) occurs 20 times in New Testament: 16 times of God, once of the saints’ future blessedness, the three remaining of the punishment of the wicked and of the evil one: is it likely it is used 17 times of absolute eternity, yet three times of limited eternity? The term for “everlasting” (aidiois ) in Jude 1:6, “the angels who kept not their first estate He hath reserved in everlasting chains under darkness unto the judgment of the great day,” is from a word meaning absolutely “always” (aei ). Gehenna is used by our Lord Jesus ( Matthew 5:29,30; 10:28; 23:15,33; Luke 12:5); with the addition “of fire,” Matthew 5:22; 18:9; Mark 9:47; and by James ( James 3:6).
Our present meaning of “hell” then applies to [Gehenna], but not to the other word [Hadees] or [Showl]. “Hell” formerly did apply when the KJV of the Bible was written; it then meant “hole,” “hollow,” or unseen place.
Sheol comes from a root “to make hollow,” the common receptacle of the dead below the earth ( Numbers 16:30; Deuteronomy 32:22), deep ( Job 11:8), insatiable ( Isaiah 5:14; Song 8:6). “Hell,” Hades, often means the “grave” ( Job 14:13). In the Old Testament time, when as yet Christ had not “abolished death and brought life and immortality to light through the gospel” ( 2 Timothy 1:10), death and the intermediate state represented by Hades suggested thoughts of gloom (as to Hezekiah, Isaiah 38:9-20), lit up however with gleams of sure hope from God’s promises of the resurrection ( Psalm 16:10,11; 17:15; Isaiah 26:19; Hosea 13:14; Daniel 12:2). Hints too occur of the spirit’s being with God in peace in the intermediate state ( Ecclesiastes 3:21; 12:7; Psalm 23:6; 139:8; Isaiah 57:2). The passages which represent Hades and the grave as a place where God can no longer be praised mean simply that the physical powers are all suspended, so that God’s peruses can be no longer set forth on earth among the living. The anomalous state in which man is unclothed of the body is repulsive to the mind, and had not yet the clear gospel light to make it attractive as Paul viewed it ( Philippians 1:21-23; 2 Corinthians 5:6-8). To the bad Hades was depicted as a place of punishment, where God’s wrath reached to the depths ( Deuteronomy 32:22; Amos 9:2; Psalm 9:17; 49:14; Isaiah 14). Thus, the unseen state even in Old Testament was regarded as having a distinction between the godly and the ungodly; Proverbs 14:32, “the wicked is driven away in his wickedness, but the righteous hath hope in his death”; so Psalm 1. This is further confirmed by the separation of the rich man and Lazarus, the former in “hell” (Hades), the latter in “Abraham’s bosom” ( Luke 16:23), and in the penitent thief’s soul going to be with Jesus in “paradise,” the word implying the recovery in heavenly bliss of the paradise lost by Adam (23:43). “Tartarus,” the pagan Greek term for the place of enchainment of the Titans, rebels against God, occurs in 2 Peter 2:4 of the lost angels; the “deep,” or “abyss,” or “bottomless pit,” Luke 8:31; Revelation 9:11. The firm faith and hope of an abiding heavenly city is unequivocally attributed to the patriarchs ( Hebrews 11:16-35);. so all the believing Israelites ( Acts 26:7; 23:6- 9). Hades, “hell,” is used for destruction ( Matthew 11:23; 16:18). Jesus has its keys, and will at last consign it to the lake of fire which is the second death; implying that Christ and His people shall never again be disembodied spirits. Revelation 1:18; 20:13,14: I can release at will from the unseen world of spirits, the anomalous state wherein the soul is severed from the body. The “see SPIRITS IN PRISON ” ( 1 Peter 3:19) mean the ungodly antediluvians shut up in this earth, one vast prison, and under sentence of death and awaiting execution ( Isaiah 24:22); not the prison of Hades. It is solemnly significant of the certainty of hell that He who is Love itself has most plainly and fully warned men of it, that they may flee from it. See TOPHET , the scene of human immolations by fire to Moloch amidst sounds of drums (tof to drown the cries of the victims, symbolized the funeral pyre of Sennacherib’s Assyrian army, and finally the lake of fire that shall burn for ever the lost ( Isaiah 30:33). In an Assyrian tablet of the goddess Ishtar, daughter of Sin, the moon goddess, Hades is described as having seven gates,” the house of the departed, the house from within which is no exit, the road the course of which never returns, the place within which they long for light, where dust is their nourishment and their food mud, light is never seen, in darkness they dwell, spirits like birds fill its vaults, over the door and its bolts is scattered dust!”
HELON Father of see ELIAB .
HELPS One class of ministrations in the early church, antileepsiees ( Corinthians 12:28). A lower department, as “governments” are a higher; for instance, deacons who helped in relieving the poor, baptizing and preaching, subordinate to higher ministers ( Acts 6:1-10; 8:5-17); others helped with their time and means in the Lord’s cause ( 1 Corinthians 13:3; Numbers 11:17). Americans similarly use “helps” for “helpers.” In Romans 12:8 “he that giveth” answers to “helps,” “he that ruleth” to “governments,” as bishops or presbyters ( 1 Timothy 5:17; Hebrews 13:17,24).
HEM OF GARMENT The beged or outer robe was a quadrangular, plaid-like cloth, worn so that two corners hung in front. The corners were ornamented with a tassel, in which was a “riband of blue” or dark violet thread (so narrow was the ribbon), according to the command Numbers 15:38,39, where for “put upon,” etc., translated” add to the fringes of the borders a thread of blue,” that “looking on it they might remember all the commandments of the Lord, and do them.” The blue symbolized the heavenly origin of the commandments. The Jews adjusted the threads and knots so as to represent the 613 precepts of which the law was thought to consist. The other threads were made white (according to tradition), to represent purity ( Isaiah 1:18). The Pharisees enlarged their fringes as a show of piety ( Matthew 23:5). In later times, the Jews have worn the talit or fringed garment of a smaller size and as an underdress. It is used especially at morning prayer in the synagogue. The tsitsit is the Hebrew term for the fretted or fringed edge, the ordinary mode of finishing the robe, the ends of the woof thread being left that the cloth might not unravel. The supposed sanctity of the “hem” explains why the woman with the issue of blood and other sick persons touched Jesus’ hem in particular ( Matthew 9:20; 14:36).
HEMAM, OR HOMAM Genesis 36:22. Hence comes Homaima, a place to the S. of Petra.
HEMAN 1. 1 Chronicles 2:6; 1 Kings 4:31. Probably the same as 2; though a Levite by birth he was reckoned in the family of Zerah, of Judah, as dwelling among them. 2. Grandson of Samuel; a Kohathite ( 1 Chronicles 6:31-38,44).
Colleague of see ASAPH and see ETHAN (see both) or Jeduthun (“the praise man”) in arranging the vocal and instrumental music of the temple service, under David “after that the ark had rest” ( 1 Chronicles 15:16-22; 25:1-3). Lord A. Hervey makes Heman 14th in descent from Levi.
Called “the king’s seer in the matters (words) of God, to lift up the horn,” inheriting by God’s gift the spirit of prophecy of his grandfather. Heman had 14 sons and three daughters. The sons were each the head of one of the 25 wards of Levites, “instructed in the songs of the Lord.” Heman the Kohathite probably, or his father, married an heiress of the house of Zerah (see 1), and so, though by birth son of Joel, he is legally called the Ezrahite or son of Zerah in the title of Psalm 88, as Ethan is named the author in the title of Psalm 89, and other psalms have Asaph in the title. Not that Psalm 89, was actually by Heman; it was by “sons of Korah” who attributed the authorship to Heman by way of honour (Hengstenberg).
HEMATH 1 Chronicles 2:55.
HEMDAN Genesis 36:26.HAMRAM orAMRAM, 1 Chronicles 1:41. Humeidy and Hamady are of the five families of the Amran tribe, S.E. of Akaba; also “the children of Hamyde” S. of Kerak, S.E. of the Dead Sea, and toward el Busaireh or Bozrah, toward Petra.
HEMLOCK So Celsius and the learned Ben Melech explain rosh ( Hosea 10:4; Amos 6:12). (See GALL ). Gesenius explains, from the etymology, “poppy heads.” Possibly many plants of bitter juice are meant. [Rosh] grew in grainfields rankly, and bore a berry or fruit. Deuteronomy 29:18; Jeremiah 9:15; 23:15; Lamentations 3:19. Not necessarily poisonous.
HEN Matthew 23:37; Luke 13:34. As “the see EAGLE stirring up her nest, fluttering over her young, spreading abroad her wings, taking, bearing them on her wings,” represents the Old Testament aspect of Jehovah in relation to Israel under the law ( Deuteronomy 32:11), so the “hen,” Christ the lowly loving Son of God gathering God’s children under His overshadowing wing, in the gospel ( Ruth 2:12; Psalm 17:8; 91:4).
HENA A city with its king subjugated by Assyria before Sennacherib’s invasion of Judea ( 2 Kings 19:13). Associated with Sepharvaim or Sippara (now Mosaib), probably therefore in Babylonia or on the Euphrates. Near Mosaib is still an And, probably Hena. The Assyrian inscriptions mention Anat, a town on an island in the Euphrates, some distance below its union with the Chabour. The present Anat is on the right bank, but ruins lower down on the left bank are so-called. On some of the string of islands between Anat and the ruins Hena seems to have been situated.
HEPHER 1. Numbers 26:32,33; 27:1. 2. 1 Chronicles 4:5,6. 3. 1 Chronicles 11:36; not in the catalogue 2 Samuel 23:34, etc. 4. A place in ancient Canaan, whose king was conquered by Israel ( Joshua 12:17), W. of Jordan; so Solomon’s commissariat district ( Kings 4:10), named with Socoh. Distinct from Gath-Hepher in Zebulun.
As the prophets naturally mould their prophecies in a form suggested by the facts of the day, Hezekiah’s marriage to Hephzibah, Manasseh’s mother ( 2 Kings 21:1), would obviously suggest itself. Hence Isaiah terms restored Jerusalem both Hephzibah and Beulah, i.e. “married.” The marriage of Hezekiah moreover was at a late period of his reign, after his sickness and recovery described in Isaiah 38. Indeed Hezekiah’s desire of life in that sickness was mainly because, being childless then, he was leaving no successor to the kingdom (Josephus); to which God’s words may refer, “set thine house in order,” i.e. make arrangements as to the succession to the throne, That sickness was probably in the 14th year of his reign ( Isaiah 36:1). Manasseh was only 12 years old at his father’s death; so that if Isaiah’s prophecies are at all in the order of their delivery, this late prophecy, chap. 62, concerning Hephzibah would be just at the time of Hezekiah’s marriage to her; his reign in all being 29 years, the marriage was after the 14th year and before the 12th year preceding Hezekiah’s death, i.e. between the 11th and 17th years of his reign. These undesigned coincidences accord with truth.
HERD Cattle formed a considerable part of Israel’s wealth. The full grown ox was seldom slaughtered, being more useful for plowing, threshing, and carrying burdens. The people’s act, recorded in 1 Samuel 14:32, was one of excess. The third year was the time for breaking to service ( Isaiah 15:5). Fattening for beef is not practiced in the East. Grazing is afforded in the South region (the Negeb), Carmel, Dothan, and Sharon. The ox ate foliage too in Bashan and Gilead ( Psalm 50:10). Uzziah “built towers in the desert” (wasteland) to guard the pasturing cattle. When pasture failed “provender,” Hebrew a mixture of various grains, was used. Isaiah 30:24, “clean (chamits , ‘salted’) provender,” or well fermented maslin, composed of grain, beans, vetches, hay, and salt, which beasts of burden in the East relish. The Arabs say, “sweet provender is as bread to camels, salted provender as confectionery.” Also chopped straw ( Isaiah 11:7; 65:25).
The sense in Malachi 4:3 is, “Ye shall go forth, and grow up, as calves of the stall,” which when set free from the stall disport with joy; the believer’s future joy at the Lord’s second coming ( Isaiah 25:9; 61:10; 1 Peter 1:8). When harvest was over, and open pastures failed because of the heat, the ox was fed in stalls ( Habakkuk 3:17) until vegetation returned. Saul himself had herded cattle, and Doeg his chief herdsman was high in his favor ( 1 Samuel 11:5; 21:7). Joseph’s brethren were assigned the office as an honourable one by Pharaoh ( Genesis 47:6).
HERESH =“artificer”. 1 Chronicles 9:15.
HERESY 1 Corinthians 11:18,19. “Schisms” meant “divisions” through differences of opinion of recent standing. “Heresies” meant schisms inveterate. “Sect” (Greek “heresy” Acts 5:17; 15:5. Paul means by “there must be heresies among you,” that sin must bear its natural fruit, as Christ foretold ( Luke 17:1), and schisms (compare 1 Corinthians 12:25) must eventuate in mattered secessions or confirmed schisms. “Heresy” did not yet bear its present meaning, doctrinal error. However see its use Acts 24:14.
HERMAS One at Rome to whom Paul sends greeting ( Romans 16:14). A Greek name. Irenaeus, Tertullian, and Origen attribute to him “The Shepherd,” supposed by some to have been written in the episcopacy of Clement I; others deny Hermas of Romans 16 to be the author. Its author appears from internal evidence to have been married and to have had children, and to have been a lay mystic. Originally in Greek, but now only in a Latin version entire. An inferior kind of Pilgrim’s Progress in three parts: the first has four visions, the second 12 spiritual precepts, the third ten similitudes shadowing forth each some truth. Each man, according to it, has a bad and a good angel, who endeavour to influence him for evil and good respectively.
HERMOGENES 2 Timothy 1:15: “all they which are (now) in Asia (when they were in Rome, or else in Nicopolis where they had escorted him, and where he was apprehended on his way to Rome) turned away from me,” “ashamed of my chain, “unlike Onesiphorus, not standing by me but forsaking me; Timothy 1:16. “of whom are Hermogenes and Phygellus,” specified as persons from whom such unchristian cowardice was not to be expected; often probably spoken of in conversations between Paul and Timothy when together in Asia.
HERMON =“mountain nose, or peak”. The highest of the Antilibanus range, at its S. end. N.E. of Palestine ( Joshua 12:1), over against Lebanon ( Joshua 11:17), adjoining Bashan ( 1 Chronicles 5:23). Called Sion, “the lofty,” distinct from Zion at Jerusalem ( Deuteronomy 4:48); among the Amorites Shenir, rather Senir, i.e. cataract or else breastplate, from senar to clatter ( Deuteronomy 3:8,9; Ezekiel 27:5); among the Sidonians Sirion, the breastplate, a name given from the rounded snowy top glittering in the sun, from shaarah “to glitter” ( Psalm 29:6). A center to Syria and Palestine; the watershed of the Jordan fountains, and of the Syrian Abana and Pharpar of Damascus, the Orontes of Antioch, and the Leontes.
Bashan, Damascus, Syria, and Israel converged there. It had numerous Baal sanctuaries, which gave it a name (see BAAL HERMON ) very anciently. Rising 9,500 feet, it is seen even from the Jordan valley and the shores of the Dead Sea. Lebanon means the “white” mountain, the Mont Blanc of Palestine. Now Jebel es Sheykh, “the old white-headed man’s mountain,” referring to the long streaks of snow remaining in the ravines radiating from the center, when the snow has disappeared elsewhere, like an old man’s scanty white locks. Jebel esh Tilj, “the mount of ice.” Shenir and Hermon are mentioned distinctly, Song 4:8. The whole was called Hermon. The part held by the Sidonians was “Sirion,” that by the Amorites Shenir, infested by devouring “lions” and swift though stealthy “leopards,” in contrast to “the mountain of myrrh” (Song 5:6), the mountain of the Lord’s house ( Isaiah 2:2), the good land ( Isaiah 35:9). In Psalm 89:12 Tabor is made the western, Hermon the eastern landmark. Thus, N., S., E., and W. represent the whole earth. “The see DEW of Hermon” ( <19D303> Psalm 133:3) is used proverbially of an abundant, refreshing dew. The distance precludes the possibility of the literal dew of Hermon “descending upon the mountains of Zion.” But a Hermon dew was a dew such as falls there, the snow on the summit condensing the summer vapors which float in the higher air, and causing light clouds to hover round and abundant dew to fall on it, while the air is elsewhere without a cloud and the whole country parched. The “ointment” sets forth “how good” and “precious” is brotherly “unity”; the dew “how pleasant” it is. Zion is the mountain where this spiritual dew descends, as pleasant as the natural dew that descends on Hermon.
It has three summits, a quarter of a mile from each other; hence arises the plural “Hermons” ( Psalm 42:6), not “Hermonites.” A rude wall of massive stones surrounds the crest of the peak, within are the remains of a small ancient temple. Jerome refers to this, and no doubt it is one of those Baal high places set up by the former inhabitants, and so often condemned in the Old Testament. A circle of temples surrounded Hermon, facing its summit, so that Hermon seems to have been the great sanctuary of Baal.
At the top, says Capt. Warren, is a plateau comparatively level; here are two small peaks lying N. and S., about 400 yards from each other. The third peak is 500 yards to the W. On the southern peak a hole scooped out is surrounded by an oval of hewn stones; at its southern end is the temple nearly destroyed, with Roman moldings, and of later date than the stone oval, of stones from 2 to 8 ft. long, 2 1/2 broad and thick.
HEROD Of Idumean descent (Josephus, Ant. 14:1, section 3). The Idumeans were conquered and brought to Judaism by John Hyrcanus, 130 B.C. Thus the Herods, though aliens by birth, were Jews in faith. They made religion an engine of state policy. Eschewing Antiochus Epiphanes’ design to Graecize Jerusalem by substituting the Greek worship and customs for the Jewish law, the Herod’s, while professing to maintain the law, as effectively set at nought its spirit by making it a lever for elevating themselves and their secular kingdom. For this end Herod adorned gorgeously the temple with more than Solomonic splendor. Thus a descendant of Esau tried still to get from Jacob the forfeited blessing ( Genesis 27:29,40), in vain setting up an earthly kingdom on a professed Jewish basis, to rival Messiah’s spiritual kingdom, as it was then being fore-announced by John Baptist. The “HERODIANS” probably cherished hopes of Herod’s kingdom becoming ultimately, though at first necessarily leaning on Rome, an independent Judaic eastern empire. The Jewish religion thus degraded into a tool of ambition lost its spiritual power, and the theocracy becoming a lifeless carcass was the ready prey for the Roman eagles to pounce upon and destroy ( Matthew 24:28). 1. HEROD THE GREAT (Matthew 2; Luke 1:5), second son of Antipater (who was appointed by Julius Caesar procurator of Judaea,47 B.C.) and Cypros, a noble Arabian. At the time of Antipater’s elevation, though only 15 (or as other passages of Josephus make probable, 20), he received the government of Galilee and soon afterwards Coelo-Syria. He skillfully gained the favor of Antony, who made him and his elder brother Phasael joint tetrarchs of Judea. Forced to abandon Judaea by the Parthians, who supported Antigonus the representative of the Asmonaean dynasty, Herod fled to Rome (40 B.C.), where he was well received by Antony and Octavian, and made by the senate “king of Judea.” With Roman help he took Jerusalem (37 B.C.), slew his leading adversaries there, including the whole Sanhedrin except two, and established his kingly authority.
Undertaking next for Antony an expedition to Arabia against Malchus, he thereby escaped taking share in the war between Antony his patron and Octavian. After the battle of Actium he gained, by a mixture of humility and boldness at Rhodes, the favor of Octavian the conqueror, who confirmed him in the kingdom, and added several cities along with the province of Trachonitis and district of Paneas. But external prosperity did not save him from internal troubles, the fruits of his own lust and insatiable cruelty. He put to death successively Hyrcanus, his wife Mariamne’s grandfather, Mariamne herself to whom he had been passionately attached, his two sons by her, Alexander and Aristobulus, and just four days before his death signed the order for executing their bitter accuser, his oldest son Antipater. At last, seized with a fatal disease in the stomach and bowels, he became more cruel than ever; he ordered that the nobles whom he had called to him should be slain immediately after his decease, that there might be no lack of mourners at his death.
It was at this time that he ordered the slaughter of all males, from two years old and under, in and about Bethlehem, the foretold birthplace of the expected Messiah. Josephus does not notice this, probably both because of his studied reserve as to Jesus’ claims, and also because the slaughter of a comparatively few infants in a village seemed unimportant as compared with his other abounding deeds of atrocity. Macrobius long subsequently (A.D. 410) says that “when Augustus heard that among the children whom Herod ordered to be killed Herod’s own son (Antipater) was slain, he remarked, It would be better to be one of Herod’s swine than Herod’s sons,” punning on the similar sounding Greek terms for son and swine, [hus , [huios . Herod being a professed Jew his swine as unclean were safe from death, his sons were not. Josephus records what illustrates the Scripture account of the massacre of the innocents; “Herod slew all those of his own family who sided with the Pharisees, looking forward to a change in the royal line” (Ant. 17:2, section 6). As Matthew says, “Herod privily called the wise men and inquired of them diligently what time the star appeared.” So Josephus says: “an Essene, Menahem, foretold when Herod was a boy he should be king. Accordingly when he was in full power he sent for Menahem and inquired of him how long he should reign.
Menahem did not define the time, but in answer to Herod’s question whether ten years or not, replied, Yes 20, nay 30 years” (Ant. 15:10, section 5). Herod’s keenness to establish his dynasty, jealousy of any rival, craft, hypocrisy, cruelty, recklessness of any sacrifice to gain his object, appear as vividly in the Scripture narrative as in Josephus. The wise men’s question, “Where is he that is born king of the Jews?” was precisely one to excite Herod’s jealousy. For Herod was not a born Jew, much less born king of the Jews, but an Idumean alien, made king by the anti-Jewish world power, Rome. Unimportant as the event seemed to the world, the murder of the innocents was the consummation of his guilt before God, and places him among the foremost of Satan’s and the world’s foretold ( Jeremiah 31:15) representative adversaries of the Lord and His church, answering to the Pharaoh who oppressed Christ’s type, Israel, murdering the male children in the nation’s infancy in order to stifle the nation’s first beginnings; but in vain, for God secured the nation’s exodus from Egypt by the tyrant’s overthrow, just as subsequently He saved Jesus and destroyed Herod, and in due time “called His (antitypical) Son out of Egypt” ( Matthew 2:15; compare Hosea 11:1). Herod’s death and Jesus’ birth therefore must have been at least four years before the era known as A.D.
Ambition was his ruling passion. For its sake he compromised the Jewish religion which he professed, in order to conciliate Rome, by offerings to the Capitoline Jupiter at his elevation to the throne. He rebuilt the temple of Apollo at Rhodes, which had been consumed by fire, “the greatest and most illustrious of all his works” according to Josephus. He built a theater and amphitheater, and introduced pagan games in honour of Caesar every fifth year at Jerusalem. He rebuilt Samaria and its temple, and called it Sebaste (Greek for Augusta) in honour of Augustus; also Caesarea on the site of Straton, and made provision at it for pagan worship. At Paneas he dedicated a temple of white marble to Augustus. The stricter Jews were so offended that ten men conspired to kill him in the theater at Jerusalem.
However, he turned the tide of feeling in his favor by two acts. In the 13th year of his reign during a severe famine he spent all his resources and sold even valuable works of art to import grain from Egypt for the relief of the people. Still more did he win popularity by rebuilding the temple on a magnificent scale, to vie with that of Solomon; yet with such scrupulous care that it seemed a restoration rather than a new building. He inaugurated the work with a set speech. The building of the temple itself began in B.C., and was finished in a year and a half. The surrounding buildings occupied eight years more. But still fresh additions continued to be made, so that at the beginning of Jesus’ ministry the Jews said, “Forty and six years was this temple in building, and wilt Thou rear it up in three days?”
At that time He was 30 years old, which added to 16 years (for 20 B.C., when Herod began building, means only 16 before His real date of birth) makes 46. It has been thought that he used the opportunity of building the temple to destroy the authentic genealogies of the priesthood, and that the monument which he raised over the tombs of the kings was owing to superstitious fear after his sacrilegious attempt to rob them of treasures.
His title “Herod the Great” was given him in admiration of splendid and successful, though often awfully impious and cruel, tyranny. How vastly different it is to be “great in the sight of the Lord” ( Luke 1:15). 2. HEROD THE TETRARCH ( Matthew 14:1, etc.; Mark 7:17, etc.; Luke 3:1,19; 9:7; Acts 13:1). Called “King Herod” by courtesy, not right ( Mark 6:14).ANTIPAS contracted for Antipater; son of Herod the Great by a Samaritan, Malthake. Originally Herod the Great destined him to succeed to the throne, but in his last will made him tetrarch of Galilee and Peraea, which yielded him a yearly revenue of 200 talents. He married the daughter of Aretas, king of Arabia Petraea; but afterwards, meeting at Rome, he became enamoured of and took, his half-brother Herod Philip’s wife, and his own niece, daughter of Aristobulus, Herodias. This sin against God became the retributive source of evil to him. Aretas in consequence invaded his land and defeated him severely. Herod stood to John Baptist in the same relation that Ahab did to Elijah. Herod “feared” John at first (compare Ahab’s fear of Elisha, 1 Kings 21:20), “knowing that he was a just man and an holy, and observed him (preserved him from Herodias, or else respected, regarded him); and when he heard him he did many things and heard him gladly.” But Herod when reproved for his sin by John preferred keeping his sin to gaining God’s favor and the approval of God’s minister. A slight breath of temptation, regard for the world’s opinion, and dislike of reproof, were enough to dry up his shallow religion.
His first downward step was, he cast John his faithful reprover into prison (compare Asa, 2 Chronicles 16:10). Herodias having gained this first step, like her prototype Jezebel, found the next step an easy one; at the first “convenient day” (his birthday, which he observed with the Herodian characteristic aping of Roman ways, in defiance of Jewish abhorrence of the pagan custom) when Herod made a supper to his lords, and Herodias’ daughter by dancing so pleased him that he promised to give whatever she might ask, Herodias prompted her to ask for John’s head. (Josephus, Ant. 19:7, section 1, notices the Herods’ magnificent celebration of their” birthdays,” which became proverbial and were celebrated by the Herodians even at Rome, as noticed by the pagan Persius, 5:180). So “she came in straightway with haste” to give him no time to repent, and though “exceeding sorry, yet for his oath’s sake and for their sakes which sat with him he would not reject her.” So John was beheaded in fort Machaerus, facing the Dead Sea from the S. on the borders between Herod’s and Aretas’ dominions. How scrupulous men are as to the law of opinion among men, how reckless of the law of God! True conscientiousness would see his oath, which involved the sacrifice of an innocent life in violation of God’s law, would be more honoured in its breach than in its observance. Not to let conscience have time to restrain him, he ordered the execution as “immediately” as she had demanded it.
When Christ appeared conscience reasserted her supremacy; he said unto his servants, “This is John the Baptist, therefore mighty works do show forth themselves in him.” In comparing Mark 8:15 with Matthew 16:6 we find “the leaven of Herod” is “the leaven of the Sadducees,” i.e. disbelief of angel or spirit or resurrection. Luke ( Luke 9:7) says, “Herod was perplexed because it was said of some that John was risen from the dead.” A Pharisee would have regarded John’s reappearance in Jesus as an instance of the transmigration of the souls of good men, and would have felt no perplexity; Herod’s “perplexity” is just what we might expect from a Sadducee, accused by a guilty conscience and trembling lest the world of spirits and the judgment should prove after all to be realities.
And that he was so comes out in the most incidental and undesigned way, a clear mark of the truth of the narrative: On his lending himself, fox-like, to the Pharisees’ design to get Christ out of Galilee into Judea (see Fox) his superstitious fears were too great to admit of his repeating in Christ’s case the execution which, to his own torment of conscience, he had perpetrated in John’s case; but he was glad of any, means to relieve himself of Christ’s presence which “perplexed” him ( Luke 13:32). Yet “he desired to see Him” ( Luke 9:9), for he had “heard of the fame of Jesus” ( Matthew 14:1); and so in Christ’s last hours “when he saw Him he was exceeding glad, for he was desirous to see Him of a long season, because he had heard many things of Him (doubtless through Joanna, wife of Chuza, Herod’s steward, and through Manaen his foster brother: Luke 8:1-3; Acts 13:1), and he hoped to have seen some miracle done by Him.” So “he questioned with Him in many words, but He answered him nothing.”
Christ would not gratify Herod’s idle curiosity, but He did answer Pilate when the honour of His Messianic kingship was at stake, “Art Thou the King of the Jews?” ( Luke 23:3-12). Baffled in his idle wish, Herod in proud scorn “with his men of war set Him at nought, and mocked Him, and arrayed Him in a gorgeous robe, and sent Him again to Pilate.” The Roman governor in the first instance had sent Him to Herod as soon as he knew that He as a Galilean belonged unto Herod’s jurisdiction. So “the same day Pilate and Herod were made friends together,” doubtless owing to Pilate’s courtesy and recognition of Herod’s jurisdiction, even as their estrangement was owing to the contrary conduct on Pilate’s part toward Galileans ( Luke 13:1). At variance at other times and on other points, the world potentates agree in this, to insult and persecute Christ. So Herod and Pilate are coupled together in their divinely foretold anti-Christianity ( Acts 4:25-27; Psalm 2:1,2, etc.).
Another incidental and therefore unstudied coincidence with truth is the implication that neither Pilate nor Herod resided at Jerusalem: “Herod who himself ALSO was at Jerusalem at that time.” Josephus states that the Herod who slew James (Acts 12) was “not at all like that Herod who reigned before him, he took pleasure in constantly living in Jerusalem” (Ant. 19:7, section 3); this proves that Herod Antipas did not reside much at Jerusalem. So Pilate’s usual residence was at Caesarea, the abode of the Roman governors of Judea (Ant. 18:4, section 1; 20:4, section 4; Bell.
Finally, Herodias, the source of Herod’s sin, became his source of shame, for at her instigation he went to Rome, A.D. 38, to sue the emperor Caligula for the title of” king,” just conferred on his nephew Herod Agrippa. Instead of this, through Agrippa’s influence, H. lost his kingdom and was banished to Lyons, thence to Spain, where he died. The one faithful (humanly speaking) act of her life was her preferring to share Herod’s exile rather than stay at home in her own country; surely sinners “eat of the fruit of their own ways, and are filled with their own devices” ( Proverbs 1:31; Jeremiah 2:19). Herod was wicked in other respects besides adultery, and was accordingly “reproved by John for all the evils which he had done” ( Luke 3:19). Cruel yet cunning, like his father ( Luke 13:32), he was the very type of an oriental despot, sensual, capricious, yet with a sense of honour and having a respect for piety in others; but like Ahab too weak to resist a bad woman’s influence, under which false scrupulosity outweighed right conscientiousness, to be succeeded by superstitious terrors. Tiberias, which he founded and named after the emperor, was one of his greatest works.
Simon’s daughter. Distinct from the tetrarch Herod Philip II. He married Herodias, sister of Agrippa I, by whom he had Salome, the daughter who by dancing pleased HerodANTIPAS (see above), the paramour of her own mother and dishonourer of her father! Owing to his own mother Mariamne’s treachery, Herod Philip I was excluded from all share in his father’s dominions, and lived privately. His being without a kingdom was doubtless a cause of the ambitious Herodias deserting him for his brother the tetrarch. But “vaulting ambition o’erleaps itself and falls on the other side”; and seeking the name of “king” besides the reality which her paramour had, she and he ended their days in shame and exile.
HEROD PHILIP II. Son of Herod the Great and Cleopatra. Advocated Archelaus’ claims before Augustus, on the death of his father. His own kingdom was Batanaea, Trachonitis, Auranitis, and some parts about Jamnia, with the title “tetrarch.” He ruled justly, without taking part in the intrigues which rent his family asunder. He built Caesarea Philippi at the site of Paneas, near the sources of the Jordan ( Matthew 16:13). His wife was Salome, daughter of Herod Philip I and Herodias. He died at Julius, the city which he raised Bethsaida into, A.D. 34. As he died childless his dominions were added to the Roman province, Syria.
HEROD AGRIPPA I. Son of Aristobulus Herod the Great’s son) and Berenice. Imprisoned by Tiberius for an unguarded speech. Caius Caligula, A.D. 37, on his accession set him free, and gave him the governments formerly held by the tetrarchs Philip and Lysanias, Abilene, etc., with the title of “king” ( Acts 12:1). Galilee and Peraea were added to his dominions on the exile of HerodANTIPAS (see above), whom, notwithstanding the kindnesses he formerly when in difficulties received from him, Agrippa supplanted by intrigues at Rome. By services to Claudius, Caligula’s successor, he secured in return the addition of Judaea and Samaria, so that now his kingdom equaled that of Herod the Great.
Unlike his predecessors he strictly kept the law. A legend states that once he burst into tears on reading in a public service Deuteronomy 17:15, on which the Jews exclaimed, “Be not distressed, thou art our brother,” namely, by half-descent from the Hasmonaeans. It was on his entreaty at the risk of his interest and life that Caligula desisted from his attempt to set up his statue in the temple, which so engrossed the Jews that for a time they let the Christians alone ( Acts 9:31). To “please the Jews” he slew James the brother of John, and imprisoned Peter with the intention of bringing him forth to the people for execution after the Passover (“Easter”). Love of popularity was his ruling principle, to which his ordinary humanity was made to give way. Self seeking vanity led him to design Peter’s death, but the issue was his own death. The church’s “prayer without ceasing” ( Isaiah 62:6,7; Luke 18:7) saved Peter, whereas the church’s Lord avenged His own and her cause on the church’s persecutor. In the fourth year of his reign over the whole kingdom (A.D. 44) he attended games at Caesarea “in behalf of the emperor’s safety” (possibly on his return from Britain), according to Josephus (Ant. 19:8).
When he appeared in the theater in a robe all of silver stuff which shone in the morning light, his flatterers saluted him as a god, and suddenly he was afflicted with a terrible pain in the bowels, of which he died in five days, in the 54th year of his age. The sacred writer unveils the unseen world in his account, which Josephus so remarkably confirms. The authorities of Tyre and Sidon offended him, “but came with one accord and, having made Blastus the king’s chamberlain their friend, desired peace because their country” was dependent on the king’s country for grain, etc. ( 1 Kings 5:9,11; Ezekiel 27:17). Then upon a set day” Herod arrayed in royal apparel sat upon his throne and made an oration. And the people gave a shout, saying It is the voice of a god and not of a man. And immediately the angel of the Lord smote him, because he gave not God the glory; and he was eaten of worms and gave up the ghost. But the word of God (which he bad thought to stifle) grew and multiplied.” So Belshazzar (Daniel 5); “pride teeth before destruction” ( Proverbs 16:18). Josephus states that Herod said in his pain, “I whom you call a god am ordered to depart this life immediately. Providence thus instantly reproves the lying words you just now addressed to me, and I who was by you called immortal am immediately to be hurried away by death.” Thus fell he whom the world called Agrippa the Great! a monument to warn proud men, “Woe unto him that striveth with his Maker! Let the potsherd strive with the potsherds of the earth” ( Isaiah 45:9).
HEROD AGRIPPA II. Son of Herod Agrippa I and Cypros, grandniece of Herod the Great. Being but 17 at his father’s death (A.D. 44), he was thought too young to succeed his father in the kingdom, but six years later (A.D. 50) the emperor Claudius conferred on him Chalcis which had been under his uncle, shortly before deceased (A.D. 48). Then (A.D. 52) he was transferred to the tetrarchies formerly held by Philip and Lysanias with the title “king.” Accurately he is called so in Acts 25:13; 26:2,7. Nero added several cities of Galilee and Persea to his kingdom (A.D. 55). Five years later Paul pleaded before him (see FESTUS , who naturally consulted him on a question of Jewish law). The great pomp with which he and his sister Berenice (whose connection with him caused grave suspicion) “entered into the place of hearing with the chief captains and principal men of the city” accorded with his character, fond of show. In the last Roman war he took part with the Romans in the destruction of his nation in the same spirit of cold cynicism with which he met the impassioned appeal of the apostle. After the fall of Jerusalem he retired with Berenice to Rome, where he died in the third year of Trajan (A.D. 100). He was the last of the race of Herod commemorated in history. Acts 25:13 represents his losing no time in going to Caesarea to salute the new Roman governor. In exact consonance with this Josephus (Bell. Judg., 2:15, section 1; Life, section 11) records his anxiety to stand well with the Roman governors, Alexander in Egypt, and Gessius Florus in Judaea, in the latter case Berenice accompanying him.
HERODIANS Matthew 22:15, etc.; Mark 12:13, etc. Upholders of the Herodian dynasty, regarding it as the safeguard against direct pagan rule which the Jews loathed, and also as the best compromise between the ancient faith and pagan civilization. Hence they were said to look upon Herod the Great, Antipus, and Agrippa successively as Messiah. Thus, the Herod’s were forerunners of the coming antichrist, and like the Old Testament antichrist, Antiochus Epiphanes (Daniel 8,11), they paved the way to apostasy by an introduction of Greek refinements, theaters, etc., and a blending of honours to pagan gods along with the recognition of Jehovah and the law. (See above theHERODS, and 1 Macc. 1:10-16). A falsely presumed political necessity was their plea for supporting the Herod’s, however unfaithful to God, and even for supporting the Roman government, in so far as the Herodian dynasty leant on it. Thus on the side of maintaining the Jewish polity they coincided with the Pharisees; on the side of their lax and scarcely orthodox views and means for maintaining it, they had common ground with the Sadducees. Hence what is termed “the leaven of Herod” ( Mark 8:15) is “the leaven of the Sadducees” ( Matthew 16:6). After Christ’s miracle on the sabbath “the Pharisees went forth and straightway took counsel with the H. against Him how they might destroy Him” ( Mark 3:6). The legal zealots joined with the Jewish politicians, adherents of the ruling dynasty, in getting rid of One who thwarted the views of both alike by setting up a spiritual kingdom adverse both to legalism and to the temporal kingdom of Herodianism. The same coalition appears at the close of Christ’s ministry: “the Pharisees sent unto Him their disciples with the Herod” as “spies, feigning themselves just men, that they might take hold of His words, that so they might deliver Him unto the power and authority of the governor” ( Matthew 22:15,16; Mark 12:13; Luke 20:20). With flattering words to Him as “not accepting the person of any” (by which compliment they “tempted” Him to pronounce against Caesar) they asked “Is it lawful for us to give tribute to Caesar?” designing if He said “no” to give Him up to the Roman governor, if “yes” to stir up the people against Him as violating the law ( Deuteronomy 17:15). “He perceived their craftiness, and said, Why tempt ye Me? show Me a penny.” Their acceptance of Caesar’s currency showed they accepted as a fact Caesar’s rule: “Render to Caesar the things that are Caesar’s, and to God the things that are God’s.” Man as made in the image of God owes himself to God ( Genesis 1:27; 9:6; Acts 17:29; James 3:9; Luke 15:8,9). Because Judah had not given herself to (God, she was now under Caesar. “Their question therefore was as if an adulterer were to ask, was it lawful for him to pay the penalty of his adultery” (Claudius). 2 Chronicles 12:8; Jeremiah 27:4-18; Romans 13:1; 1 Peter 2:13,14; John 19:11. Obedience to Caesar is an application of the higher principle of obedience to God, from whom all power is; Christ’s reply unites rather than separates the Christian’s political and religious duties. Yet, such is man’s perversity, they had the impudence soon after at Jesus’ trial before Pilate to say, “We found this fellow perverting the nation, and forbidding to give tribute to Caesar, saying that He Himself is Christ a king” ( Luke 23:2).
HERODION Rom 16:11. Whom Paul sends greetings to, calling him “my kinsman.”
Rather “the great plover,” thick kneed, Charadrius oedicnemus, widely spread in Europe, Asia, and N. Africa. It lives on slugs, worms, frogs, and toads (Speaker’s Commentary). But Gesenius derives it from anaph “to snort angrily,” which applies well to the heron, an irritable, voracious, bird, frequenting marshes. The addition “after her kind” implies that a genus is meant.
HESED, THE SON OF Benhased: 1 Kings 4:10.
HESHBON The Amorite king Sihon’s capital ( Numbers 21:26, etc.). On the western border of the high plain, mishor ( Joshua 13:17), on the boundary between Reuben and Gad. Now Hesban, 20 miles E. of Jordan, on a line with the N. of the Dead Sea. In the poem, “there is a fire gone out of Heshbon, ... it hath consumed Ar of Moab .... Woe unto thee, Moab: he hath given his sons ... and his daughters ... unto Sihon,” the poet paints Heshbon’s triumph over Moab, and Moab’s misery; but suddenly the scene changes, and Israel is introduced as conquering the conqueror: “We have shot at them, Heshbon is perished.” etc. At Jahaz, a little S. of Heshbon, Israel overthrew Sihon ( Deuteronomy 2:32,33). Heshbon was rebuilt by Reuben ( Numbers 32:37), but assigned to the Levites in connection with Gad ( Joshua 21:39). It passed from Israel into the hands of its former masters the Moabites before the captivity. It is included accordingly in Isaiah’s ( Isaiah 15:4) and Jeremiah’s ( Jeremiah 48:2,34,45) denunciations of Moat. Playing upon the meaning of Heshbon (a place of devising counsel) Jeremiah says, “in Heshbon they (the Chaldaeans) have devised evil against Moab.” The old proverb shall hold good again; as anciently Sihon seized Heshbon, and issued forth thence as a devouring flame against Moab, so now the Chaldeans shall seize Heshbon and make it their starting point to destroy Moab.
The ruins stand on a low hall, and are a mile in circuit, but do not include a single entire building. On the southern base of the hill is an ancient reservoir; compare Song 7:4, “thine eyes are like the fish pools in Heshbon (deep, quiet, full, reflecting the bridegroom’s image) by the gate of Bathrabbim” (daughter of of a multitude; a crowded thoroughfare of Heshbon). The bride is calm amidst the crowd.
HETH Son of Canaan, Ham’s son; from whence sprung the Hittites, occupying the hill country of Judah near Hebron. But the race enlarged its borders so that they with the Amorites represent all Canaan ( Joshua 1:4; Ezekiel 16:3, “thy father was an Amorite, thy mother an Hittite”). See Genesis 23:3-20. Esau’s marriage to one of the daughters of Heth “grieved the mind” of Isaac and Rebekah, for their morals were lax and their worship idolatrous ( Genesis 26:34,35; 27:46). In Solomon’s and in Joram’s times there were independent Hittite kings ( 1 Kings 10:29; 2 Kings 7:6). In the Egyptian monuments they are called the Kheta, who made themselves masters of Syria.
HETHLON On the northern border of the promised land ( Ezekiel 47:15; 48:1). “The way of Hethlon” is the pass at the N. end of Lebanon from the Mediterranean coast to the plain of Hamath, i.e. the entrance of Hamath ( Numbers 34:8).
HEZEKI: i.e. Hizkiah shortened =“strength of Jehovah” ( 1 Chronicles 8:17).
HEZEKIAH =“strength of Jehovah.” 1. Twelfth king of Judah; son of the unbelieving Ahaz and Abi or Abijah; ascended the throne at the age of 25 in 726 B.C. Of his faithfulness it is written ( 2 Kings 18:5) “he trusted in the Lord God of Israel, so that after him was none like him among all the kings of Judah, nor any that were before him, for he clave to the Lord, and departed not from following Him but kept His commandments.” Probably his mother, being daughter of Zechariah “who had understanding in the visions of God” ( 2 Chronicles 26:5), was pious, and her influence counteracted the bad example of his father. In the very first year and first month of his reign the Lord put it “in his heart to make a covenant with the Lord God of Israel” (2 Chronicles 29), so he opened and repaired the doors of the Lord’s house which had been “shut up,” and charged the Levites not to be negligent but to “sanctify” the house and “carry forth the filthiness out of the holy place,” and to light the lamps, to burn incense, and to offer burnt offerings as in former times; all which, to the shame and disaster of Judah, had latterly been neglected. They did so, and moreover sanctified all the vessels which Ahaz had “cast away in his transgression.” Then an atonement was made for the kingdom, the sanctuary, and Judah, with a sin offering of seven bullocks, seven rams, seven lambs, and seven he-goats; then followed the burnt offering, while “the Levite singers sang with the words of David and Asaph the seer, and the trumpets sounded.” The priests were too few to flay the burnt offerings which the congregation “of a free heart” brought in; therefore the Levites helped them “until the other priests had sanctified themselves, for the Levites were more upright in heart to sanctify themselves than the priests.” So “Hezekiah rejoiced that God had prepared the people, for the thing was done suddenly.” Then followed the Passover, in the second month, “because the priests had not sanctified themselves sufficiently, neither had the people gathered themselves together to Jerusalem,” so as to keep it in the regular month ( Numbers 9:10,11; compare Exodus 12:6,18). Hezekiah by letter invited not only Judah, but also Ephraim and Manasseh, to it: “Ye children of Israel, turn again unto the Lord God of Abraham, Isaac, and Israel, and He will return to the remnant of you, escaped out of the hand of the king of Assyria.” The majority “laughed the messengers to scorn; nevertheless, divers of Asher, Manasseh, and Zebulun (Ephraim and Issachar also) humbled themselves and came to Jerusalem.” Also “in Judah the hand of God was to give them one heart to do the commandment of the king by the word of the Lord” ( 2 Chronicles 30:2,12,18,23; Jeremiah 32:39). Owing to the want of priests several were not duly cleansed and sanctified, yet did eat the Passover; but Hezekiah prayed for them, “the good Lord pardon every one that prepareth his heart to seek God, though he be not cleansed according to the purification of the sanctuary.” So “the Lord hearkened to Hezekiah and healed the people.” “And Hezekiah spoke comfortably unto all the Levites that taught the good knowledge of the Lord,” assuring them of God’s pardon upon their “making confession to the Lord God” for the people, so that “the whole assembly took counsel and kept other seven days with gladness.” “So there was great joy in Jerusalem, for since Solomon’s time there was not the like ... and the priests blessed the people ... and their prayer came up to the Lord’s holy place, even unto heaven.”
Next, all Israel present went out to break the images, cut down the groves (see ASHTORETH , Asheerah), and throw down the high places and altars out of all Judah and Benjamin, in Ephraim also and Manasseh, until they had utterly destroyed them all. “Hezekiah also broke in pieces the brazen serpent that Moses made,” for previously “Israel did burn intense to it, and he called it Nehushtan” (piece of brass, nothing better: 2 Kings 18:4); a practical condemnation of “relics” when superstitiously venerated. Yet in spite of the warning the brazen serpent was reverenced by professing Christians in the church of Ambrose at Milan! (Prideaux, Connex., 1:19).
The Passover must have been five or six years later than the purification of the temple, which was in Hezekiah’s first year; for it was not until the sixth year of Hezekiah that the king of Assyria took Samaria (ver. 9,10); its fall prepared many in Israel to accept humbly Hezekiah’s invitation ( Chronicles 30:6,9). Hezekiah also provided for the maintenance of the priests and Levites by commanding the payment of tithes; he ordered also their courses of service, and “in every work that he began in the service of the house of God, and in the law, and in the commandments, to seek his God, he did it with all his heart and prospered”: a good motto for Christians ( Colossians 3:23).
Isaiah the prophet was the great supporter of Hezekiah in his pious efforts; but not without opposition from drunken scoffers, who asked “whom shall he (Isaiah) teach knowledge? them that are weaned from the milk?” i.e., does he take us for babes just weaned, that he presumes to teach us? ( Isaiah 28:9) “for precept upon precept, line upon line, here a little and there a little,” i.e., for he is constantly repeating the same thing as if to little children, and as one teaching young beginners how to make the strokes of a letter and join line to line; the scorners imitated Isaiah’s stammering like repetitions, in Hebrew [tsaw] [latsar], [qaw] [laqaw]. The simplicity of divine teaching offends proud scorners ( 2 Kings 5:11,12; Corinthians 1:23); but children in knowledge needed to be spoken to in children’s language ( Matthew 13:13). Isaiah replies, You will have a sterner teacher with stammering and foreign speech to convict you of unbelief (Isaiah 28). Ahaz the former king’s counselors recommended worldly alliances and compromises of principle for political expediency, instead of Isaiah’s counsel to rest on Jehovah alone. Shebna was one of these half hearted, self indulgent, and ostentatious officers at court. His father’s name is not given, though his office is,” the scribe” ( 2 Kings 18:18; 19:2); whereas the fathers of Eliakim and Joah, with Shebna, are named. The reason appears quite incidentally in Isaiah 22:15, “Say unto Shebna ... this treasurer over the house (prefect of the palace), What hast thou here? and whom hast thou here, that thou hast hewed thee out a sepulchre here?” i.e. as being a foreigner (his name is un-Hebrew like, he was probably a Syrian brought from abroad to Ahaz’ court) thou hast no paternal burying place or kindred here. He was degraded; but (probably upon his repentance) the lower yet honourable office of “scribe” or secretary of state was given him, and in that office he is mentioned as if faithful ( Isaiah 37:2, etc.), so that the sentence of exile and humiliation, “tossed like a ball into a large country, and there the chariots of his glory becoming the shame of his lord’s house,” was apparently reversed, though Jewish tradition says he was tied to the horses’ tails by the enemy to whom he designed to betray Jerusalem, but who thought he mocked them. (See ELIAKIM ). It is possible that, unwarned by the past, he relapsed into treachery, and then were fulfilled Isaiah’s prophetic threats, which but for his relapse would have been averted, and which were temporarily suspended.
Hezekiah recovered from the Philistines all the cities which his father Ahaz had lost, namely, of “the low country and the S. of Judah, Bethshemesh, Ajalon, Gederoth, Shocho, Timnah, Gimzo” with their dependent villages, “the Lord having brought Judah low because Ahaz had made Judah naked, and transgressed sore against the Lord” ( 2 Chronicles 28:18,19). “Hezekiah smote them even unto Gaza (Gaza and Gath alone remained to them: Josephus, Ant. 9:13, section 3), from the tower of the watchmen to the fenced city” ( 2 Kings 18:8). This was foretold by Isaiah ( Isaiah 14:29,30): “Rejoice not thou, whole Palestina, because the God of him that smote thee (Uzziah, 2 Chronicles 26:6) is broken (namely, under Ahaz), for out of the serpent’s (as Uzziah was regarded by the Philistines) root shall come forth a cockatrice,” an adder, to the Philistines, Hezekiah; “and the firstborn of the poor (the poorest) shall feed” in safety, instead of constant alarms of Philistine invasions.
Hezekiah bore for a time the yoke of tribute imposed by the Assyrian Tiglath Pileser on Ahaz ( 2 Kings 16:7); but having spent much on the Philistine war, trusting in the aid of Egypt, be now ventured to withhold payment from Assyria. Shalmaneser had begun, and Sargon had just terminated, the siege of Samaria ( Isaiah 20:1,4,6; 2 Kings 17:6,24; 18:7,7,9,10 “THEY took it,” 11). Sargon moreover removed some of the Israelites to “the cities of the Medes”; the Scripture herein being confirmed by Assyrian monuments which mention his seizing and annexing several Median cities, to which Assyrian policy would of course transplant distant colonists. Light years subsequent to Samaria’s fall, in Hezekiah’s fourteenth year, Sennacherib, in the third year of his reign according to Assyrian records, undertook his first expedition against Judah. In the interval between Samaria’s fall and this invasion Tyre’s gallant resistance under their king Elulaeus had forced the Assyrians to retire after a five years’ siege. Hezekiah had used this interval to “stop the waters of the fountains without the city, stopping the upper watercourse (rather ‘spring head’) of Gihon (i.e. the spring source of the Kedron stream, Nachal being the valley E. of the city, Ge the valley W. and S. of the city), and bringing it straight down to the W. side of the city of David” (i.e into the valley separating mount Moriah and Zion from the upper city ( 2 Chronicles 32:3,4,13,30): Zion must therefore have lain on the N. not on the S.W. of the city, so that the water brought to the W. of it should be inside not outside the city); also building up the broken wall (using the materials of the houses which they broke down for the purpose), and raising it up to the towers, and another wall without, and repairing Millo in the city of David, and making darts and shields in abundance. Hezekiah also “gathered together the waters of the lower pool,” i.e. brought into the city by subterranean passages in Zion rock the waters from the fountain which supplied the lower pool ( Isaiah 22:9-11; 7:3; 2 Kings 20:20). “He also made a ditch between the two walls for the water of the old pool,” i.e. the lower pool’s water he diverted to a new tank in the city between the two walls. His words too cheered the hearts of his captains and people, being the language of faith: “there be more with us than with him; with him is an arm of flesh, but with us is the Lord our God to fight our battles.” So “the people rested themselves upon his words.” (See JERUSALEM ).
Sennacherib undertook two expeditions against Judah. In the first he took all Judah’s fenced cities, and Hezekiah sent saying, “I have offended; return from me, that which thou puttest upon me I will bear”; and “the king of Assyria appointed 300 talents of silver, and 30 talents of gold.” The monuments confirm this Scripture statement: “because Hezekiah king of Judah would not submit, I took 46 of his strong fenced cities ... and from these, as spoil, 200,150 people, with horses, asses, camels, oxen, and sheep; and Hezekiah himself I shut up in Jerusalem, like a bird in a cage, building towers round the city to hem him in, and raising banks of earth against the gates .... Then Hezekiah sent out to me the chiefs with talents of gold and 800 talents of silver ... by way of tribute.” The patriotism of the Hebrew historian (2 Kings 18) suppresses the ravages, advance on the capital, and the siege; but Isaiah ( 2 Kings 10:28-32; 2 Kings 22:1-14; 2 Kings 24; 2 Kings 29) more vividly than even Sennacherib’s annalist, notices all. In the main facts there is a singular agreement between the sacred and the secular records, the variation in the number of talents of silver being probably due to the Hebrew recording the number appointed as permanent tribute, the Assyrian the whole that was actually carried off. The inscriptions record that Ekron had submitted to Hezekiah and delivered their king Padi up to him because of his adherence to Assyria. Sennacherib recovered Padi from Jerusalem and seated him again on the throne.
Hezekiah’s sickness must have occurred just before Sennacherib’s expedition, for God assures him ( Isaiah 38:6), “I will deliver thee and this city out of the hand of the king of Assyria, and I will defend this city,” in the 14th year of Hezekiah’s reign. Moreover, 15 years was the addition promised by God to his life, which added to the 14 years would give years, the actual number of years in all that he reigned. His sickness was owing to an inflammatory carbuncle and abscess. Having then no heir, he shrank from death with a fear scarcely worthy of a believer. God granted his earnest prayer; “afore Isaiah had gone out into the middle court the word of the Lord came to him,” i.e. when he had just left Hezekiah and Hezekiah was in the act of praying, after having heard God’s message, “thou shalt die.” God hears while His children are yet speaking ( Isaiah 65:24; Psalm 32:5; Daniel 9:21). Our wishes, when gratified, often prove curses. Three years afterward Hezekiah had a son, Manasseh, the chief cause of God’s wrath against Judah and of the overthrow of the kingdom ( 2 Kings 23:26,27). God gave Hezekiah as a sign of recovery the recession of the shadow ten degrees on Ahaz’s see DIAL , an obelisk in the midst of the court, the shadow of which could be seen by Hezekiah from his sick chamber, falling on the successive steps ascending to his palace.
Hezekiah composed a thanksgiving hymn for his, recovery, based on the psalms of David, which he had restored to liturgical use in the temple. The beginning rests on <19A202> Psalm 102:2, the first half of verse 11 on Psalm 27:13 (chedel ), “the world” or age soon ceasing, is from chaadal “to cease”; usually written cheled , this transitory world, Psalm 49:1); verse 18 on Psalm 6:5; 30:9; the beginning of verse 20 on Psalm 70:1. (See HEPHZIBAH ) Hezekiah did not disbelieve in a future state, but regarded the disembodied state as one wherein men cannot declare the praises of God before men, it is as to this world an unseen land of stillness, the living alone can praise God on earth. That the true view was at the time held of the blessedness of the sleeping saints Isaiah 57:1,2 proves. A cake of figs was the instrument used for the cure; God can make effectual the simplest means.
Sennacherib’s object in his second expedition was Egypt, Hezekiah’s ally.
Hence with the great body of his army he advanced toward Egypt by S.W.
Palestine, and did not himself approach Jerusalem; this was two years after the former invasion. The Assyrian annals are silent as to Sennacherib’s second expedition in the fifth year of his reign, which began by his “treacherously” ( Isaiah 33:1) attacking see LACHISH , and which ended in the destruction recorded in 2 Kings 19:35; for, unlike the faithful Jewish historians, they never record any of their monarch’s disasters. But the disaster is tacitly deducible in the Assyrian records from the discontinuance subsequently of expeditions by Sennacherib westward further than Cilicia. The Assyrians did not resume aggression upon southern Syria and Egypt until the close of Esarhaddon’s reign. Moreover the Egyptian priests told Herodotus, from their records, that, a century and a half before Cambyses, Sennacherib led a host of Assyrians and Arabs to the Egyptian border where king Sethos met them near Pelusium on the E. of the Nile; and that swarms of field mice ate the Assyrians’ quivers, bowstrings, and shield thongs in the night, so in the morning, they fled, and multitudes fell, having no arms to defend themselves. Sethos erected a monument, a man in stone with a mouse in his hand, and the inscription, “Look on me and learn to reverence the gods.” The mouse symbolized ruin ( 1 Samuel 6:4,5); the story arose out of this symbolical statue, not the statue out of the literal story. Sennacherib, according to Assyrian inscriptions, which mention the 22nd year of his reign, lived about 17 years after the invasion and was slain by his two sons.
Isaiah, while disapproving of trust in Egypt, regarded the voluntarily offered aid of the tall and warlike Ethiopians as providential ( Isaiah 18:1,2,7). “Ho (not Woe!) to the land of the winged bark,” or else “to the land of the clanging sound of wings” (i.e. armies). To Ethiopia Isaiah announces the overthrow of Sennacherib the common foe, and desires the Ethiopian ambassadors, then at Jerusalem, to carry the tidings to their people. See TIRHAKAH’S coming forth to encounter Sennacherib created a diversion in favor of Judaea. In the former invasion Sennacherib in his first, expedition inflicted a decisive blow on the united forces of Egypt and Ethiopia at Altagu (possibly the Eltekon of Joshua 15:59); but now he was forced to raise the siege of Pelusium by Tirhakah, and send an imperious letter to Hezekiah by Rabshakeh, whose sneers at his religious reforms in removing the high places ( 2 Kings 18:22-32) and flattering promises in fluent Hebrew to the people favor the idea that he was a renegade Jew. Hezekiah’s simple childlike faith appears in his spreading the foe’s insolent, letter before the Lord. His faith received an immediate answer of peace; 185,000 were slain by the angel of the Lord in the “night,” perhaps by “the plague that, walketh in darkness” ( 2 Kings 19:35, with which Isaiah 37:36 undesignedly accords, “when they arose early in the morning”). In this second expedition, according to Jehovah’s word, Sennacherib did not “come before the city with shields, nor cast a bank against it” ( Isaiah 37:33); whereas in the first he shut Hezekiah up as a “bird in a cage” also “raising banks of earth against the gates.” It is possible Rabshakeh took the army with him from Jerusalem to Libnah on the borders of Egypt (ver. 8), and that the destruction occurred there, which accords with the Egyptian story to Herodotus above; the Lord’s words “he shall not shoot an arrow there, nor come before it with shields” seem corrupted into the Egyptian legend of the mice gnawing the bowstrings and shield straps. In Sennacherib’s account of his wars with Hezekiah, inscribed with cuneiform characters in the hall of the palace of Koyunjik built by him (140 ft. long by 120 ft. wide), wherein the Jewish physiognomy of the captives is discernible, after mentioning the capture of the 200,150 Jews he adds, “then I prayed unto God,” the only instance of God’s name in an inscription without a pagan adjunct. On returning to Nineveh Sennacherib, according to Tobit 1:18, revenged himself on the Jews then in his power; but that apocryphal book makes him die 55 days afterward, whereas 17 years elapsed: see above.
He congratulated Hezekiah on his recovery, and sent also a present. About this time precisely it was that Babylon had revolted from Assyria, and set up an independent kingdom. Scripture calls him “king of Babylon,” though both before and after him Babylon was subject to Assyria. This is an undesigned coincidence of Scripture with secular history, confirming the truth of the former. The Assyrian inscriptions say he reigned twice, and that Sennacherib in his first year expelled him and set up Belib in his stead.
Probably he recovered the Babylonian kingdom when Sennacherib was weakened by his disaster in Judea, and sent the embassy not merely to congratulate Hezekiah on his recovery but mainly to court Hezekiah’s alliance, as having like himself cast off the Assyrian yoke. Hence arose Hezekiah’s excessive attention to his ambassadors. But how had Hezekiah such a store of precious things? Either the transaction was before Hezekiah’s straits when he had to cut off the gold from the doors and pillars of the temple, to give to the Assyrian king. (Then Merodach Baladan’s embassy would be during his earlier reign at Babylon, in Sargon’s time, 713 B.C.; whereas his second reign fell in 703 B.C., five or six years before the date of Hezekiah’s death (these dates are deduced from the Assyrian records, if they be trustworthy). The chronology favors the view that Hezekiah’s sickness and Merodach Baindan’s embassy were some years before Sennacherib, in the first reign of Merodach Baladan). Or the more probable (though the dates cause difficulty) explanation is in 2 Chronicles 32:22,23: “thus the Lord saved Hezekiah from Sennacherib ....
And many brought gifts unto the Lord (doubtless impressed with His great majesty and power in the miraculous destruction of the Assyrians) to Jerusalem, and presents to Hezekiah king of Judah; so that he was magnified in the sight of all nations from thenceforth.” The spoils of the Assyrian army left in panic, as on a different occasion ( 2 Kings 7:15), would add to Hezekiah’s wealth. The sending of the embassy so long after his recovery is accounted for by Babylon being then regarded in respect to Judah as “a far country” ( Isaiah 39:3), also by the impossibility of sending sooner during Sennacherib’s invasion; moreover another object of the princes of Babylon, which was famed for astronomy, was “to enquire of the wonder that was done in the land” ( 2 Chronicles 32:25,26,31), i.e. the recession of the shadow on Ahaz’s dial. Hezekiah was “glad”; it was not the act but the ostentatious spirit, and the unbelief tempting him to rest on Babylon, proud of its alliance, instead of on Jehovah, which called forth God’s retributive threat that Babylon, the instrument of his and Judah’s sin, should be the instrument of their punishment ( Isaiah 39:5-7); fulfilled 120 years afterward. Ingratitude to God, and pride, were his fault in this affair; “Hezekiah rendered not again according to the benefit done unto him, for his heart was lifted up,” “God leaving him to try him, that He might kow all that was in his heart” ( Deuteronomy 8:2). But when the believer’s foot slides, it slides the deeper into humility. First, Hezekiah frankly confessed “all”; unlike Saul and Asa, submitting to God’s servant though his subject ( Isaiah 39:4; 2 Chronicles 16:7-10; Samuel 15:20,21), and “humbling himself for the pride of his heart,” and “accepting the punishment of his iniquity” ( Leviticus 26:41) meekly, and even finding cause for thanksgiving in the mitigating fact foretold by implication, “there shall be peace and truth in my days.” Not the language of mere selfishness, but of one feeling that the national corruption must at last lead to the threatened judgment, and thanking God for the stroke being deferred yet for a time. The prophecy of the carrying away to Babylon, in the form of a rebuke, forms the connecting link between the former portion of Isaiah’s prophecies (1—39), which relate to the deliverance from Assyria, and the latter (40—66) as to the deliverance from Babylon, more than a century and a half later.
Psalm 46 and Psalm 76 commemorate Sennacherib’s overthrow. Two coincidences in Psalm 46 occur: “the city of God” (verse 4) is that wherein” God is in the midst,” so that “she shall not be moved,” just as history states that the mother city Jerusalem alone escaped, whereas “all the defensed cities of Judah” fell before Sennacherib ( Isaiah 36:1); also in verse 10, “Be still and know that I am God, I will be exalted in the earth,” is God’s reply to Hezekiah’s prayer, “O Lord our God save us, that all the kingdoms of the earth may know that Thou art the Lord” ( Isaiah 37:20). Also verse 5,” God shall help her ... right early,” Hebrew at the turning of the morning ( Psalm 30:5 ff). On the previous night the cause of the city of God seemed desperate and the Assyrian triumphant, but “when they (the Jews) arose early in the morning, behold they (the Assyrians) were all dead corpses” ( Isaiah 37:36). In ver. 8-10 Sennacherib’s overthrow is made the earnest of the final cessation of wars throughout the earth under the Prince of Peace, after He shall have made “desolations” of the adversary. Psalm 76:3, “there broke He the arrows of the bow ... shield ... sword ... battle,” implies that by one stroke at Jerusalem (which opposes the view that Libnah was the scene of the Assyrian overthrow) God ended completely the war. Psalm 76:6,8 imply that it was by Jehovah’s direct interposition. The “death sleep” of the host at God’s rebuke is described vividly ( Psalm 76:5,6), the camp so recently full of life now lying still as death. “The stout hearted are spoiled, they have slept their sleep .... At Thy rebuke, O God of Jacob, both the chariot and horse are cast into a dead sleep.” God’s “cutting off the breath (spirit) of princes” ( Psalm 76:12) implies probably that Rabshakeh and other leaders fell on the same night. “Let all that be round about Him bring presents unto Him that ought to be feared” ( Psalm 76:11) accords with the fact recorded 2 Chronicles 32:22,23. The assurance of God’s help in Psalm 75 accords with Isaiah 37:21-35; also the omission of the N. among the quarters from from whence help is expected accords with the Assyrian attack being from the N.
Hezekiah died in his 56th year after a 29 years’ reign, 697 B.C. He was buried “in the chiefest (or highest) of the sepulchres of the sons of David, and all Judah and Jerusalem did him honour at his death” ( Proverbs 10:7). His “acts and goodness were written in the vision of Isaiah ... and in the book of the kings of Judah and Israel” ( 2 Chronicles 32:32,33). A fitting accompaniment of the religious reformation he wrought was his setting” the men of Hezekiah” (Isaiah, Micah, Joah, etc.) to “copy out” some of the 3,000 proverbs which Solomon spoke 300 years before: thus he brought forth the word of God from its obscurity ( 1 Kings 4:32; Ecclesiastes 12:9; Proverbs 25:1). 2. Son of Neariah, of Judah ( 1 Chronicles 3:23; Zephaniah 1:1).
HURAI 1 Chronicles 11:32.
HIDDEKEL Tigris. A river of see EDEN , going “eastward to Assyria” ( Genesis 2:14). “The great river” ( Daniel 10:4). From hai “lively,” and digla “an arrow,” in early Babylonian; equivalent to Tigra in Aryan. Now called by the Arabs Dijleh.
HIEL =“God liveth”. Native of Bethel. Rebuilt, i.e. restored as a fortified town, Jericho in Ahab’s reign, who hoped through fortifying it (for Hiel was Ahab’s profane and reckless tool) to have on his borders a city securing to himself the passage of Jordan. In Hiel was fulfilled Joshua’s curse on the rebuilder of Jericho ( Joshua 6:26), “he shall lay the foundation in (i.e. at the price of) his firstborn (Abiram), and in (i.e. at the price of) his youngest son (Segub) shall he set up the gates of it.” The builder paid for its restoration by the loss of all his Sons, from the firstborn to the youngest.
The Benjamites, by Joshua’s allotment ( Joshua 18:21), inhabited it, and it is called “the city of palms” ( Judges 3:13; 2 Samuel 10:5); but not until Ahab’s time, when men cast off all fear of Jehovah, was Joshua’s curse fulfilled, when Hiel presumed to fortify it ( 1 Kings 16:34). The walls had been miraculously cast down, and it was against their being rebuilt that the curse was leveled. The sin marks how deeply Israel had fallen; the curse how God will not let His word be transgressed with impunity.
HIERAPOLIS Colossians 4:13. Associated as the seat of a church with the neighbouring Colossae and Laodicea; on a height between the rivers Lycus and Meander, within a few miles of one another; the three churches were probably all founded by Epaphras. Now Pambouk Kalessi. Hot calcareous springs are near, which have deposited curious encrustations. There is a frozen cascade, the surface wavy, as of water suddenly petrified. A mephitic cavern, Plutonium, was in ancient times connected with the worship of Cybele, from from whence the city was designated Hierapolis, “the sacred city.”
HIEROGLYPHICS One of the earliest modes of representing visibly the words or ideas already orally expressed. For many centuries the key to these representations was altogether unknown; but a piece of granite found near Rosetta by the French army in 1798, and now in the British Museum, contains a decree in honour of Ptolemy Epiphanes (204 B.C.) written in hieroglyphics with a Greek translation alongside. Also the shaft of an obelisk brought to England from Philae in the S. of Egypt contains a hieroglyphic inscription of its dedication to the gods by Ptolemy Physcon and Cleopatra (146 B.C.) and at the base a Greek inscription. Champollion, by comparing the Greek names Ptolemy and Cleopatra with the hieroglyphics corresponding, made out letter by letter. Young and others have perfected the transcription of Hebrew and the Egyptian hieroglyphic. Thus the derivation from Egyptian of many of the Hebraized words in Exodus is proved, confirming its having been written by one in such circumstances as Moses was. The hieroglyphics originally were picture writing, but in the form handed down to us on oldest monuments they are phonetic with occasionally an accompanying picture of the object in order to make the group of hieroglyphic letters which form the word more intelligible. Thus to the names of individuals the figure of a man is attached; such characters called determinatives. The initial of the Egyptian (Ahom) for eagle is A, so an eagle became the representative of A; a lion (Egyptian Labo) is L; an owl (Mowlad), M.
HIGGAION =“meditation”, from hagah “to meditate.” Found Psalm 9:16; 19:14; 92:3 margin “upon the harp with musing” ( Lamentations 3:61). A call to solemn reflection on God’s dealings. The Selah (a pause in the music) follows to give time for meditation.
HIGH PLACES Archaeological and scientific researches have made it evident that in the varying forms of early religions, and in lands far distant from each other, high places were selected for worship of a sacrificial character. This was so especially among the Moabites ( Isaiah 15:2; 16:12; Numbers 23:28).
The three altars built by Abraham at Shechem, between Bethel and Ai, and at Mamre, were on heights. Such sites consecrated of old would naturally be resorted to in after times as sanctuaries. Not only these, but heights originally dedicated to idols ( Numbers 33:52; Leviticus 26:30). The law forbade sacrificial worship elsewhere save at the one national sanctuary. Old usage however strove against the law, and too frequently reasserted itself. The high places polluted by idol worship ( 2 Kings 23:9) were condemned by all the kings that worshipped Jehovah. But those sacred to Jehovah ( 2 Chronicles 32:12; 33:17) were tolerated by less thoroughly reforming kings; and sacrifices and burnt incense were offered on them ( 1 Kings 12:3; 14:4; 15:35). Hezekiah and Josiah removed them utterly, as opposed to the letter of the law and mostly to the spirit of it too ( 2 Kings 18:4; 23:5 margin; 2 Chronicles 34:3). In the time of the judges ( Judges 6:25,26; 13:16-23; 1 Samuel 7:10; 16:5), and while the temple was yet unbuilt ( 1 Kings 3:2), and in the Israelite northern kingdom where religious order could not be preserved, owing to the severance from Judah ( 1 Kings 18:30), greater latitude was allowed.
But the strict rule was against it, except where God especially ( Chronicles 21:26) sanctioned sacrifice on some one occasion at a place ( Deuteronomy 12:4-11; Leviticus 17:3,4; John 4:20). The priests whom the kings of Judah ordained to burn incense in the high places were called Chemarim; compare Hosea 10:5; Zephaniah 1:4 idol priests not having reached the age of puberty, meaning “ministers of the gods,” the Tyrian camilli, (black attired ministers, subordinate to the priests, they felled the victim), from chaamar “to be black.” The high places of Dan and Bethel were already sacred by usage; so Jeroboam found it easy to induce the people to forsake the temple and cherubim at Jerusalem for his calves in Dan and Bethel. Bamoth, the Hebrew for “high places,” became so common that the term was used for a shrine in a valley or a city ( Kings 17:9; Ezekiel 16:31; Jeremiah 7:31). In Ezekiel 20:29, I said ... what is the high place whereunto ye go? And the name thereof is called Bamah unto this day,” the sense is, You ought to have long since put away the name, and the high place which it expresces; the very name implies it is not sanctioned by Me; therefore your sacrifice even to ME in it (much more to idols) is only a “provocation” to Me ( Ezekiel 20:28). In Ezekiel 16:16,” of thy garments thou didst take and deckedst thy high places with divers colors,” the sense is: as a harlot spreading her tent of divers colors to lure victims, so Israel set up on the high places, not stone chapels, but tents hung with colored tapestry, as the “woven hangings of (Asherah) Astarte” (the right translation for “grove”) ( 2 Kings 23:7).
Asa in one place is said to have taken away the high places, in another not so; also Jehoshaphat similarly. The seeming discrepancy occurs not only between Kings and Chronicles, but even between different passages of the same chronicler. Doubtless the godly kings at first tried to put down entirely the high places, but afterwards yielded to the general usage of the people in cases where the high place was to Jehovah; where it was to idols they put them down utterly. “They opposed impiety but winked at error” (Hall). So rooted was the practice that the removal of the high places was made by Rabshakeh a taunt against Hezekiah as if it were an impious innovation against Jehovah’s honour; evidently he knew that the act had provoked the enmity of a considerable party among the Jews.
HIGH PRIEST In Hebrew “THE priest,” and in books after the Pentateuch “the great priest,” “the head priest,” or “chief priest” ( 2 Kings 25:18). In Leviticus 4:3 and elsewhere “the priest that is anointed,” for he alone of the priests was anointed on the head in consecration, “the crown of the anointing oil of his God” Leviticus 21:12), i.e. the holy oil was poured on his head like a crown ( Exodus 29:7), a uniquely-compounded ointment ( Exodus 30:22-33) which it was death to imitate or to put upon a stranger. Certain priests, “apothecaries,” manufactured it ( Nehemiah 3:8); this oil was wanting in the second temple. The anointing of the ordinary priests was limited to sprinkling their garments with the anointing oil ( Exodus 28:41 ff; Exodus 29:21; Leviticus 8:30), which does not sanction the Jewish tradition that the oil was smeared on the forehead of the ordinary priests with the finger. The high priest’s special designation, “the priest that is anointed” (4:3), implies a marked distinction between his anointing and theirs, besides what was common to both, namely, the “sprinkling.” Love is compared to it, streaming down from Aaron’s head upon his beard, then to his skirts ( <19D202> Psalm 132:2). Christ, the antitypical High Priest, was anointed with the fullness of the Spirit ( Daniel 9:24; Acts 10:38; John 3:34); from Him the Spirit in measure streams on His members who touch by faith the hem of His garment ( Matthew 9:20; John 1:16).
Besides the girdle common to all the priests the high priest wore also the curious girdle of the ephod. Of eight articles of priestly dress the coat or tunic, girdle, breeches, and bonnet or turban belonged also to the common priests; the breastplate, ephod with the curious girdle, mitre (instead of the ordinary priest’s turban) and robe of the ephod were peculiar to the high priest. The breastplate (choshen , “ornament,” literally) was two spans’ long by one broad, but doubled it became a square, fastened by rings and chains of gold to the two onyx stones on the shoulders, and beneath with two other rings and a lace of blue to two rings in the ephod above the curious girdle. On it were the 12 stones in four rows, with the 12 tribes engraven in the order of the encampment; just as the names of the 12 tribes were on the 12 pearl gates, and in the 12 foundations (of precious stones) of the New Jerusalem wall the names of the 12 apostles of the Lamb.
He represented the whole chosen nation as “a kingdom of priests” ( Exodus 19:6). In other nations the priesthood was dissevered from every other class, but in Israel Levi held the priesthood rightfully belonging to all, and only delegated to one tribe and family as representing the whole; as Numbers 8:10 proves. This trust was delegated to Levi only until all the children of God could exercise it suitably. Christianity restores the suspended relation of God’s people as all king-priests unto God ( Peter 2:9; Revelation 1:6). In the Jewish church there was a delegation of the priesthood to one tribe and family; not so in the Christian church, which unites under the antitypical Melchizedek the kingdom and priesthood which were distinct in Israel. United to Messiah, the spiritual Israel the church shall form one grand heavenly king-priesthood as literal Israel shall be the earthly king-priesthood among the nations ( Isaiah 61:6; 66:21). Christian ministers as distinct from laymen are never called in New Testament hiereis , “sacerdotal priests,” as the Jewish priests were.
The high priest alone entered the holy of holies once a year; but we have “boldness to enter” it through the rent veil of Christ’s flesh continually ( Hebrews 10:19,20). He alone consulted God by the mysterious Urim and Thummim; we have truly our fellowship with the Father of lights ( John 1:3; 2:20; James 1:17,18), having our “unction from the Holy One” and knowing all things. The high priest’s death prefigured Christ’s who sets the bloodstained captive free ( Numbers 35:25).
The first separation of Aaron to the priesthood, which previously belonged to the firstborn, occurs in Exodus 28, after the directions for the tabernacle and its furniture. Previously Moses bidding him lay up the pot of manna before the Lord implied that the ark would, when made, be under his charge. His being taken up with Nadab and Abihu to see the glory of the God of Israel foreshadowed his hereditary priesthood; also 27:21; 29:9,24.
Josephus, Septuagint, and Scripture favor the view that the 12 breastplate stones were the Urim and Thummim. Answers were given by Jehovah to the high priest ( John 11:51) while wearing them and the ephod ( Samuel 14:3,18,19; 23:2,4,9,11,12; 28:6; 2 Samuel 5:23; Judges 20:28). “Judgment” was the breastplate’s chief significance ( Exodus 28:30), “Aaron shall bear the judgment of ... Israel upon his heart before the Lord continually,” namely, the judicial sentence of justification, often represented by a particular kind of robe ( Isaiah 61:10; 62:8). So the white linen robe expresses the righteousness or justification of the saints ( Revelation 3:4,5; 19:14). Joshua the high priest represented the nation on its trial before God, at first in filthy garments to represent its guilt, Satan accusing; then by Messiah’s intercession justified; therefore the filthy garments are removed and a change of raiment is given and a fair mitre put on his head (Zechariah 3). Thus “the breastplate of righteousness” or “judgment” symbolizes Israel’s 12 tribes accepted on the ground of the high priest’s sacrificial intercession before God ( Numbers 23:21).
Thummim expresses perfections, Urim lights. Israel’s perfect justification in “the Lord her righteousness” and her consequent ultimate prosperity are thus symbolized ( Isaiah 60:1; 62:1,2). Levi the priest tribe is called “God’s holy one,” privileged to bear the Urim and Thummim because of proved faithfulness ( Deuteronomy 33:8). Israel’s justification in the person of her high priest is the ground of her receiving through him communications of God’s will. Her children’s being “taught of Jehovah” is so connected with “His laying her stones with fair colors” ( Isaiah 54:11-17). S. Clark (Speaker’s Commentary) thinks that some means of casting lots were kept in the bag formed by the doubled fold of the choshen or breastplate, and that these were the Urim and Thummim: Exodus 28:15-30,”thou shalt put in the breastplate of judgment the Urim and Thummim.” But this passage suits at least as well the view that the Urim and Thummim were the 12 precious stones put into the piece of cunning (skilled weaver’s) work, and representing Israel “perfected” and “shining with light” because justified before God, as the view that they were some distinct means of lot casting, inside the fold of the [choshen]. (See URIM AND THUMMIM ).
The ephod consisted of blue, purple, and scarlet yarn and “fine twined linen,” wrought in “work of the skilled weaver”; the high priest’s distinctive vestment ( 1 Samuel 2:28; 14:3; 21:9; 23:6,9; 30:7) to which “the breastplate of judgment” was attached ( Exodus 28:6-12,25-28; 39:2-7). It consisted of a back piece and a front piece joined by shoulder straps; verse 28 translated “two rings of gold shalt thou make, and put them on the two shoulder pieces of the ephod, low down in the front of it, near the joining, above the band for fastening it” (Speaker’s Commentary).
Below the arms the two pieces were kept in place by a band attached to one of the pieces (“the curious girdle of the ephod”), “of the same work, of one piece with it” (verse 8). Two onyx stones, each inscribed with the names of six tribes, clasped together on the shoulders the back and front pieces. An ordinary linen ephod was worn by other priests ( 1 Samuel 22:18); by Samuel, only a Levite ( 2 Samuel 2:18); and by David (6:14).
The robe of the ephod (meiyl ). A simple, sky-blue frock, without seam or sleeves, drawn over the head, visible above and below the ephod, the elaborate texture of which it set off as a ground work; translated Exodus 28:32, “its opening for the head shall be in the middle of it,” a round hole not connected with any slit before or behind. The skirt was ornamented with pomegranates of blue, purple, and scarlet, a small golden bell being attached between each two of the pomegranates ( Exodus 28:33-35). The bells’ sound heard from within the veil by those outside assured them that the high priest, though out of sight, was ministering in their behalf, and acceptably before God, for otherwise he would have been smitten with death, which the sounding bells showed he was not.
The mitre or turban, a twisted band of linen coiled into a cap, with the gold plate in front fastened to a blue lace or band (which went round the mitre) and engraved with Holiness to the Lord. Rabbi Eliezer in Hadrian’s reign saw it at Rome, probably with the other temple spoils deposited in the Temple of Peace.
Four garments were common to all priests. “The coat of fine linen embroidered,” rather “woven in diaper work,” the threads of one color being diapered in checkers by the ordinary weaver (28:39; 39:27): a long tunic worn next the skin, the sleeves of which appeared from under the ephod. “The girdle (abnet) of needlework” (“of the work of the embroiderer,” Speaker’s Commentary) was of three colors, the texture loose, wound several times round the body, the ends hanging to the feet but thrown over the shoulder in active work. The breeches or drawers, of linen. The bonnet or turban, of linen, for the head, but not in cone shape as the high priest’s mitre. The high priest’s successors see DRESS OF PRIEST . were inaugurated by wearing these eight articles of dress seven successive days. They were kept in the Baris built by Hyrcanus for the purpose, and called Antonia by Herod, to be along with the high priesthood at the king’s disposal. The high priest in his robes of glory and beauty in Josephus’ time entered the temple before all the people on the great see DAY OF ATONEMENT , then in secret in obedience to the law ( Leviticus 16:4,24) assumed his linen garments alone and made expiation; afterward resuming his splendid robes, he appeared before the people (Bell. Judaeorum 5:5,7).
A sagan or deputy, next in dignity to the high priest, was often appointed; “the second priest” ( 2 Kings 23:4; 25:18). He was memunnek , “prefect of the temple,” and officiated in the absence of the high priest. Annas was deposed by Valetins Gratus (A.U.C. 779), and Joseph or Caiaphas, his sonin- law, was made high priest ( John 18:13). Annas retained in the Jews’ feeling the lawful high priesthood, and had influence enough to get his five sons successively appointed; as [sagan] he evaded the Roman deposition and kept his power.
Any blemish or illegitimate birth debarred from the high priesthood. So Christ ( Hebrews 7:26). The epistle to the Hebrews explains the antitypical meaning of the high priesthood, realized in Christ. He was” appointed” and “called of God” ( Hebrews 3:1,2; 5:4,5), “after the order of Melchizedek,” ( Hebrews 5:6; 6:20; 7:15,17; <19B004> Psalm 110:4).
Superior to the Aaronic priests ( Hebrews 7:11,16,22; 8:1,2,6) in that He was “consecrated with an oath” (Heb 7:20,21), has an intransmissible priesthood (margin of Hebrews 7:23,28), was “holy, harmless, and undefiled,” and without “infirmity” ( Hebrews 7:26-28), “faithful to Him that appointed Him” as the “Son,” whereas Moses the lawgiver was but a “servant”; needed no sacrifice for Himself ( Hebrews 7:27); Himself the sacrifice, purifying “the heavenly things” ( Hebrews 9:14,26), “better” than the sacrifices which “purified the patterns of things in the heavens” ( Hebrews 7:23); not often, but offered once for all ( Hebrews 7:27; 9:25,26,28; 10:1,2,12,9,10-14,17,18); “making him that did the service perfect, as pertaining to the conscience,” which the law sacrifices could not ( Hebrews 9:9; 10:1,2,16-22). “A merciful and faithful high priest, to make reconciliation for the sins of the people” ( Hebrews 2:17). “Obtained eternal redemption for us “( Hebrews 9:12). “Passed into the heavens” ( Hebrews 4:14) “to appear in the presence of God for us,” as our advocating high priest within the heavenly veil ( Hebrews 9:24; 7:25). “Tempted Himself in all points like as we are, yet without sin,” He is able to succour the tempted ( Hebrews 2:18); “touched with the feeling of our infirmities,” and so having the needful qualification of a priest, that He “can have compassion on the ignorant, and on them that are out of the way” ( Hebrews 4:15; 5:2). “Blesses in turning men from their iniquities” ( Acts 3:26; Numbers 6:23-26). At once the King and the Priest upon His throne ( Zechariah 6:13). As the priests’ geneaology had to be traced, so Christ’s divine sonship and human descent from David.
Their bodily soundness typifies His faultless perfection without blemish or spot ( Hebrews 7:26). The high priest’s obligation to marry a wife in her virginity answers to the bride of the Lamb ( 2 Corinthians 11:2; Revelation 14:4). The high priest’s ephod of gold, blue, and purple represents the lovely graces of His manhood. The firm and orderly setting of the precious stones in the breastplate answers to the firm union of Christ’s people, His jewels, to Himself; earth and hell cannot sever them ( Malachi 3:17). The high priest’s consecration at the tabernacle door with washing in water, arraying in priestly vestments, anointing with costly oil, and sanctifying with sacrifices, answer to Christ’s baptism with water, anointing with the Holy Spirit, and clothing with His curiously wrought body ( Hebrews 10:5; <19D915> Psalm 139:15). Like the high priest, Christ sacrificed for, prays for, blesses, instructs, oversees the service of His people in the spiritual temple, blows the gospel trumpet, judges. Having such a “high priest passed into the heavens,” “over the house of God,” we ought to “hold fast our profession,” “without wavering,” ever “drawing near with a true heart in full assurance of faith, having our hearts sprinkled from an evil conscience” ( Hebrews 4:14; 10:21-23). The epistle to the Hebrews is the New Testament Leviticus, unfolding the spiritual and everlasting meaning of the legal priestly types fulfilled in Christ. His true sphere of priesthood is in heaven, for “if He were on earth He would not even be a priest” ( Hebrews 8:4; 7:13,14), being of Judah, not Levi the priestly tribe, whose functions He never assumed on earth because His was an infinitely better priesthood. His sacrifice on the cross on earth was a priestly act “without the gate”; but the crowning work, the bringing of the blood into the holy of holies, He could not do on earth, but could and did bring it into the better holy of holies above. He appeared to John in His high priestly long white garment and golden girdle ( Revelation 1:13).
The gold, purple, etc., of the ephod typify the unsearchable riches of Christ. His robes are “for glory and beauty” to His saints; what He is, they are by union with Him ( Isaiah 28:5; 62:3). The names of Israel’s twelve tribes on the high priest’s shoulders and breast, as a memorial before the Lord continually, imply that the weight of our salvation is upon His shoulders, and our names on His heart before God (Song 8:6), not one name is wanting ( Isaiah 49:16; John 10:3; Revelation 2:17; 3:12).
Faithfulness and righteousness were His girdle ( Isaiah 11:5). The bells on the hem sweetly sounding from within the veil typify the gospel joyful sound ( Psalm 89:15); the pomegranates represent the fruits which accompany the gospel preaching. The plate with “Holiness to the Lord” implies “He is made unto us sanctification” ( 1 Corinthians 1:30). Aaron was washed because sinful, Jesus was baptized “to fulfill all righteousness.”
Aaron was anointed with oil, Jesus with the Holy Spirit without measure ( Acts 10:38; John 3:34). Aaron was consecrated with the blood of beasts, Christ with His own blood. The high priest could only marry a virgin or a priest’s widow, typifying Christ’s wedding to His Godhead our manhood in purity, and also wedding to Him the church and its members individually as “a chaste virgin” ( Revelation 14:4; 2 Corinthians 11:2). His not going out of the sanctuary to mourn for the dead typifies that death and mourning shall be abolished by Christ, that where He is they cannot come ( Revelation 21:4; Isaiah 35:10; 25:8). To draw nigh to God by any other high priest, or to say self-sufficiently” all the congregation are holy,” incurs Korah’s guilt and penalty (Numbers 16).
Phinehas, son of Eleazar, is the last of Eleazar’s line before Eli ( Judges 20:28). Eli in 1 Samuel 1:3, the next, is of Ithamar’s line. Josephus supplies the interval by stating that Joseph Abiezer, i.e. Abishua, was the last high priest of Phinehas’ line before Zadok. How the transfer to Ithamar’s line occurred we do not know; possibly by Abishua’s son at his death being under age, and Eli so succeeding. Down to David the high priests officiated in Shiloh in Ephraim, Joshua’s tribe; under David and thenceforth in Jerusalem of Judah, David’s tribe: the secular power from the first influencing the ecclesiastical. During the captivity of the ark and its neglect in Saul’s days Samuel the prophet stands prominent as the interpreter of God’s will, and Ahiah the high priest is more in the background ( Judges 20:27,28; 1 Chronicles 13:3; 1 Samuel 7:2; 14:18). (See ABIATHAR in relation to Zadok). The high priest at Solomon’s dedication of the temple in the 11th year of his reign was probably Zadok’s grandson, Azariah, son of Ahimaaz, for Zadok was old at Solomon’s accession ( 1 Kings 4:2; 1 Chronicles 6:9,10); the notice that he executed the priest’s office in Solomon’s temple must refer to the Azariah of verse 9, not of verse 10. The non-mention of his name at the dedication shows how the royal power overshadowed the priestly.
From David to Jeconiah there are twenty kings, but from Zadok to Jehozadak but 13 high priests, in 1 Chronicles 6:8-15. The six first tally well to the six first kings, Amariah the sixth priest answering to Jehoshaphat the’ sixth king from David; also the five last tally to the five last kings, Hilkiah son of Shallum, fourth from the end, tallying to Josiah, the fourth king from the end. There are but two names for the intervening 240 years, Ahitub and Zadok. The histories supply four or five for the interval. Jehoiada in Athaliah’s and Joash’s reigns, Zechariah, his son see AZARIAH in Uzziah’s reign, Urijah in see AHAZ reign, and see AZARIAH under Hezekiah. Josephus (Ant., 20:10) brings up the number to 18.
Seraiah ends the series, taken by Nebuzaradan and slain by Nebuchadnezzar, along with Zephaniah, the second priest or sagan ( Kings 25:18). Seraiah’s son, Jehozadak or Josedech, was carried captive ( 1 Chronicles 6:15). Excepting Jehoiada, who overthrew Athaliah, and Azariah who withstood Uzziah, the kings took the lead in great religious movements. David arranged the temple service and 24 priest courses; Solomon dedicated the temple; Jehoshaphat directed Amariah and the priests as to teaching the people; Hezekiah led the reformation, and urged on Azariah; Josiah encouraged the priests in the service of the Lord’s house. On the other hand the priests truckled to the idolatrous Manasseh; the high priest Urijah was Ahaz’ ready tool in copying the Damascus altar, supplanting Jehovah’s brazen altar ( 2 Kings 16:10-16). No instance is recorded of consulting the Lord by Urim and Thummim after David. The prophets seem to have superseded the high priests as media of revealing God’s will (2 Chronicles 15; 2 Chronicles 18; 2 Chronicles 20:14; Kings 19:2; 22:12-14; Jeremiah 21:1,2). Yet Nehemiah seems to have expected the return of a “priest with Urim and Thummim” ( Nehemiah 7:65). The early cessation of responses proved by this favors the view that consultation was not the essential but the incidental use of “the breastplate of judgment.”
Josedech died in Babylon. His son Jeshua cooperated zealously with Zerubbabel in the restoration of Israel’s temple and polity along with Haggai and Zechariah. His successors were Joiakim, see ELIASHIB , Joiada, Johanan (Jonathan), and Jaddua (see ALEXANDER ) ( Nehemiah 13:4-7; 12:10,11).
Josephus (Ant., 11:8, section 5, etc.) states that Jaddua’s brother Manasseh was at Sanballat’s request made the first high priest of the Samaritan temple by Alexander the Great. Simon the Just, second after Jaddua, was reputed the last of the Great Synagogue and the finisher of the Old Testament canon. Jesus and Onias adopted the Greek names Jason and Menelaus, and to gain the Syro-Greek kings’ favor began to forsake the Jewish laws for Greek customs. A gymnasium at Jerusalem was built for the apostate Jews, and they endeavoured to conceal their circumcision when stripped at the games. This paved the way for the attack on Jehovah’s worship by Antiochus Epiphanes the Old Testament Antichrist (1 Macc. 1; 2 Macc. 4:12-15). This attack roused the national zeal for their religion, and a brilliant succession of high priests arose in the Asmoneean family who combined civil rule and independent sovereignty with the high priesthood. Judas Maccabeeus (Josephus, Ant. 12:10, section 6) was high priest of the nation, but more probably Jonathan his brother was “the first of the sons of Asamoneus who was high priest” (Life, section 1). They were of the course of Joiarib, the first of the 24 courses, ( 1 Chronicles 24:7). The Asmonaean dynasty lasted from 153 B.C. down to Aristobulus, Mariamne’s brother, murdered by Herod 35 B.C. The independence of the Asmonesan priest kings lasted until Pompey took Jerusalem and removed the diadem from Hyrcanus. Herod deposed and substituted high priests at will. In the New Testament we see Annas high priest at the beginning of John Baptist’s ministry with Caiaphas second priest, but Caiaphas chief and Annas second at our Lord’s crucifixion. Ananias, the same perhaps as Ananus murdered by the Zealots before Jerusalem’s fall; was the one to whom Paul hastily said, “God shall smite thee, thou whited wall!” (Acts 23) Theophilus, son of Ananus, was the high priest from whom Saul received the letters of authority, for persecution, to the Damascus synagogue (Acts 9). Phannias was the last, dragged reluctantly by the Zealots and chosen by lot, “a mere rustic who scarcely knew what the high priesthood meant.” This shocking impiety, to them a subject of sport, drew tears from the other priests who beheld their law turned into ridicule (Josephus, B. J. 4:3, section 8). So ended the high priesthood, which had lasted for at least 14 centuries and comprised upward of 76 high priests!
HILKIAH =“Jehovah is my portion.” 1. 2 Kings 18:37. 2. High priest ( 2 Kings 22:4, etc.; 2 Chronicles 34:9, etc.; Chronicles 6:13; Ezra 7:1). In the 18th year of Josiah’s reign the king directed him to have the Lord’s house repaired out of the money contributed by the people. So faith, fully did the workmen execute their task that no reckoning was made with them of the money entrusted to them. Hilkiah in the course of the repairs “found the book of the law of the Lord, given by the hand of Moses,” and being not able to read it himself gave it to Shaphan to read ( 2 Kings 22:8, etc., margin of Chronicles 34:14). Possibly Moses’ own autograph copy, but “by the hand of Moses” may mean only that God gave it by means of him (35:6; John 1:17; Galatians 3:19; Exodus 9:35 margin, 35:29; Nehemiah 10:29). Still the place where it was found, the temple, and its not having been found before but only brought to light during the repairs, and that by the high priest, identify it with the original temple copy deposited by Moses’ command by the side of the ark within the veil ( Deuteronomy 31:9,26). The two tables of the Decalogue were in the ark ( 1 Kings 8:9); the book of the law by the ark, probably in a chest, securing its safety, attesting its divine authority, and witnessing against Israel’s breach of the covenant of which the ark was the symbol. The expression “the book of the law,” not a book of laws, must refer to the well known book, the Pentateuch, not to some book then coming to light for the first time.
Hilkiah “found” it, not “forged” it under the name of Moses, as rationalists in despite of the text conjecture. Shaphan “read therein” (not the whole, which would require a different phrase, 2 Kings 23:2) to the king. The threats and curses of the law against transgressors (Leviticus 26; Deuteronomy 28; 29) were prominent in the passages read, and so overwhelmed the king that he tore his clothes. Probably Josiah, owing to the neglect of the law in Manasseh’s and Amon’s ungodly reigns, had never heard the law read from before. The intimate acquaintance with both its words and truths which the psalmists and prophets long before Josiah’s time display establishes the certainty of the Pentateuch’s prior existence and of its being the basis of their inspired utterances. Deuteronomy, the repetition of the law in a summary, was the leading portion read, just as at the reading in the feast of tabernacles every seventh year, the year of release, not the whole Pentateuch but lessons from it day by day were read ( Nehemiah 8:18; 9:3-5, etc.; Deuteronomy 1:5; 31:9-13). “The covenant,” and the words “with all their heart and soul” ( 2 Kings 23:2,3), answer to the same in Deuteronomy 29:1; 30:2; compare also 2 Chronicles 35:3 with Deuteronomy 33:10. Josiah’s final and utter destruction of idolatrous symbols, removal of wizards, and keeping of the Passover were the fruits of his hearing Deuteronomy 16,18. Allusions also occur to Leviticus 23:5; 22:1,5; 3:2-5;