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FT1 The body of St. Paul’s church at that period, and long after, was the daily resort of great numbers of people, especially of those who had business to transact, or were in search of employment. Crowds of idlers of every description were also seen there, and the buzz of conversation, according to the descriptions given by contemporary writers, seems to have exceeded that of the Royal Exchange when fullest at the present day. “He is as well known as the middle walk in Paul’s,” was a common proverb. A description of London by Lupton in the following century, contains an allusion to “the dinnerless pedestrians” who frequented St. Paul’s church, in the hope of finding some one who would invite them to a dinner.
FT2 See note on the worship of saints, images, and pilgrimage, Lord Cobham, p. 137.
FT3 This fragment of a letter is among the Harleian manuscripts in the British Museum. It does not show to whom the letter was addressed, but as it was to a person and his wife who are described as Setting honors at naught for the sake of religion, it may have been the Hon.
Robert Bettie and his wife the duchess of Suffolk, whose escape narrated by Fox in the Acts and Monuments.
FT4 The extracts from the life of Fox, by his son Samuel, given in these pages, are slightly condensed, as that work, though containing much valuable matter, is written in the verbose and generalizing style thru prevalent, so as to be wearisome to the reader.
FT5 The reader will find an account of the duke’s correspondence with Mary queen of Scots in many historians. It is necessary, however, to warn him against those who manifest a partiality for that wretched female. Of late it has become too common to cast a veil over the crimes of Mary, and to call her vices by gentle names, but no one can become fully acquainted with the history of the Reformation, without feeling deep regret that her character is not more correctly estimated by historians in general.
FT6 “Dissuading him from marrying Mary queen of Scots.”
FT7 In the commencement of this reign, Day printed Luke’s poetical dialogue between John Boon and master Person, written against the popish sacrament, and exposing the ignorance and superstition of the priests. The papists made such representations of this book, that the mayor sent for Day, and was about to treat him with severity, when Underhill, one of the king’s guard, came to the mayor upon business.
The mayor kept Underhill to dinner, when speaking about the book, the latter told him it was a good book, that he had a copy, and there were many others in the court. He gave it the mayor, who being thus better informed of the contents allowed poor Day, then sitting at a side board, to return home instead of committing him to prison as he had intended.
FT8 See Rogers, p. 35.
FT9 The importance of the increased attention Day bestowed upon the execution of the works committed to his press, may appear from the words of Bale, in the preface to the second part of his Image of both Churches, printed about 1550, who stating his reasons for discontinuing the marginal references to the scriptures and authors which he had given in his first part, assigns as the first, “the printers, whose heady haste, negligence, and covetousness, usually corrupts all books. These have both displaced them, and also changed their numbers to the derogation of the truth, though they had at their hands two learned correctors who took all pains possible to preserve them.”
In looking at most of the early printed editions of the writings of the Reformers, the number of typographical errors, often affecting the sense, will be found very considerable, they make reprints literally conformable to those editions far from desirable.
FT10 “The homely lines on his monument may he added, Here lyes the Daye that darkness could not blind, When popish fogges had overcaste the sunne; This Daye the cruell nighte did leave behind, To view, and show what blodi actes were donne; He set a Fox to wright how martyrs runne By deeth to lyfe. Fox ventured, paynes and health To give them light; Daye spent in print his wealth.
But God with gayne returned his wealth agayne, And gave to him, as he gave to the poore.
FT11 See p. 7.
FT12 It is said that he was rector of Cripplegate for a short time, but resigned it on account of the subscription to the canons, and that he held a prebend at Durham for about a year.
FT13 Archbishop Parker gave Fox a dispensation to eat flesh in Lent, on account of his health. In the commencement of queen Elizabeth’s reign, orders were issued to enforce the observance of fish diet at that season, and on every Wednesday through the year. This popish custom was not retained on account of religion, but from an idea of its beneficial effects on the fisheries, which induced secretary Cecil to encourage the plan very warmly. Licenses to eat flesh in Lent were frequently given. In 1564 we find them granted to the universities and to Winchester school. In the license for the latter Cecil expressly states that “the observance of fish days was a politic constitution.” It is, however, possible that the government may have been the rather disposed to make this regulation, from a wish to retain the Romanists within the pale of the national church. Several sacrifices were made with this view, and it was successful for a time, till the pope issued bulls forbidding the Romanists to unite in any manner with protestant worship.
FT14 See Life of Sewell, p. 19.
FT15 In 1563, London suffered much from pestilence. Stow says it was so infected the whole year, that there died 20,136 of the plague only in the city and out-parishes. He adds, “The plague of pestilence was so hot in the city of London, that there was no term kept it Michaelmas. To be short, the poor citizens of London were this year plagued with a threefold plague; pestilence, scarcity of money, and dearth of victuals; the misery whereof were too long: hereto write, no doubt the poor remember it, the rich by flight into the country made shift for themselves.”
FT16 She was present at the burning of John Bradford, and related that the crowd was so great, that her shoes were trodden from her feet; she was obliged to go barefoot from Smithfield to St. Martin’s, before she could buy another pair.
FT18 It is related of Samuel Fox, that on his return from the continent, he presented himself to his father in a foreign and somewhat fantastical garb. “Who are you?” said Fox. “Sir, I am your son Samuel.”
The reply was, “O my son, what enemy of thine hath taught thee so much vanity!”
FT19 It was justly alleged against Polydore Vergil, who compiled a romish history of England in the reign or Henry VII that he had destroyed many ancient records and documents, that he might conceal the interpolations and omissions which he had made.
FT20 Two may be noticed, which are found in the writings of two of the most distinguished modern romanists of England. One repeats the allegation, that the woman whose new born infant was burned at Guernsey was unmarried, although Fox in his later editions mentioned the name of the minister by whom she had been married, who was then living in St. Martin’s-le-Grand, London, and refers the reader to him.
The other, noticing the case of Hunne, who was strangled in prison by the officers of the popish prelate of London, calls it “the legend of Hunne,” though Fox’s narrative is from legal documents; proceedings in the courts of law, and parliamentary records.
FT21 By the canons of the convocation held A.D. 1571, it was enjoined that every prelate should place the Bible, Fox’s Acts and Monuments, and other religious works in their halls or principal eating rooms for the use of their guests and domestics. Deans were enjoined to see these books placed in the cathedrals in convenient situations, so that they might be heard and read, which implies that they were customarily read aloud.
All dignitaries were to have a copy in their families; one was to be placed in every college and hall in the universities.
FT22 The value of the early editions is increased by the circumstance that many of the wood engravings contained portraits of the principal characters of that day. Bonner saw and admitted his own likeness!
FT23 The writings of Strype have furnished so much assistance to the present edition ofTHE BRITISH REFORMERS, that a brief notice of this most valuable contributor to English ecclesiastical biography should be given. John Strype was born at Stephey, in 1643. He was educated at St. Paul’s school, studied at Cambridge, and was minister of Low Leyton, in Essex, which living he held for sixty-six years. Having access to some valuable papers of lord Burleigh’s, he began his collections, and proceeded to a very considerable extent, being assisted by Wake, Burnet, and others of similar taste for antiquities, and of sufficient influence to render their aid valuable. His works relative to the Reformation have been lately reprinted at the Clarendon press; and extend to nearly thirty octavo volumes. His fidelity and industry are undoubted, and impart much value to his writings. Strype died in 1737, aged ninety-four. Part of the materials he used are now in the British Museum.
FT24 The neglect of the writings of John Fox is as discreditable to the English nation, as the disregard shown to the writings of Wickliff. A complete collection of the works of each of these reformers should he set forth as a national undertaking; and it is painful to reflect, that the sums lavished upon only a few of the groups of heathen deities which deform rather than adorn, our national cemeteries, would have amply sufficed to defray the expense, while the cost would have been expended among our native artisans.
FT26 On account of the persuasion of certain persons.
FT27 Cared not.
FT28 By the outward senses, human reasoning.
FT29 Bundle, pack.
FT30 Poor, helpless, ignorant.
FT31 The curse.
FT32 Victims. The consecrated wafers used at the Romish sacrament of the altar are called hosts.
FT33 According to purpose.
FT34 Day appointed for making reconciliation.
FT35 The emperor of Germany.
FT37 The pope FT38 A bully, a boasting fellow.
FT40 Jeering, ridicule.
FT43 Fox here refers to the original institution and design of the poor laws.
FT44 For a further profit.
FT48 A stork.
FT50 Simple, ignorant.
FT52 Natural to us.
FT53 Fox clearly discerned that by engrossing the attention on the question of transubstantiation and other similar points, the solemn inquiry, flow shall man be just with God? was often kept out of sight.
FT54 Opposers to real catholicism.
FT55 Falsely calling themselves catholics.
FT56 Jerome Osorio was a learned Portuguese divine, bishop of Sylves, in Algarva. He wrote several works which were much approved, and among others, one in which the Romish doctrines concerning justification were set forth and defended with much ability, entitled, De Justitia Coelesti, lib. 10. ad Reginalum Polum cardinalum. To this work Fox replies in the following treatise. Osorio also wrote another work expressly against the English reformation, which was ably answered by Haddon and Fox.
FT57 Defenses and supports.
FT60 Osorio 1. 5. p. 21.
FT61 Lib. 9. page 233.
FT62 Lib. 9. page 232.
FT63 Osor. de justit, lib. 4. page 90.
FT64 Lib. 3. page 68.
FT65 See Romans 3:28,21.
FT66 John 6:3-11.
FT68 John 1.
FT69 Osor. De Justit. lib. 2. p. 29.
FT71 Osor. lib. 2. De Just.
FT72 Osor. lib. 2. p. 46.
FT73 Osor. lib. 2. p. 39.
FT74 Osor. De Just. lib. 2. p. 39, 40.
FT75 Repentance proves a man to be a sinner, but takes not away sin; it causeth not remission, nor satisfies justice. Marg. note.
FT76 Osor. De Just. lib. 2. p. 42.
FT77 The papists deny not Christ to be a Savior, but they do not well agree in the manner how he saves. The council of Trent, Hosius, Andradius, Canisius, etc. differ.
FT78 Christ by dying upon the cross did bear only the punishment of sin, but not our sins; afterwards by raising us up again, he will destroy both the punishment and the whole matter of sin in due time. Marginal note.
FT79 Osor. de Just. lib. 2. p. 30.43.
FT80 The confessions of Augsburg and Saxony which set forth the doctrines of the reformers.
FT81 Osor. lib. 2. p. 31.
FT82 Osor. lib. 2. p. 34-39.
FT83 Andrad. de Just. lib. 6.
FT84 Osor. lib. v p. 114.
FT86 Osor. de Just. 4. 90-105.
FT89 Concil. Trident. Scss. 6.
FT90 A definition of righteousness according to the Jesuits of Cologne.
Censur. Coloniensis, 186. Frat. Alphonsus Philip,4, p. 34.
FT92 Osor. de Just. lib. vii.
FT93 Osor. de Just. lib, 7, p. 179.
FT94 De Just. lib. 7, p. 186.
FT95 Osor. de Just. lib. 7, 9. p. 232. 6. p. 148.
FT96 Philippians 3:15.
FT97 Osor. de Just. lib. 2. p. 44. lib. 6. 148.
FT98 Osor. de Just. lib. 9. p. 131, 132.
FT99 Lib. 9. p. 231.
FT100 Osor. de Just. lib. 8, p. 197.
FT101 Osor. de Just. lib. 8, p. 8.
FT102 Osor. lib. 3. p. 68, 69. lib. 4, 103,104.
Albert. in sentent, lib. 2. dist. 26. Art. 2.
FT104 Then the Spirit is communicated, when, at the coming of righteousness we are made righteous; when all our sins being extinguished, we are renewed by charity spread abroad in our hearts by the Spirit; which charity, because it informs the mind with the love of the divine law, is called righteousness. Marginal note.
FT106 Trident. Concil. Sess. 6. Canon 11.
FT107 Council of Trent. Sess. 6. Canon 11.
FT108 Osor. de Just. lib. 6. p. 150.
FT109 There is frequent mention of imputation in Paul’s writings. Four.
FT110 The difference between confidence hoping, and faith justifying.
Confidence or hope looks properly at the promise, faith looks at the person of the Redeemer. — Marginal note.
FT112 For an account of the Council of Trent, see Jewel, p. 415.
FT114 The life of faith is not begotten of charity, but only is evidenced thereby. Marginal note.
FT115 Trid. Concil. cap. 11. If any say, that a man is justified by the imputation of Christ’s righteousness only, or by the remission of sins only, excluding grace and charity, which is spread abroad in the hearts, and is inherent in them — or if any say that the grace whereby we are justified is only the favor of God, let him be accursed. If any say, that justifying faith is nothing else but a fiducial reliance on the mercy of God, forgiving sins for Christ’s sake; or that this fiducial reliance is the only thing whereby we are justified, let him be accursed, Sess. 6, cap. 2. Romans 4:11, Romans 3.
FT116 A tetter, or ringworm.
FT117 A bar, an impediment.
FT119 Talui, in Hebrew, is as much as hanged or crucified. From the commencement of the usurpations of the church of Rome till after the Reformation, the personal treatment of the Jews was very severe, and. the disputations between them and the christians were carried on with much bitterness. Luther complained much of the blasphemous language used by the Jews. Many of these are collected in Wagenseilii Tela Ignea Satanae.
FT120 One supreme God.
FT121 The Jewish glosses or interpretations of scripture.
FT122 Veein lo. That is to say in short speech of Hebrew, And his life shall be taken from him. — Marginal note.
FT123 See Note, p. 393.
FT124 See p. 390, at the end of this tract.
FT125 See note, p. 394.
FT126 Free gift.
FT127 Thargum Hierosolim. written by Jonathas upon Genesis 49.
FT128 The idolatrous practices of the church of Rome ever have been a stumbling block to the Jews.
FT129 Legal impediment.
FT134 The commencement of John the Baptist’s ministry.
FT135 When Jerusalem was destroyed.
FT136 The consecrated wafers used in the communion.
FT137 These “mysteries,” or scenic representations from scripture, were very frequent in the Romish church. Bale, and some others, composed sacred dramas more according to the doctrines of truth. Those here mentioned were written by Bale.
FT138 A proverbial expression.
FT139 The church of Rome teaches that holy days and saints’ days are to be observed as strictly, or even more so, than the sabbath.
FT140 The different postures and actions observed by the priest in celebrating mass, are very numerous, and are all especially directed. They are delineated in some of the Romish books of devotion to the number of thirty-five. See Daily Devotions, or the most profitable manner of hearing Mass. Dublin, 1824.
FT142 The reformers generally adopted the same interpretation as is here followed by Bale, of considering the first thousand years after Christ, as the time when Satan was bound, and that he was loosed after that period, when as Bale proceeds to say, by the papacy, “he is abroad in their outward ceremonies and rites, ready to be seen of all the world, if pride, pomp, haughtiness, vain glory, may show him, or if hypocrisy, error, superstition, and all other devilishness can tell where he is.” It is not requisite to give Bale’s farther statements on this point, which is now so generally viewed in a different light; but the subject should not be left without one remark — how dreadful must the unfettered reign of popery, from the eleventh to the sixteenth centuries, have been, since so many excellent divines considered it as the special unloosing of Satan, when compared with the state of the preceding centuries! The passages which follow, state the views of the Reformers respecting the reign of Christ and his saints.
FT143 This was written before the Marian persecutions, but though many faithful martyrs suffered in them, and subsequently in the Low Countries and elsewhere, yet Bale’s statement as a general remark is not affected thereby.
FT144 See the Disciples of Wickliff, p. 4.
FT146 Book of Wisdom.
FT148 Prayers of others.
FT150 Queen Mary endeavored to evade compliance with this request of the king of Denmark, by alleging that Coverdale was in prison for a debt due to her by reason of his bishopric! The king availed himself of this to urge his release as the more reasonable, inasmuch as he had cleared his accounts.
FT153 Lewis very justly observes that this passage is a full reply to the assertions of the romanists, that the increase of poor in England was to be attributed to the dissolution of the monasteries and the progress of the Reformation. Sir Thomas More, in a publication of an earlier date, assigns it to other causes, amongst which he enumerates the covetousness of the rich abbots! And in an act of parliament, passed in 1534, it is attributed to the converting lands from tillage to pasturage, “by divers covetous persons.”
FT154 In the book of the Fifty Sermons, the 17th sermon. In the first book of the Retractes, the 23d chap. In the 105th epistle unto Sixtus the bishop.
In the 25th treatise upon John, the 6th chap. In his Manual, the 22d and 23d chap. In the exposition of the 67th and of the 70th Psalms. In the 53dSermon, De Tempore. In the 5th book of his Homilies, the 17th homily. In the book of the Eighty-three Questions, the 66th chap. And in the Prologue of the 31st Psalm. In the 352d chap. De vera Innocentia. De verbis Domini, Sermone 40. De verbis Apostoli, ser. 27.
FT156 The word penance is often used to express repentance.