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    ft2. “Elindon in Hamptuensi provincia,” Polychr. Most of the historians, however, say, “Ellandune,” i.e. Wilton.—Ed. ft3. Of this victory went a proverb,—“ Rivus cruore rubuit, ruina restitit, foetore tabuit.” ft4. See Malmsb. de Gest. Reg. Angl. lib. i.c. 3. [Also Harpsfield, Hist. Eccl.

    Secul. 8, c. 21.—Ed.] ft5. Ex Flor. Hist. ft6. “Chester” here means Caerleon: see vol. i.p. 338, note.—Ed. ft7. More correctly, “the third time:” see vol. i.p. 378, note (3).—Ed. ft8. “Where” here means “whereupon.” “Whereof hearynge, the kynge Egbert,” etc. Fabian.—Ed. ft9. Fabian, e. 158. Rog. Hoved. lib 5:c. 1. [See Appendix.—Ed.] ft10. Ex Rog. Hoved. lib. 5: ft11. Guliel. lib. de Gest. Auglor. saith this pope was Leo, IV. ft12. See Appendix. a3 —Ed. ft13. Supra vol. i.p.:375. ft14. In reference to this event, which has proved a source of lengthened controversy, a monkish poet observes—“ Papa Pater Patrum peperit Papissa Papellm.” See Bower’s Lives of the Popes: Joan. Also Mosheim’s Eccl. Hist. vol. 2: p. 271. a5 —Ed. ft15. Nicholao Domino et Patri, pervigili sanctae Romanae ecclesiae provisori, Huldericus solo nomine episcopus, amorem ut filius, timorem ut servus. Cure tua (O Pater et Domine) decreta super clericorum continentia, etc. [See the Latin infra, vol. 5:p. 312, whence this translation is revised and corrected.—Ed.] ft16. Isidore, De Divinis sire Ecclesiasticis Officiis, lib. 2:call. 2, “de Regulis Clericorum.”—Ed. ft17. Apost. Can. v.—Ed. ft18. Bishop Hall, in his care, Honour of the Married Clergy,” book iii. sect. 2 & 3, vindicates the genuineness of this letter against the cavils of his popish adversary, and in reference to this particular passage, says, “As for the number of children, I can say no more for it than he can against it. This history shall be more worth to us than his denial. But this I dare say, that I know persons both of credit and honor, that saw betwixt fifty and three score cast up out of the little mote of an abbey where I now live. Let who list cost up the proportion.” See Appendix. a8 —Ed. ft19. Invenitur haec epistola in vetustis membranaceis libris (testante Illyrico in catalogo.) Mereinit ejusdem epistolae Aeneas Sylvius, in sua peregrinatione, et Germaniae descriptione. ft20. Martinus Polonus.—Ed. ft21. Foxe, misled by Fabian, says, “the latter end:” see Appendix. a10 —Ed. ft22. “In Anglorum quidem Ecclesia primitiva, religio clarissime resplenduit: ita ut Reges et Reginae, et Principes ac Duces, Consules, et Barones,” etc.—Ex vetusto exemplo historiae Carianae. W. C. I. [The passage is found in M. Westin., and with very little variation in Hoveden, Script. post Bed. p. 412, and Brompton: see infra, p. 108, note (1).—Ed. ft23. See vol. 1:pp. 313, 338.—Ed. ft24. Ex Historia Jornalensi. ft25. See vol. 1:p. 325, note (3).—Ed. ft26. Ex Flor. Hist. [Lond. 1570, p. 307; Francof. 1601, p. 158. The Latin in the text is accord ing to the printed copies, from which Foxe a little varies.—Ed.] ft27. See the Latin conveyance, infra, p 652.—Ed. ft28. There were two Judiths, one the mother of Charles the Bald, the other his daughter, whom King Ethelwolf married. ft29. “Utrum piscem hunc mensae appositum honestius est a capite an a cauda aggredi?” Malmsb.—Ed. ft30. Gul. lib. de Pontif. ft31. Fabian. ft32. Ex Guliel. Malmesburiensi. Ex Historia Jornalensi. Ex Fabiano et aliis. ft33. Edition 1563, p. 11. Ed. 1583, p. 141. Ed. 1596, p. 127. Ed. 1684, vol. 1:p. 157.—Ed. ft34. Pope John VIII., the hundred and sixth bishop of Rome, was chosen A.D. 872, the year that Alfred obtained the government of his realm.

    The Leo to whom our author refers, was Leo IV. to whom Alfred was sent at the age of four years, to be educated. [A.D. 854.] Asserius, who wrote Alfred’s life, informs us that Leo confirmed him, adopted him fir his son, and anointed him king took his crown and unction at Rome,” as Foxe observes), but of what kingdom neither that writer, nor any other has informed us. The kingdom of West Saxons was then held by his father, who had three sons older than Alfred.—Ed. ft35. Guliel. Malmesb. lib. de Reg.; Polychronicon, Rog. Hoveden; Jornalensis; Hen r. Hunting. lib. 5:de Hist. Aug. ft36. See page 19.—Ed. Cestren. lib. 5:cap. 1. Fab. cap. 17. ft38. Polychron. lib. 5:cap. 1. Guliel. Malmesb. lib. de Regibus. ft39. Guliel. Malmesb. lib, de regibus Angl. Ibid. ft41. “Facta ministrorum suorum et potissime judicum diligenter investigavit, adeo ut quos ex avaritia aut imperitia errare cognosceret, ab officio removebat.”—Ex Hist. Jornalensi. ft42. Lib. 9:cap. 12. See Appendix . a27 ft43. Beda, lib. in. cap. 18 . a28 ft44. Ex Hist. Guliel. Malmesb. de Regib. Ang. ft45. “Plurimam pattern Romanae Bibliothecae Anglorum auribus dedit, optimam praedam pere- grinarum mercium civium usibus convertens.” ft46. “Illos praemiis, hos minis hortando, neminem illiteratum ad quamlibet curiae dignitatem aspirate permittens.” ft47. “Optimates quoque suos ad literaturam addiscendam in tanturn provocavit, ut sibi filios suos, vel saltem si filios non haberent, servos suos, literis commendarent.”—Polychron, lib. 6:cap. 1. ft48. Guliel. Malmesb. de Regib. Ang. ft49. Entitled, “Pastorale Gregorii.” “Quod Ecclesiae in quibus innumerae priscae Bibliothecae continebantur, cum libris a Danis incensae sint: quodque in tota insula studium literarum ita abolitum esset, ut quisque minus timeret capitis periculum, quam studorium exercitia adire. Quapropter se in hoc Anglis suis consulere,” etc. Guliel. Maimesb.; Jornalensis; Fabian, c. i71. “Relatum est apostolatini nostro, quod opus Dionysii Areopagitae, quod de divinis nominibus et de coelestibus ordinibus Graeco deseripsit eloquio, quidam vir Johannes (genere Scotus) nuper transtulit in Latinum. Quod, juxta morem Ecclesiae, nobis mitti, et nostro judicio debuit approbari; praesertim quurn idem Johannes (licet multae scientiae esso praedicetur) olim non sane sapere in quibusdam frequenti rumore dicatur,” etc. ft53. “In Regis Alfredi et virtutis illius claram memoriam:—Famosus, bellicosus, victoriesus; viduarum, pupillorum, et orphanorum, panperumque, provisor studiosus; poetarum Saxonicorum peritiasimus; suae genti chariassimus, affabilis omnibus, liberalissimus; prudentia, fortitudine, temperantia, justitia praeditus; in infirmitate, qua continue laborsbat, patientissimus; in exequendis judiciis indagator diseretiseimus, in servicio Dei vigilantissimus et devotisshnus, Anglo- Saxonun Rex Alfredus a35 , piissimi Ethelulfi filius, 29 annis sexque mensibus regni sui peractis mortem obiit. Indict. 4. quinto cal.

    Novemb. feria quarta, et Wintoniae in nero monasterio sepultus, immortalitatis stolam et resurrectionis gloriam cum justis expectat,” etc.

    Moreover, in the history of Henry of Huntingdon, these verses I find written in commendation of the same Alfred, made, as I suppose and by his words appeareth, by the said author, whereof I thought not to defraud the reader. The words thereof here follow:

    EPITAPHIUM REGIS ALFREDI Nobilitas innata tibi probitatis honorem Armipotens Alfrede, dedit, probitasque laborem, Perpetuumque labor nomen: cui mixta dolori Gaudia semper erant, spes semper mixta timori.

    Si mode victor eras, ad crastina bella pavebas, Si mode victus eras, ad crastina bella parabas.

    Cui vestes sudore jugi, cui sics cruore Tincta jugi, quantum sit onus regnare, probarunt.

    Non fuit immensi quisquam per climata mundi, Cui tot in adversis nil respirate liceret.

    Nec tamen aut ferro contritus ponere ferrum, Ant gladio potuit vitae finisse dolores.

    Jam post transactos vitae regnique labores Christus ei sit vers quies, sceptrumque perenne. ft54. See page 12. Stephen V.—Ed. ft55. Ex Chronico Sigeberti. ft56. Ex Chron. Martin poenitentiarii, Platina, Sigeberto, Polychronieo, et aliis. ft57. See Appendix. a40 ft58. See infra, vol. 8:p. 292, and Appendix. a41 —Ed. ft59. Luithprandus. de Imperatoribus, lib. 2:cap. 13. ft60. On the authority of Mosheim, some obvious errors in the history of the popes of Pome have been here corrected.—Ed. ft61. Baronins cails the tenth century an “iron age, barren of all goodness; a leaden age, abounding with all wickedness; and a dark ago, remarkable above all the rest for the scarcity of writers and men of learning.”—Ed. ft62. Edition 1563, p. 10. Ed. 1533, p. 146. Ed. 1596, p. 132. Ed. 1684, vol. i.p. 163. ¾ Ed. ft63. “Ita hostes militibus contemptui, regi risui erant.” ¾ Guliel Malmesb.

    De Regib.” “Si quis fornicetur cum uxore aliena., etc.

    Si quis in quadragesima sanctum velum in publico vel in lecto, etc.

    Ut Christiani Deum diligant et paganismo renuncient, etc.

    Si quis Christianitatem mutet, etc.

    Si quis ordinatus sacris furetur, etc.

    Si Presbyter ad rectum terminum sanctum chrisma, etc.

    Si duo fratres vel cognati cure una aliqua fornicentur, etc.” ft65. Louis l’Aveugle, king of Provence. L’Art de Ver. des Dates, Rois de Bourgogne et Provence. ~ED. ft66. Not Louis, as Foxe says; who, however, copies Malmesbury in this paragraph. Ibid.—Ed. ft67. “Ut quasi philosophi ad gubrrnandam rempublicam non jam rudes procederent.”—Guliel. Malmesb. de Regib. ft68. Edition 1563, p. 10. Ed. 1583, p. 147. Ed. 1596, p. 133. Ed. 1684, vol. i.p. 164.—Ed. ft69. The copy of an old writing of King Athelstan, testifying of the miraculous death of Duke Elfred, suddenly stricken by the hand of God for perjury:—“ Sciant sapientes regionis nostrae, non has praefatas tetras me injuste rapuisse, rapinamque Deo dedisse. Sed sic eas accepi, quemad-modum judicaverunt omnes optimates regni Anglorum, insuper et apostolicus papa Romanae ecclesiae Johannes, Elfredo defuncto, qui nostrae felicitati et vitae romulus extitit, nequitiae inimi-cotum nostrorum consentiens, qui me voluerunt (patre meo defuneto) caecare in urbe Wintonia, si non me Deus sua pietate eripuisset. Sed denudatis eorum machinamentis, remissus est ad Romanam ecclesiam, ut ibi se coram Apostolico Johanne jurejurando defenderet. Et hoc fecit coram altare sancti Petri. Sed facto juramento, cecidit coram altare, et manibus famulorum suorum portatus est ad scholam Anglorum, et ibi terrier mocte vitam finivit. Et tunc apostolicus ad nos remisit, et quid de eo ageretur a nobis consuluit, an cum caeteris Christiania corpus illius pone-retur. His peractis et nobis renunciatis, optimates regionis nostrae cum propinquorum illius turma efflagitabant omni humiltate, ut corpus illius per nostram licentiam cum corporibus pone-retur Christianorum. Nosque flagitationi iliorum consentientes Romam remisimus; et papa consentiente, positus est ad caeteros Christianos, quam vis indignus. Et sic judicata est mihi tota possessio ejus in magnis et in modicis. Sed et haec apicibus literarum praenotavimus, ne quando aboleatur, unde mihi praefata possessio, quam Deo et sancto Petro dedi, donatur. Nec justius novi, quam Deo et sancto Petro hanc possessionem dare, qui aemulum meum in conspectu omniurm cadere fecerunt, et mihi prosperitatem regni largiti sunt.” etc.—Guliel Malmesb. lib. de Reg. in Vita Ethelstani. [Edit. Francof. p. 52.—Ed.] ft70. See pp. 38, 43.—Ed. “Transierat quinos et tres et quatuor annos, Jure regens tires, subigens virtute tyrannos, Cum redit ilia lues Europae noxia labes.

    Jam cubat in terris fera barbaries aquilonis, Et jacet in campis pelago pirata relicto.

    Illicitas torvasque minas Analavas anhelat.

    Bacchanti farine, Scotorum rege volente, Commodat assensum borealis terra serenum.

    Et jam grande tument, jam torrent aera verbis.

    Cedunt indigenae, cedit plaga tota superbis.

    Nam—quia rex noster, fidens alacrisque juventa, Emeritus pridem detriverat otia lenta— Illi continuis faedabant omnia praedis, Urgentes miseros injectis ignibus agros.

    Marcuerant totis viridantia gramina campis, Aegra seges votum deluserat agrieolarum.

    Tanta fuit peditum, tam barbara vis equitantum, Innumerabilium concursus quadrupedantum!

    Exeivit tandem famae querimonia regem, Ne se cauterio tali pateretur inuri, Quod sua barbaricae cessissent arma securi.

    Nec mora, victricis ducentia signa cohortes Explieat in venturn vexilia ferocia centum.

    Juncta virum virtus, decies bis millia quina, Ad stadium belli comitantur praevia signa.

    Hie strepitus movit praedatorum legiones, Terruit insignis venientum lama latrones, Ut posita proprias praeda peterent regiones.

    At vulgus reliquurm miseranda strage peremptum Infecit bibulas tetris nidoribus auras.

    Fugit Analavus de tot modo millibus unus,” etc. Alias, Earl of Paris. L’Art de V. des D. Foxe, misled by Malmesbury, calls him “the French king.” One or two errors are corrected in the preceding paragraph. See supra, p. 39.—Ed. The above account of Hugo’s presents is corrected from the original in Malmesbury. ¾ Ed. ft74. See the Acts of the Council of Gratley, A.D. 028, given in Wilkins’s Concilia, tom. i.p. 205. ft75. “Episcopo jure pertinet, omnem rectitudinem promovere, Dei videlicet ac seculi. In primis, debet omnem ordinatum instruere, quid ei sit agendum jure, et quid hominibus secularibus judicare debeant. “Debet etiam sedulo pacem et concordiam operari cum seculi judicibus, qui rectum velle diligunt, et in compellationum allegationem edocere, ne quis alii perperam agat in jurejurando vel in ordalio. “Nec pati debet aliquam circumventionem injustae mensurae, vel injusti ponderis. Sed convenit ut per consilium et testimonium ejus omne legis rectum, et burgi mensura, et omne pondus, ,it secundum ditionem [alias dictionem] ejus institutum valde rectum; ne quis proximum suum seducat, pro quo decidat in peccatum. “Et semper debet Christianis providere contra omnia quae predicta sunt, et ideo debet se de pluribus intromittere, ut sciat quomodo grex agat, quem ad Dei manum custodire suscepit, ne diabolus eum dilaniet, nec malum aliqnod superseminet. Nunquam enim erit populo bene consultum, nec digne Deo conversabitur, ubi lucrum impium et magis falsum diligitur. Ideo debent omnes amici Dei quod iniquum est enervare, et quod justum est elevare, nec pati ut propter falsum et pecuniae quaestum homines se forisfaciant erga vere sapientem Deum, cui displicet omnis injustitia. “Christianis autem omnibus neceasarium est, ut rectum diligant, et iniqua condemnent, et saltem sacris ordinibus evecti justum semper erigant, et prava deportant. “Hinc debent episcopi cum seculi judicibus judicia dictitare, et interesse judiciis, ne permitrant (si poasint) ut illinc allqua pravitatum gramina pullulent. Et sacerdotibus pertinet in sua dioecesi, ut ad rectum sedulo quemcumque juvent, nec patiantur (si possint) ut Christianus aliquis alii noceat, non potens impotenti, non summus infimo, non praelatus subditis [minoribus]. non dominus hominibus suis, servis aut liberis. Et secundum ditionem [alias dictionem] et per mensuram suam convenit per rectum, ut necessaria servi [servi testamentales] operentur super omnem schyram cui praeest. “Et rectum est ut non sit aliqua mensurabilis virga Iongior quam alia, sea per Episcopi men-suram omnes institutae sint, et exequatae per suam dioecesin [in sun scriftscyra], et omone pondus constet secundum dictionem ejus, et si allquid controversiarum intersit, discernat Episcopus. “Uniuscujusque Domini proprium est et necesse, ut servis suis condescendat et compatiatur, sieur indulgentins poterit: quia Domino Dec viventl sunt aeque chari servus et liber. Et omnes uric et eodem pretio redemit, et omnes sumus Dec neeessario servi, et sic judicabit nos, sicut ante judicavimus eos, in quos potestantem judicii in tetris habuimus. Et ideo opus est ut eis parcamus qui nobis parere debent, et tunc manutenebimur, in Dei Omnipotentis proprio judicio. Amen.”— Extractum ex legib. Regis Ethelstani . a49 [The above is found, slightly varied, in Brompton.—Ed.] ft76. Ego Ethelstanus Rex, consilio Ulfelmi archiepiacopi mei et aliorum episcoporum, mando praepositis omnibus in regno meo, in nomine Domini et sanctorum omniurn, ut imprimis reddant de meo proprio decimas Dec, tam in vivente capitali, quam in mortuis frugibus terrae: et episcopi mei similiter faciant de suo proprio, et aldermanni mei et praepositi mei,” etc. ft77. “Facite etiam ut mihi mea propria capiatis, quae mihi poteritis recte acquirere. Nolo ut aliquid mihi injuste conquiratis. Sed omnia vestra concedo vobis eo tenore, quo mihi mea similiter exoptetis. Cavete simul et vobis, et eis quos admonere debetis, ab ira Dei, et trans-gressione mea.” ft78. Epitaph. in Ethelst. “Sol illustravit bisseno scorpion ortu: cum regem cauda percutit ille sua.” ft79. Edition 1563, p.150 Ed. 1597, p. 135 Ed. 1684, vol. 1:p. 167. ¾ Ed. “Hujus regeis trmpore facta est dispersio monachorum Euchmensis coenobii, cum substitu-tione canoncorum per Athelmum et Ulricum laicos, et Osulphum episcopum,” etc. ft81. Guliel. Malmesb. De Gestis Pontificum Anglorum, lib. ii. ft82. Founded by Pepin, AD 695. ¾ Ed. ft83. Guliel. Malmesb. de Pontif. lib. 1: ft84. Idem, de Regib. lib. ii. ft85. Guliel. Malmesb. de Pontif. lib. 1:Polychron. lib. 6:cap 6. ft86. Idem, de Pontif. lib. 1:,, ft87. Idem, lib. iii. de Pontif. Ebor. ft88. “Mirabili cuncti-potentis polorum praesulis clementia opitulante, ego Odo, ecclesiae salvatoris Domini nostri Jesu Christi archiepiseopus, Doverniensis civitatis metropolitanus, coepis-copis fidei Catholicae compagatoribus, spirituail charitatis vigore meis confratribus, praesentium prosperitatem aethereique decoris beatitudinem,” etc. ft89. Edition 1563, p. 10. Ed. 1583, p 152. Ed. 1596, p. 137. Ed. 1684, vol. i.p. 169.—Ed. ft90. See Appendix. ft91. Foxe says, erroneously, “Brithilinus:” see pp. 50, 103.—Ed. ft92. Ex. Hist. Ro. Hoveden, [whence the above correction of the text is made.—Ed.] ft93. Ex. Guliel. Malmesb. lib. de Gestis Pontificum Anglorum. ft94. Peterborough.—Ed. ft95. Rumsey in Hants was founded by Edgar, Ramsey in Hunts re-founded.

    See Tanner’s Notitia Monastica for confirmation of our author. ft96. “Hic namque Ethelwoldus regem, cujus eximius erat consiliarius, ad hoc maxime provoca-vit, ut clericos a monasteriis expelleret, et monachos sanctimonialesque in els co!1ocaret,” etc. Ro. Hoveden, lib.

    Continuationum post Bedam. Chro. Jornalens. Guliel. Malmesb. de Gestis Pon-tif. lib.l. Whereunto accordeth likewise Jornalensis: “Hoc anno Ethelwoldus Wint. et Oswaldus Wigorniensis, episcopi, jussu Regis Edgari (Clericis de quibusdam majoribus ecclesiis expulsis) monachos instituerunt, aut de eisdem clericis et aliis monachos in eisdem fecerunt.” Malmesbury also, writing of the time of Dunstan, maketh the matter somewhat more plain, where he saith, “Itaque clerici multarum ecclesiarum data optione, ut aut amictum mutarent, aut locis valodi-cerent, melioribus habitacula vacuefacientes: surgebant itaque in tota insula religiosonnn mo-nasteria, cumulabantur mole pretiosi metalli sanctorum altaria,” etc. ft97. Guliel. Malmesb. lib. in. de Gest. Pont.; Chron. Jornalen. in Vita Edgari. ft98. Malmesbury. ¾ Ed. ft99. Cassian. lib. 2:cap. 4. [Instit. Coenob. iib. 4:cap. 1, de institutis renuntiantium.—Ed.] ft100. August. lib. de moribus ecclesia, cap. 13. Item, lib. de operibus Monachoum. Item, Epistola ad Aurelium. Also by Hierome ad Heliodorum, writing these words: “Alia monachorum est causa, alia clericorum; clerici pascunt oves, ego pascor,” etc. that is, “One thing pertaineth to monks, another thing unto them of the clergy; they of the clergy feed their flock. I am fed,” etc. Et ex Dionyslo. The same appeareth likewise by the fourth canon of the Council of Chalcedon, where it is provided, “Ne monachi se ecclesiasticis negotiis immisceant;” that is, “That monks should not intermeddle with matters of the church,” etc. Et Leo, Epistola 62. vetat Monaohos et Laicos, “etsi scientiae nomine glorientur, admitti ad officium docendi et concionandi.” ft101. “Neque inter haec nemo urgetar in aspera, quae ferre non potest: nulli quod recusat imponitur; nec ideo contemnitur a caeteris, quod in eis imitandre, se, fatetur invalidum. Meminerunt enim quantopere commendata sit in scripturis charitas. Meminerunt omnia munda mundis, etc. ‘Non quod intrat in os coinquinat hominem, sed quod exit.’ Ititque non rejiciendis generibus ciborum quasi pollutis, sed concupiscentiae perdomandae, et dilectioni fratrum retinendae invigilat omnis in-dustria.”—August, de Institutis Monachorum. ft102. “Alii in turba civitatum conversabantur, sic seipsos gerentes, ut nullius momenti videren-tur eta multis nihil differrent,” etc.—Lib. in. cap. 16. ft103. “Se novisse et monachos et episcopos conjuges et liberorum patres,” etc.—In Epistola ad Dracontium. ft104. Cassian. Collat. 2. cap, 17. ft105. Cassian. [Instit. Coenob. lib. v.] cap. 40, de Spiritu Gastrimarg.—Ed. ft106. See Appendix. ft107. Cassian. Collar. 2:cap. 6.—Ed. ft108. “Pro remedio animae meae,” “pro remissione peccatorum meorum,” “pro redemptione peccatorum meorum, et pro salute regnorum, quique meo subjacent regimini populorum,” “in honorem gloriosae Virginis.” ft109. i.e. Henry of Huntingdon.—Ed. ft110. “Nullus fere annus in chronicis praeteriit, quo non magnum et necessarium patriae aliquid fecerit.” ft111. “Ut nullum cujuscunque dignitatis hominem leges eludere impune permitteret.” ft112. “Nemo ejus tempore privatus latro, nemo popularis praedo, nisi qui mallet in fortunas alienas grassari propriaae vitae dispendio,” etc.

    Guliel. Malmesb, de Reg. ft113. “Quomodo legum jura, et suorum statuta decretorum observarentur; et ne pauperes a potentibus praejudicium passi opprin erentur.” ft114. That is, “the Isle of Man.” See Hoffman vv. Mannia, and Monia.— Ed. ft115. “Unde factum est, ut lama ejus per ora omnium volitante, alienigenae, Saxones, Flandritae, ipsi etiam Dani huc frequenter annavigarent, Edgaro familiares effecti. Quorum adventus magnum provincialibus detrimentum peperit. Inde merito jureque reprehendunt eum literae,” etc ft116. Ex Matth. Paris. lib. de Regib. ft117. Gulielm. Malmesb. ft118. Idem. ft119. Ex Osberno in Vita Dunstani, fol. 27; Malmesbur. de Vit. Pontif.; Rog.

    Hoved, et aliis. ft120. Ex Chronico Saxonico Ecclesiae Wigornienais. ft121. Ex Osberno in Vita Dunstani. ft122. “Puerum quoque ex peccatrice quondam progenitum, sacro fonte regeneratum avavit, et aptato illi nomine Edwardo in filium sibi adoptavit.” ft123. See Appendix. a72 ¾ Ed. “Nam nonnullis passa annis morborum molestiam, Defaecatam et excoetam Deo dedit animam.

    Functus ergo vitae fato beatas exuvias Infinitis clemens signis illustravit Deitas:

    Inopes Inopes visus et auditus si adorant tumulum, Sanitati restituti probant sanctae meritum, Rectum gressum refert domum, qui accessit loripes:

    Mente captus redit sanus, boni sensus locuples.” ft125. “Gandent in coelis animae sanctorum, qui Christi vestigia sunt sequuti, et qui pro ejus amore sanguinem suum fuderunt: ideo cure Christo regnabunt in aeternum.” ft126. What marvel, if certain books and epistles be falsely ascribed to the doctors, when the papists shame not to ascribe other men’s verses also to the Virgin Mary herself? ft127. Ex Guliel. Malmesb., et Capgravo, in legenda nova. ft128. Edition 1563, p. 11. Ed. 1583, p. 157. Ed. 1596, p. 142. Ed. 1684, vol. i.p. 175. ED. ft129. Ex Osbern., Nie. Trivet., Johan. Paris., Vincentio, Antonino. ft130. Guliel. Malmesb. in lib. de Regib. ft131. Capgrav. in Vita Sanctae Edithae. ft132. “Alferus princeps Merciorum, caeterique plures, ejectis monachis de magnis monasteriis, quos Rex Edgarus nuper instituerat, Clericos cure uxoribus reduxerunt.”—Historia Jornalensis, in Vita Edgari-Idem. ft133. “Si quis filiolum alterius occidat vel patrinum, sit simile cognationi, et crescat emendatio secundum Weram ejus regi, sicut cognationi. Si de parentela sit qui occidit eum, tune excedat emendatio patrini, sicut mandata Domini. Si episcopi filiolus sit, sit dimidium hoc,” etc. Idem. ft134. “Monachis de quibusdam monasteriis ejectis, clerici sunt introducti, qui statim monasteri-orum maneria ducibus terrae distribuebant, ut sic in suas partes obligati, cos contra monachos defensarent, Tunc de Monasterio Eveshamensi monachis expulsis, clerici fuerunt introducti.

    Terraeque tyranni de terris ecclesiae praemiati sunt, quibus regina novercali nequitia, stans cum clericis in regis opprobrium, favebat. Cum monachis autem rex et sancti episcopi persistebant. Sed tyranni, fulti reginae favore et potentia, super monachos triumphabant. Multus inde tumultus in omni angulo Angliae factus est.”—Ex Chronico Ingulphi Abbatis de Crowland. ft135. Guliel. de Regib. lib ii ft136. Henricus, lib. v.; Malmesb., Ranulph, Jornalensis, Fabian. ft137. Luithprandus, lib. vi. ft138. Alias Crescentius.—Ed. ft139. This paragraph in Foxe stands erroneously after Benedict VII.

    Henault” Abrege Chron.”—Ed. ft140. Ex Chronico Martini. ft141. Moguntinensis, Treverensis, Coloniensis, Quilibet imperil fit cancellarius horum. Est Paiatinus dapifex, dux portitor ensis, Marohio praepositus camera, pincerna Bohemus.—Ibid. [ Appendix to Marianus Scotus a82 , Ed. Bas. 1559, col. 147.—Ed.] ft142. Edition 1563, p. 10. Ed. 1583, p. 163. Ed. 1596, p. 144. Ed. 1684, vol. 1:p. 179.—Ed. ft143. “Per sanctam Mariam iste ignavus homo erit.”—Chron, de Crowland. ft144. Lib. 2:de Regib. ft145. In the Chronicles of Crowland I find these words:—“ Quoniam ascendisti ad thronum tuum, per mortem fratris tui, quem occidit mater tua, propterea audi verbum Domini: hoc dicit Dominus, non deficiet gladius de domo tua, saeviens in to omnibus diebus vitae tuae, et interficiens de seroine tuo, et de genre tua, usque dum regnum tuum transferatur in regnum alienum: cujus ritum et linguam gens tua non novit, nec expiabitur nisi longa vindicta, et multa sanguinis effusione peccaturn matris tuae, et peccatum virorum pessimorum, qui consenserunt consilio ejus nequam, ut mitrerent manurn in Christurn Domini, ad effundendum sanguinem innocentem.” ft146. “Caerleon,” see p. 5. note (5).—Ed. ft147. Hoveden, lib. Continuationum. ft148. Lib. 1:de Pontif. ft149. On the 27th May, 1827, the tomb of St. Cuthbert, in Durham Cathedral, was opened, and the coffin and skeleton found within. See Account of St. Cuthbert, p. 180. By James Raine, M.A. Durham. 1828.—Ed. ft150. Henry of Huntingdon, lib. vi. ft151. Laws of King Egelred.—“ Omnis judex justus misericordism et judicium liberet in omnibus, ut inprimis per rectam scientiam dicat emendationem secundum culpam, et eam tamen admensuret propter indulgentiam. Quaedam culpae reputantur a bonis judicibus secundum rectum emen-dandae, qusedam per Dei misericordiam condonandae.

    Judieia debent esse sine omni haderunga, quod non parcatur diviti alicui vel enego, amico vel inimico: jus publicum recitari. Nihil autem injustius est, quam susceptio munerum pro judicio subvertendo: quia munera exeaecant corda sapientum, et subvertunt verbs justorum.

    Dominus Jesus dixit: ‘in quo judicio judicaveritis, judi. cabimini.’

    Timeat omnis judex ac diligat Deum judicem suum, ne in die judicii mutus fiat, et humiliatus ante oculos judicis cuncta videntis. Qui innocentem opprimit, et dimittit noxium pro pecunia, vel amicitia, vel odio, vel quacunque factione, opprimetur ab omnipotente judice. Et nullus dominns, nulla potestas, stultos ant improbos judices constituat, quia stultus per ignaviam, improbus per cupiditatem, vitat quam didicit, veritatem. Gravius enim lacerantur pauperes a pravis judicibus, quam a cruentis hostibus. Nullus hostis acerbior, nulla pestis efficacior quam familiaris inimicus. Potest aliquoties homo fuga vel defensione vitare pravos inimicos. Non ira possunt judices, quoties adversus subditos malls desideriis inflammantur. Saepe etiam boni judices habent malos vicarios et ministros nefandos, quorum reatibus ipsi domini constringuntur, si non eos coerceant, eta rapacitate cohibeant. Quia Dominus et minister saeculorum ait, non solum male agentes, sed omnes consentientes digni sunt aeterna morte. Saepe etiam pravi judices judiciure pervertnut, vel respectant, et non finiunt causam, donec voluntas eorum impleatur. Et quando judicant, non opera, sea munera considerant. Impii judices, juxta verbum sapientum, sicut rapaces lupi vespere nil residuant usque mane, id est, de praesenti solam vita cogitant, de futura nihil considerant. Malorum praepositorum mos est, ut quicquid possunt auferant, et vix necessarium pavurn quid relinquant sustentationi. Iracundus judex non potest attendere rectam judicii satisfactioncm. Nam per furoris excaecationem, non perspicit rectitudinis claritatem. Justurn judicium, ubi non persona consideratur. Scriptum est: non attendas personam hominis in judicio, nec pro aliquo facies, ut a vero declines, et injuste judices. Susceptio muneris est dimissio veritatis.”—Ex Historia Bibliothecae Jornalensis. ft152. Edition 1563, p. 11. Ed. 1583, p. 162. Ed. 1596, p. 146. Ed. 1684, vol. i.p. 181.—Ed. ft153. See Appendix, respecting the errors in this statement . a90 —Ed. ft154. See p. 80, note (l).—Ed. ft155. Taken out of the English story or chronicle compiled by certain English clerks. ft156. See Appendix a96 . ft157. Ex historia ignoti authoris. ft158. Lib. 6: ft159. Lib. 7: ft160. Laws of Canute, in matters ecclesiastical.—“ Pecunia sepulturae justum est ut aperta terra reddatur. Si aliquod corpus a sua parochia deferatur in aliam, pecunia sepulturae,” etc. In English: O- “It is meet and right, that in funerals money be given for opening the earth. “If any body, or corse, be carried out of its ‘own parish into another, the money of the burial shall pertain by the law to its own parish church. “All ordinances and ceremonies of God, let them be observed as need in all things requireth. “Upon the Sunday we forbid all public fairs or markets, all synods or conventicles, huntings, or any such secular actions to be exercised, unless urgent necessity compel thereunto. “Let every christian man prepare himself thrice a year, to approach to the receiving of the Lord’s body: so to eat the same, as not to his judgment, but to his wholesome remedy. “If a minister of the altar do kill any man, or have entangled himself in any notorious crime, let him be deprived both of his order and his dignity. “If any married woman, her husband being alive, have committed adultery, and the same be proved; to her open shame in the world, let her have her nose and ears cut off. “Let every widow, after the death of her husband, remain sole twelve months; or if she marry, let her lose her jointure.” ft161. Edition 1563, p. II. Ed. 1583, p. 164. Ed. 1596, p. 148. Ed. 1684, vol. i.p. 183.—Ed. ft162. See p. 5, note (6), and vol. 1:p. 378, note (3). ft163. Mi>qh [methe], in Greek, signifieth drunkenness. ft164. Foxe says, erroneously, “his two sons Biornon and Tostius.” See Appendix. a103 ft165. Ex Jornal.; Malmesb.; Polydor.; Fab. et aliis. ft166. See Appendix. a104 ft167. “Hacun his nevewe,” says Fabian, correctly: but see p. 105, note (2).—Ed. ft168. Ex Malmesb.; Jorualen.; Historia Richardi II. jussis composita. ft169. De jure et appendiis regni Britannioe, et quod sit officium Regis.—“ Rex antem, quia vicarius summi regis est, ad hoc est constitutus, ut regnum terrenum et populum Domini, et super omnia sanctam ejus veneretur ecclesiam et regat, et ab injuriosis defendat, et maleficos ab eo avellat et destruat, et penitus disperdat. Quod nisi fecerit, nomen regis non in eo constabit; verum, Papa Johanne testante, nomen regis perdit: cui Pipinus et Carolus filius ejus (nec dum reges, sed principes sub rege Francorum stulto) seripserunt, quaerentes, si ita permanere deberent Francorum reges, solo regio nomine contenti. A quo responsum est, illos deeet vocare reges, qui vigilanter defendunt et regunt ecclesiam Dei et populum ejus,” etc. ¾ Ex Libro Reg. Antiquorum. in Praetorio Londinensi. ft170. Edition 1563, p. 12. Ed. 1583, p. 166. Ed. 1596, p. 150. Ed. 1684, vol. i.p. 186.—Ed. ft171. Madness.—Ed. ft172. See Appendix. a107 ft173. See vol 1: pp. 315, 316.—Ed. ft174. First-cousins one remove.—Ed. ft175. See page 77.—Ed. ft176. This passage in single asterisks is an extract from the edition of Foxe of 1563, p. 10, and 18 entitled “The Third Age of the Church.”—Ed.. ft177. The pope’s ban—a public proclamation: thus, “banns of marriage.” It is used more commonly in a bad sense, as in Shakspeare, and means to curse, proscribe, excommunicate.—Ed. ft178. Johannes Stella, Platina, Petrus Praemonstratensis a110 , Nauclerus, Antoninus, Robertus Barnus. Johannes Baleus. ft179. Ex Johanne Stella. ft180. Ex Bakenthorpo, in prologo 4:lib. sententiarum. ft181. Nauclerus,Crantz. ft182. Alb. Crantz. Saxo. lib. 4:cap. 45. ft183. Dist. 23 cap. “In Nomine,” etc. ft184. Nauclerus, Platina., AEneas Silvius. ft185. “Potentia Papae coactiva” standeth not with the gospel. ft186. Niko>laov compounded of ni>kh and lao>v is eqivalent [to “Conqueror of the peo ple.”-ED ft187. “Lemans,” paramours.—Ed. ft188. The reader can hardly fail to observe the sound and scriptural principles of our author here expressed, and how admirably they harmonize with the received doctrines of the protestant church of England. Vid. Art XVIII.—Ed. 187. See the names and order of the archbishops of Canterbury at the close of Vol. I.—Ed. . “First,” i.e. previously. ft190. Malmesbury. ft191. Polydore maketh Dunstan to be the twenty-third archbishop. [See infra, p. 717.—Ed.] ft192. “St. Dunstan’s harp upon the wall Fast by a pin did hang a, Without man’s help, with lie and all, And by itself did twang.” ft193. See supra, page 64.—Ed. ft194. Malmesbury. ft195. At p. 717, infra Foxe desires the reader to insert “Alured” after “Siricius;” he should have said “Aluric,” who is identical with “Elfric” or “Aelfric,” whom Foxe here places before “Sircius:” the transposition, therefore, which has been made of Elfric’s name answers Foxe’s object.—Ed. ft196. It appears that during the Anglo-Saxon period, or from A.D. 803 to A.D.1070, nineteen arch bishops occupied the chair of Canterbury, giving an average of fourteen years to each. , The rapid succession of popes during nearly the same period presents a striking difference: from A.D. 795 to A.D. 1061 fifty-nine individuals occupied the papal chair. Of these, a few;either voluntarily orby constraint, had vacated it; but the short average of four years and a half, allotted to fifty, nine popes in succession, leads us reluctantly to conclude, that as our author records, it was not always the progress of disease, or the hand of old age which caused the vacancy in that high and envied office. See pap 96 of this volume.

    Subjoined is a table of the names and order of the the archbishops of Canterbury, continued from that in vol. i.p. 385, the dates of their accession being taken from Richardson’s Godwin “De praesulibus,” etc.. ft197. Edition 1563, p. 14. Ed. 1583,p. 171. ED. 1596, p. 154. Ed. 1684, vol. 1. p. 192.—Ed. ft198. “Nephew was formerly used very indefinitely: see Nares: it here means “first cousin one remove.”—Ed. ft199. In the copy of these verses, p, 14, Ed. 1563, follows a third line: “Dux Normandorum transit mare, vicit Heraldum.”—Ed. ft200. Foxe’s text has “one month:” but see PP. 3, 134.—Ed. ft201. This passage in single asterisks is not in the Edition of 1583, but it appears in that of 1596.—Ed. ft202. “Willielmus Gratia Dei Rex Anglorum, comitibus, vicecomitibus, et omnibus Francigenis et Anglis, qui in Episcopatu Remigii Episcopi terras habent, salutem. Sciatis,” etc.—Turria Londin. [Given in the New Edition of Rymer’s Foedera, whence some corrections are made above.—Ed.] ft203. This passage in italic is not in the Edition of 1583, but is found in that of 1596—Ed. ft204. Ex Henr. Huntingdon. lib. vi. ft205. “In primitiva Angliae eoclesia religio clarissime splenduit, ita ut reges et reginae, duces et episcopi, vel monachatum, vel exilium pro Dei amore appeterent: processu veto temporis adeo omnis virtus in eis emarcuit, ut gentem nullam proditione et nequitia sibi parem esse permit. terent,” etc.—Ex Histor. Jornalens. ft206. “Nam sicut Angli, Britone quos Deus disterminare proposureat (peccatis suis exigentigbus humiliaverant, et a terra Angliae minus juste fugaverant: sic ipsi duplici persecutione,” Etc. ft207. See Hoveden and Wilkin’s Concilia, and the Appendix. ¾ Ed. ft208. See pp. 97, 98: also the Appendix. ft209. Dist. 100, cap. “novit.” ft210. Ex lib. Gravaminum Nationis Germanicae. [ See Appendix. a131 —Ed.] ft211. See Appendix. ft212. See infra, p. 257. ft213. This account is apparently taken from Brompton, Script. x, p. 970. ¾ Ed. ft214. See vol. 1:308. ft215. Ex Chron. Sigeberti [read 456: see vol. i.p. 315.—Ed.] ft216. See vol. 1:p. 335.—Ed. ft217. The letter of Lanfranc sent to Pope Alexander begins thus:—“ Domino totius Christianae religionis summo speculatori Alex. papae Lancfrancus, sanctae Dorobernensis ecclesiae antistes, debitam cum omni servitute obedientiam. In concilio quod Angliae per vestram authoritatem coactum est, ubi querelae Thomae Archiepiscopi prolatae et ventilatae sunt, allata est Ecclesiastics gentis Anglorum Histotia, quam Eboracensis ecclesiae Presbyter, et Anglorum doctor Beds composuit: and so forth, in a long process of words which follow; among which, in the middle of the epistle, speaking of Dover and Canterbury, he hath these words: “Urbs namque, quae nunc Can-tuarberia nominatur, antiquis temporibus, ab ipsius terrae incolis Dorobernia vocabatur,” etc. With many other words in the said epistle, which for brevity I here over-pass. “ ft218. Eadmer, W. Malmesb. de gestis Pont.—Ed. ft219. See Malmesbury. also Wilkins’s Cone. 1:363, 364; whence the text is revised.—Ed. ft220. See last page. a137 —Ed. ft221. i.e. of the archbishop of Canterbury.—Ed. ft222. See Appendix. a140 —Ed. ft223. The words of the Latin History be these:—“Hactenus Pontifices Romans cemitiis curiatis, calatis, a sacerdotibus, equitatu, plebe, senatu,” etc.—Ex Aventino. [See Appendix.—Ed.] ft224. “Ut’ precario regnantes.”—Ed. ft225. Ex Aventino, qui invenit in instrumentis donationum. ft226. Ex Lamberto Scafnaburgensi, in Hist. Germanorum. ft227. Lambert Schaffenberg See Appendix. a145 ¾ Ed. ft228. See Appendix . a145A ft229. Ibid. a146 ft230. “Benno, Germanus, eccl. Rom. Archi-presbyter et cardinalis a Clemente III. Anitpapa in Gregorii VII. sententia synodali depositi) locum a concilio Brixiensi ano 1080 subrogato facts. Clementis partibus constantissime adhaesit, Gregorio VIII. Hostis infensissimus; aqquo nomine plenis conviciorum ac calumniarum plausitris a Baronio aliisque scriptoribus pontificusiss obruitur.” Cave. ¾ Ed. ft231. See Appendix. a148 ft232. Ed. 1571 refers to vol. 1:p. 114: add p. 193.—Ed. ft233. See Appendix. a149 ft234. The sentence of which excommunication, a150 after rehearsal of these presents, shall also be manifested (Christ willing). ft235. Haec Benno Romans Cardinal. ft236. An old penance: See Appendix. a151 —Ed. ft237. “ Much boast is made of Peter’s throne, But his life they let alone.” ft238. Quis tulerit Gracchos de seditione querentes?—Juven. ft239. Ex Platina. ft240. “ Colloquium maximum apud Oppenheim faciunt. a156 ” Nauclerus.

    Sep.15th, 1070, Lambert.—ED, ft241. Foxe says “Germany,” following Platina: but See Appendix. a157 — Ed. ft242. See Appendix. a162 —Ed. ft243. Jan. 25th, A.D. 1077, says Aventine.—Ed. ft244. Actum Canos. 5:Calend. Februarii, Indic. 15:[Pagi observes that this date is spurious, as Henry was absolved Jan. 25.—Ed.] ft245. Rodolph was elected at the diet of Forcheim, March 15th, 1077, consecrated March 26th.—Ed. ft246. See Appendix. ft247. A figure called ajntimetabolh< cujus contrarium verum est. Vim faciunt scripturis, ut plenitudinem accipiant potestatis. ft248. Edition 1563, p. 29. ft249. For he took away the marriage of priests, as Ulric Mutius witnesseth. [ See Appendix. a167 ] ft250. See Appendix. ft251. Platina, Nauelerus, Sabellicus, Crantzius, Benno, etc. ft252. Foxe erroneously says Meanx, following Fabian and Grafton, who add “he fired it, and brent a part thereof, with the churche of our Lady, wherein he brente a woman, being closed in the walle of the said churche, as a recluse.” Malmesbury says she would not, for devotion, quit “spelaeum suum,” her ceil. ¾ Ed. ft253. “Ordinale ecclesiastici officii secundum usum Sarum.” Ex Eulogto Histor. lib. iii. ft254. Edition 1583, p. 184. Ed. 1596, p. 166. Ed. 1684, vol. 1:p. 207.—Ed. ft255. Chartreuse.—Ed. ft256. See Cave’s Hist. Litt. 5:Bruno Carthusianus.—Ed. ft257. See Appendix. a176 —Ed. ft258. The first crusade arose out of the deliberations of a council held at Placentia, in March, A. D. 1095, and from the one here mentioned held in November following, at Clermont, at which Pope Urban presided.

    The origin of these destructive and chimerical undertakings appears to be this: The infidels in a few years had obtained possession of above one half of the empire of the East; churches and monasteries had been plundered, and priests, monks, and christian laity, cruelly massacred; while unoffending pilgrims, who from feelings of real piety, or superstition, were accustomed to visit the holy city, suffered the most cruel oppression, slavery, and death.—[See William, Archb. of Tyre’s Hist. of the Holy Wars, book i.c. 9. A.D. 1095.] Three hundred thou sand men from France, Italy, and Germany, commenced their march to the East; but as the object of their undertaking was to extirpate the enemies of the christian faith, Jews as well as infidels fell a sacrifice to their fury. At Verdun, Spires, Worms, Cologne, and Mentz, the most horrible atrocities were committed against those unhappy outcasts, whose only chance of safety consisted in professing themselves Christians, and renouncing their religion.—[Bertold, in Chron. ad ann. 1096.] Such unholy conduct, however, on the part of the crusaders, induced the inhabitants of the countries through which they passed, who were continually the victims of their plunder, to resent the inju ries which they suffered. So effectual was the opposition which they offered, that by the 1st of August in the same year, on the arrival of the last division of the army under Peter the Hermit at Constantinople, he was scarcely able to add twenty thousand men to the two divisions which had already arrived in an equally enfeebled condition. This army, after committing the most unjustifiable excesses upon their friends the Greeks, crossed the Hellespont, and in two divisions were defeated and cut to pieces by the Turks. In A.n. 1099, another better disciplined army assembled at Constantinople, which, after crossing the Hellespont, amounted to about five hundred thousand foot, and one hundred thousand horse. After a most severe, although victorious campaign, with a very reduced force, Jerusalem was taken by scalade, on Friday, the 15th July, 1099. Twenty thousand Turks were massacred, and after eight days devoted to processions and religious ceremonies, Godfrey of Bouillon, who was the second to scale the wall, was unanimously elected king of Jerusalem. Pope Urban II., however, did not live to hear of these successes; he died on the 29th day of July in the same year, and the news of the victory had consequently not reached Rome; this was communicated to Paschal II. who succeeded him in the papal chair.—Ed. ft259. See Appendix. a177 —Ed. ft260. See Appendlx.—Ed. ft261. Ex Hen. lib. vii. ft262. “Quoa Petri non mnaerent vestigus, praemiis inhiantes, non ejus potestatem retinent, cujus sanctitatem probantur non imitari.” ¾ Ex Matthew Paris. ft263. Vid. John Stella. ft264. Vid. Nauclerus. ft265. Dist. 31. Eos qui. 15. q. 6 Juratos. ft266. By the same pope thus many chapters stand written in the canon law, dist. 70. Sanctorum. dist. 32. Eos qui. 1.q. 1. Si qui. dist. 56.

    Presbyterorum. 11. q. 3. quibus. 15. q. 6. Juratos. 16. q. 2. Congregato. 19.2. Statuimus. 23. q. 8. Tributum. 30. q. 4. quod autem. 32. q. 2. de neptis, etc. ft267. See Appendix. a184 —Ed. ft268. “Peculiaritatis vitium.” Malmesb. a185 —Ed. ft269. “Dies Dominica, 4 Idus Junii” (Eadmer and Malmesbury), 1:e, June 10th, a.D. 1095.—Ed. ft270. Ex Legenda Ansehmi, autore Eadmero. ft271. Ex Epist. Anselm. 36, paulo post initium. ft272. This dispute commenced in the seventh century; suspended for a time, it was revived in 1053. Gregory IX., in 1232, endeavored to effect a reconciliation, nor was this attempt abandoned till the death of Urban IV., in 1264. The subject was revived in the fifteenth century at the council of Basil. Again, in the eighteenth century, the church of Rome attempted to make proselytes from the Greek church, but without success, and they remain, to this day, separate communions.—Ed. ft273. “Quod sunt extra obedientiam Romanae ecclesiae, pro eo quod ecclesia Constantinopolitana non est subjeca, sed ei aequalis. Dicunt dominum apostolicum non habere majorem potestatem, quam quatuor patriarchae. Et quicquid fit prater scientiam eorum per papam, vol sine eorum approbatione, nullius est valoris,” etc.—Ex Registro Ecclesiastes Herefordiensis. ft274. My copy here seemeth to want somewhat. [See Appendix.—Ed.] ft275. This article seemeth not to be rightly collected out of the Grecians. ft276. Ex Epist. Anselm. 325, post initium. [ See note in Appendix on p. 155. a195 —Ed.] ft277. Ex Epist. Anselm. 327. Waltramus, Dei gratia id quod est, Ludovico, serenissimo principi, cum instantia orationum semetipstum ad omnia devotissimum. Omni regno utilis est concordia, desiderabilis est justitia,” &-e.—Ex [Dodeehini] Appendice ad Marianurn Scoturn. [See the Appendix.—Ed.] ft279. “Mulierculas.”—Ed. ft280. See Appendix a201 ¾ Ed. ft281. The writer seems to refer to Orestes, who, having committed the most fearful murders, is said to have been tormented to madness, by the Furles. Aeschyl. in Eumen. Agam.—Ed. ft282. This anecdote is told with great life and spirit by Malmesbury. “One morning,” says he, “as he was putting on a pair of new boots, he asked his gentleman of the bedchamber, in waiting, what they cost? he was answered ‘ three shillings.’ ‘Away, base fellow,’ said the king, ‘did you ever hear of a king wearing such pitiful boots as those? go, bring a pair of a mark of silver.’ The bedchamber-man went and brought a pair much worse, but told his master they cost what he had ordered. ‘Ay,’ replied William, ‘these are boots fit for a king to wear;’ and so put them on.”—Ed. ft283. Ex continuatione Roger Hoved. ft284. Edition 1563, p. 30. Ed. 1583, p. 191. Ed. 1596, p. 173. Ed. 1681, vol. 1. p. 216.—Ed. ft285. Ex Matt. Paris. Flor. Hist. ft286. The words of mine author are these: “Anselmus prohibuit uxores sacerdotibus Anglorum ante non prohibitas. Quod quibusdam mundissimum visum est, quibusdam perieulosum, ne dum mundicias viribus majores appeterent, in immundieias horribiles ad Christiani nominis summum dedecus inciderent,” etc.-Ex Hen. Hunt. lib. 7:

    Anselm. ft287. Ex Epist. Ansel. 176. ft288. “O male viventes, versus audite sequentes.

    Uxores vestras, quas odit summa potestas, Linquite propter eum, tenuit qui morte trophaeum.

    Quod si non facitis, inferna claustra petefts.

    Christi sponsa jubet, ne Presbyter ille ministret, Qui tenet uxorem, Domini quia perdit amorem:

    Contradicentem fore dicimus insipientem:

    Haec non ex rancore ioquor, potius sed amore.”

    Versus male feriati, ex Bibliis Ramsay. ft289. Ex Guliel. Malmesb. lib. 1:de Gestis Pontif. Anglo. ft290. See p. 153. ¾ Ed. ft291. Ex Jornalensis Bibliothecae Historia. ft292. Ex Matthaeo Paris. Ex Guliel. Malmesb. lib. 1:de Gestis Pont. Ang. ft293. “Patri venerabili Paschali, summo pontifici, Henricus, Dei gratia rex Anglorum, salutem. Promotioni vestrae in sedem sanctae Romance ecclesiae plurimum congaudeo, petens ut amicitia quae patri meo cum antecessoribus vestris fuit, inter nos quoque illibata permaneat. Unde, ut dilectio et benignitas a me videatur sumere initium, beneficium quod ab antecessoribus meis beatus Petrus habuit, vobis mitto: eosque honores et earn obedientiam quam tempore patris mei antecessores vestri in regno Angliae habuerunt, tempore meo ut hubeartis volo, eo videlicet tenore, ut dignitatis usus et consuetudines, quas pater meus tempore antecessorum vestrorum in regno Angliae habuit, ego tempore vestro in eodem regno meo integre obtineam. Notumque habeat sanctitas vestra, quod me vivente (Deo auxiliante) dignitates et usus regni Angliae non minuentur. Et si ego (quod absit) in tanta me dejectione ponerem, optimates mei (imo totius Angliae populus) id nullo modo paterentnr. Habita igitur (charissime pater)utiliori deliberatione, ira se erga nos moderetur benignitas vestra ne quid invitus faciam, et a vestra me cogatis recedere obedientia.” ft294. “Reverendo et diligendo patti universali papae Pasehali Henricus, Dei gratia rex Anglorum, salutem. Amor quem plurimum erga vos habeo, et benignitas quae multum vestros actus exornat,” etc. ft295. Ex Guliel. Malmesb. lib. 8:de Pont. Ang. ft296. Ex Guliel. Malmesb. de Gestis Pont. lib. 1:Exodus Matth. Paris. lib. in. ft297. These words are inserted from Edition 1563, p. 3l.—Ed. ft298. Ex Radulph. Londinensi. ft299. Epist. ft300. Guliel. Malmesb. lib. 1:de Gestis Pontif. ft301. The foregoing sentence is corrected from Malmesbury. a236 —Ed. ft302. Ex lib. Guliel. Malmesb. de Gestis Pontif. lib. 1:[Script. post Bedam, p. 223.] Ex [Ead- mera,] Jornalensi et aliis [ Whence the above translation is revised. a237 —Ed.] ft303. See vol. 1. p. 193. ¾ Ed. ft304. “Ut presbyteri non cant ad potationes, nec ad pinnas bibant.” See Appendix. a240 —Ed. ft305. Ranulph. Cestrensis, lib. 7. ft306. See supra, pp. 160, 166. ft307. Ex epist. Ansel. 7; et 377. ft308. Ex epist. 33. ft309. Ex epist. 37. ft310. Ex. Epist. 255. ft311. Conradi Chron. Moguntiacum. See Appendix. a244 —Ed. See vol. iii. p. 105—Ed. Ex Historia Heimoldi. ft314. Ex Helmoldo, et Gotfrido Viterbiensi. ft315. Ex Helmoldo ft316. Ex Chronico Carionis. lib. iii. ft317. Ex Platina, Vincentio, Stella, etc. ft318. Dist. 76, cap. Jejunium. ft319. Jornalensis. ft320. Gisburn. ft321. Jornalensis. ft322. Gisburn. ft323. Gisburn. ft324. Rog. Hoved, Gisburn, etc. ft325. Rog. Hoved. ft326. “Audivtmus electum Eboracencis ecclesiae, virum sapientem et strenuum, sine judicio ab Eboracensi sequestratum ecclesia, quod nimirum divinae justitiae et sanct, patrum institutionibus adversatur.

    Nos quidem neque Cant. ecclesiam minui, neque Eboracensem volunms praejudicium pati, sed eam constitutionem quae a beato Gregorio, Anglicae gentis Apostolo, inter easdem eccle- sias constituta est, firmam censemus illibatamque servari, ldem ergo electus, ut justitia exigit, ad suam ecclesiam omnibus modis revocetur. Si quid autem quaestions inter easdem ecclesias nascitur, presentibus utrisque partibus in vestra praesentia pertractetur,” etc.—Ex Gualtero Gisburnensi, ex Gullel. Malmesb. de Pontif. lib. 4:Ex Roger. Hoved.

    Fabian. etc. ft327. Ex Roger. Hoved. ft328. Guilel. Malmesb. De Pont. Lib. i. ft329. Ex Roger Hoved 7; et Malmesb. Gisburnens. Hunting. Lib. vii. ft330. “Presbyteris, diaconibus, subdiaconibus, et canonicis, uxorum,- concubinarum, et omniurn omnino foeminarum contubernia authoritate apostolica inhibemus, praeter matrem, aut sororem, vel amitam, aut ejusmodi mulieres quae omnino careant suspicione. Et qui decreti hujus violator extiterit (confessus vel convictus) ruinam ordinis patiatur.

    Inter consanguineos seu affinitate propinquos, usque ad septimam generationem, matrimonia contrahi prohibemus.” [Simeon Dunelm., hoc anno: Wilkins, Cone. Gert. tom 1:p. 408.—Ed.] ft331. This and the next page are translated from Illyricus, cols. 1432, 1448.

    See Appendix.—Ed. ft332. Ex Trithemio. [Chron. Hirsaug. Ed. Francof. 1601, p. 121, an. 1128: the text has been collated, and some slight corrections introduced.— Ed.] ft333. Gisburn. ft334. Ex Chron. Angli. incertl autoris. ft335. Roger Hoved. in Vit. Steph. Ex Fab. in Vit. Steph. ft336. Ex Fabian. ft337. Edition 1563, p. 34. Ed. 1583, p. 200. Ed. 1596, p. 182. Ed. 1684, vol. i.p. 226.—Ed. ft338. The pix is a small box containing the consecrated wafer, which the papists call the host, to ‘which they may be seen paying their adorations. ¾ Ed. ft339. Ex incerti authoris Chronico. ft340. Polychron. lib. 7:Continuator Henr. Hunt. Jornalensis in Vita Steph.

    Nichol. Trivet, etc. ft341. Nichol. Trivet. et alii. ft342. Malmesb. ft343. Matth. Paris, lib. Chron. iv. ft344. In the reign of Conrad, in consequence of some advantages obtained by the Saracens in the East, Bernard of Clairvaux, a learned and eloquent man, whose lecture to the pope may be seen in Dupin’s Ecclesiastes Hist. cent. 7, began to rouse the minds of the western nations, and directed their thoughts to the second crusade, A.D. 1146. Conrad III., the emperor of Germany, set forward with a numerous army to the East; but in November, in the same year, he was unexpectedly attacked by the sultan of Iconinto, and his army destroyed. We are told that his force consisted of 70,000 coats of mail, besides infantry and lighthorse.

    The emperor escaped, and joined the French king, Louis VII., at Ephesus. Nor was the latter, who appeared at the bead of a second armament, more fortunate; in January, the following year, he too, through an error in the movements of his troops, was surprised and defeated, in an impetuous attack of the Saracens; the army was destroyed, and the king and the emperor retired to Jerusalem. Eugene III. was pope at that time.—Ed. ft345. Edition 1563, p. 35. Ed. 1553. p. 202. Ed. 1596, p. 183. Ed. 1684, vol. 1:p. 228.—Ed. ft346. Ex Hist. Gisburnensis. ft347. Adrianus Episcopus, servus servorum Del, Frederico imperatori salutem, et apostolicam benedictionera, etc. [Given by Illyricus from Nauclerus, Genesis 39.—Ed.] a289 ft348. Collated with, and corrected from. the original in Nauclerus.— Ed. a289 ft349. The Latin copy of this letter appears in the edition of 1563, p. 37.— Ed. ft350. “Salutat vos beatissimus pater noster papa, et universitas cardinalium, ille ut pater, hi ut fratres.” Ex Radevico, in appendice [ad Othonem] Frisingensem. [ See Appendix. a293 ¾ Ed.] ft351. The Latin copy of this letter is also in the edition of 1563, p. 38. ¾ Ed. ft352. Herbertus de Boscham, Johan Charnot, Alanus, abbot of Tewkesbury William of Canterbury ft353. Ex Roberto Crikeladensi et ex Florilego. [See Appendix.] ft354. “Probably,” “luculenter satis et probabiliter,” i.e. well, discreetly. See Appendix. a309 —Ed. ft355. Foxe here breaks the narrative, as given in the Quadrilogus, by the premature introduction of the statutes afterwards passed at Clarendon (see pp. 201,202 note (1)), and subsequently condemned in part and approved in part by Becket and the pope (see pp. 204, 216); also by the insertion of other constitutions sent over by the king from Normandy (see p. 219, note (1)). The passage here omitted will be found infra.p. 216, note (1), and p.219, note (1). See Appendix. ¾ Ed. ft356. See Appendix. a313 ft357. Ibid a314 ft358. Ibid. a315 ft359. For the instrument here mentioned see infra, p. 216, note (1). ft360. See infra, p. 216, note (1).—Ed. ft361. Ex Rogero Hoved. pr. parte Historiae continuatae post Bedam. ft362. For the Latin of this letter, see Edition 1565, p. 50. a320 —Ed. ft363. Guliel. Neuburg. lib. 2:cap. 16. [See the Latin cited infra, p. 248, note (3).—Ed. ] ft364. “Roiters,” “facinorosi” (Neub.), disorderlies.—Ed. ft365. Oct. 6th. See Appendix.—Ed. ft366. See Appendix. a327 ft367. Ibid. a328 ft368. “Fery,” or feria, a day of the week, in this instance Monday. ¾ Ed. ft369. Hoveden referreth not this saying to the bishop of London, but to the archbishop of York. ft370. The Latin copy of this is in the Edition of 1563, p. 52. ¾ Ed. ft371. Ex Rogero Hovedeno. ft372. Ex Quadripartita Hist. lib. i.e. 33. ft373. A translation of this document, as given in Dr. Brady’s Appendix a314 , here follows: it is the instrument” mentioned supra p. 202.

    In the year from our Lord’s incarnation 1164, the fourth of pope Alexander, the tenth of the most illustrious king of the English, Henry II, in presence of the said king, was made a remembrance and recognition a341 of a certain part of the customs, liberties, and prerogatives of his predecessors, viz. of king Henry, his grandfather, and others, which ought to be observed and maintained in the realm.

    And because of the dissentions and disagreements which have arisen between the clergy and the justices of the lord king and the barons of the realm touching customs and prerogatives, the said recognition was made in presence of the archbishops, bishops, and clergy, and the earls, barons, and great men of the realm; and the said customs—so recognized by the archbishops and bishops, the earls and barons, the great men and ancients of the realm—Thomas archbishop of Canterbury, Roger archbishop of York, Gilbert bishop of London, etc., [eleven other bishops are then named], allowed, and on the word of truth, viva voce, firmly promised they should be kept and observed to the lord king and his heirs, with good faith, and without grudge, there being present Robert earl of Leicester, etc. (here follow thirty-seven more names), and many other chief men and nobles of the realm, cleric as well as lay. But of the customs and prerogatives of the realm so recognized a certain part is contained in the present writing: of which part the following are the chief heads:

    I. If any controversy concerning the advowson and presentation of churches arise between laics, or between laics and clerics, or between clerics only, it is to be tried and determined in the king’s court. (Condemned by the church of Rome under pope Alexander III.)

    II. Churches belonging to the king’s fee cannot be granted in perpetuity without his assent and consent. (Allowed.)

    III. Clerics arraigned and accused of any matter whatsoever, being summoned by the king’s justice, shall come into his court, there to answer on whatever point it shall seem proper to the king’s court to require an answer: provided alway, that the king’s justice shall send to the court of holy church to see in what manner the matter is there to be handled. And in case a cleric is found or pleads guilty, he is no longer to be screened by the church [i.e. have the benefit of clergy]. (Condemned.) IV. No archbishops, bishops, or [other ecclesiastical] persons [personae] of the kingdom are allowed to depart the same without license of the lord king; and if they should have permission of the lord king to go abroad, they shall give security that neither in going, staying, or returning, they will procure any evil or damage to the lord king or the kingdom. (Condemned.) V. Excommunicated persons shall not be bound to give security or take oath to remain where they are, but only security and pledge to stand to the judgment of the church in order to their absolution. (Condemned.) VI. Laics ought not to be accused but by certain specified and legal accusers and witnesses, and that in the bishop’s presence; yet so, that the archdeacon may not lose his right nor any advantage which he ought to have from thence: and if the accused parties be such that none either will or dare accuse them, the sheriff, being required thereto by the bishop, shall cause twelve legally-qualified men of the vicinage or town to be sworn before the bishop, that they will try out the truth according to their conscience. (Allowed.) VII. No man who holds of the king in capite, nor any of his chief ministers, is to be excommunicated, nor the lands of any such!aid under interdict, unless the lord king (if he be in the land) or (if he be abroad) his justice be first consulted, that he may see justice done upon him; and so, that whatever shall pertain to the king’s court may be determined there, and that which belongs to the ecclesiastical court may be remitted to the same, to be there dispatched. (Condemned.) VIII. Appeals, when they arise, ought to be made from the archdeacon to the bishop, and from the bishop to the archbishop; and if the archbishop shall fail to do justice, recourse is to be had lastly to the lord king, that by his precept the controversy may be determined in the archbishop’s court, with the understanding that it must not proceed further without leave of the lord king. (Condemned.) IX. If any difference arise between a cleric and a laic, or between a laic and a cleric, concerning any tenement which the cleric pretendeth is held by Frank-almoine (eleemosyna), but the laic contends to be a lay.fee, it shall be determined by the verdict of twelve legally-qualified men, according to the custom of the king’s court and in presence of his justice, whether the tenement belongeth to Frank-almoige or to the lay-fee. And if it he found to belong to Frank-almoigne, the plea shall be held in the ecclesiastical court; but if to the lay-fee, the plea shall be in the king’s court, unless both parties claim to hold of the same bishop or baron. But if such shall claim to hold of the same bishop or baron, the plea shall be in his court; yet with this further proviso, that he who was first seized of the tiling in controversy, shall not lose his seizin pending the trial because of the verdict above-mentioned. (Condemned.) X. Whosoever is an inhabitant of any city, castle, borough, or any demesne lands of the lord king, if he shall be cited by the archdeacon or bishop concerning any fault about which he ought to answer them, and will not obey their citations, it shall be lawful to put him under an interdict; but he ought not to he excommunicated, before the king’s chief officer of that town be made acquainted with the case, so that he may cause him to give satisfaction. And if such officer shall fail therein, he shall be in the mercy of the lord king, and then the bishop may coerce the party accused by ecclesiastical process. (Condemned.) XI. Archbishops, bishops, and all other ecclesiastical persons in the kingdom, who hold of the king in capite, enjoy their possessions of our lord the king as a barony, and, for that reason, are to answer to the king’s justices and ministers, and to follow and perform all royal rights and customs;and, like other barons, ought to appear at trials in the king’s court, till they come to pronouncing sentence of death or loss of members. (Allowed.) XII. When an archbishopric, bishopric, abbacy, or priory in the gift of the lord king shall be vacant, it ought to remain in his hands, and he to receive the rents and issues thereof, as of his demesnes. And when he pleases to provide for that church, the lord king ought to send for the chief persons of that church, and the election ought to be made in the king’s chapel, with the assent of the lord king and with the advice of such persons of his realm as he shall call thereto; and the person elect shall then, before his consecration, do homage and fealty to the king as his liegeman of life and members and earthly honor, saving his order. (Condemned.) XIII. if any of the great men of the kingdom shall refuse to do justice to an archbishop, or a bishop, or an archdeacon, either for himself or his tenants, the lord king is to adjudicate. And if perchance any one should refuse the lord king his right, the archbishop, bishops, and archdeacons are to call him to account, that he may make satisfaction to the lord king. (Allowed.) XIV. The chattels of those who are under the king’s forfeiture may not be detained in any church or churchyard against the king’s justice, because they are the king’s own, whether they be found within the church and its precinct or without it. (Allowed.) XV. Pleas concerning debts, which are owing upon troth-plight (fide interposita), or without troth-plight, are to be within the cognizance of the lord king. (Condemned.) XVI. The sons of peasants (rusticorum) ought not to be ordained without the consent of the lord on whose land they are known to be born. (Allowed.) This is a convenient place for preserving a passage omitted at page 200, which in the edition of 1583, p. 206, stands as follows: [To which laws and customs the said Thomas did partly grant, and partly not grant. The copy of the which aforesaid laws are contained in the number of xxviii, or 29:whereof I thought here to recite certain not unworthy to be known.

    The copy of the old laws and customs, whereunto Thomas Becket did grant, I. That no order should be given to husbandmen’s children and bondmen’s children, without the assent or testimonial of them which be the lords of the country where they were born and brought up: and if their sons become clerks, they shall not receive the order of priesthood without license of their lords.

    II. And if a man of holy church hold any lay fee in his hand, he shall do there-for the king the service that belongeth thereto, as upon juries, assize of lands, and judgments; saving only at execution doing of death.

    III. If any man were the king’s traitor, and had taken the church, that it should be lawful to the king and his officers to take him out.

    IV. Also if any felon’s goods were brought to holy church, that there should none such keep there; for every felon’s goods be the king’s.

    V. That no land should be given to the church or to any house of religion, without the king’s license.

    These articles following, Thomas agreed not unto.

    I. If that between a clerk and a layman were any striving for church goods, they would the plea should he done in the king’s court.

    II. That there should neither bishop nor clerk go out of the land without the king’s license, and then he should swear upon a book, he should procure no hurt against the king, nor none of his.

    III. If any man were denounced accursed, and were come again to amendment, the king would not that he should be sworn, but only find sureties to stand to that that holy church should award.

    IV. That no man, that held of the king in chief, or in service, should be accursed without the king’s license.

    V. That all the bishoprics and abbeys that were vacant should be in the king’s hands, until such time that he should choose a prelate thereto; and he should be chosen out of the king’s chapels; and first, before he were confirmed, he should do his homage to the king.

    VI. If any plea were to consistory brought, they should appeal from thence to the archdeacon, and from thence to the bishop’s court, and from the bishop’s court to the archbishop’s, and from thence to the king, and no further. So that in conclusion, the complaints of holy church must come before the king, and not the pope.

    VII. That all debts, that were owing through troth-plight, should not be pleaded in spiritual but in temporal courts.

    VIII. That the Peter pence, which to the pope were gathered, should be taken to the king.

    IX. If any clerk for felony were taken and so proved, he should be first disgraded, and then through judgment to be hanged; or if he were a traitor, to be drawn.

    Other laws and constitutions made at Clarendon, in Normandy, and sent to England, whereunto Becket and the pope would not agree, he being then fled out of the realm. (Then follow the constitutions given at p. 219, note (1), “Ex Quadrilogo.”) By these and such other laws and decrees it may appear, that the abolishing of the pope is no new thing in the realm of England. This only difference there is, that the pope being driven out then, could not be kept out so long as now he is. The cause is, that the time was not yet come that Antichrist should so fully be revealed; neither was his wickedness then so fully ripe in those days, as it hath been now in our time. Now, these premised, let us return where we left, to the matter betwixt the king and Thomas Becket.

    The communication and controversy between the king and Thomas Becket, with his clergy.

    The king, as is aforesaid, conventing his nobles and clerks together, required to have the punishment of certain misdoers of the clergy; but Thomas Becket not assenting thereunto, the king came to this point, to know whether he would consent, with his clergy, that the customs then set forth in the realm (meaning by the first part of those decrees above specified) should be observed.] ft374. For this oration in Latin, see the Edition of 1563, p. 53.—Ed. ft375. I. If any one shall be found bringing letters of the lord pope, or any mandate of the archbishop of Canterbury, containing an interdict of Christianity [i.e. the use of the service, sacraments, and holy rites] in England, let him be taken and let justice be executed upon him without delay, as a traitor to the king and the kingdom.

    II. Also, no clerk, monk, or other religious person, can be permitted to pass beyond the sea or return into England, unless he have a passport from the justiciary for his going out, and the king’s letters for his return; if any one shall be caught doing otherwise, let him be taken and imprisoned.

    III. Let no man appeal to the pope or to the archbishop.

    IV. Let no plea be held by order of the pope or of the archbishop, nor let any communication (mandatum) or’ theirs be received in England by any man. If any one shall be found doing otherwise, let him be taken and imprisoned.

    V. Generally, also, it is forbidden, that any one carrying any commmunication (mandatum,) either of cleric or layman, to the lord pope or to the archbishop; if any one shall be found doing otherwise, let him be taken and imprisoned.

    VI. If any bishops, or clerics, or abbots, or laics, shall comply with any sentence of interdict, let them without delay be cast out of the land, ‘with all their kindred; and let them carry none of their property with them.

    VII. The chattels of all persons favoring the pope or the archbishop, and all their possessions, and those of all belonging to them, of whatever rank, or sex, or condition they be, shall be taken and confiscated to the lord king VIII. All clerics who have rents and estates in England shall be summoned, in whatever countries they be, to return to them within three months; and if they do not return by the appointed time, let their estates be taken to the king’s use.

    IX. Peter-pence shall no longer be paid over to the pope’s apostolic treasury, but be kept diligently in the king’s chest, and expended at his direction.

    X. The bishops of London and Norwich shall be at the king’s mercy, and be summoned by the sheriffs and beadles before the king’s justiciaries, there to do right by the king and his justices, for that, contrary to the statutes of Clarendon, they laid an interdict by command of the lord pope on the land of Earl Hugh, and published the lord pope’s excommunication against him throughout their dioceses, without license of the king’s justiciaries. [Translated from the Quadrilogus—Ed.] ft376. For the Latin, see the Edition of 1563, p. 54. ¾ Ed. ft377. “Si clericus, oculos et gertitalia amittat.” ¾ Ed. ft378. See Note 2, p. 219.—Ed. ft379. These monks were of the Cistercian order. ft380. For the Latin, see the Edition of 1563, p. 54.—Ed. ft381. An Epistle of Becket, a347 archbishop of Canterbury, to King Henry, found only in the edition of 1563, at page 55,with the notes, probably of John Foxe, adjoined.—Ed.

    Desiderio desideravi videre faciem vestram et loqui vobiscum. 1 Non multum quidem propter me, sed maxime propter vos: ut visa facie mea reduceretis ad memoriam servitia, quae, dum agerem in obseqnio vestro, exhibui vobis devote et fideliter juxta animi conscientiam (sic me Deus adjuvet in examine ultimo, quando omnes astabunt ante tribunal Ipsius, recepturi prout gesserunt in corpore, sive bonum sive malum), et ut moveremini super me pietate, quem oportet mendicando vivere inter alienos. Licet tamen Dei gratia, cum abundantia victualia ad sufficientiam habeamus. Estque nobis consolatio multa, quod dicit apostolus, Omnes qui pie volunt vivere in Christo, persecutionem patientur: Et propheta, Non vidi justurn derelictum, nec semen ejus quaerens panem. Propter vos: tribus ex causis. Tum quia dominus meus estis: 2 tum quia rex meus estis:tum quia filius meus spiritualis. Eo quod dominus, debeo vobis et offero consilium meum et obsequium quodcunque debet episcopus, secundum honorem Dei et sanetae ecclesiae, domino: eo quod rex, teneor vobis ad reverentiam et commonitionem: eo quod filius, officii ratione, ad castigationem teneor et cohercionem. 3 Corripit enim pater filium nunc blandis nunc asperis, ut vel sic provocet eum ad benefaciendum. Nosse debetis vos gratia regem esse, Primo quia vos ipsum regere debetis vitamque vestram optimis informare moribus, ut vestri exemplo caeteri provocentur ad melius, juxta illud sapientis: Componitur orbis regis ad exemplum:

    Secundo, alios hos demulcendo, alios puniendo potestatis auctoritate quam ab ecclesia recepistis tum sacramento unctionis, tum gladii officio, quem gestatis ad malefactores ecclesiae, conterendos.

    Inunguntur enim reges tribus in 1ocis, in capite, in pectore, in brachiis; quod significat gloriam, scientiam, et fortitudinem. Qui antiquis temporibus justificationes Dei non observabant, et praevaricati sunt mandata ejus, his sublata est gloria, scientia, et fortitudo, et eorum generationi; exem-plo Pharaonis, Nebugodonosor, Saulis, Salomonis, aliorumque plurium. 4 Qui veto post delictum suum cordis contritione humiliaverunt se Domino, his Dei gratis accessit cum omnibus supradictis abundantius et perfectius, sicut David, Ezechiae, aliisque quam plurimis. Christus fundavit matrem ecclesiam, ejusque comparavit 5 libertatem sanguine proprio, sustinendo flagella, sputa, clavos, mortis angustias, nobis relinquens exemplum ut sequamur vestigia ejus. Uncle dicit apostolus: si compatiamur ei, et conregnabimus: si commoriamur, et resurgemus. Ecclesia enim Dei in duobus constat ordinibus, clero et populo. In clero sunt apostoli, apostolicique viri, episcopi, et caeteri doctores ecclesiae, quibus commissa est cura et regnum ipsius ecclesiae, qui tractare habent negotia ecclesiastica, ut totum reducant ad salutem animarum. Unde et 6 Petro dictum est, et in Petro aliis rectoribus ecclesiarum, non regibus, non principibus: Tu es Petrus, et super hanc petram aedificabo ecclesiam meam, et portae inferi non praevalebunt adversus eam. In populo sum reges, et principes, duces, comites, et aliae potestates, qui seeularia habent tractate negotia, ut totum reducant ad pacem et unitstem ecelesiae. Et quid certum est reges potestatem suam accipere ab ecclesia, non ipsam ab illis sed a Christo, ut salva pace vestra 1oquar, non habetis episcopis 7 praecipere absolvere aliquem vel excommunicare, trahere clericos ad secularia examina, judicare de decimis vel ecclesiis, interdicere episcopis ne tractent causas de transgressione fidel vel juramenti, et multa in hunc modum quae scripta sunt inter consuetudines vestras, quas dicitis avitas. Domi-nus enim dicit: Leges mess custodite. Et per prophetam: Vae qui condunt leges iniquas et scri-bentes scripserunt injustitias, ut opprimerent pauperes in judicio, et vim facerent causae humilium populi Dei. Audiat namque, si placet, dominus meus consilium fidelis sui, commonitionem episcopi sui, castigationem patris sui 8 —ne cum schismaticis de caetero habeat aliquam familiaritatem vel eommunionem, nec cum els aliquo modo contrahat foedus vel amicitiara. Noturn est enim toti fere mundo, quam devote, quam honorifice dom. papam receperitis, quantum ecclesiam Romanam foveritis et honoraveritis, quantumque dom. papa et etiam ecclesia Romana personam vestram dilex-erint, honoraverint, et in quibuscumque secundum Deum potuerint vos exaudierint. Nolite, Domine mi, ergo, si salutem animae vestrae desideratis, eidem ecclesiae quod suum est aliqua ratione subtrahere, seu in aliquo ei citra justitiam contraire. Imo candam ei permittatis in regno vestro habere 9 libertatem, quam in allis regnis habere dinoscitur. Memores quoque sitis confessionis quam fecistis et posuistis scriptam super altare apud Westminster, de servanda ecclesiae libertate, quando consecrati fuistis et uneti in regem a praedecessore nostro Theobaldo. Ecclesiam etiam Cantuariensem, a qua promotionem et consecrationem accepistis, in eum statum restituatis et digni-tatem, in quibus fuit temporibus praedecessorum nostrorum; 10 possessiones etiam ad ipsam ecclesiam et ad nos pertinentes, villas, praedia, castella, et omnia quae pro voluntate vestra distribuistie, res et omnes ablatas tam nostras quam clericorum nostrorum et laicorum, in integrum nobis resti-tuatis. Permittatis etiam, si placet, nos libere et in pace et cum omni securitate redire in sedem nostram, officioque nostro libere uti, sicut debemus et ratio exigit. Et nos vobis tanquam domino charissimo et regi parati sumus fideliter et devote pro viribus servire in quibuscunque potuerimus, salvo honore Dei et ecclesiae Romanae et salvo ordine nostro. 11 Alioqui pro certo sciatis, quid divinam severitatem et uitionem sentietis.

    CERTAIN NOTES UPON THIS LATIN EPISTLE 1. Imo maxime suum agit negotium etiamsi, dissimulat sedulo. 2. Si dominus est, cur to non praebes illi servum? Si rex, cur non subditum ostendis! Porro quum servus non sui sit juris, sed in possessione sui domini, quo jure ergo servum agis fugitivum, ab eo aufugiens, qui jure tui vindicat possessionem atque in to potestatem occupat! Praeterea, si dominum tuum esse agnoscas, falso igitur illi to consilium debere dicis; in servo enim non con-silium spectatur, sed obsequium, nisi is consilium exigat. 3. Subditorum est subjici suis principibus non eos subdere: Episcopi sunt subditi suis princi-pibus: Ergo male conantur episc, suos sibi principes subjicere. Ad principis spectat officium legibus animadvertere in sontes: Becketus id non permittit, prohibens clericos suos ad supplicia vocari: Ergo Becketus non se praestat subditum suo regi. 4. Nego argumentum—Deus punivit malos principes contra mandata suadelinquentes: Ergo pon-tifices et episcopi punire reges debent, sua decreta transgredientes. 5. Fallacia est a falsa definitione libertatis ecclesiasticae. Ea enim libertas quam Christus suo sanguine comparavit, ad conscientiam duntaxat attinet, non ad terrena privilegia aut corporeas facultates. Christus igitur aliam nobis redemit libertatem, Becketus de alia argutatur. 6. Quod Petro dictum est, dictum est tantum rectoribus ecclesiae:

    Principes non sunt rectores ecclesia’: Ergo non dictum est principibus.

    Resp. Neganda est minor: deinde majorem sic intelligo ex Aug. Quod dictum est Petro, dictum est ecclesiae universae fidelium, quatenus fidem habet in Christum, super quam fidem aedificatur ecclesia. Unde liquet dictum hoc non magis spectare ad clerum quam ad principes fideles, etc. 7. Fallacia est a divisis ad conjuncta. Sunt enim variae in ecclesia Christi functiones,quae varie sunt ad alios atque alios referendae. Quae vero foris sunt et juris ordinisque externi, et ad casti-gationem attinent, propria sunt principum. Tanturn ad clerum spectat dispensatio sermonis Dei, et sacramentorum administratio. Jam haec omnia quae disjungenda erant, perperam confundit hic theologus in una persona. 8. Episeopi si probi fuerint dici fortasse patres possunt suorum principum, sed in Christo tamen, hoc est, non nisi in els quae ad salutis tantum curam, doctrinae videlicet et sacramentorum, spectant. In ceteris vero principes patres sunt et curam gerunt episcoporum, non illi principum. 9. Iterum hic peccatur in falsa libertatis definitione. 10. Ut facile hic intelligas, lector, suam dignitatem et possessiones quaeri ab episcopis, pofius quam gloriam Jesu Christi! 11. Proximus honor secundum Deum debetur regibus in sua cujusque ditione, juxta scripturae theologiam, quae dicit: Deum timete, regem honorificate: at contra hic theologus inverso scripturae ordine arguit, honorem Deo proximum deberi-primum Romanae sedi, deinde episcoporum ordini, et post haec regibus. cum,” etc.

    CERTAIN NOTES OR ELENCHES UPON THIS EPISTLE ft382. The scope of this epistle is this, to prove that bishops and priests ought not to come under the covert and controlment of temporal power. ft383. This similitude holdeth not. For, though the smallness of a city blemisheth not the prerogative of a kingdom, yet the evilness and rebellion of a city do worthily blemish its own prerogative. ft384. So saith the pope’s decree (Dist. 10), but the scripture of God importeth otherwise. Abiathar the priest was deposed by King Solomon, not for any heresy, but for other causes (Kings 1:2.).

    Jonathas took his priesthood of King Alexander; and Simon of Demetrius (1 Maccab. 7:9; 10:20). Christ offered tribute to Caesar for himself and for Peter. Also Peter saith, “Be ye subject to every human creature;” and it followeth, “whether it be to the king as to the chief,” etc. Also Pope Leo submitted himself to Ludovicus, the emperor, with these words: “And if we do any thing .incompetently, and do swerve from the path of righteousness, we will stand to your reformation, or of them whom you shall send.” (Causa 2:quaest. 7. Nos). ft385. Notwithstanding, the said Constantine, writing to the bishops congregated at Tyre, first chideth them, then commandeth them to resort unto his presence, to have their cause judged and decided. (Trip.

    Hist. lib. in. cap. 7.) ft386. “The father under obedience,” etc. If fatherhood go by age, I suppose that King Henry was older than Becket. If fatherhood consist in authority, I judge the authority of a king to be above the authority of an archbishop. If the see of Canterbury make the fatherhood, yet had Becket no cause to claim fatherhood over the king, seeing the son ordained the father; that is, seeing the king made him his archbishop, and he made not him his king. ft387. “By wicked bonds.” All is wicked with the papists, that bringeth them in subjection to their princes. ft388. Ecclesiastical matters be such, as properly belong to doctrine and divine knowledge, for the institution of the soul, and information of conscience. In which both princes and subjects ought to follow the pastors, so long as they go truly before them without error or else not.

    But what maketh this for the lands and liberties of churchmen? ft389. Punishment due to malefactors and rebels is not to be called persecution, but due correction. ft390. Saul brake the commandment of God and was rejected. Ozias, contrary to the commandment of God, took the office of a priest, and was stricken. Oza, against the express word of the law, put his hand to the ark, and was punished. But what express word had King Henry, why he should not correct and punish rebellious bishops, and wicked priests, within his own realm? wherefore these similitudes accord not.

    As for Achas, he was not so much punished for taking the priest’s office, as for spoiling the temple of the Lord, and offering to idols. ft391. Common laws.” St. Austin, writing to Boniface, saith thus: “Whosoever obeyeth not the laws of the emperor, being made for the verity of God, procureth to himself great punishment. For in the time of the prophets, all the kings which did not forbid and subvert all such things as were used of the people against the law of God are rebuked.

    And such as did withstand them, are commended above the rest.” ft392. Isidorus hath these words: “Let temporal princes know that they must render account to God for the church, which they have at the hands of God to govern,” etc. ft393. The cases of Arcadias, Theodosius, David, and of this king, as touching this matter, have no similitude. In them was murder: this king doth nothing but claim that which is his due. And though by the spiritual sword those kings were resisted, yet it agreeth not therefore that the persons of those who have the use of the spiritual sword are above the persons of those who have the temporal sword. ft394. The pope’s letter beginneth after this sort: “Alexander papa ad Henrieum regem. Et naturali ratlone, et forma juris dictante, providentiam tuam credimus edoctam fuisse, quod quanto quis ab aliquo majora suscepisse dignoscitur, tanto ei obnoxior et magis obligatus tenetur,” etc. ft395. “Ea propter severitatem tuam per apostolica scripta rogamus, monemus, et exhortamur in Domino; necnon in remissionera peccatorum ex parte Dei omnipotentis, et beati Petri principis apostolorum, auctoritate nostra injungimus, ut memotatum archiepiscopum pro Deo et ecclesia sua et honore tuo, necnon et totius regni tui, in gratiam et favorum tuum recipias,” etc. ft396. The Latin copy is in the Edition of 1563, p. 57.—Ed. ft397. The Latin copy is in the Edition of 1563, p. 57, whence the translation is revised.—Ed. ft398. For the Latin, see Edition 1563, p. 58.—Ed. ft399. “Amantiasimo patti et Dom. Alexandro, Dei gratia summo pont., Thomas, Cant. ecclesiae humilis minister, debitam et devotam obedientiam,” etc. [The whole of this letter in Latin is given in the Edition of 1563., p. 59, whence tire above tranalation is revised.—Ed.] ft400. “Quae vestro (pater)in longinquo discessu inopinata rei ipsius novitate turbata sunt; vestris sperabamus humilitate,” etc. ft401. “Fraternitatis vestrae scriptum (quod tamen prudentiae vestrae communi consilio non facile credimus emanasse) nuper ex insperato suscepirnus.” etc. ft402. This John was called a schismatic, a362 because he took part with Reginald, archbishop of Cologne, and the emperor, against Alexander, the pope. ft403. This Gregory, otherwise called Hildebrand, was he that first took away priests’ marriage, condemning all priests who had wives, of fornication. ft404. From the style of this censure, it is clearly from the pen of our author, Foxe.—Ed. ft405. Revised from the Epistolae D. Thomae, lib. it. ep. 42.—Ed. ft406. Revised. Ibid. ep. 28.—Ed. ft407. “Salvo honore Dei, et ecclesiae libertate; salva etiam honestate personae suae et possessioni-bus ecclesiarum: et amplius, sua et suorum in omnibus salva justitia.” ft408. Ex Quadrilogo. ft409. Hume says, Reginald Fitz-urse, and Sharon Turner, Fitzwiso.—Ed. ft410. On the eastern wall of the nave of Preston church, in Sussex, some very ancient paintings, relics of English art, have lately been discovered; among them is a very spirited one of the murder of Thomas A Becket, displaying, with great minuteness and much talent, the particulars of his tragical end. See the ‘ Archaeologia,’ vol. 23: No. 17.—Ed. ft411. “Nonnullis tamen idcirco promotionem ejus visum est fuisse minus canonicam, quod ad earn magis operata est regis instantia, quam cleri vel populi voto. Praesumptionis quoque vol indiscre-tionis fuisse n otatum est, quod qui remum tenere vix idoneus videbatur primum gubernaculi locum suscepit,” etc. “Et mox, magis etiam secularia turn sapiens, tam sanctum tantae dignitatis fastigium non horrens tenuisse, seal ultroneus ascendisse creditus,” etc. “Miter Dei amicus Moses,” etc. ft412. Haec ex chronico, cui titulus, ‘De Passione et Miraculis beati Thomae.’ ft413. “Gulielmus, Parvus cognomento dictus, Bridlingtoniae natus 1136: ad monasterium Neuburgense missus obiit 1208. Scripsit de rebus Anglicis sui temporis libros 5, ab an. 1066 ad an. 1197. Quae tradit, aut ipse suis oculis vidit, aut a viris fide dignis accepit.” Cave. ¾ Ed. ft414. “Sane cum plerique soleant in his quos amant et laudant affectu quodam propensiori, sed prudentia parciori, quicquid ab eis geritur approbare; plane ego in viro illo venerabili, ea quae ita ab ipso acta sunt, quum nulla exinde proveniret utilitas, sed fervor tantum accenderetur regius, ex quo tot mala postmodum pullulasse noscuntur, laudanda nequaquam censuerim, licet ex lau-dabili zelo processerint: sicut nec in beatissimo apostolorum principe, quod gentes suo exemplo judaizare coegit; in quo eum doctor gentium reprebensibilem declarat fuisse, licet eum constet laudabili hoc pietate fecisse.” [Neub. lib. 2:cap. 16, sub fin.—Ed.] ft415. “Literas has in Angliam ad suspensionem episeoporum praemissas ipse sequebatur, zelo jus-titiae fervidus; rerum an plene secundum scientiam novit Deus. Nostrae enim parvitati nequaquam conceditur, de tanti viri actibus temere judicare. Puto enim quod beatissimus papa Gregorius in molli adhuc teneraque regis concordia mitius egisset, et ea quae sine fidei Christianae periculo tolerari potuissent, ratlone temporis et compensatione pacis dissimuianda duxisset, juxta illud propheticum: Prudens in tempore illo tacebit, quia tempus malum est.

    Itaque quod a venerabili pontifice tunc actum est, nec laudandum esse judico, nee vituperare praesumo: sed dico, si vel mo-dice in hujusmodi a sancto viro per zeli immoderatiorem impetum est excessum, hoc ipsum esse sacrae, quae consecuta noscitur, igne passionis excoctum.

    Ita quippe sancti viri vel amandi vel laudandi sunt a nobis, qui nos illis 1onge impares esse cognoscimus, ut ea, in quibus homines fue-runt, vel fuisse noscuntur, nequaquam vel amemus vel laudemus: sed ea tantum, in quibus eos sine scrupulo imitari debemus. Quis enim cos dicat in omnibus, quae ab ipsis fiunt, esse imitabiles? Non igitur in omnibus, quae faciunt, sed sapienter et caute debent laudari, ut sua Deo praerogativa servetur, in cujus utique laudibus nemo potest esse nimius, quantumcunque laudare conetur.” [Neub. lib. 2:cap. 25. ¾ Ed.] ft416. See supra, p. 243.—Ed. ft417. “Plusquam centum homicidia a clericis commissa sub Henrico secundo dieuntur. In quibus plectendis rex aliquanto vehementior. Seal hujus immoderationis regiae nostri temporis episcopos tantum respicit culpa, quantum ab els processit et causa. Cum enim sacri praecpiunt canones, clericos non solum facinorosos, et gravioribus irretitos crimininbus, verum etiam leviorum criminum tees degradari, et tot millia talium, tanquam innumeras inter pauca grana paleas, ecclesia Anglicana contineat, tamen quam paucos a multis retro annis clericos in Anglia contigit officio privari! Nempe episcopi, dum defendendis magis clericorum libertatibus vel dignitatibus, quam eorum vitiis corri- gertdis resecandisque invigilant, arbitrantur obsequium se praestare Deo et ecclesiae, si facinorosos clericos, quos pro officii debito canonicae vigore censurae coercere vel nolunt vel negligunt, contra publicam tueantur disciplinam. Unde clerici, qui in sortem Domini vocati, tanquam stellae in firmamento coeli positae, vita et verbo lucere deberent super terrain, habentes pro impunitate agendi quodeunque libuerit licentiam et libertatem, neque Deum, cujus judicium tardare videtur, neque homines potestatem habentes reverentur, cum et episcopalis circa eos solicitudo sit languida, et seculari eos jurisdictione sacri eximat ordinis praerogativa.” [Neub. lib. 2:cap. 16, sub med.— Ed.] ft418. “Caesarius, Germanus, anno 1199, coenobii Heisterbacensis in dicecesi Coloniensi monachus factus ord. Cisterc., tandem monasterii Vailis St.

    Petri prope Bonnam prior. Extant de miraculis et visionibus sui temporis libri seu dialogi 12.” Cave ¾ Ed. ft419. “Quaestio Parisils inter magistros ventilata fuit, utrum damnatus an salvatus esset ille Thomas. Dixerat Rogerius tunc Normanus, fuisse ilium morte ac damnatione dignum, quod con-tumax esset in Dei ministrum regem. Protulit contra Petrus Cantor Parisiensis, quod signa salvationis et magnae sanctitatis essent ejus miracula: et quod martyriue probasset ecclesiae causa, pro qua mortem subierat.” If God in these latter days giveth no miracles to glorify his own Son, much less will he give miracles to glorify Thomas Becket. ft420. Liber de Miraculls Beati Thomae, anthore monacho quodam Cantuar. ft421. Ex Historia Monachi Cant. de Miraculis Becketi Thomae. ft422. Ex Gervas. fol. 6. ft423. “Tu per Thomae sanguinem, quem pro to impendit, Fae nos Christe scandere, quo Thomas ascendit.” ft424. Ex Libro Annotationum Historicarum manuscripto, J. Skenii. ft425. Ex Quadrilogo. ft426. Ex Rogero Hovedeno, Quadrilogo, et allis. ft427. Ex epitome Matth. Paris. et aliarum historiaum. ft428. Where was here the procept of the gospel, “He that will be greatest among you, let himbe an underling to others?” ft429. “Everikeshire,” Yorkshire, from Eboracum.—Ed. ft430. The Latin of the two extracts here translated by our author may be found in the Edition of 1563, p. 68.—Ed. ft431. Chaucer uses the word ‘ limitour’ to express a friar, who had a license to beg within certain limits, infra p.328. See Todd’s Johnson.—Ed. ft432. For an account of these vestments see the Appendix. a378 —Ed. ft433. Virg. AEn. I. 148. “As when in tumults rise the ignoble crowd, Mad are their motions and their tongues are loud:

    And stones and brands in rattling vollies fly, And all the rustic arms that fury can supply.” ft434. “If then some grave and pious man appear, They hush their noise and lend a listening ear:

    He soothes with sober words their angry mood, And quenches their innate desire of blood.”—Dryden. ft435. Polychro. Ex Giraldo Cambrensi. ft436. ”Ad honorem omnipotentis Dei, et beatae Mariae Virginia, et beatorum Petri et Pauli, et domini nostri N. Papae, et sanctae Romanae ecclesiae, necnon N. ecclesiae tibi commissae, tradimus tibi pallium de corpore beati Petri sumptum, plenitudinem pontificalis officii, ut utaris eo infra ecclesiam tuam certis diebus, qui exprimuntur in privilegiis tibi ab apostolica sede concessis.” [Nearly verbatim in Wilkins’s Conc. 2:199, and Antiq. Brit. an. 1501.—Ed.] ft437. “To the honor,” etc. With what confidence durst the pope couple the honor of Almighty God, and the honor of Mary, of St. Peter, and of the pope, and of the Romish church all together, if he had not been a presumptuous Lucifer, equaling himself not only with such saints, but also even with him who is God alone, to be blessed for ever? ft438. “Taken from the body,” etc. If St. Peter’s body be not all consumed, let him show it if he can. If he cannot show it, how then is this pall taken from the body of St. Peter? or if he mean it to be of St. Peter’s own wearing, then belike St. Peter had a goodly wardrobe of palls, when every archbishop in all Christendom receiveth from the pope a divers pall. ft439. “As a fullness of the office,” etc. Rather he might say, the fullness of his own purse, when archbishops paid so sweetly for it; insomuch that Jacobus, the archbishop of Mentz a382 (as is above touched, p. 109), a little before in the council of Basil, where the price was wont to be but ten thousand florins, could not obtain it without seven and twenty thousand florins. fft441 ft440. “Upon certain days,” etc. This difference there was between the pope and other archbishops: the pope might wear the pall at all times, and in all places, at his pleasure; archbishops might not wear it but upon certain days, and in their church only, within their province. Moreover this pall should not be asked but with great instance, and within three months; without which pall he is not to be named archbishop, but may be deposed, having it not after three months; and the same pall must also be buried with him when he dieth; and when it is given, some privilege must be given withal, or the old renewed. ft441. Ex libro gravaminum nationis Germaniae. [ See Appendix, a383 and infra vol. 4:p. 12.—Ed.] ft442. “Ego, N., Episcopus N., ab hac hora in antes fidelis et obediens ero beato Petro, sanctaeque apo-stolicae Romance ecclesiae,et domino meo, dom. N., papae, suisque successoribus canonice intrantibus. Non ero in consilio, seu auxilio, consensu, vel facto, ut vitam perdant aut merebrum, seu capian-tur mala captione. Consilium vero quod mihi credituri sunt, per se aut per nuncium, seu literas ad eorum damnum, me sciente nemini pandam. Papatum Romanurn et regalia S. Petri adjutor els ero ad retinendum et defendendure, salvo meo ordine, contra omnem hominem. Legatum aposto-licae sedis in eundo et redeundo honorifice tractabo, et in suis necessitatibus adjuvabo. Vocatus ad synodum veniam, nisi praepeditus fuero canonica praepeditione.

    Apostolorum limina singulls trienniis visitabo, aut per me, aut per meum nuncium, nisi apostolica absolvar licentia. Possessiones vero ad mensam mei episcopatus pertinentes non vendam, neque donabo, neque oppigno-rabo, neque de novo inteudabo, nec aliquo modo alienabo inconsulto Romans pontifice: sic me Dens adjuvet, et sancta Dei evangelia.” [Nearly verbatim in Wilkins’s Cone. 2:199, an. 1293, and Antiq. Britannicae ad an. 1501.—Ed.] ft443. And how be not those bishops then perjured, who, at the death of Queen Mary, set and let out a great part of their possessions from their successors? ft444. Jornalensis. ft445. “Nam et panem sanctum vitae aeternae, sacerdotis ministerio in verbo domini consecratum non esse corpus Domini, novo dogmate contendebat asserere.” ft446. Waldenses .—Our author has fallen into the very common error of confounding the Waldenses with the ‘Pauperes de Lugduno,’ or ‘Poor men of Lyons,’ and of deriving their origin from Waldus, or Peter Waldo of Lyons. The earliest period assigned to Peter Waldo is the year 1160, but there is a document of the year 1100, ‘ La Nobla Leyczon,’ which speaks of the Waldenses, or Vaudois, under the terra Vaudes. It is therefore much more probable that Peter Waldo was named after the community called Vaudes, than that the Waldenses should take their name from his. Authors who assert the greater antiquity of the Waldenses, Vallerises, or Vaudois, maintain, 1. That the Waldenses are so called from certain secluded Alpine valleys, principally in Piedmont, where they have been settled from time immemorial. 2. That the simplest etymology is that which is deduced from a local, and not from a personal name- ‘ Vailis,’ Latin, ‘Valle,’ Italian, ‘Val,’ Provencal, ‘Val,’ pl. ‘Vaux,’ and ‘Vallee,’ French, , ‘Val,’ Spanish. ‘ Val,’ Celtic, ‘Wald,’ Teutonic, ‘Valley,’ English. 3. That traces are to be found in early ecclesiastical history (beginning with the works of Ambrose and Jerome), of Alpine churches, which held opinions similar to those of the Waldenses of later times. 4. That the most ancient of the state reeords of Piedmont, in which the Waldenses are noticed as a religious community at varianee with the church of Rome, call them ‘Huomini delle Valli,’ or ‘ Men of the Valleys.’ 5. That the antiquity of ‘La Nobla Leyczon,’ which presents internal evidence of having been written in the year 1100, and contains the term Vaudes, and applies it to a religious body, not in communion with the church of Rome, is proved by Raynouard, in his ‘ Choix de Poesies des Troubadours, and by others, whose authority is of importance as to the period and language of that valuable document. 6. That surnames were not in use in the twelfth century, and that Peter of Lyons had his second appellation Waldus, or Waldo, given to him to distinguish him, as one who had adopted the opinions of the Vaudes, or Waldenses. 7. That the earliest public edicts, which make mention of the Waldenses (such as, ‘ Statuta Synodalia Odonis Episeopi Tullensis,’ in 1192 ¾ “De haereticis autem qui vocantur Wadoys—praecipimus,” and the ediet of Ildefonsus, king of Arragon, in 1194), do not give any derivation of the term Waldenses, but simply call certain heretics by that name. 8. That the earliest treatises which profess to give the etymology of the name Waldenses, derive it from a word signifying ‘ Valley.’—Thus Bernard of Fontcaud, A.D. 1185—“ Dieti sunt Valden-sis nimirum a valle densa, eo quod profundis et densis errorurn tenebris involvantur;” and Ebrard de Bethune, in the year 1200—“ Vallenses se appellant eo quod in valle lachrymarum maneant.” 9. That the first treatise which pretends to derive the Waldenses from Peter Waldus, of Lyons, was written after these, namely, ‘ Petri, Vallis-Sarnensis monachi, Historia Albigensium,’ 12mo, Trecis, 1615.

    See Leger’s ‘ Historie generale des Eglises Evangeliques de Valees de Piemont;’ Allix’s ‘ Churches of Piedmont;’ Gilly’s ‘ Waldensian Researches;’ Blair’s ‘History of the Waldenses.’—Ed. ft447. “Quoddam scutum in sotularis vel zabbatae parte superiori hi qui perfecti inter eos sunt in signum deferunt,a quo etiam ‘Inzabbatati dicti sunt.” Nich. Eymericus, “Inquisitorum Direc-torium,” Romans 1578, pars 2 quaest. 13, p. 205, pars 3, p. 294.—Ed. ft448. Edition 1563, p. 42. This account of the Waldenses is taken from Illyricus (“ Cat. Test.” Edit. Genevae, 1608, cols. 1498—1529), and from the “Fasciculus” of Orth. Gratius. The text has been collated with the original, and corrected in some instances.—Ed. ft449. “Solis sacris literis credendum esse in us, quae ad salutem,” etc. ft450. Omitted by Foxe.—Ed. ft451. This article seemeth to be given of them in Bohemia, long after, for indulgences came not in before Boniface VIII. [“Tametsi illae infra quadringentos annos, nempe ante 250, primum a Bonifacio ocavo excoitatae sunt.” Illyr. The right of granting them was, however, first claimed rather earlier, in the twelfth century. ¾ Ed.] ft452. The term Waldenses, which properly describes the religious community of the Alpine valleys of Piedmont, is often (though inaccurately) applied to all those Dissenters from Popery who appeared in various parts of Europe from the beginning of the eleventh century, though they did not all agree in their sentiments. The Taborites in Bohemia, however, are said to have really held the Waldensian doctrines. See infra, p. 270, and Illyricus, “Catal. Test.” col 1507.—Ed. ft453. Ex Orthuino Gratio, [who in his “Fasciculus rerum,” etc. gives “Professio fidel fratrum Wal-denslum,” fol. 81, and” Responsio excusatoria f. W.,” fol. 89. Uladislaus was king of Bohemia, A.D. 1471—1516, and Julius II. (mentioned in the Apology as then pope) reigned A.D. 1503—1513.—Ed.] ft454. This was not the fact, nor is the above exactly the statement of the apologist. See Appendix. a389 —Ed. ft455. Quicunque hunc panem coenae Christi secunda vel tertia die sumpserit, non benedicetur anima ejus, sed inquinabitur. Propterea Gabaonitae, quia antiqnos panes,” etc. Origen, super tertium librum Mosis. [Fasciculus, fol. 88, A.—Ed.] ft456. Fasciculus, fol. 92.—Ed. ft457. Fasciculus, fol. 93.—Ed. ft458. Aeneas Sylvius, Bohemica historia de Waldensiumdogmatibus. ft459. “Romanum praesulem reliquis episcopis parem esse. Inter sacerdotes nullum discrimen. Presbyterum non dignitatem sed vitae meritum efiicere potiorem.” For the original Latin, see Edition 1563, p. 44; also, AEn. Sylv. Op. Basil. 1571, p. 103, and Illyricus, “Catal. Testium” (Ed. Goularti, Genev. 1608), col. 1525, whence the following translation is revised. ¾ Ed. ft460. “Eleemosyna,” voluntary oblations. See Todd’s Johnson.—Ed. ft461. Omitted by Foxe.—Ed. ft462. Omitted by Foxe. ¾ Ed. ft463. AEn. Sylv. adds, “quocunque tempore.”—Ed. ft464. “Modus autem Valdensium tails est,” etc. Ex iaquisitorio quodam libeilo, de moribus et con-suetudine Waldensium [cited by Illyricus “Cat. Test.” col. 1523.—Ed] ft465. See Appendix. a392 ft466. “Bless ye the Lord,” “Lord have mercy on us, Christ have mercy on us, Lord have mercy on us, .... Our Father,” etc.—Ed. ft467. This parenthesis is omitted by Foxe.—Ed. ft468. Given by Illyricus, “Cat. Test.” col. 1507.—Ed. ft469. Illyricus remarks in his margin, “Pontificium clerum suum nomine intellexerunt Valdenses” a395 Reinerius imputes it to their ignorance.—Ed. ft470. “Non erst qui eos impedire auderet propter potentiam et multitudinem fautorum suorum. Inquisitioni et examinationi saepe interful, et computatae sunt quadragenae ecclesiae, quae heresi infectae fuerunt, ac in una parochia Camroach fuerunt decem eorum scholae,” etc. [Illyricus, col. 1508, F.—Ed.] ft471. “Haec veto Leonistarum sects magnam habet apeciem pietatis, eo quod coram hominibus juste vivant, et bene omnis de Deo credant, et omnes articulos, qui in symbolo continentur; solam Romanam ecclesiam blasphemant, ed oderunt.” Ex Orthuino Gratio. [Illyricus, col. 1509, A.—Ed.] ft472. Illyricus, col. 1501, C.—Ed. ft473. ‘Rusticunm idiotam,” Illyricus: “an unlettered peasant.”—Ed. ft474. See Francisens Pegrid on Nich. Eymericus’s Direct. Inqnisit. p. 2:com. 56.—Ed. ft475. Pierre de Collemezzo, abp. of Rouen, was made cardinal bp. of Albano in 1244 (Moreri), and as such convened the council of Beziers. a.D. 1246. See Labbe’s Cone. tom. 11:col 687.—Ed. ft476. “Tofore,” heretofore, ago. Illyricus published his “Cat. Test.” first in 1556.—Ed. ft477. “Quis enim est solus ille peregrinus, qui condemnationera [damnationera] hsereticorum [et] Valdensium ignoret [nescierit] a 1onge retro annis [tam justissime] factam, tam famosam, tam publicam [publicatam, tam praedicatam], tot et tantis laboribus, expensis et sudoribus fidelium insecutam, et tot mortibus ipsorum infidelium solenniter damnatorum publiceque punitorum tam fortiter [firmiter] sigillatam ?” etc. [Labbe, Conc. tom. 11:col. 496, gives the passage with the variations here noticed.—Ed.] ft478. See infra, vol. 4:pp. 501,502.—Ed. ft479. Illyricus, cols. 1506, 1508.—Ed. ft480. Ex chronico bibliothecae Cariensis. ft481. Jornalensis. ft482. Ibid. ft483. Ex vetusto manuscripto exempiari historiae Carlcrisis. ft484. Ex vetusto chron. Acephalo. ft485. William, brother of Malcom IV, is the monarch here referred to. He was taken prisoner before Alnwick, by a stratagem, by Rob. Stutevill and Ralph de Glanville, two of King Henry’s nobility, and was transported to Falaise, in Normandy, where he was compelled to sign a disgraceful treaty. He returned to Scotland, and in the year 1175 Henry summoned him to meet him at York. All the nobility and landholders of Scotland accompanied him thither; the disgraceful treaty of Falaise was confirmed, and Scotland found herself under the protection of Henry, deprived of liberty and honor.—Ed. ft486. Nic. Trivet. a402 ft487. Ibid. ft488. Ex Chron. cujns initium: “In diebus sanctissimi regis Edvardi,” etc. Ex Biblioth. Canensi. ft489. Ex variis Chron. ft490. Jornalensis, et alii. ft491. Nic. Trivet. ft492. Ibid. ft493. Nic. Trivet. ft494. Ex Chronico pervetusto, eui initium, “In dlebus sanctis, regis,” etc. ft495. Flores. Hist. ft496. Nic. Trivet. ft497. Ex Historia manuseripta cui initium, “Rex Pictorum,’ ex Bibliotheca Cariensi mutuata. ft498. The following anecdote is in Brompton, Script. X. p. 1079, whence several inaccuracies in the text are corrected.—Ed. ft499. One of the three divisions of Lincolnshire. ft500. See Appendix, a407 for an error here.—Ed. ft501. Edition 1563, p. 70. Ed. 1583, p. 234. Ed. 1597, p. 213. Ed. 1684, vol. i.p. 265.—Ed. ft502. His third son, though the eldest surviving.—Ed. ft503. See Appendix. a408 ft504. The atrocities against the unfortunate Jews here recorded, are fully related in Walter Hemingford, Gale Script. vol. 2:pp. 514—518, and Brompton—Ed. “Sequenti die,” Brompton.—Ed. “Permisit a Christianis sibi fieri quod volebant,” Id.—Ed. Next year, Friday, March 16th, l190. Hoveden. See Appendix. a409 — Ed. Ex Chron. Westin. cui initlure, “Aeneas cum Ascanio,” etc. July 22d, I180. Hoved. Gerv. Bromp. See Appendix. a410 —Ed. This and the succeeding passage, between single asterisks, are from the Edition of 1568, p.,69.—Ed. Ex Gerv. fol. 134. [X Script. col. 1529. Stowe’s Ann., at. 1188. See Appendix. a414 —Ed.] For the words between asterisks, see Ed. 1563, p. 70. ¾ Ed. Ex veteri Chronico manuseripto, qui inithim, ‘ Anno gratiae millesimo,’ etc. “Anselm, who brought in the conception of our Lady to be hallowed, stirred coals in England against his king, Henry.” Ed. 1563, p. 31.—Ed. Ex Chron. Gervas. Ibid. Ex Gervas. “Aurum et argontum magis quam justitiam sitientes, seditiones inter eos et litigia commo-vebant.”—Ex Historia Gervasii. Ex Gervas, fol. 100. “Urbanus episcopus, servus servorum Dei, Baldwino Cantuar. archiepiseopo et apostolicae sedis legato, salutem et apostolicam benedictionem.” etc. Caliph is the high priest of the Saracens sitting in Damascus, to whom all the sultans were subject, as our princes now are to the pope. [Caliph is the title assumed by the successors of Mahomet.—Ed.] Ex Hist. Gervas. ‘Ex lib. anonymo, et ex Hist. Gervasii Monachi Cantuariensls. Matth. Paris Matt Paris, [Edit. Lond. 1640, pp. 612, 613: whence the articles are revised.—Ed.] See infra vol. 4:167—172; and Harl. MSS. Brit. Mus. No. 419, art. 49.—Ed. The narrative of the brawl in York Cathedral, sup. pp. 278-280, should be introduced here. ¾ Ed. Several inaccuracies in this and the next page are corrected from Hoveden. ¾ Ed. Hoveden, Rymer, tom. 1:p. 53 (Edit. Nov.)—Ed. Or Cydnus.—Ed. Afterward he became abbot of Flora, in Calabria. Moreri.—Ed. This passage, in single asterisks, is republished from the edition of Foxe of 1563, pp. 70, 71. It slightly differs from the Latin edition of 1559, p. 57; an extract from which is subjoined: “Reges 7, inquit, septem aunt persecutores: Herodes, Nero, Constantius, Mahumet, Melsemutus, Saladinus, Antichristus, etc. Haec Hovedenus. Annus nero hujus abbatis erat 1290.” Joachim flourished early in the thirteenth century, and the first edition of his prophecies appeared at Venice in 1517.—Ed. 2 Thessalonians 2:4,8.—Ed. Apamea in Syria. a439 —Ed. For this corrected list a440 see Hoveden, Hollinshed, and Gallia Christiana.—Ed. Ex veteri chronico mannscripto anonymo, de gestis Richardi Regis, cui initium, “Anno gratiae,” etc. Item ex alio ejusdem vetustatis chronico mannscripto, cui initium, “AEneas cum Ascanio,” etc. Ex chronico mannscripto, de gestis Richardi. For this passage, with Pope Clement’s letter, see Edition 1563, p. 70.—Ed. ft539The Letter of Pope Clement III to the Bishop of Elyto” Clemens Episcopus, etc. Juxta commendabile desiderium charissimi in Domino filii nostri illustrissimi Anglorum regis, frater-nitaft tuae legationis officium in tota Anglia et Wallia, tam per Cantuariensem quam per Ebora-censem archiepiscopatum, et in illis Hyberniae partibus, in quibus nobilis vir Joannes Comes Moretonii, frater ipsius regis, potestatem habet et dominium, autoritate apostolica duximus committendum. Datum nono Junii pontif. nostri anno 3.” See supra, p. 309, and Appendix.—Ed. A Cistercian monastery in Latium, where Thomas Aquinas died.

    Hoffman.—Ed. Ex Matth. Paris.; et ex aliis incerti nominis manuscriptis codicibus. Diceto, Hoveden, and William of Newbury date his embarkation at Acre, Oct. 9th, and his capture Dec. 20th. See date in next note.—Ed. ft544The Letter of the Emperor, to Philip the French King, concerning the taking of King Richard.- ”Henricus, Dei gratia Romanorum imperator, et semper Augustus, dilecto et speciali amico suo Philippo, illustri Francorum Regi, salutem, et sincerae dilectionis affectum. Quoniam Imperatoria celsitudo non dubitat regalem magnificentiam tuam laetiorem effici, de universis, quibus omni-potentia Creatoris nostri nos ipsos et Romanum imperium honoraverit et exaltaverit, nobilitati tuae tenore praesentium declarare duximus, quod inimieus imperii nostri, et turbator regni tui, rex Angliae, quum esset in transeundo mare ad partes suas reversurus, accidit ut ventus, rupta navi sua in qua ipse erat, induceret eum in partes Histriae, ad locum qui est inter Aquileiam et Venetias; ubi rex, Dei permissione, passus naufragium, cum paucis evasit. Quidam itaque fidelis noster comes Mainardus de Gortze, et populus regionis illius, audito quod in terra erat, et considerate diligentins qualem nominatus rex in terra promissionis proditionem et traditionem, et perditionis suae cumulum exereuerat, insecuti sunt, intendentes eum captivare: ipso autem rege in fugam converse, ceperunt de suis octo milites. Postmodum processit rex ad Burgum in archiepis-copatu Salseburgensi, qui vocatur Frisorum, ubi Fredericus de Betesow, rege cum tribus tantum versus Austriam properante, noctu sex milites de suis cepit. Dilectus autem consanguineus noster Leopoldus, dux Austriae, observata strata, saepe dictum regem juxta Wenam in villa viciniori in domo despecta captivavit. Cum itaque in nostro nunc habeatur potestate, et ipse semper tibi molestationis et turbationis operam praestiterit, ea quae praemisimus nobilitati tuae insinuare curavimus, scientes ea dilectioni tuae beneplacita existere, et animo tuo uberrimam importare laetitiam. Datum apud Ritheounten, 5.

    Calendas. Januar.” [Hoveden.—Ed.] Thus ended the third Oriental Crusade, A.D. 1192. But as, after a fruitlessly victorious career, the adverse events which accompanied one of the bravest men whom the world has produced, cannot fail to interest the reader, a few words which our history seems to require are added, respecting the dangers which subsequently befel King Richard.

    Having arrived at a town, which was probably Goretz, he narrowly escaped detection, in consequence of a generous offer of a splendid ruby which he made to the chieftain of the province; aware of the suspicions which he excited, and the solicitous inquiries which were made respecting him, Richard thought it prudent to retire in the night.

    Still new dangers awaited him; he traveled forward in company with a knight, and a lad, who understood German, and after three days arrived at Audberg, on the Danube, near Vienna. Here, sojourning in a retired cottage, his lad inadvertently went to market with his prince’s gloves in his girdle; the sight of these, and the unsatisfactory answers of the lad, induced the local authorities to examine him by torture; in the extremity of his agony, and under the threat of repeated sufferings, he disclosed the name of his royal master. The result may be anticipated: the duke of Austria, who unfortunately was in that neighborhood, immediately surrounded the cottage, and Richard surrendered himself to the duke in person. He was sold to the Emperor of Germany, as some say, for sixty thousand pounds of silver, and England paid the price of the ransom of her brave monarch. The reader doubtless remembers the romantic tale of the minstrel commencing a favourite ballad, and the king completing the stanza, which eventually betrayed the place of his confinement. Mr. Sharon Turner, to whom the Editor is indebted for the substance of the above remarks, refers to an interesting and detailed account of the captivity of Richard, in the “MS.

    Chronicle of Johannes de Oxenedes, monachus St. Benedicti de Hulmo, in the Cotton Library.’—Ed. Eulogium, MSS. Cott. Galba E 7:231. “Latin,” i.e. l’etain, pewter. See Appendix. a460 —Ed. Ex variis chron. That is, the year following the signing of the peace between Richard and the French king, which took place Jan. 15th, 1196. L’Art de Ver. des Dates.—Ed. See Hoveden, Polychronicon, Brompton, Knyghton, etc.: also Appendix. a463 —Ed. See Appendix. a464 ft551. Ex Historia Regis Richardi Secundi, cui initium, “De patre istius Bruti,” etc. Ex Bibliotheca Cariensi. ft552. Ex Gualtero Hemingford, monacho Gisburn. ft553. Ex Jornalens. Gisburn. et aliis. ft554. Edition 1563, p. 71. Ed. 1583, p. 249. Ed. 1596, p. 226. Ed. 1684, vol. 1:,p. 281. ¾ Ed. ft555. In A.D. 1202, the fourth Oriental Crusade set out from Venice, and Constantinople was taken by the French and Venetians.—Ed. ft556. Nat. Paretti in Vita Johannis Regis. ft557. This passage is not found in the Edition of 1583, but appears in that of 1596.—Ed. ft558. “Rex omnibus de episcopatu Lincolniae clericis et laicis, salutem.

    Sciatis quod a die lunae proxime ante Floridum paschatis commisimus,” etc.—Turris Lond. ft559. Some think that ‘Floridurn paschatis’ is Palm Sunday; but Easter is rather thought to be meant thereby, sith the Spaniards, at this day, call the same Florida. ft560. This passage is not in any edition previous to that of 1596. See Appendix.—Ed. ft561. “Rex omnibus hominibus, etc. Sciatis quod magister Simon de Langton venit ad nos apud Winton die Mercurii proxime ante mediam quadragesimae,” etc.—Turris Lond. ft562. From the Edition 1563, p. 65.—Ed. ft563. Conradus Urspergensis, Hieronymus Marius. a478 ft564. “Non est innocentius, imo nocens vere, Qui, quod facto docuit, verbo vult delere:

    Et quod olim juvenis voluit habere, Modo vetus pontirex studet prohibere.

    Zacharias habuit proleto et uxorem, Per virum quem genuit adeptus honorem; Baptizavit etenim mundi Salvatorem:

    Pereat qui teneat novum hunc errorem.

    Paulus coelos rapitur ad superiores, Ubi multas didicit res secretiores; Ad nos tandem rediens instruensque mores, Suas, inquit, habeant, quilibet uxores.

    Propter haec et alia dogmata doctorum, Reor esse melius et magis decorum, Quisque suam habeat et non proximorum, Ne incurrat odium vel iram eorum.

    Proximorum foeminas, filias, et neptes Violare nefas est, quare nil deceptes, Vere tuam habeas, et in hac delectes, Diem ut sic ultimum tutius expectes.” ft565. Stowe, speaking of these times, confirms the account which our author gives of these internal commotions which unhappily prevailed in England, but especially of the revolting assaults to which the Jews were subjected, so frequently referred to by our author. “I read, that in the year 1215, the sixteenth of King John, the barons entering the city by Ealdgate (Aldgate), first took assurance of the citizens; then brake into the Jews’ houses, searched their coffers to fill their own purses; and after, with great diligence, repaired the walls and gates of the city, with stones taken from the Jews’ broken houses.”—See Stowe’s Hist. of Lond. p. 7.—Ed. ft566. Radulphus Niger, cap. 43, 44. ft567. Matth. Paris; Radul. Niger, cap. 47. ft568. Ex chronico cui titulus “Eulogium.” ft569. Matth. Paris. in Vita Johannis Regis. ft570. Ex Hist. Gualt. Gisburn. ft571. Rastal. a488 ft572. Edition 1563, p. 72. Ed. 1583, p. 257. Ed. 1596, p. 23-t. Ed. 1684, vol. 1:p. 290. ¾ Ed. ft573. Ex Chronico vetusto Angliae. [ See Appendix. a491 ] ft574. Truly said, that you persecuted him, for persecutors ye were of a true man, and your own natural king. But well might England cry out upon your blind guides and setters on. ft575. Ex Citron. Gishburn. ft576. i.e. of Lichfield and Coventry: see pp. 385, 386, 643.—Ed. ft577. This paragraph is from the Edition of 1563 p. 69, I. v.—Ed. ft578. Ex Matth. Paris. ft579. Ex Gualter. Gisburn. ft580. Ex Matth. Paris. in Vita Reg. Henr. III. ft581. Ex Matth. Paris. ft582. Ex Abbate Ursperg. in Chronico. ft583. Ex Historia D. Scales. ft584. For this passage see Edition 1563, p. 70 a515 * I. v.—Ed. ft585. Now called Elstow.—Ed. ft586. Matth. Paris. in Vita Hen. III. ft587. For this, and the sentence next but one, see Edition 1563, p. 70, * I. 5:—Ed. ft588. See the decretals, titulo, I. “De Summa Trinit. et fide Catholica,” cap. “firmiter credimus.” ft589. It may be proved kern the writings of Romish ecclesiastics, and from the canons of councils, for two hundred years before the preaching of Dominic, that religious doctrines, in opposition to the corruptions of the Latin church, prevailed very generally in the south of Prance, particularly in Languedoc, and in that part of it which was called Albigensium, or Pays d’Albigeois. But the name Albigenses, as applied to designate the religious body opposed to the authority of the pope, does not occur in any document before the end of the twelfth or the beginning of the thirteenth century. A letter of Innocent III., to Simon de Montfort, in 1215, is one of the earliest authentic records, which gives the appellation Albigenses to the unhappy people, against whom papal vengeance was directed until they were exterminated. Peter of Vaux Sernay, who had put forth his work against the Albigenses in 1218, states, that the heretics of Languedoc were usually called the heretics of Toulouse and Provence, until the strangers who assumed the Cross and took up arms against them in the year 1068, styled them generally Albigenses; the diocese of Albi being the center of the heretical population. See “Vaissette, Histoire Generale de Languedoc,” vol. in. p. 553. “Note sur l’origine du hem d’Abigeois.”—Ed. ft590. “Charitatem habentes, humilitatem servantes, et paupertatem voluntariam possidentes.” ft591. The reader maybe surprised at seeing “Waldensis’ sect” placed by Foxe among the “rabble-ment of religious orders.” But the fact is, that in the year 1207 at a public disputation held at Pamiers against the Waldenses, a Waldensian named Durand, of Osca or Huesca in Aragon, abjured his Waldensian profession, and obtained a license from Pope Innocent IlL, dated December 1’Sth of that year, for the establishment of a fraternity to be called “the Order or Society of Poor Catholics.”

    Durand established his sect in Aragon, and also propagated it with great industry in Languedec; where he became, however, suspected of a leaning towards his old opinions, and he was complained of to the pope by the bishops of those parts. His sect seems to have dwindled away. Gulielmus de Podio Laurentii, cap 8, in “Recueil des Historiens des Gaules et de la France,” vol. 19: p. 200; and Vaissette “Hist.

    Genesis de Languedoc,” vol. in. p. 147. Binius, in a note in Labbe’s Conc. Genesis tom. 10:col. 1533, seems to refer to this sect., ‘Waldensis’ sect,” therefore, means “Durand’s fraternity of Poor Catholics,” a monastic body quite distinct from the Waldenses, though founded by a Waldensian.-This is not the only sect in this list which needs such an explanation. The “Injesuati” or “Jesuati,” mentioned p. 352, are not to be confounded with the followers of Ignatius Loyola: see infra, p. 775, note (I).—Ed. ft592. This version of Hildegard’s Prophecy has been collated with that in the Edition of 1563, p. 72; and some words introduced from thence.— Ed. ft593. A coarse epithet is here omitted; in Latin, “scorta et lenae.”——Ed. ft594. “Doves”—“ Turtles,” Edition 1563.—Ed. ft595. “Orators,” “makers of prayer,” Idem. ft596. “Maintainers,” etc. “curious in men’s faults,” Idem. ft597. “Heretical pravity,” “Heresies,” Idem. ft598. The Albigenses have been represented by some authors under the most revolting colors, and have been accused of every crime against religion, morality, and social order. But it is a singular testimony in their favor, that after the people, designated by this name, had continued to attract public notice by their opposition to the church of Rome, for many years, and when Pope Innocent III first resolved to put them down by fire and sword, by stirring up a crusade against them, he denounced them as enemies to the orthodox faith, and inveterate heretics, but made no allusion whatever to their moral turpitude; on the contrary, he spoke of their professed rectitude and virtue. Innocent was elected pope in the beginning of the year 1198. In the April of that year he addressed a letter to the archbishop of Auch, inviting him to pursue the heretics of Gascony and the neighboring regions with the temporal sword—“et etiam si necesse fuerit per principes et populum eosdem facias virtute materialis gladii coerceri,”—but not a word against their moral conduct. In the same month and year Innocent sent another letter to the archbishop of Aix, and letters also to all the bishops and archbishops of the south of France, to awaken their zeal against the innumerable adversaries of the Romish church (“innumeros populos”) who peopled their dioceses. In these we have the following description of the objects of his displeasure: “Qni, iniquitatem suam justitiae specie palliantes, ut salutentur in foro, et vocentur ab hominibus Rabbi, et soil recta sapere ac juste vivere videantur, magisterium ecclesiae Romanae refugiunt,” etc. See Recueil des Hist. des Gaules, vol. 19:p. 350; and Epist.

    Innocentii. III. lib. 1:Ep. 81, 94.—Ed. ft599. A Letter of the Bishop of Porto concerning theAlbigenses .— “Venerabilibus patribus, De! gratia Rothomagensi archiepiscopo et ejus suffraganeis episeopis, salutem in Domino Jesu Christo. Dum pro sponsa veri Crucifixi vestrum cogimur auxilium implorare, potius compellimur lacerari singultibus et plorare. Ecce quod vidimus loquimur, et quod scimus testificamur. Ille homo perditus, qui extollitur super omne qued colitur, aut dicitur Deus, jam habet perfidiae suae praeam-bulum haeresiareham, quem haeretici Albigenses papam suum nominant, habitantem in finibus Bulgarorum et Croatiae et Dalmatiae, juxta Hungarorum nationem. Ad eum confluunt haeretici Albigenses, ut ad eorum consulta respondeat. Etenim de Carcasona oriundus vices illius and-papae gerens Bartholomaeus, haereticorum episcopus, funestam ei exhibendo reverentiam sedem et 1ocum concessit in villa quae Porlos appellatur, et seipsum transtulit in partes Tholosanas. Iste Bartholomaeus, in litersrum suarum undique discurrentium tenore, se in primo salutationis alloquio intitulat in hunc modum: Bartholomaeus, servus servorum sanctae fidel, M. salutem. Ipsc etiam inter alias enormitates creat episcopos, et ecclesias perfide ordinare contendit.

    Roga-runs igitur attentius et per aspersionem sanguinis Jesu Christi, et propensius obsecramur, authori-tate domini papae qua fungimur in hac parte districte praecipientes, quatenus veniatis Senonas in octavis apostolorum Petri et Paoli proxime futuris, ubi et alii praelati Franciae favente Domino congregabuntur, parati consilium dare in negotio praedicto, et cum aliis qui ibidem aderunt provi-dere super negotio Albigensi Alioqui inobedientiam vestram domino papae curabimus significari. Datum apud Plauvium, o nonas Julii.” ft600. The Latin copy of this complaint of the nobles of England is at p. 72, in the Edition of 1568,—Ed. ft601. “Petimus imprimis ab omnibus ecclesiis cathedralibus duas nobis praebendas exhiberi, unam de portione episcopi, et alteram de capitulo: et similiter de coenobiis ubi diversae sunt portiones abbatis et conventus; a conventibus quantum pertinet ad unum monachum, aequali facta distributione bonorum suorum, et ab abbate tantundem.” ft602. These words are not in the editions of Foxe previous to 1596.—Ed. ft603. A Letter of the Cardinal to Bishops and Archdeaeons, in which the censure of the Church is well apptied .—“Otto miseratione divina, etc.

    Discreto viro N. episcopo vel N. archidiacono salutem. Cam necesse habeamus de mandato summi pontifieis moram trahere in Anglia longiorem, nec possimus propriis stipendiis milltare, discretionem vestram qua fungimar autoritate rogamus, ut procurationes vobis debitas in episcopatu, vel arcbidiaconatu vestro colligi faciatis nostro nomine diligenter, eas quam citius poteritis nobis transmissuri, contradictores per censuram ecclesiasticam compescendo. Proviso, quod quaelibet procuratio summam 4. marcsram aliquatenus non excedat, et ubi una ecclesia non sufficiet ad procurationera hujusmodi habendam, duae pariter unam solvant.” ft604. “N. episcopus dilectis in Christo filiis omnibus archdiaconis per diocesim suam constitutis, salutem. Literas domini legati suscepimus in haec verba; Otto miseratione divina, etc. Cam sicat intelleximus nonnulli cruce signati regal Angliae, qui sunt inhabiles ad pugnandum, ad sedem apostolicam accedant, ut ibidem a voto crucis absolvi valeant, et nos nuper recepimus a summo pontifice in mandatis, ut tales non solum absolvere, verum etiam ad redimenda vota sua [note the style of Rome] compellere debeamus, volerites eorum parcere laboribus et expensis, fra-ternitatem vestram qua fungimar autoritate monemus, quatenus potestatem praedictam a summo pontifice nobis concessam faciatis in nostris diocesibus sine mora qualibet publicari, ut prefati cruce-signati ad nos accedere valeant, beneficium [immo malefieium et naufragium pecuniae,] super his juxta formam nobis traditam accepturi.” [This and the preceding letter are in M. Paris, Ed. Load. 1640, p. 524; both dated “Londini 15 Kal. Mart. anno Pont. D.

    Gregorii Papae 13.”—Ed.] ft605. “Unde Jafra pancos dies misit Dom. Papa sacra praecepta sua domino Cant. Archiep. Eliensi et Lincol. et Salisb. episeopis, ut trecentis Romanis in primis beneficiis vacantibus providerent, scientes se suspensos a beneficiorum collatione donee tot competenter provideretur.” [M. Paris, p. 532, with the omission of “Eliensi et”: see infra, p. 427.—ED ] ft606. This and the next two pages are revised and corrected from M. Paris, pp. 534, 699—701, 708, 709.—Ed. ft607. See them stated infra, p. 432. ¾ Ed. ft608. “Debilitantur et evanescunt :” ‘embezzled,’ i.e. imbeciled, or weakened. Todd’s Johnson.—Ed. ft609. The French say, “Ventre aftame n’a point d’oreilles.”—Ed. ft610. This was for 6,000 marks. Walter, bishop of Norwich, was authorised to collect it: his letter to St. Alban’s is in M. Paris, dated Mar. 24, a540 and one of the king’s, forbidding it, dated April 1.—Ed. ft611. Foxe says “Winchester,” whereas it was the council of Winchester which was assembled July. 7th, to hear this report of the ambassadors. M. Paris, p. 709.—Ed. ft612. M. Paris, p. 709.—Ed. ft613. This paragraph in single asterisks is from the Edition of 1563, p. 73, and is followed by a short abstract of the ecclesiastical and civil history of this country to the time of Wickliff, given more fully in later Editions.—Ed. ft614. Ex Matth. Paris. in Vita Hen, Ill. ft615. Ex Matth. Paris. ft616. “ Reginam interficere noire timere bonum est, et si omnes consenserint non ego contradieo.” ft617. Ex Matth Paris. ft618. Ex tabula pensili in aede divi Pauli. ft619. See infra, p. 528.—Ed. ft620. Flor. Historioe. ft621. Nicholas Trivet. a554 ft622. Ex Chron. de Sal. ft623. Usually, the best sheep in the flock.—Ed. ft624. Ex ,Matth. Paris ft625. Ibid.; ex Flor. Historiarum ft626. Ex Matth. Paris.; Nich. Trivet. Flor. Hist. ft627. For two lines of text omitted here, see infra p. 383.—Ed. ft628. This Louis (afterwards Louis VIII. of France) was the eldest son of Philip II. To him the barons of England offered the crown, in the miserable days of King John. John died A.D. 1216, and Louis was defeated on the 20th of May in the following year, by the Lord Protector Pembroke, and compelled to evacuate the kingdom.—Ed. ft629. Ex Matth. Paris. p. ft630. “Videbatur enim multis abusio, ut hominem fidelem Christianum infestarent, praecipue cum constaret cunctis, eum, in concilio nuper Bituriensi, multis precibus persuasisse legato, ut veniret ad singulas terrae suae civitates, inquirens a singulis articulos fidel: et si quempiam contra fidem inveniret,” etc. ft631. “Stover,” fodder. ¾ Ed. ft632. The next two lines, “to this year also,” are brought from p. 376.—Ed. ft633. Ex Fabiano, par. 7. ft634. Ex Matth. Paris. p. ft635. See p. 343, note (4)—Ed. ft636. Ex Matth. Paris. ft637. Ibid. fol. 68. ft638. “Postils,” See Appendix. a567 —Ed. ft639. See p. 385, note (1)—Ed. ft640. “Ad dominus papa, qui rebellem imperatorem super omnia aestuabat dejicere, tantis premis-sionibus exhilaratus, trahitur ad consensum.” ft641. Haec ex Matth. Parisiensi ad veibum ft642. Ex Matth. Paris. ft643. Ex Matth. Paris, fol. 74. ft644. Ibid. p. 69. ft645. We must conclude that our author extols rather the goodness of God in giving the victory, than the cruel manner in which earl Reimund improved it. But while we shrink with disgust at these excesses inflicted upon the French soldiery, it must be remembered that Reimund, the seventh earl, was influenced more by political motives, than by the force of that love, which is taught in the pure doctrines of the gospel of Christ. Without this holy principle, we cannot be surprised that the atrocious severities which his predecessor suffered, and which he saw inflicted upon his own people by the papal power, fostered within him a spirit of unrelenting rigour, which might in time become the dominant principle of his nature. Let us for a moment glance at some of the hideous scenes to which a most bitter persecution had familiarised his mind, and then let any candid reader judge whether the papists have not more cause to blush at the name of pope Innocent III., the founder of the Inquisition, than the Albigenses have at the name of the earls Reimund. “The subjects of Raymund [VIth] earl of Toulouse, and of some other great personages in his neighborhood, so generally professed the Waldensian doctrines, that they became the peculiar objects of papal vengeance. The inhabitants of Toulouse, Carcassone, Beziers, Narbonne, Avignon, and many other cities, who were commonly called the Albigenses, were exposed to a persecution more cruel and atrocious than any recorded in history.”—(Milner, Ch.

    Hist. vol. in. p. 484.) The first victims of the destructive and insidious machinations of the Inquisition, instituted about this period (A.D. 1206), were the people of the earl Reimund. “The beginning of the thirteenth century” (continues the above author), “saw thousands of persons hanged or burned by these diabolical devices, whose sole crime was, that they trusted only to Jesus Christ for salvation, and renounced all the vain hopes of self-righteous idolatry and superstition.” We will not relate details too terrible and disgusting to peruse; they may be found elsewhere: but a brief extract from Stockdale’s History of the Inquisition (p. 191) will give the reader some idea of the horrors of this ordeal, “When the accused was condemned to the torture, they conducted him to the place destined for its application, which was called The Place of Torment. It was a subterraneous vault, the descent to which was by an infinite number of winding passages, in order that the shrieks of the unhappy sufferers should not be heard. In this place there were no seats but such as were destined for the inquisitors, who were always present at the infliction of the torture. It was lighted only by two gloomy lamps, whose dim and mournful light served but to show to the criminal, the instruments of his torment: one or more executioners attended, as the case required.

    These executioners were clothed nearly in the same manner in which penitents are dressed,—in a large robe of black buckram; their heads and faces concealed under a cowl of the same color, with holes for the eyes, the nose and the mouth. This spectre-like figure seized the criminal, and stripped him of his clothes,’ etc. The same author’ (p. 47) observes, in reference to the persecutions of the Albigenses, “The siege of Beziers commenced: it was urged by all the fury of persecution, and sustained with all the energy of despair. The contest was too unequal: upon the 22d of July, 1209, a day ever memorable in the annals of Europe, the ramparts were forced, and the crusaders entered the city. Bleeding humanity attempts in vain to discredit the sad story of the scene which followed. Men, women, children, old and young, were murdered, without mercy and without distinction. Not even the temples of the Almighty were respected; the unhappy victims were slaughtered upon the very altars to which they had fled for refuge; and when the troops were wearied with massacre, they fastened the doors of the churches, wherein thousands were immured, and setting fire to the buildings, the conflagration completed the destruction of those whom the sword had spared.”—“After this, we need not be astonished to hear, that upwards of sixty thousand victims perished on that day.” Nor are these cruelties to be attributed to the spirit of an uncultivated age, for the reader may now be referred to one of the enemies of the Albigenses, who defends the enormities here described: we mean the Right Revelation John Milner, D.D. In the Seventh Edition of his “Letters to a Prebendary,” p. 72, this Romish writer, in speaking of the Albigenses, observes,—“ It was against these pests of society and human nature, that fires were first lighted in the West, etc.; and it was to repress and rout out these, etc. that the crusade of our Simon de Montfort and the Inquisition were set on foot, and that the canons, etc. were passed.” And in the next page, this writer (who assures us that persecution is no tenet of the Romish church,) speaks of the “much lamented persecution of the Albigenses, to which, however, we are indebted for the continuance of society and the human race,” etc.—“ Three hundred thousand pilgrims, induced by the united motivcs of avarice and superstition, filled the country of the Albigenses with carnage and confusion for a number of years. “The castle of Menerbe, on the frontiers of Spain, for want of water, was reduced to the necessity of surrendering to the pope’s legate. A certain abbot undertook to preach to those who were found in the castle, and to exhort them to acknowledge the pope: but they interrupted his discourse, declaring that his labor was to no purpose. Earl Simon (Montfort) and the legate then caused a great fire to be kindled: and they burned a hundred and forty persons of both sexes. These martyrs died in triumph, praising God that he had counted them worthy to suffer for the sake of Christ.”—(Milner’s Church History, vol. in. p. 492.) The sixth earl Reimund, after a life of suffering and persecution, died in peace, A.D. 1222. His successor, the subject of the present history, pressed on all sides by the enemies of the truth and “the sinful seat of Rome,” was constrained, A.D. 1229, to purchase an ignominious peace, by sacrificing a portion of his possessions to Louis IX., the French king, and making the accustomed peace offering to Pope Gregory IX. We come then to this conclusion: Our author, who, only on a foreign shore could escape the sanguinary rage of the papists in Queen Mary’s reign praises God :for their defeat, and attaches to them the epithet “furious,” in his recollections of wrongs and injuries suffered by his fellow-protestants. Reimund, the victim of papal cruelty, insult, and rage, in the flush of victory, surrounded by an infuriated soldiery, permitted the barbarities here related, against his prisoners. The church of Rome, in the written decrees of her councils—in the calm deliberations of her primates—in the mournful dungeons of the Inquisition—in cold blood—in premeditated crime, has made herself “drunk with the blood” of innocent millions, whose “witness is in heaven, and whose record is on high.”—Ed. ft646. Ex Matth. Paris. ft647. Ex Fabiano. ft648. Ex Matth. Paris. fol. 75. ft649. Ex Matth. Paris. ft650. Ibid. ft651. See Appendix. a577 —Ed. ft652. Ex Matth. Paris. ft653. Ex Matth. Paris. fol. 79. ft654. Probably meaning the combination under Hubert, mentioned p. 394:

    See Appendix. a581 —Ed. Ex additamentis Matth. Paris. fol. 81. ft656. Matth. Paris. fol. ft657. Ex Matth. Paris. Et ex Floribus Historiarum. ft658. Ex Matth. Paris. Fol. 65. ft659. “Dum omnes, qui in diversis orbis partibus unicam Benedicti secuti fuerant regulam, per novas constitutiones ita inveniantur ubique discordes, quod ex omnibus coenobiis, vel aliis religio-soturn ecclesiis vix duo habeantur in norma vivendi concordes.”—Ex Parisiensi. ft660. A brief abstract of fifty years of these melancholy times will serve to recal, to the recollection of the reader, the events to which our author here alludes. The king, at an early age, came to the throne, A.D. 1216.

    Excess and extravagance pervaded the court. The people were oppressed—the clergy suffered the most disgraceful extortion from Pope Gregory 1X.-violence and rapine troubled the realm—the baronial aristocracy seconded the ambitious designs of the earl of Leicester, A.D. 1258—they usurped the power of the throne—a civil war, accompanied with its usual horrors, succeeded—the king and his brother Richard were defeated and taken prisoners, at Lewes, on the 14th May, A.D. 1264—in the following year the earl of Leicester called a parliament, distinguished as the one to which deputies from the boroughs were first summoned—and on the 4th of August that nobleman fell in the battle of Evesham, fighting against Prince Edward (afterwards Edward I.), upon which King Henry was restored to the throne.—Ed. “Pro redemptione animae suae et Regis Johannis patris sui, et omnium antecessorum suorum.’ -]Ex Matth. Paris. fol. 85. “Manor places.”—Old editions.—Ed. ft663. See p. 386, note (l).—Ed. ft664. Ex Matth. Paris., fol. 87. [Ed. Paris. 1644, p. 271.] ft665. Ex Matth. Paris. fol. 91. [Edit. 1640, p. 408.] ft666. “Donis gratuitis.” Lat.—Ed. ft667. The title of the chief magistrate of Rome: see Dueange in vocem.—Ed. ft668. “Hinc inde,” between both parties.—Ed. ft669. Ex M. Paris. fol. 92, [p. 408, whence the text has beer in several instances corrected.—Ed.] ft670. Ex Matth. Paris. fol. 112, etc. fol. 186. ft671. Ex Matth. Paris. fol. 112, ft672. Ibid. fol. 3, et 111. ft673. Ex libro Matth. Paris manuscripto, ff. 3 et 111. ft674. Ex Matth. Paris. fol. 111. ft675. Ibid. fol 118, ft676. The substance of the facts here recorded appear to be contained in the Harl. MSS. Brit. Mus. No. 419, Art. 9: “Concerning the wicked and unreasonable demeanour of (livers popes, against christian princes, the foundation of divers orders, beginning of new ceremonies, and some other historical observations,” with a note: “Written probably by Matthew Paris,”—Ed. ft677. “ The dorsels of the apostles. a612 ” “Limina apostolorum.” The arrival of the abbot, every third year, to visit, with a full parse, the seats of the apostles, was both agreeable and advantageous to the pope.—Ed. ft678. Ex Matth. Paris. fols. 164, ft679. The ecclesiastical treasury.—Ed. ft680. Ex Matth. Paris, fol. ft681. Ex Matth. Paris. ft682. Ibid. fol. 63. ft683. Ibid. fol. 114. ft684. Ibid. fol. 132. b. ft685. Ibid. fol. 119, ft686. Ibid. fols. 182, 184, 186. ft687. Ex Matth. Paris. fol. 230. ft688. Ibid. fol. 231. ft689. Ex Matth. Parts. fol. 114. ft690. Ibid. fol. 273; ft691. Ex Matth. Paris. fol. 256. ft692. Ibid. fol. 103. ft693. Alexander II.—Ed. ft694. Ex Matth. Paris. fols. 106, 123. b. ft695. Ibid. fols. 123, 128, 132. ft696. Ibid. fols. 116, 119, ft697. lbid. fol. 128. a. ft698. Ibid. fol. 132. ft699. Matth. Paris. fol. 122. ft700. Ibid. fols. 132, 136. ft701. Ibid. fol. 134.b. ft702. Ibid. fol. 137. ft703. Matth. Paris. p. 134. ft704. Turris Loud. ft705. The passage in asterisks is not found in the Editions previous to 1596. ft706. Ex Matth. Paris. fol l43. ft707. Ibid. fol. 184. ft708. Ibid, fol. 192. ft709. Ex Matth. Paris. fol. 247 b. ft710. Ibid. fol. 151. ft711. Ibid. fols. 167, 180. ft712. Ibid. fol. 178. b. ft713. Ibid. ft714. “Sanctissimo in Christo patri, ac Domino Innocentio, Dei gratia summo pontifici: Hentitus eadem gratia rex Angliae, etc., salutem et pedum oseula beatorum,” etc. ft715. Ex Matth. Paris. fol. 172. ft716. Ibid. ft717. Ibid. ft718. Matth. Paris. fol 129. ft719. Ibid. fol. ft720. Ibid. fol. 185. a. ft721. Ex Matth. Paris. fol. 185. b. ft722. Ex Matth. Paris. fol. 188. ft723. Ibid. fol. 193. ft724. This passage in single asterisks is not found in the editious which were published previous to A. D. 1596. ft725. “Rex archiepiseopis, episcopis, et omnibus aliis praelatis terrae suae Angliae, conventuris ad concilium Lugdunense, salutem. Vinculo juramenti nobis (ut nostis) adstricti,” etc. ft726. Ex Matth. Paris. fol. ft727. Ibid. fol. ft728. Ibid. fol 206. ft729. Matth. Paris. fol. 202. ft730. Ibid. fol. 203. ft731. Of Spain, he meaneth, because the king of Arragon a little before had cut off the tongue of a certain bishop that did reprehend him. ft732. Ex Matth. Paris fol. 207. [Edit. 1640, p 715.] ft733. Supra, p. 413—-418.—Ed. ft734. Nicolas de Plaisance, Latin Patriarch.—Ed. ft735. Ex actis concilii Laterancnsis, cap. 4. [Labbe. tom. 11:col. 152.] ft736. “District,” from the Latin “districtus,” severe, sharp: “per censuram ecclesiasticam” M. Paris.—Ed. ft737. “De suis catallis,” Lat., chattells.—Ed. ft738. Ex Matth. Paris. fol. 205. [Edit. 1640, p. 710.] a643 ft739. See Appendix, a644 and supra, p. 317.—Ed. ft740. Ibid. fol. 207. [Edit. 1640, pp, 716, 717.] ft741. “Sanctissimo patri in Christo ac domino Innocentio, Dei providentia summo pontifici, universitas cleri et populi per provinciam Cant. constituti devota pedum oscula beatorum. Cum Anglicana ecclesia,” etc. ft742. Ex Matth. Paris. fol. 209. ft743. Ibid. b. ft744. Ex Matth. Paris. fol. 210. ft745. Ibid. fol. 213. ft746. “Vails,” additional profits,—Ed. Ex Matth. Paris. fol. 222. ft748. Ex Matth. Paris. fol..240. ft749. Matth. Paris. fol. 182. ft750. Ibid. fol. 204, b. ft751. Matth. Paris. fol. 211. for the king, perceiving the mortal variance between the pope and good Frederic, the emperor, thought best first, before his going, to have that matter appeased, whereby his way both might be safer through the emperor’s countries, and also less jeopardy at home after his departure; and therefore, upon the same, he took first his way to Lyons, where the pope was, partly to take his leave, but most especially to make reconcilement between the emperor and the pope. ft752. Ex Matth. Paris. fol. 187. ft753. Matth. Paris. fol. 226. ft754. Ibid. fo.229. [M. Par., p. 771. See Appendix. a655 —Ed.] ft755. Ibid. ft756. Ex Matth. Paris. fol 231. ft757. Ex Matth. Paris. ft758. Ex Matth. Paris. fol. 233, 234. ft759. Ex Matth. Paris. fol. ft760. Ex Matth. Paris. fol. ft761. “Pashed,” struck.—Ed. ft762. See Note 1, 5:294.—Ed. ft763. Haec Matth. Paris. fol. 237, 233. ft764. This was the seventh and last principal crusade.—Ed. ft765. Matth. Paris. fol. ft766. This passage between asterisks is from the edition of 1570. See Appendix. a662 —Ed. ft767. See Appendix. a664 ft768. Rather, ‘King of the Romans,’ that is, heir apparent.—Ed. ft769. See infra pp. 458, 663.—Ed. ft770. See supra, vol. 1:p. 136, note(3).—Ed. ft771. See Appendix. a669 ft772. Fazellus flourished in the sixteenth century: he wrote “De rebus siculis,” folio, Panormi, 1558; translated into Italian by M. Remigio, 4to. Venez, 1574. ¾ Ed. ft773. Dec. 6th. A.D. 1212, and July 25th, A.D. 1215. L’Art de V. des D.

    See Appendix. a671 —Ed. ft774. Crowned pope July 24th, 1216.—Ed. ft775. Thomas Fazellus, lib. 8. ft776. Can. 8. dist. 79. et can. 2. dist. 97. ft777. Justinian flourished from A.D. 527 to 565; Mantithes, from A.D. to 602.—Ed. ft778. Dist. 63. can. 15, 10, 24. ft779. Constantine Pogonatus, A.D. 668 to 685; Charlemagne, A.D. 786 to 814.—Ed. ft780. [Causa] 2. Quest.?. can. 41. ft781. See Appendix. ft782. Supra, p. 461. ¾ Ed. ft783. See Ducange and Hoffman on the term ‘Palea,’ prefixed to certain chapters of the Canon Law.—Ed. ft784. This sentence is not in Cisner. ¾ Ed. ft785. What Rome catcheth, that she keepeth. ft786. Andreas de Isthmia ad prim. const. Neap. nu. 12. ft787. Prince of a curious fanatical tribe near Damascus, sometimes called the Old Man of the Mountain. See Appendix. a695 —Ed. ft788. “Lin,” to give over.—Ed. ft789. Frederic in his letters says Hydruntum, i.e. Otranto: the same remark applies to the other instances in this and the next page, where Brundusium is mentioned.—Ed. ft790. Sept. 29th, A.D. 1227. L’Art de Verifier des Dates.—Ed. ft791. A.D. 1228. L’Art de Ver. des D.—Ed. ft792. The extract from M. Paris is not in Cisner. a702 —Ed. ft793. Matth. Paris, p. 69. [“ Tunc tua res agitur, paries efim proximus ardet.”—Ed.] ft794. “Foreslowed,” delayed.—Ed. ft795. February 18th, A.D. 1229 a706 . L’Art de Ver. des D. ¾ Ed. ft796. “Chrath praesidium, quod Arabiam spectat.” Fazellus.—Ed. ft797. So says Fazellus. Easter-day, 1229, fell on April 15th. But Aventine and others with more probability say, that he arrived at Jerusalem cal. Aprilis, i.e. Saturday March 17, and wore the insignia of royalty the next day. ¾ Ed. ft798. According to the list given in L’Art de Ver. des Dates, we should read “Peter” instead of “Oliver,” for which, however, Cisner had Fazellus’s authority. ¾ Ed. a708 ft799. Fazellus adds the Venetians.—Ed. ft800. “Alium quemlibet filium pacis et obedientiae loco ejus subrogare.”

    Matth. Paris. ft801. Ibid. fol. 71. [The following translation is revised from the original.— Ed.] ft802. “Raynaldum Bavarum, magistrum equitum.” Fazellus: others call him “Richard Felingher.”—Ed. ft803. Called also “duke of Merania.” See L’Art de V. des D.v. Meranie.— Ed. ft804. August 28th, A.D. 1230. L’Art de Ver. des D.—Ed. ft805. August, 1235. L’Art de Verif. des D. a724 ¾ Ed. ft806. See Appendix. a731 ft807. An eminent Ghibelin captain of that period, called also Ezzelin, Ecelin, and Icelin. See Moreri.—Ed. ft808. Labbe, Conc. Genesis tom. xi col. 340.—Ed. ft809. “Albertus Behamus (ipse Bolemum nominat).” Cisner. ¾ Ed ft810. See supra, p. 477. ¾ Ed. ft811. See supra, p. 478. ¾ Ed. ft812. Corrected and revised from the original in , “Petri de Vineis Frederici II. Epistolae,” lib. 1:ep. 31. ¾ Ed. ft813. Revelation 13:1,2.—Ed. ft814. Ib. chap. 6:4. ¾ Ed. ft815. 2 Peter 1:20,21, is probably refered to.—ED. ft816. Revelation 13:1,2.—Ed. ft817. Ezekiel 13:19.—Ed. ft818. Lib. 7. Annalium Boiorum. ft819. Supra, p. 195. ¾ Ed. ft820. “Libyssa,” a town of Brandenburg, in the Middle Mark, two miles from Frankfort on the Oder, and a bishop’s see: Hoffman. Vide infra, p. 492, and vol. in. pp. 438, 460. ¾ Ed. ft821. See Appendix, ft822. See Ducange, in 5:Precaria.—Ed. ft823. An illegitimate son of Frederic.—Ed. ft824. This appears, from what follows, to be the navy of 25 ships mentioned supra, p. 480.—Ed. ft825. He wrote “Compendio dell’ Istoria del regno di Napoli;” 8ro. Venez. 1541: translated into Latin by Stupanus, 4to. Basil. 1572.—Ed. ft826. See p. 475, note (2).—Ed. ft827. See supra, p. 488. ¾ Ed. ft828. Petri de Vineia Epist. Fred. II., lib. i..ep. 12. ¾ Ed. ft829. Ibid. Epist. 13. Both this and the preceding are revised from the Latin.—Ed. ft830. “Certum est, multa capita in iis mutila et decurtata esse ut invidiosum argumentum lateret,” etc. Carolus Molinaens upon the Decretals of Gregory IX. [in principio: Molin. Opera, Par. 1658, tom. 4:p. 68.— Ed.] ft831. Revised and corrected from Pet. de Vineis Epist. Frederici I1., lib. 1:ep. 18.—Ed. ft832. See infra, pp. 532,533.—Ed. ft833. Pet. de Vineis Epist. Fred. II., lib. 1:ep. 3, whence the above translation is revised.—Ed. ft834. See supra, p. 467, note (3).—Ed. ft835. “Staffurm” (Cisner), most likely Stadt-am-Hof, a town separated from Ratisbon only by a bridge over the Danube, where probably there was a prison. Busching’s Geography. ¾ Ed. ft836. The correct designation of this prince was, “Frederic of Antioch. count of Albano, Ceiano, and Loretto.” See Struvius’s Germanic History. ¾ Ed. ft837. See supra p. 502, note (1).—Ed. “Skath, or skate,” and “teen,” injury and sorrow. Todd’s Johnson.— Ed. The translation of it is given supra, p. 482.—Ed. “Non existimetis id me a vobis ideo contendere, ac si ex sententia pontificia privatlonis majestas nostra sit perculsa. Cum enim nobis sit rectae voluntatis conscientia cumque Deum nobiscum habeamus, eundem testem invocamus id nos spectasse, ut cum totum ordinem ecelesi-asticum, tum presetim primeres, nervis potentitiae dominationisqne eorum succisis extirpatisque tyrannidis radicibus, ad primitivae ecclesiae conditioners et statum revcarcmus.” ft841. Gilles Colonne was arehbp, of Bourges, A.D. 1294—1316. Gallia Christiana. See Cave’s Hist. Litt. His work “De Regimine Principum” was translated into English by Thomas Ocleve, one of our old English poets, See Tanner’s Biblioth. and Wharton’s Hist. of English Poetry.

    See p. 714, infra.—Ed. ft842. [‘Saxoniae’] lib. 8:cap. 16 et [“Metropolis,” lib. 8:cap.] 18, [cited by Illyrieus “Cat. Test.” col. 165 I, from the Par. Ursperg.; whence a few corrections are made in the text.—Ed.] ft843. Vide librum [Illyrici] “de testibus veritatis.” [Ed. 1608, col 1647, whence some corrections are made in the text. ¾ Ed.] ft844. From hence to the middle of the next page is from Illyricus, col. 1648..—Ed. ft845. The following signs of a false prophet, pp. 511—520, are from the “De periculis ecclesiae,” chap. xiv., and will be found in Browne’s Appendix to the “Fasciculus.” See Appendix. a809 ¾ Ed. ft846. “By good words and fair speeches deceive the hearts of the simple.”

    Romans 16:18.—Ed. ft847. See the Appendix a811 for information respecting this book.—Ed. ft848. See an account of this individual in Tanner’s Bibliotheca, 5:Dritonus ¾ Ed. ft849. M. Paris, ad ann. 1251; (Edit. Loud. 1640, p. 939), whence the text is revised.—Ed. ft850. Illyricus, “Cat. Test.” (edit. 1608, col. 1649): these two sermons are in Browne’s Appendix to the “Fasciculus.” See Appendix. a814 —Ed. ft851. Illyricus, sols, 1650,1772. See infra, p. 610, note.—Ed. ft852. Illyricus, sols, 1662, 1663.—Ed. ft853. Robert Grosthead or Grossteste was born at Stradbrook in Suffolk about A.D. 1175, was made bishop in 1235, and died 1253.—Ed. ft854. Many other works and volumes were written by the said Grosthead. as “De oculo Morali,” “De dotibns,” “De cessatione legalium,” “Parvus Cato,” “Annotationes in Suidam,” “In Boetium,” “De potestate Pastorali,” “Expositiones in Genesis et in Lucam,” with a number more, besides divers epistles, sermons, and invections sent to the pope for his immeasurable exactions, wherewith he overcharged and oppressed the church of England. ft855. Matth. Paris. fol. 278. ft856. “Dilectis filiis archdiacono Cant. et Magisto Innocent. scriptori nostro in Anglia commo-ranti, salutem et apostolicam benedict. Cure dilectus filius noster G., Saneti Eustaehii diaconus cardinalis, dilecto filio [recte dictum fortassis filio!] Frederico de Lavania clerico, nepoti nostro, de speciali mandato nostro canonicatum Lincolniens. cum plenitudine juris canonici duxerit confe-rendum, ipsum per suum annulum corporaliter et praesentialiter investiens de eodem, ut ex tunc canonicus Lincolniensis existat, et plenum nomen et jus canonici consequatur ibidem; ae praeben-dam, al qua vacaverit in ecclesia Lincol. a tempore quo dudum literae nostrae super receptione ac provisione faeienda sibi in eccles, eadem de praemissis venerab, fratri nostro episeopo Lincoln. praesentatae fuerunt; alioqui, post vacaturam conferendam sibi donationi apostolicae reservarit; decernendo irritum et inane, si quid de praebenda hujusmodi a quoquam fuerit attentatum, nee non et in contradictores et rebelles exeommunicationis sententiam ubique promulgando, prout in literis ejusdem exinde de constitutis [confectis] plenius continetur: “Nos ipsius Frederici devotis supplicationibus inclinati, quod ab eodem cardinale factum est super hoe et return et gratum habentes, idem authoritate apostolica duximus confirmandum.

    Quocirca discretioni vestrae per apostolica scripta mandamus, quatenus eundem Fredericum, vel procure-totem suum ejus nomine, in corporalem possessionem praedictorum canonicatus et praebendae authorirate nostra inducatis, et defendatis inductum, contradictores per censuram ecclesiasticam appellatione postposita compescendo. Non obstantibus aliquibus consuetudinibus vel statutis, jura-mentis vel confirmationibus sedis apostolicae, seu quacunque alia infirmitate roboratis—vel quod dictus Fredericus praesens non fuerit ad praestandum juramentum de observandis consuetudinibus ejusdem eccles, consuetis; sive si praedieto episeopo vel capitulo ipsius eeclesiae communiter vel singulatim, sen allis quibuscunque personis, a diets sede indultum existat, quod ad receptionem vel provisionem alicujus compelli nequeant, sive quod nullus alius in eorum ecclesia nemini providere valeat; vel quod interdici, suspendi, aut exeommunicari non possint per literas apostol, sub qua-cunque forma verborum obtentas, vel obtinendas; etiamsi torus tenor indulgentiarum hujusmodi de verbo in verbum in iisdem literis sit insertus—sive quibus allis indulgentiis, quibuseunque personis, dignitati, vel loco, sub quacunque forma verborum, concessis a sede apost, vel etiam concedendis, per quas effectus hujusmodi provisionis posset impediri aliquatenus vel differri; tamen volumus ea de certa scientia, quantum ad provisionem factam et faciendam Frederico praedicto in ecclesia Lincoln., viribus omnino carere, Caeterum, si aliqui praedicto Frederico vel procuratori super praemissis, vel aliquo praemissorum, aliquatenus duxerint opponendum; illos ex parte nostra citari curetis, ut peremptorie infra duorum mensium spetium post citationem vestram personaliter compareant coram nobis, eidem Frederico super praemissis legitime responsuri. Non obstantibus privilegiis sire quibuslibet indulgentiis, personis regni Angliae generaliter, vel cuivis alii personae, vel dignitati, vel loco specialiter, a praedicta sede sub quacunque forma verborum con-eessis, quod non possunt ultra mare, seu extra civitatem vel diocesin suam in judicium evocari per literas apost, sub quacunque forma verborum obtentas; quod privilegium et indulgentias eisdem personis de certs scientia nullatenus volumus suffragari: et constitutione edits de duabus diaetis in concilio generali non obstante. Diem autem citationis et formam nobis vestris literis tenorera praesentium continentibus, fideliter intimetis. Quod si non ambo his exequendis interesse pore-rills, alter vestrum nihileminus exequatur.”—Datum Perus. 7. Cal. Febr. pontificat, nostri anno decimo. ft857. “Non obstante.”—Ed. ft858. See the constitution” De duabus diaetis,” cap. 37 of the acts of the council of Lateran, 1215, in Labbe tom. 11:col. 188, and Corpus Juris Can. Decret. Greg. IX. lib. 1:tit. in. cap. 28. “Nonnulli.” See also the bull of Martin V., infra vol. in. p. 566.—Ed. ft859. Ezekiel 34. ¾ Ed. ft860. He meaneth either Christ and the church, or Peter and Paul. ft861. That is, beth to Christ and his church. ft862. M. Paris, edit. Loud. 1640, p. 870. ft863. “Mancipium.” M. Paris.—Ed. ft864. M. Paris, p. 872.—Ed. ft865. See supra, p. 373.—Ed. ft866. “Canicular days,” the dog days. M. Paris, p. 874. ¾ Ed. ft867. Decreti Dist. 83, cap. 3: Dist. 86, cap. 3: Causa 23, Quest. 3, cap. 8. ¾ Ed. ft868. Decreti, Dist. 40, cap. 6.—Ed. ft869. See mention made of this Fulco, supra, p. 318. ft870. See Appendix. a833 ft871. A mark was thirteen shillings and fourpence. ¾ Ed. ft872. See Appendix. a834 ft873. “Telonarios,” M. Paris, collectors—Ed. ft874. “Tragulorum vilitas mentitur.” “Chimmers and Scapillers.” “Simarre” in French is a long gown or robe. A “scapulary” was a friar’s vest, part of which covered the shoulders.—Ed. ft875. Alluding to Ethelmar, elect of Winchester, the king’s half-brother.— Ed. ft876. Ex Matth. Paris. [pp. 874—876.—Ed.] ft877. Id. p. 859, ad ann. 1252.—Ed. ft878. Ex Matth. Paris. [p. 883.] Ex Flor. Hist. ft879. The foregoing account of bishop Grosthead has been collated with the original in M. Paris, and considerably revised and corrected.—Ed. ft880. Ex Gualt. Gisburn. a838 [On these and other matters relating to the Sews in English history, see D’Blossier’s “Anglia Judaica.”—Ed.] ft881. Ex Nich. Trivet. ft882. Ex Flor Histor. Ex Cestrensi,. lib. vii cap. 34. ft883. Ex Flor. Hist. a842 ft884. Ibid. a843 ft885. Ibid. [ See Appendix. a844 ] ft886. Ex Flor. Hist. ft887. Ex Flor. Hist.,et Matth. Paris. ft888. Ex Polychron. 17. ft889. A beast’s load. a845 —Ed. ft890. Ex Authore Eulogii. ft891. Ex Flor. Hist. a846 ft892. Ex Gisburnensi. ft893. Ex Matth. Pads. ft894. Flor. Hist. ft895. “Justices in Eyre.” See Appendix. a849 —Ed. ft896. Ex Gualt. Gisburnensi. ft897. “Velut accipitres in corvum,” Hemingford—Ed. ft898. Ex Hist. Gualt. Gisburnensis. ft899. This passage in asterisks is not in the Editions published previous to the year 1596.—Ed. ft900. “Rex dilectis et fidelibus suis majori, ballivis, et caeteris probis hominibus suis de Northampton, salutem. Cure quidam magistri et alii scholares proponant,” etc.—Turris Loud. [The above translation is revised from the Latin original printed in Rymer.—Ed.] ft901. Ex Flor. Hist. ft902. In no Edition before that of 1596.—Ed. ft903. Ex Flor. Hist. ft904. “Rexmaglstris Johanni de Hemingford et Rogero Lovel procuratoribus suis, in curia Romana agentibus, salutem, etc. Cum vobis tanquam fidelibus nostris,” etc. ¾ Turris Lond. [May 27th.] ft905. Ex Flor. Historiarum. [i.e. Matthew of Westminster.—Ed.] ft906. The pope’s bull a859 is in Rymer. dated Feb 25th: A.D. 1262, also the king’s proclamation on the receipt of it, dated May 2d.—Ed. ft907. From M. Westminster a860 , who adds that he was buried at Tewkesbury, with this epitaph: “Hie pudor Hippoliti, Paridis gens, sensus Ulyssis; Aeneae pietas, Hectoris ira jacet.” ft908. Ex. Flor. Hist. ft909. See Appendix. a861 ft910. July 10th. Rymer.—Ed. ft911. Foxe, misled by Hemingford, says William: see Godwin “tie Praesulibus, etc.”—Ed. ft912. Virg. Aeneid.i. 26. ft913. Ex Flor. Historiarum, Gisburn. et allis. ft914. This passage is not in the Editions previous to 1596. ¾ Ed. ft915. “Anno Domini 1264, mense Martio, in praesentia illustris regis Angliae, de concilio procerum et magnatum ejusdem regni actum eat,” etc.—Turris Lond. [The translation is revised from the Latin in Rymer.—Ed.] ft916. Henricus de mortuo mari. [ See Appendix. a884 ] ft917. “Rex Bonifacio Cantuariensi archiepiscopo, totius Angliae,” etc.— Turris Lond. ft918. Ex Nich. Trivet. ft919. The next few pages, are not in the Editions previous to 1596. ¾ Ed. ft920. “Haec est forma pacis a domino rege, et domino Edwardo filio suo, praelatis et proceribus omnibus, et communitate tota regni Angliae communiter et concorditer approbata,” etc.—Turris Lond. ft921. “Rex episcopo Hereford, salutem. Pastores gregibus praeponuntur ut diei noctisque vigilias exercendo,” etc.—Turris Lond. ft922. “Rex vic. Oxon. salutem. Quid intelleximus quod quidam, qui se harlotos appellant, vagi ct otium foventes, in diversis partibus regni nostri, cor gregationes et conventicula, necnon contractus illicitos,” etc.

    Turris Lond. ft923. “Quod praedictus Alluredus tenuit quandam particulam parcae de Dunetish et Tilei de abbate de Cerne, per servicium tenendi stropem suum, quando abbas debet ascendere equum suum, et dare ei 1ocum in comitatu quando praesens fuerit.” ft924. The following pages, to p. 567, are probably all from Scala Mundi; most of the matter, however, is in Hemingford and Knyghton, whence the text is revised.—Ed. ft925. See Appendix. a892 ft926. See supra, p. 548. a893 ft927. See Appendix. a894 ft928. See supra, p. 553. a895 —Ed. ft929. The king’s barber, very clever at distinguishing accoutrements.

    Hemingford.—Ed. ft930. The next six pages (taken from” Scala Mundi” and” Eulogium”) have been revised and somewhat re-arranged according to the best authorities. See Hemingford, M.Westm., Wikes, and the Waverley Annals.—Ed. ft931. “Martyrizaverunt,” Hemingford and Knyghton. ¾ Ed. Simon de Montfort and others escaped, and Guy de Montfort, Henry de Hastings, Humphrey de Bohun, jun., Peter de Vesci, Peter de Montfort, jun., and Nicholas de Segrave, with others, were taken prisoners, besides lord John Fitz-John. The list of the slain, a little above, has been verified by Dugdale’s Baronage. See Appendix. a904 — Ed. ft933. This parliament met Sept. 8th a905 : M. Paris; see also Pat. Rot. H. III. m. 8 dorso, cited by Tyrrell.—Ed. ft934. See Wilkins’s Concilia, and Appendix. a906 —Ed. ft935. See Appendix. a907 ft936. The barons entered Axholm (in Lincolnshire) St. Clement’s day (Nov. 23d), and surren dered Dec. 27th. Ann. Waverl. T. Wikes, M. Paris.

    See Appendix. a908 —Ed. ft937. See Appendix. a909 ft938. The rescue of Lincoln took place about Tuesday, April 27th (Annales Waverl.): which (by Nicholas’s Tables) gives the year 1266.—Ed. ft939. The affair at Chesterfield happened on the Ides of May, on Whitsuneve (Ann. Waverl.), which (by Nicholas’s Tables) gives Saturday, May 15th, 1266.—Ed. ft940. On the eve of St. Laurence (Aug. 9th). M. Paris. ¾ Ed. ft941. “The Ides of December,” says Hemingford: “the feast of St. Lucy,” say the Waverley Annals; either of which means Dec. 13th.—Ed. ft942. See Appendix. a913 ¾ Ed. ft943. Ibid. a914 ft944. June 15th, according to Rot. Pat. 51, H. in. m. 16, N 49, cited by Brady.—Ed. ft945. On the feast of St. James (July 25th). T. Wikes. See Appendix. a915 — Ed. ft946. Ex Scala Mundi. [Holinshead says that this council met on St.

    George’s day: Wikes says it met on the Quindene of Easter, i.e. (by Nicholas’s Tables)April 22d; that being a Sunday, they probably proceeded to business the next day, April 23d. which is St. George’s day. See Appendix. a916 —Ed. ft947. Which Wikes rightly observes fell on a Sunday this year, 1268.—Ed. ft948. July 20th. Wikes. ft949. See Appendix. a917 ft950. Ibid. a918 ft951. This was the last attempt at recovering the Holy Land. ft952. See Appendix. a919 ft953. Ex Eulogio. [ See Appendix. a920 ] ft954. Confirmed by the king of Sicily’s letter in Rymer, dated;March 23d. ¾ Ed. ft955. “Centum 20,” Knyghton; “20,” Hemingford.—Ed. ft956. Ex Scala Mundi. Ex Gualt. Gisburn. Ex Flor. Hist. [Whence several corrections are made in the foregoing paragraph. The same authorities supply the rest of this reign.—Ed.] ft957. Ex Gisburn. et Scala Mundi. ft958. “Drinking one to another in boon viage;” a common expression in old authors; in other words, “Drinking one another good success in the spoiling of those whom they had destined for their prisoners.”—Ed. ft959. Ex Annalibus Silesiae. ft960. Edition 1563, p. 74. Ed. i583, p. 339. Ed. 1596, p. 310. Ed. 1684, vol. i.p. 386. ft961. Rob. Avesbury. Also from the Chronicles of Thomas Walsingham. p. 44. ft962. Ibid. ft963. Rob. Avesbury, Nich. Trivet, and. Tho. Walsingham. ft964. Tho.Walsingbam and Walt. Gisburn. ft965. The next four pages are placed by Foxe after the history of the dispute between Boniface VIII and Philip the Fair, at p. 606, and are brought back hither, to suit the chronological order.—Ed. ft966. Sexti Decret. lib. in. tit. 20. ¾ Ed. ft967. The Copy of the Pope’s Bull, wherein the Clergy are exempted from giving Tribute to Kings and Princes. “ Bonifacius, etc. Ad sempiternam rei memoriam. Clericis laicos infestos oppido tradit antiquitas. Quod et praesentium experiments temporum manifesto declarant, dum suis finibus non contenti nituntur in vetitum et ad illicita sua frena relaxant, nec prudenter attendunt quo-modo sit els in clericos ecclesiasticasve personas et bona interdicts potestas. Quinimo ecclesiarum praelatis, ecclesiis, ecclesiasticisque personis regularibus et secularibus, imponuntur onera gravia, ipsosque talliant, et eis collectas imponunt, et ab ipsis suorum proventuum vel bonorum dimi-diam, decimam, sen vicesimam, vel quamvis aliam portionem ant quotam exigunt et extorquent, eosque moliuntur multifarie subjicere servituti, suaeque subdere ditioni. Et (quod dolenter referimus) nonnulli ecclesiarum praelati, ecclesiasticaeque personae, trepidantes ubi trepidandnm non est, transitoriam pacem quaerentes, plus timentes majestatem temporalera offendere quam aeternam, talium abusibus non tam temerarie quam improvide acquiescunt, sedis apostolicae authoritate non obtenta. Nos igitur talibus actibus obviate volentes, de fratrum nostrorum consilio apostolica authoritate statuimus—quod quicunque praelati, ecclesiasticaeve personae, religiosae vel seculares, quorumcunque ordinum, conditionis, seu status, collectas vel tallias, dimidiam, decimam, vicesimam, sen centesimam suorum et ecclesiarum suarum proventuum vel bonorum laicis solverint, vel promiserint, vel se soluturos concesserint, ant quaravis aliam quan-titatem, portionem, aut quotam ipsorum proventuum, vel bonorum aestimationis, vol valoris ipsorum, sub adjutorii mutui, subventionis, subsidii,vel doni nomine, seu quovis alio titulo, vol modo. vel quaesito colore, absque autoritate sedis ejusdem; necnon imperatores, reges, seu principes, duces, comites, vel barones, polestates, capitanei, officiales vel rectores, quocunque nomine cense-antur, civitatum, castrorum, sen quorumcunque locorum constitutorum ubilibet, et quivis alius cujuscunque praeeminentiae, conditionis, et status, qui talia imposuerint, exegerint, vel receperint, ant apud aedes sacras deposita ecclesiarum vel ecclesiasticarum personarum ubilibet arrestaverint, saysierint, seu occupare praesumpserint, vel arrestari, saysiri, aut occupari mandaverint, ant occupata, saysita, sen arrestata receperint; necnon omnes qui scienter in praedictis dederint con-silium, auxilium, vel favorem, publice vel occulte; eo ipso sententiam excommunicationis incurrant. Universitates quoque quae in his culpabiles fuerint ecclesiastico supponimus inter-dicto: praelatis et personis ecclesiasticis supradictis, in virtute obedientiae et sub poena depositionis, districte mandantes, ut talibus absque licentia expressa dictae sedis nullatenus acquiescant; quodque praetextu cujuscunque obligationis, promissionis, et concessionis factarum hactenus vel faciendarum in antea, priusquam hujusmodi constitutio, prohibitio, seu praeceptum ad notitiam ipsorum pervenerit, nihil solvant, nec supra-dicti saeculares quoquo modo recipiant. Et si solverint vel praedicti receperint, in sententiam excommunicationis incidant ipso facto. A supradictis antem excommunicationis et interdicti sententiis nullus absolvi valeat, praeterquam in mortis articulo, absque sedis apostolicae authoritate et licentia speciali, cum nostrae intentionis existat tam horrendum saecularium potestatum abusum nullatenus sub dissimulatione transire.

    Non obstantibus quibus-cunque privilegiis sub quibuscunque tenoribus, seu formis, seu modis, aut verborum conceptione concessis imperatoribus, regibus, et aliis supradictis; quae contra praemissa in nullo volumus alicui vel aliquibus suffragari. Nulli igitur hominum liceat hanc paginam nostrae constitutionis, pro-hibitionis, seu praecepti infringere seu ausu temerario contraire. Datum Romae ad sanctum Petrum, VI. Kal. Martii, pontificatus nostri anno secundo.” [Feb. 24th, A. D. 1296.]—Ex Chron. Rob. Gis-burnensis. [Collated with the copy in Knighton, and in the Corp. Juris. Canonici and corrected. Dr. Brady gives a translation of it. ¾ Ed.] ft968. To ‘tose,’ the same as ‘teaze,’ i.e. to comb. Todd’s Johnson. ¾ Ed. ft969. For the explanation of this allusion, see infra, p. 584—Ed. ft970. See note (2), vol. 1:p. 89. ¾ Ed. ft971. The whole process is given in Rymer.—Ed. ft972. At Newcastle, Dec. 26th, A.D. 1292. Rymer.—Ed. ft973. Supra, pp. 581, 582.—Ed. ft974. Ex Fabiano. ft975. Ex Chron. Tho. Walsingham et Avesbury. ft976. Given at length in Rymer, dated, 5 Cal. July, 5th year of the pontificate, i.e. June 27th, A.D. 1300.-ED. Corrected and amplified from Walsingham and Rymer.—Ed. ft978. “When the cardinal of St. Adrian (afterward pope Adrian, my intimate friend) was legate there.” Walsingham and Rymer.—Ed. ft979. “St. Andrew.” Rymer,—Ed. ft980. Given at length in Rymer, dated Kemisey, 11th May, A.D. 1301.— Ed. ft981. The foregoing historical summary is in Avesbury and Walsingham: it is also given by Rymer, from the Records, who also gives a precept of the king (dated Sept. 26, A.D. 1300) to divers chapters and monasteries, and Oxford lawyers, to produce all the information they could discover touching the question, by the octaves of St. Hilary. A similar historical epitome is also given by Rymer, A.D. 1292, much more resembling this. From Avesbury and Rymer Foxe’s text is corrected.—Ed. ft982. Corrected from the original, printed in Rymer.—Ed. ft983. Ex Rob. Avesbury. ft984. “Comming,” or Comyn. ¾ Ed. ft985. At Methven near l’erth, June 24th, 1306.—Ed. ft986. Ex Massaeo. ft987. Vossius (de Script. Lat.) tells this story of Jacobus de Viragine, archbishop of Genoa, citing Blondus and Philippus Bergomensis for his authorities.—Ed. ft988. The following account of the famous dispute between Philip le Bel and Boniface VIII. has been collated with and corrected from M.

    Dupuy’s “Histoire du Differend d’entre le Pape Boniface VIII. et Philippe le Bel, Roy de France: ensemble le proces criminel fait a Bernard evesque de Pamiers, l’an. MCCXCV. Le tout justifiie par les Acres et Memoires pris sur lea Origineux qui sont au Tresor des Chartes du Roy. Paris, 1655.” See Appendix. a941 —Ed. ft989. Dupuy, Preuvcs, p. 48.—Ed. ft990. Ex lib. Stephan. Aufrerii. a942 [cited by Illyricus, col. 2101, edit. 1608. It is also in Dupuy. together with the reply following, Preuves, p. 44.—Ed.] ft991. See Appendix. a944 ft992. Ibid. a945 ft993. Ex registro. [Dupuy, Preuves, p. 56.—Ed.] ft994. Meaning Celestine.—Ed. ft995. Dupuy, Preuves, p. 101. ¾ Ed. ft996. See Biblioth. des Sciences, 5:”Enfans de France.” ¾ Ed. ft997. Dupuy, Preuves, p. 102. See Appendix. a947 —Ed. ft998. “For the nonst,” for the purpose; designedly; “Opera data,” Dupuy. ¾ Ed. ft999. Dupuy, Preuves, p. 106.—Ed. ft1000. “Apostolos.”—Ed. ft1001. Dupuy, Preuves, p. 107.—Ed. ft1002. Dupuy, Preuves, p. 108.—Ed. ft1003. See Appendix. a951 ft1004. Ibid. a952 ft1005. According to Nicholas’s Tables.—Ed. ft1006. “Et revera creditur, quod omnes reges mundi non possent tantum de thesauro reddere infra unum annum, quantum fuit de papali palatio asportatum, et de palatiis trium cardinalium, et marchionis.”—Ex Robert Avesb. [found also in Th. Walsingham’s history, from which this whole paragraph has been revised and correct—Ed.——Ed.] ft1007. See supra, p 578, note.—Ed. ft1008. Polychron. lib. 7. ft1009. Ex Chron. Rob. Avesb. ft1010. See Walsingham, A.D. 1301, 1307. ft1011. Platina de Vit. Pont. ft1012. Illyricus, col. 1665. ft1013. See Appendix. a957 ft1014. Platina, Vit. Innocentii. ft1015. Ex Baptist. Egnatio, Romans Print. lib 7. ft1016. Ex scripto Engethusensis. ft1017. Ex Nic. Trivet. ft1018. Ex Hist, quae incipit ab Henrico Tertio. ft1019. Ex vetusto chronico Albanensi [printed in Goldasti “de Monarcha” (tom. 1: p. 11 ), dated 1250; whence the above translation is made.

    Collier thinks Fitz-Cassiodore is an assumed name. “Petrus Cassiodorus, Italus, quod Papam Antichristum esse scripsisset, cum Petro Johanne Biterrenal [of Beziers] Franciscano, refossus et combustus est circa A.D. 1300.” Hoffman. On Peter John see supra, p. 521. ¾ Ed. ft1020. Our author here breaks into the chronological arrangement of his history, as he confesses at p 640, but there reverts to it again.——Ed. ft1021. The work referred to is printed in the Biblioth. Patrum de la Bigne (Paris, 1624, tom. iii. col. 863), the Maxima Biblioth. Patrum (Lugd. 1677, tom. 26:p. 107), and Goldasti de Mon. tom. 2: p. 1361. Foxe’s account has been collated with the original, and numerous errors corrected. Gallia Christiana. and Fleury’s history, have also been consulted with great advantage as to the dates. See Appendix. a960 — Ed. ft1022. The first day, probably, was occupied in ceremonial. See infra, p. 619, note.—Ed. ft1023. “Novitas,” a law term, Signifying “encroachment,” or “trespass.” ¾ Ed. ft1024. “In rebus hereditariis suis.” See Ducange.—Ed. ft1025. “Hereditagia.” See Ducange.—Ed. ft1026. “Quod aliquis dives decessit,” is the Latin: “cob” was sometimes used for a rich, covetous person. “And of them all cobbing country chuffes, which make their bellies and their bagges theyr gods, are called rich cobbes.” Nash’s Lenten Stuff, cited in Nares’s Glossary.—Ed. ft1027. Dec, 7th, the day on which the parliament assembled, fell on a Thursday in 1329 (by Nicholas’s Tables); the lord Peter de Cugnieres stated his case and produced the foregoing articles against the clergy the next day, and a week was then given to the prelates to reply. See supra, p. 613, note.—Ed. ft1028. “In causa hereditaria:” sec. p. 614, note (2), p. 618, note (1).—Ed. ft1029. A brief Recapitulation of the Archbishop of Sens’s Answer, with certain Notes in Reply to his Popish Reasons, addressed to the Reader.

    The answer of the archbishop of Sens, in the name of the other prelates, to the oration and articles before objected by the lord Peter, consisteth of two parts. First, it declareth the fear due to God.

    Secondly, the honor due to the king. The first of these is, the fear of God, which, he saith, consisteth in three things. 1. In giving to. God. 2.

    In honoring his minsters. 3. In restoring that which hath been taken away, etc. The second, which is the honoring of the king. he saith. consisteth in a double sort; that is, in words only, wherein is flattery.

    Also in deed; which again he divideth into four members. 1. When a man counselleth a king to that for which his dominion is loved. 2.

    When the king is counseled to that whereby his honor and excellency is not diminished. 3. When the king is counselled to that whereby his fame and renown is maintained. 4. When a king is counselled to that, whereby his conscience is not wounded, etc. And this is the order of his whole tractation. Now remaineth with like brevity, to recite the reasons and arguments in order, whereby he proveth the premises, with the subdivision of every member and part thereof. Wherein the studious reader may note both the subtle proceedings of these popish prelates, and also the feeble and impotent ground whereupon they build; whose building, as by this discourse and many others may appear, wholly and finally tendeth to this: To maintain their liberties, pomp, and estimation, above all other secular princes and persons.

    First, as concerning fear to be given to God, which he divideth into three parts, in giving, in honoring, and restoring; for the first, he proveth that princes ought to give largely and without measure to the church, by these arguments.

    By the testimony of Justinian: although nothing is good which is too much, yet, I answer that in the time of Justinian, goods then given to the church, were the goods of the poor; wherein were used faithful distribution, voluntary giving, and necessary charity. But now, in our popish churches, revenues and lauds given are not distributed to the poor; and yet are men compelled against their will to give still. And again, so little necessity is now to give to such, that almost all the wealth of realms is in their hands and houses; insomuch that they, flowing in such wealth, are now waxen so proud, that kings can scarcely bear any rule for them as was proved before, that the pope’s revenues here in England, amounted to more than three times double the stint of the king’s crown. Wherefore by the counsel of Justinian, it was so then, and then might stand, “quod religio peperit divitias:” but now, as the time is altered, so that counsel holdeth not, “postquam nunc filia devoravit matrem;” that is, “after that the daughter hath devoured the mother.” Finally, concerning men’s giving to the church in these our popish days, four-faults note: First, that they give superfluously more than is sufficient to necessity of life. Secondly, that they give to such as abuse it wickedly. Thirdly, that in giving to them that need not, noblemen in mean time defraud their poor neigh. bours, who need indeed, and yet do not complain. Fourthly, because of this title of giving, men have used, and yet do use, to put great hope of salvation therein, contrary to the testament of God in Christ’s death, whereof examples are before. ft1030. “Abel offered of the best to the Lord, and was blessed of God;” ergo, every great man that would be blessed-of God, must offer of the best he hath unto the church. Answer; This argument, as it is far fetched, so it is soon answered, wherein three notes are to be observed. First, that he who offereth unto the church of God, doth not therein offer unto God immediately as Abel did. Secondly, neither is this to be granted, that he who offereth to all churchmen, offereth by and by to the church of God for many times the churchmen are one, and the church of God is another. Lawrence, the martyr, showing forth the church of God, brought out the poor of the parish, ‘and not the priests of the church.

    The’ third note is; that if noble persons should offer unto God (by the example of Abel) that which is the best and fattest of the flock.; then should they offer unto the Lord of their flocks only, and not of their lands. Yea, and to note the very truth, they are taught thereby to offer to God, neither cattle nor lands, but that which is the very best, that is, their own bodies for a lively sacrifice to God. He that offereth up to God a proud heart, and killeth it with the axe of humility, giveth unto him the best and fattest bullock he hath in all his flock. With like reason also I answer the place in Numbers xviii, and of Chronicles [cap. ult.] that to offer up, or to separate unto the Lord’s treasury, is not now to give to priests and chaplains of the church, who, peradventure, have more than they do well occupy; but to give liberally to the communion of saints who are needy, and are the true treasury of the church indeed, as Lawrence the true treasurer said. ft1031. 1 Chronicles, 39:17.—Ed. ft1032. “By God’s commandment we are bound in duty to honor our temporal fathers.” Ergo, by the same duty we are bound much rather to honor our spiritual fathers, that is, priests and prelates. Answer: A father in common speech is diversely taken, as by age, by nature, by office. And to all these we of duty are bound to yield honor, reverence, obedience, submission; albeit not all after one sort, nor in like degree.

    For as we are bound to honor our fathers and mothers, so aged men and elders have also their honor and name of fathers; so magistrates and spiritual teachers, in their kind, have their honor and reverence. And St.

    Paul saith, [1 Timothy 5] “that such are worthy of double honor,” “qui bene praesunt, et qui laborant in sermone.” But, in this, two things are to be noted: Wherein this honor consisteth, and how far it extendeth.

    These spiritual fathers of the church think they be not honored enough unless kings and emperors give and surrender unto them all the temporal rule and government, to do what they list, and none to control them: and unless noblemen and subjects endow them with temporal lands and possessions as much as they would have. And this they call honor, which they define only by giving temporally: where indeed it rather consisteth in giving spiritually, as to have a reverent opinion of their ministration, to yield a prompt obedience to their doctrine, to reverence them as the ministers of God, and not to despise, defame, or molest their persons; whereof St. Paul, also, about the same place speaketh, writing to Timothy, “Let no man despise thy youth,” etc. And to Titus, “Let no man despise thee,” etc. And this is to honor our spiritual fathers.

    Secondly, to consider how far this honor extendeth: as no man doth deny, but that these pastors are worthy their double honor who rule well, so, if they administer not their office well, they are, under the oversight of the king bearing the temporal sword, worthy of double punishment. And yet to consider this double honor in them that rule well, how far it doth extend: if it be compared to the honor due to our parents, a case of necessity will soon decide it. For be it that our parents on the one side, and pastor on the other, stand in extreme need of the son’s supportation, wherein he can help but the one: nature, I suppose, sooner will and ought to run, and the word of Christ will sooner drive us, to our father, than to the priest’s corban [Mark 7]: so that this distinction may have place here: That as the one standeth upon merit of virtue, so the other standeth upon mere duty of necessity. ft1033. Decret. Pars 2: Causa 11:quaest, 1:cap. 41. “Sacerdotibus.” ft1034. “These jurisdictions temporal and spiritual, are compatible in one person.” Answer: I grant “ pro ratione subjecti:” that is, in the subject itself there is no cause to the contrary, but these vocations may both be exercised by one person, as they have been by the pope, one after the other, (and so may contrary forms also) and yet the pope’s person hath been able to sustain them both. But now, here is to be considered, not, what the nature of the subject is able to bear by logic, but what order is taken herein by the will of God, whose order is this: that they, who with Peter are called to the feeding of the flock, should leave their fishing-nets, and fish for men; and that they who labor in the warfare of the Lord should not entangle themselves with the business of this life. whereby they may be more free to please him, whose soldiers they are. [Titus 2] ft1035. “The jurisdictions temporal and spiritual, are so distinct that they are not contrary,” etc. Answer: And what let is there then, but our queen now, and other kings hereafter, may have the government of both states, as well ecclesiastical as temporal? Seeing both the forms being compatible, may concur both in one subject; why not as well in the person of the king within the realm, as in the person of the pope without the realm? ft1036. “God, after the creation of the world,” at, “even unto Noah’s time,” etc. Answer: If God unto Noah’s time governing the world as king, gave sentence himself against Cain, as we say, how then did he that by the ministry of angels! If he did it by the angels his ministers, whether is more like then that it make for the pope, or rather for kings and princes, whom the Scripture thrice in one chapter calleth the ministers of God, to execute punishment on him that doth evil. [Romans 8] ft1037. “Noah also who offered,” etc. Answer: If offering of burnt sacrifices to God do make a ] priest, then was Cain also, and Abel, Abraham, Isaac, and all the patriarchs. priests. If he had both temporal and spiritual jurisdiction over these that were in his ark, I marvel why he did not curse then the disobedient crow that returned not to him again! ft1038. “Melchisedec likewise,” etc. Answer: Melchisedec properly did bear a figure of Christ, both king and priest, and of none other. ft1039. “Unto me is given,” etc. Answer: That Christ hath all power given him, no man doubteth; but yet the same Christ saith, that his kingdom is not of this worm; neither would he be made a king in this world, etc. “Non eripit mortalia, qui regno dat caelestia,” etc. ft1040. “Whom Christ, etc. made his vicar, etc.” Answer: Here in one line be two lies. For Peter had not the very same power in heaven and earth as Christ had, neither was he the vicar of Christ. ft1041. As the offense of Ananias and Sapphira was not temporal but spiritual; so did Peter kill them not judicially, that is, as a temporal judge; but. spiritually, that is, by the power of the Spirit, which Spirit wrought by him, not as by a judge, but as a minister. And although this act of Peter was extraordinary for a singular example; yet, let any prelate with the like power of Spirit so do, and none will blame him. ft1042. And so likewise the condemnation of Paul against the Corinthian, was only spiritual and not temporal. ft1043. “Must be referred to the order,” etc. Christ would have these causes to be referred to the hearing of the church, for spiritual admonition, but not for the temporal jurisdiction of the prelates. ft1044. All things that the true church doth truly bind are bound, I grant: but first let the pope prove his church to be the true church, and himself to be the universal head thereof, and then let him claim the keys. ft1045. The two swords do as much signify the two regiments, as do the two fishes wherewith Christ did feed four thousand persons. ft1046. Christ bade Peter put up his sword, and not east it away: Ergo, the church may have the temporal sword. Answer: God give you good morrow, I have brought you a capon. ft1047. “Know ye not that the saints,” are. Answer: St. Paul here willing the Corinthians to plead their matters, not before the heathen, but before the saints, meaneth the faithful of the congregation, not only prelates. ft1048. “In them there was not the like reason,” etc. Answer: I grant that Christ and true Christians is one thing; antichrist and his church is another thing. ft1049. Decreti Pars ii, Causa 12: quest, 1:cap. 15. “Futuram.” ft1050. As ye say, the apostles had no leisure to take lands and possessions for preaching, but now for lordly loitering you have leisure enough. ft1051. “He seemeth most fit to play a good judge’s part who followeth nearest to God.” Ecclesiastical persons follow next God. Ergo, Prelates of the clergy are most meet to bear temporal rule.Answer: If God here be taken for that god, which is called the belly, I grant they seem to follow nearer. But if it be taken for the true God, not I, but their own fruits, life, and doctrine shall decide; and Isaiah also would deny their minor, and. say, that this people draweth near to me with their lips, but their heart is far from me.” ft1052. “You are a chosen generation, a royal priesthood, etc. Answer: This place of Peter was written not only to persons ecclesiastical, but to the whole congregation of the saints dispersed, as the words:following may declare: “Qui eratis quondam non populus,” etc. ft1053. Seneca de Clementia ad Neronem. ft1054. ‘Extra’ refers to the Decretals of Gregory IX.—Ed. ft1055. ‘ff’ refers to the ‘Digestorum libri’ in the Corpus Juris Civilis. ¾ Ed. ft1056. Supra, p. 629. ¾ Ed. ft1057. Probably referring to tit. 41, at the end of Decretal. Gregor.—Ed. ft1058. For the “Brief Recapitulation,” etc., which in some Editions follows here, see the foot note (1) to p. 621 of this volume.—Ed. ft1059. Edition 1563, p. 74.—Ed. 1583, p. 366.—Ed. 1596, p. 336.—Ed. 1684, vol. i p. 416.—Ed. ft1060. See Appendix a978 respecting an error in the foregoing statement.— Ed. ft1061. See p. 343, note (4).—Ed. ft1062. Arnaud de Pontac [“ Chronographia a Christo nato usque ad” MDLXVI. fol. Paris, 1567, 12mo. Lovan. 1572, sub anno 1310.] ¾ Ed. ft1063. Parker’s Antiquitates Britannicae, anno 1310. See Appendix. a980 — Ed. ft1064. Ex Chron. Thomae Walsingham. ft1065. Ibid. ft1066. Ibid. ft1067. Sabel. Ennead. 9, lib. 7. ft1068. See supra, p. 485.—Ed. ft1069. Out of Sabellicus, and is alleged in the book named the “Image of Tyranny.” Page 608—Ed. ft1071. Ex Chron. Tho. Walsingham. ft1072. “Estrivelin,” Stirling.—Ed. ft1073. Ex Chron. Tho. Wals. in Vita Edwardi II. ft1074. Rex Magistro Rigando de Asserio, canonico Aurelian salutem, etc. ft1075. Rex venerabili in Christo patri, W. eadem gra. archiepiscopo Cant., etc ft1076. “Rex Magistro Rigando.” ft1077. De denariis beati Petri sic scriptum, etc. ft1078. A.D. 857. - “Adewulfus rex Westsaxonum. tempore Leonis papae quarti, Romam singulis annis 300 mancusas portari praecipit, taliter dividendas ibidem: viz. 100 mancusas in honorem scilicet Petri, specialiter ad emendum oleum, quo implerentur omnia luminaria ecclesiae apostolicae in vespera Pasche et in galli cantu; et mancusas in honorem scilicet Pauli eisdem de causis; 100 preterea mancusas praecipit exhiberi universali Papae ad suas eleemosynas ampliandas. Et sciendum, quod secundum antiquorum Anglorum interpretationem differunt mancusa et manca, quia mancusa idem erat apud eos quod marca argentea: manca veto erat moneta aurea quadra, et valebat communiter 30 denarios argenteos.

    Of this Peter-pence is found a transcript of the original rescript apostolical, the tenor whereof is this: “Gregorius episcopus, servus servorum Dei, venerabilibus fratribus Cantuar. et Ebor. archiepiscopis et eorum suffraganeis, et dilectis filiis abbatibus, prioribus, archidiaconis, eorumque officialibus per regnum Angliae constitutis, ad quos literae istae pervenerint, salutem et apostolicam benedictionem.

    Qualiter denarii beati Petri, qui debentur camerae nostrae, colligantur in Anglia et in quibus episcopatibus et dioces, debeantur, ne super hoc dubitari contingat, et praesentibus fecimus annotari, sicut in registro sedis apostolicae continetur. De Cantuar. dioces 7l. 18s. sterlingorum.

    De London. dioces. 16l. 10s. De Roffens. dioces. 5l. 12s. De Norwicens. dioces. 21l, 10s. De Elienum. 5l. De Lincoln. 42l. De Cistrens. 8l. De Winton. 17l. 6s. 8d. De Exon. 9l 5s. De Wigorne. 10l. 5s. De Hereford. 6l. De Bathon. dioces. 12l. 5s. De Sarisbur. 17l. De Coventre. 10l. 5s. De Eborac. 11l. 10s. Datum apud urbem veterem. Kal. Mail Pontificatus nostri anno secundo. Summa, 30 [300] marcae et dimidi.” ft1079. Thomas, earl of Lancaster, came of Edmund, younger son of king Henry III. ft1080. This bishop of Exeter built in Oxford two colleges, Exeter College, and Hart Hall; his name was Gualter Stapleton. ft1081. Ex Tho. Walsing. ft1082. “Ego sanctae ecclesiae Dei minister humilis, membrum ejus, et episcopus consecratus, licet indignus, ad tam ardua nequeo respondere, nec debeo, absque D. Cant. archiepiscopi, post sammum pontificem mei directi judicis, cujus etiam sum suffraganeus, autoritate, et aliorum parium meorum episcoporum consensu.” ft1083. Ex Tho. Walsingham. ft1084. A.D. 1314, called John XXI.—Ed. a988 ft1085. A.D. 1335. ¾ Ed. ft1086. Ex Hieron. Mario.; et ex Crantzio ft1087. A.D. 1342—Ed. ft1088. Ex Chron. de sex mundi aetatibus, cui tit. ‘Rudimentum Novitiorum.’ ft1089. Louis of Bavaria died A.D. 1347,—Ed. ft1090. Hieronymus Marius. ft1091. Ex Chron, Wals. in Vit. Edw. III. ft1092. Ex Latino quodam registro. ft1093. About the latter end of this Edward II ceaseth the history of Nic.

    Trivet, and of Flor. Hist. a990 ft1094. Edition 1563. p. 74,—Ed. 1583. p. 374.—Ed. 1696. p. 374.—Ed. 1684. vol. 1:p. 428.—Ed. ft1095. Stirling.—Ed. ft1096. “Ragman Roll” was the original deed which contained the acknowledgment by John Baliol and the Scotch nobility of homage to the king of England. See p. 579.—Ed. ft1097. Antwerp ¾ Ed. ft1098. The above translation, and the following one, are revised from the originals in Avesbury. ¾ Ed. ft1099. Revised and amplified from the original in Rymer and Avesbury.— Ed. ft1100. Newly translated from the French in Avesbury. See Appendix. a1000 —Ed. ft1101. Newly translated from the latin in Rymer, Avesbray, and Walsingham. See Appendix. a1001 —Ed. ft1102. The foregoing part of this clause is omitted by Antiq. Brit. and Walsingham. Only Mr. Foxe’s copy hath it.” Barnes’s Life of Edward III.—Ed. ft1103. See Appendix. a1004 ft1104. Ex Thom. Walsing. Ex Chron. Albanensi. [ See Appendix. a1005 —Ed. ] ft1105. Ex Chron. Albanensi. [ See Appendix. a1007 —Ed.] ft1106. Revised from the French in Avesbury.—Ed. ft1107. See infra, p. 784.—Ed. ft1108. See Appendix. a1010 ft1109. See Appendix. a1011 ft1110. Ex. Chron. Albanensi. [ See Appendix a1012 .—Ed.] ft1111. See Appendix. a1013 ft1112. See Appendix. a1015 ft1113. At Malestroit: see before, p. 690.—Ed. ft1114. Revised from the Latin in Avesbury.—Ed. ft1115. Ex Chron Albanensi. ft1116. See Appendix. a1017 ft1117. Revised from the Latin in Avesbury.—Ed. ft1118. See Appendix. a1018 The following translation is revised from the French in Avesbury.—Ed. ft1119. See Appendix. a1019 ft1120. Ibid. a1020 ft1121. Ex Thomas Walsingham. ft1122. Chron. Adami Merimouth canonici D. Pauli de gestis Edw. 3. ft1123. See Appendix. a1025 —Ed. ft1124. Ibid. a1026 ft1125. The next ten pages are from Illyricus, and have been collated and revis—Ed. The reader will find a list of these Witnesses in Foxe’s Prefaces to his “Acts and Monuments,” supra, vol. 1:—Ed. ft1126. See Illyricus, “Cat. Test.” (—Ed. 1608) cols. 1707,1794.—Ed. ft1127. See the “Defensor Pacis,” Sec. Dict., cap. 19, Illyricus, col. 1758, and the Appendix. a1027 —Ed. ft1128. Cap. “licet juxta doctrinam” [printed in Martene’s Thes. tom. 11: col 704, dated Avignon, 10 Cal. Nov. 12th year of the pontificate. The ‘Defensor Pacis’ is in Goldasti de Mort. tom. ii.]—Ed. ft1129. The above account of Marsilius is from Illyricus, col. 1758.—Ed. ft1130. Illyricus, col. 1759.—Ed. ft1131. See a list of his works in Cave’s Hist. Litt.—Ed. ft1132. [Jodocus Badius] Ascentius [Regius Professor of Divinity at Paris] in praefatione [ad Dialogum] ejus autoris. [Goldasti de Mort. tom. 2:pp. 392, 957.—Ed.] ft1133. Goldasti, tom. 1:p. 13.—Ed. ft1134. Goldasti, tom. 2:p. 398.—Ed. ft1135. Illyricus, cols. 1759,1760.—Ed. ft1136. Illyricus, col. 1809.—Ed. ft1137. Super lib. 1:Sent. dist. 45. ft1138. Super, lib. 3. Ethic. ft1139. Illyricus, col. 1809.—Ed. ft1140. Ib. col. 1665. Eudo, or Eudes, was duke of Burgundy A.D. 1315- 1350.—Ed. ft1141. Ex libris Dantis Italice. [Illytitus, cols. 1763, 1764, 1767.] ft1142. “De translatione imperii.” Goldasti de Mort. tom. ii., p. 1462.—Ed. ft1143. Illyricus, ibidem.—Ed. ft1144. Ibidem. ft1145. Vide epistolam vigesimam Francisci Petrarehae. [Illyricus, col. 1769.—Ed.] ft1146. Illyricus, col. 1785. See infra, p. 711, 747.—Ed. ft1147. Ex bullis quibusdam Othonis Epis. Herbipolensis, [Illyricus, col. 1775.—Ed.] ft1148. “Curtesani,” Expectants, “qui in curia papae versantur.” Ducange. See p. 767, line 2.—Ed. ft1149. This couplet describes the ass’s walking backwards and forwards through agitation.—Ed. ft1150. Illyricus, col. 1789.—Ed. ft1151. Ib. col. 1785.—Ed. ft1152. See Appendix. a1028 —Ed. ft1153. Illyricus, col. 1793.—Ed. ft1154. In Extravag. Joan. 22. [Extrav. Commun. lib. 5:tit. 3. Illyricus, col. 1794.] ft1155. Extrav. Commun. lib. 5:tit. 7.—Ed. ft1156. Rather A.D. 1367; see Richardson’s Godwin. ¾ Ed. ft1157. Ex Chron. Wals. ft1158. Ex Chron. Henrici de Herfordia [cited by Illyricus, col. 1720.—Ed.] ft1159. See Appendix. a1029 ft1160. Ex Johanne Froysardo, vol. i cap. ccxi. ft1161. “Praeditus ingenio et eruditione summa.” Illyricus.—Ed. ft1162. “Magna doctrina, bene fundatos.”—Ed. ft1163. This seems to be the prophecy in Browne’s Appendix to the Fasciculus. See Appendix. a1031 —Ed. ft1164. Ex scripto Godfri. de Fontanis. [Illyricus, col. 1721. Foxe post-dates this dispute by many years: See Appendix. a1032 —Ed.] ft1165. Simon de Beaulieu, abp. A.D. 1281—1297. See Appendix. a1033 — Ed. ft1166. See Appendix. a1034 ft1167. Guilleaume de Macon, bp. A.D. 1278-1308. See Appendix. a1035 ¾ Ed. ft1168. See Appendix. a1036 ft1169. This bull was granted by pope Martin IV., San. 10th, 1282: Labbe, tom. 11:col. 1143.—Ed. ft1170. “Great solemnity of justing” (or jousting), a magnificent tournament. ¾ Ed. ft1171. Ex Chro. Walsing. ft1172. Page 104. ft1173. Ex Crickeladensi: Magnates in Anglia interdixerunt, ne quis Martyrem Thomam nominaret, ne quis ejus miracula praedicaret, interminantes minas mortis seu maximarum poenarum omnibus confitentibus eum fuisse Martyrem, et miracula ejus praedicantibus, etc. ft1174. Chron. Doverens. fol. 20, p. 2. ft1175. Ibid. fol. 21. ft1176. “Gernemine,” i.e. of Yarmouth. ¾ Ed. ft1177. Ex Chr. Monach. Dover. fol. 42. ft1178. Ex eod. Chron. fol. 46. ft1179. Ex Chron. Rich. 2. ft1180. Ex Chron. St. Albani. ft1181. Ex Chro. Alban. ft1182. Ex Chro. Alban. ft1183. Ex Chro. Alban. ft1184.

    Consecrated Died 34 Stephen Lafranc Aug. 29 th , 1070 Jan. 4 th , 35 Anselm Dec. 4 th , 1093 April 21 st , 36 Radulph (elected April 26 th ) June 14 th , 1114 Oct. 20 th , 37 William Corbyl (elected Feb. 2d) March 19 th , Nov. 30 th , 38 Theobald (elected in December) 1138 April 18 th , 39 Thomas Becket May 27 th , 1162 Dec. 28 th , 40 Richard (elected 1171) 1174 Feb. 16 th , 41 Baldwin May, 1185 42 Walter Hubert (elected May 30 th ) 1193 July 13 th , 43 Stephen Langton June 17 th , 1207 July 9 th , 44 Richard Wethershed June 10 th , 1229 Aug. 3d, 45 Edmund of Abingdon April 2 nd , 1234 Nov. 16 th , 46 Boniface of Savoy (elected 1241) Jan. 15 th , 1245 July 18 th , 47 Robert Kilwardby Feb. 26 th , 1273 Sept. 13 th , 48 John Peckham March 6 th , 1278 Dec. 8 th , 49 Robert Winchelsey (elected Feb. 13 th , 1293) Sept. 12 th 1294 May 11 th , 50 Walter Reynolds (transl. From Winton, Oct. 1 st .) 1313 Nov. 16 th , 51 John Stratford (transl. From Winton, Nov. 3 rd ) Dec. 1 st , 1333 Aug. 23, 52 John Offord (nominated by a 1348 May 20 th , 1349 bull, June 19 th ) 53 Thomas Braidwarden (nom. By a bull, June 19 th ) 1349 Aug. 26 th , 54 Simon Islip (nominated by a bull, Oct. 7 th ) Dec. 20 th , 1349 April 26 th , in addition to the above, Godwin inserts after Nos. 41, 50, Reginald Fitz-Joceline (translated from Wells) 1191 Dec. 25 th , Simon Mepham (elected Dec. 11 th ) 1327 Oct. 12 th , (No. 52, John Offord or Ufford, having never been consecrated, is not included in the list. ¾ Ed.) ft1185. Edition 1563, p. 74.—Ed. 1570, p. 493.—Ed. 1576, p. 401.—Ed. 1583, p. 397.—Ed. 1596, p. 365.—Ed. 1684, vol. 1:p. 452.—Ed. ft1186. This interesting document is given in every Edition but the First and the Third. ¾ Ed. ft1187. “Forward,” that is, covenant. ft1188. “A midde Paradise,” in the middest of Paradise. ft1189. “Helde him forward,” kept promise with him. ft1190. “Feile times,” oft times. ft1191. “Sith,” that is, afterwards. ft1192. “Binemen,” that is, take away. ft1193. “Herying,” that is, worshipping. ft1194. “Nemeth,” that is, taketh. ft1195. “Heighteth,” that is, exalteth. ft1196. “Beth,” that is, be. ft1197. “Binemeth,” taketh away. ft1198. “Chargen,” care for. ft1199. “Behited,” promis—Ed. ft1200. These words have been inadvertently omitted in every Edition since that of 1570, in which this document first appeared.—Ed. ft1201. “Kunnen,” they can. ft1202. “Heryeth,” worshippeth. ft1203. “Fullen,” baptise. ft1204. “To fore,” that is, before. ft1205. “Herying,” worshipping. ft1206. “Heriers,” worshippers. ft1207. “Lesew,” that is, pasture. ft1208. “Beth,” that is, bee. ft1209. “Sweuens,” that is, dreames. ft1210. “Bliuc,” quickly. ft1211. “Mest,” moat. ft1212. “Ihightest,” promised. ft1213. “Weten,” know. ft1214. “Tweyne,” that is, two. ft1215. “For that,” but. ft1216. “A lewd man,” a lay man. ft1217. “Mowen,” may. ft1218. “Tooke keepe,” that is, tooke heede. ft1219. “Fer to,” that is, therefore. ft1220. “Thilk things,” those thinges. ft1221. “Or than,” before that. ft1222. “Nole,” would not. ft1223. “Thrailes,” that is to say, bondmen. ft1224. “ Sweuens,” that is, dreames. ft1225. “Nele,” that is, will not. ft1226. Ibid. ft1227. “Seggen,” that is, do say. ft1228. From the second Edition of 1570, p. 500.—Ed. ft1229. “But for,” but because. ft1230. “Within forth,” inwardly. ft1231. “Lesewe.” pasture. ft1232. “A Welch leaper.” ft1233. “Homelich,” of his household. ft1234. See Edition 1570.—Ed. ft1235. “Behoteth,” promiseth. ft1236. “Fulleden,” that is, baptised. ft1237. “Sweuens,” that is, dreames. ft1238. See Appendix a1043 for the fuller application of the parable.—Ed. ft1239. For his numerous writings on this subject, see Catalogue of MSS.

    Anglet Hibern.—Ed. ft1240. Ab Anglorum episcopis conductus, Armachanus novem in Avinione conclusiones coram Innocentio VI. et suorum cardinalium coetu, contra fratrum mendicitatem, audacter publicavit, verboque ac scriptis ad mortem usque defendit. ft1241. In fasiculo zizaniorum. ft1242. Ou Gulielmus Botonerus, See Appendix. a1044 —Ed. ft1243. The beginning of the prayer in Latin is this: “Tibi laus, tibi gloria, tibi gratiarum actio, Jesu piissime, Jesu potentissime, Jesu dulcissime; qui dixisti, ego sum via, veritas et vita. Via sine devio; veritas sine nubilo; et vita sine termino. Quod tute viam mihi ostendisti; tute veram veritatem me docuisti; et tute vitam mihi promisisti. Via eras mihi in exilio; veritas eras in consilio; et vita eris mihi in praemio.” ft1244. Friar Dominic, in the time of pope Innocent III., obtained not the confirmation of his order; but the order was first confirmed by pope Honorius III. The order of Franciscans was confirmed shortly after the Dominics. ft1245. Iniquity hath abounded at Rome. ft1246. Nay, to the preaching rather of man’s traditions against the word of God. ft1247. See Appendix for the correction of an error here. a1046 —Ed. ft1248. Ex Clement cap, Dudum. ft1249. Ex libro fratris Engelberti. ft1250. “Quae ad perpetuam. Contra statuta patrum concedere [? condere] vel mutare aliquid nec hujus quidem sedis potest autoritas.” [Decreri pars 2:Causa 25:Quaest. 1:capp. 3, 7. ¾ Ed.] ft1251. Ex libro cui titulus, “Defensorium curatorum.” [Printed in Goldasti “de Monarchia” tom. 2:p. 1391; and Browne’s “Fasciculus,” p. 466; whence a few corrections are made in the ensuing translation.—Ed.] ft1252. Chrysost. in opere perfecto. ft1253. Arist. Ethic. lib. i. ft1254. Ex vita S. Clementis. ft1255. Causa 12:quaest, 1:cap. 2, “Dilectissimis.”—Ed. ft1256. Touching this book of the masters of Paris condemned, look p. 753. ft1257. Ex libro Armachani. cui titulus, Defensorium Curatorum. ft1258. Ex Chron. Reg. Rich. II. ft1259. Ex Botonero. a1047 ft1260. Ex Waldeno. ft1261. Testified by certain Englishmen, which are yet alive, and have seen it. ft1262. See the Appendix. a1048 ft1263. Ex Sabel. Ennead. 9:lib. 8. ft1264. See the Appendix. ft1265. These words are inserted from the Second Edition.—Ed. ft1266. Ultima quaest, ad inquisitiones Januarii. ft1267. The “Jesuats” or “Jesuates” are mentioned supra, pp. 57, 352. They ere an order of monks, founded by St. John Columbini, chief magistrate of Sienna, A.S. 1363. Becoming convinced of sin, he gave up his honors, sold his estates, and devoted himself to the service of God and the poor. He was joined by seventy disciples. They followed St.

    Augustine’s rule, and took St. Jerome for their patron. Urban V. confirmed their institute at Viterbo, A.D. 1367. They were called “Jesuats” from always having the name of Jesus on their lips: it occurs 1500 times in a few letters which Columbini wrote. The order was suppressed by Clement IX. in 1668.—Alban Butler’s Lives of the Saints. They are not to be confounded with the “Jesuits,” who were founded by Ignatius Loyola A.D. 1534, confirmed by Paul III. A.D. 1540.—Ed. Respecting two paragraphs which Foxe introduces here respecting Militzius and Jacobus Misnensis, see infra, p. 781, note (2).—Ed. See infra, pp. 789, 790.—Ed. See the Statutes at Large, and the Extracts from the Parliament Rolls, infra, pp. 783-789. The foregoing paragraph has been corrected in two or three particulars.—Ed. ft1271. Ex lib. revelationum Divae Brigittae. [The next five pages are a translation of several detached passages in the “Catalogus Testium,” to which Foxe refers in the next page. Foxe’s text has been collated with Illyricus, and in many instances corrected.—Ed.] ft1272. “Dispersorem et laceratorem,” Illyricus.—Ed. ft1273. “Assessores,” Illyricus.—Ed. ft1274. ‘In unicum verbum,” Illyricus. The ten commandments are called in the Hebrew “ten words.”—Ed. ft1275. Illyricus, “Cat. Test” (Genev. 1608), col 1799.—Ed. ft1276. Ex Anton. parte historiae iii. ft1277. “Namely,” “praesertim,” especially.—Ed. ft1278. See vol. iii. p. 18.—Ed. Illyricus, col. l791. Cave says that she was born A.D. 1347, and died April A.D. 1380, and that she was called “Senensis,” to distinguish her from Catharina “Bononiensis,” who flourished A D. 1488.—Ed. ft1280. It is printed in Browne’s Appendix to the “Fasciculus” of Orthuinus Gratius.—Ed. ft1281. Ex Bulla Gregorii a1049 ft1282. See Appendix a1050 for an explanation of this word.—Ed. ft1283. Illyricus, cols. 1795, 1796. By some inadvertence Foxe introdnces the two foregoing paragraphs about Milirzius and Jacobus Misnensis twice, though with variations: see supra, p. 776, note (5). The two paragraphs in the text are made up from a comparison of the two versions with each other and with the original in Illyricus.—Ed. ft1284. Illyricus, cols. 1800, 1801. The reader will find this passage from Hildegard repeated, with Borne variation, infra, vol. in. p. 193; the original Latin is there given in the note. ¾ Ed. ft1285. Ib. col. 1506. See Appendix. a1051 —Ed. ft1286. Massaei “Chronica multiplicis historiae utriusque Testamenti, libr. 20.” The facts here brought forward appear in the beginning of lib. xvii. ft1287. See Appendix. a1052 ft1288. Ibid. a1053 ft1289. Ibid. a1054 ft1290. 2 Dist. Quaest. 1. ft1291. Ex Archivis Regiae Majestatis. [The following extracts from the Parliamentary Rolls have been collated with the printed copy, and corrected in many particulars. See the Appendix. a1056 —Ed.] ft1292. Ex an. 6. Regis—Ed. III. tit. 1. ft1293. Ex an. 17. Reg.—Ed. III. tit. 59. ft1294. Ex an. 17.—Ed. III. tit. 59. ft1295. Ibid. tit. 60. ft1296. Ex an. Reg.—Ed. 18, tit 32, 33. ft1297. Ibid. tit. 34. ft1298. Ibid. tit. 35. ft1299. Ibid. tit. 36. ft1300. Ibid. tit. 37. ft1301. Ibid. tit. ft1302. An. 20. Edw. III. tit. 30. ft1303. Ibid. tit. 31. ft1304. Ibid. tit. 32, 33, 34. ft1305. Ibid. tit. 35. ft1306. Ibid. tit. 37,42, 46. ft1307. 25 an. Reg. Edw. III. tit. 13. ft1308. Ibid. tit. 14. ft1309. 38 Edw. III, tit. 7, 8, 9. ft1310. 25 an. Reg. Edw. III. tit. 9. ft1311. 40 an.—Ed. III. tit. 7. ft1312. Tit. 8. ft1313. Tit. 9-11. ft1314. Tit. 10, 11, 12. ft1315. Ex Archivis Regiae Majestatis, an. 50. Reg.—Ed. tit. 94. ft1316. Ex Archivis Regime Majestatis, an. 50. Reg.—Ed. tit. 95. ft1317. Ibid. tit. 96, 97. ft1318. Tit. 98, 99. ft1319. Tit. 100. ft1320. Tit. 101. ft1321. Tit 102. ft1322. Tit. 103. ft1323. Tit. 104. ft1324. Tit. 105. Tit. 106. ft1326. Tit. 167. ft1327. Tit. 108: see vol. I. p. 11. ft1328. Tit. 109. ft1329. Tit. 110. ft1330. Tit. 111. ft1331. Tit. 112. ft1332. Tit. 113. ft1333. Tit. 114. ft1334. Tit. 115. ft1335. Tit. 158. ft1336. Tit. 171. ft1337. Ex Archivis Reg. Edw. III reg. 51, tit. 4-12. ft1338. Tit. 13. ft1339. Tit. 36. ft1340. Tit. 62. ft1341. Tit. 78, 79. a1061 ft1342. Ex Actis Parliamenti in an. 15. Reg. Edw. III. tit. 24. ft1343. Ex Parliam. an. 23. Edw. III. ft1344. Ibid. tit. 49. ft1345. “Rex universis, ad quorum notitiam praesentes literae pervenerint,” etc. [This commission is in Rymer, whence the translation has been revised. See Appendix. a1062 —Ed.] ft1346. From the Edition of 1563, p. 85, except a few words from the Edition of 1570, p. 523.—Ed. ft1347. “Divers others:” Robert Grosthead, bishop of Lincoln; Fitz-ralph, archbishop of Armagh; Nicholas Orem; the author of the Ploughman’s Complaint, and others. See also p. 712; and the beginning of Book V. p. 727, and Foxe’s Prefaces, pp. 21:22.—Ed. ft1348. The reader will observe, that the Latin Edition opens with the history of Wicliff, and the first English Edition had said very little of any previous confessors to the truth.—Ed. ft1349. “In arenam prosiliit,” in the Latin edition only, p. 1.—Ed. ft1350. “St. James at Compostella.” This refers to a famous but most wearisome pilgrimage, much esteemed in former times, to the tomb of St. James at Compostella, in the province of Gallicia in Spain. The distance from Rome was about twelve hundred English miles, and yet from thence, as also from the most distant parts of Europe, have millions of Christians, to their own cost and misery, traversed rocks and mountains to visit that tomb.—See Dr. Michael Geddes’ Miscellaneous Tracts, vol. 2:—Ed. ft1351. See Appendix. a1066 ft1352. Ibid. a1067 ft1353. These three paragraphs, with the few words at the close of the succeeding one, are reprinted, with the aid of the Latin, from the edition of 1563, p. 87. See also the Latin edition of 1559, pp. 3, 4.— Ed. ft1354. See Appendix. a1068 ft1355. i.e. “as he himself testifieth:” see Luke 9:48. “Sic ut qui minor inter ipsos foret, pluris haberetur apud Christum testem.” Lat. Edition 1559, p. 4.—Ed. ft1356. “Their days,” Edition 1563. “Horum temporum,” Edition 1559. ¾ Ed. ft1357. See Appendix. a1071, a1072 ft1358. See Edition 1563, p. 88. Lat.—Ed. 1559, p. 5.—Ed. ft1359. Ex Chron. Monasterii Albani. ft1360. Ex Hist. Monachi D. Albani ex accommodato D. Matth. Archiepis.

    Cant. ft1361. This bishop of London was William Courtney, son of the earl of Devonshire. ft1362. Ex Chron. Monach. D. Albani. ft1363. “Orphanis erst quasi pater, afflictis compatiens, miseris condolens, oppresses relevans, et cunctis indigentibus impendens auxilia opportuna.” ft1364. The reign of Edward III. closes here in the second and third editions.—Ed. 1376-1380. (Ex Bundello Brevium Regis de an. 2. Rich.

    II. part i.)

    Some pains have been taken to discover the identical returns from which Foxe compiled the foregoing “View” of Benefices held by Aliens; but without success. Many returns of a similar nature, and referring to the period, have been found, both in the Tower and the Exchequer records, some of which exactly tally with Foxe’s statements. The printed “Taxatio Ecclesiaatica” of Pope Nicholas IV., made about a century previous to these returns (circa A.D. 1291), confirms Foxe’s accuracy as nearly as could be expected. Several decided mis-spellings have been corrected.

    The following table is compiled from the List of Cardinals in Moreri’s Dictionary, article ‘Cardinal;’ and will serve to illustrate and correct Foxe’s text. Figures of reference are given to assist the reader.

    Created Died 1367. Francis Thebaldesehi, a Roman, cardinal of St. Sabine, and archpriest of St. Peter’s 1368 1368. William Noellet or de Nouveau, a Frenchman, deacon-cardinal of St. Angelo 1371 1369. Reginald des Ursins, a Roman, deaconcardinal of St. Adrian 1350 1370. Anglic de Grimoard de Grisac, a Frenchman, bishop of Avignon, priestcardinal of St. Peter ad Vincula, afterward made bishop of Albano 1366 1371. Hugh de St. Martial, a Frenchman, deaconcardinal of St. Mary in Porticu. 136l 1372. Simon de Langham, an Englishman, ex-abp, of Canterbury, cardinal of St. Sixt 1368 1373. Peter Gomez d’Albornos, a Spaniard, abp. of Seville, cardinal of St. Praxed 1371 1374.

    John de Blausac, a Frenchman, bp. of Nismes, priest-cardinal of St. Mark 1361 1375. William d’Aigrefeuille, a Frenchman, priestcardinal of St. Stephen in Coelio Monte 1367 A.D 1376. Robert de Geneve, a Frenchman, bp. of Cambray (afterward Clement VII.), priestcardinal of the twelve Apostles 1371 1377. William Judicis or de la Jagie, a Frenchman, nephew of Clement VI., deacon-cardinal of St. Mary in Cosmedin (See Hasted’s Kent, tom.4. 782) 1342 1374 1378. Bertrand Lagier, a Frenchman, bp. of Glandeves in Provence, priest-cardinal of St. Prisea. The Parliamentary Notes of the fiftieth year of Edward III. (supra, p. 787) make the same cardinal prebendary both of Thame and Nassington: we should therefore, probably, supply Prisca in the hiatus at p. 809, making this Lagier the prebendary of Thame. 1371 1379. 13 Peter Flandrin, a Frenchman of the diocese of Viviers, in le Vivafez, deaconcardinal of St. Eustace 1371 1380. Audomar de Rupe is mentioned in Hasted’s Kent (tom. 4:782) as archd. of Cant. next but one to William Judicis (above, No. 11): in a Patent of June 3d, 2 Rich. II., printed in Rymer, he is called “Adomar de la Roche, archd, of Cant,” and is therein deprived for taking part with the French. ft1365. Monastery. There was no nunnery at Salisbury.—Ed. ft1366. An. 2. Rich. 2. [ See Appendix. a1087 ]

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