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NO. ARTICLES TO BE ENQUIRED UPON IN THE VISITATION OF NICOLAS RIDLEY, BISHOP OF LONDON, JUNE 1550, OMITTED IN ALL HITHERTO PRINTED COPIES OF THE ARTICLES. (See the Note in the Appoendix of this Volume .)
FROM THE RIDLEY REGISTER, FOLIO 305.
Whether every Sunday one part of an homily, as it is now divided, is read immediately after the credo (if there be no sermon) openly and distinctly, that all in the church may hear and understand it.
OF SERVICE Whether the Service is used to be said or sung upon Sundays and holy days in due tyme, after that order that it is set out and appointed in the Book of Common Prayer, and none otherwise; and the Litany also in the middle aley of the church, kneeling.
Whether every Wednesday and Friday is said or sung the English procession in the church, and whether the minister (if none be there to communicate with him) doth say such prayers after the Litany as are appointed for the coion [congregation], until the offertory.
Whether your parishioners every Sunday and holy day doth come to their own parish church to hear divine service with silence in prayer, pay their duties there, and once in the year at the least receive the holy communion as it is in the Book of Common Prayer appointed.
Whether any doth in interludes, plays, songs, rymes, or by open words, declare or speak any thing in depraving or despising the said Book, or any thing therein contained.
Whether any by open fact, deed, or threatening, doth compel, cause, or otherwise procure or maintain any minister to sing or say any common or open prayer, or to minister any sacrament, other or otherwise than is mentioned in the said book.
Whether organs do play away any part of the prayer or service.
OF BOOKS Whether every minister under the degree of bachelor of divinity hath of his own the new testament both in English and Latin, with the paraphrases of Erasmus upon the same, and do diligently study the same in conferring the one with the other.
Whether there be provided and set up in some convenient place of the church one book of the whole Bible of the largiest volume in English, and the paraphrases of Erasmus upon the Gospels likewise in English, and whether your minister doth discourage any to look and read thereupon, so that it be done quietly without contention.
Whether any useth any other primer than the English, set forth by the King’s Majesty, or any other Latin primer than is set forth by the same authority (if he understandeth Latin), except those primers that were set forth by King Henry the Eighth, so that invocation or prayer to saints in the same primers be blotted out.
Whether any other grammar be taught than that which is set out by the King’s Majesty.
Whether any doth use to pray upon Beades.
Whether your Curate do admit any such to the Lord’s table, as are open and notorious evil livers, or hath done wrong to their neighhour by word or deed, whereby other are offended; or openly known to be in malice or hatred; before the amendment of their life and satisfaction to their neighbor.
Whether the minister receiveth the sacrament except there he one at the least to communicate with him.
Whether the minister useth any elevation or shewing the sacrament before the distribution thereof.
Whether the minister or any other doth reserve the sacrament, and not immediately receive it.
Whether any tarieth in the quire after the offertory, other than those that do communicate except clerks and ministers.
Whether the parishioners do offer every Sunday the just value of the holy lofe, to the use of the curates, in that order as they were wont to pay the holy lore, and whether the person to whom such course doth come, or one at the least of his household, or else one appointed by him, do receive the communion that same day with the minister.
The Articles commence at folio 304 of the Ridley Register (or rather the Bonner Register, in which the Ridley is incorporated), and end on folio 305 verso; the omitted portion is on folio 305. The whole conclude thus: — Finis.
Imprinted at London by Reynold Wolf cum privilegio ad imprimendum solum.
NO. (See Note in the Appendix of this Volume .)
From the Edition of 1563, p. 925, and. the Bonner Register, fol. 345.
A monition of Bonner Byshop of London, to all and singuler his parishioners, for repairing of all suche furnitures as belongeth to the setting forth of the Romish service, as chalices, vestiments, etc..
Edmundus, etc.. Universis, etc. Quia jure id exigente, ac aequitate etiam suadente, paroehiani ecclesiarum singularum Cantuariensis Provineiae quae necessaria aut oportuna sunt ad eultum divinum, sacramentorum ae sacramentalium administrationem, providere debite et congruenter tenentur, ac inter caetera calicem, libros, vestimenta, vasa, ac alia ornaments pro divinis obsequiis et serviciis qualitercunque apta et requisita comparare: et insuper quia parochiani ipsi pro animarum salute ad eeclesias suas accedere, missam officiaque divina audire, confessionemque auricularera facere, ae venerandum eucharistira sacramentum religiose et devote (praesertim temporibus ad id statutis et consuetis) suseipere simili modo ex ordinatione ecclesiae catholicae, et laudabili ejusdem consuetudine, astringuntur: deinde, quia ex fide-dignorum multorum relatione fida, factique notorietate, et lama publica referente intelleximus, quod nonnulli parochiani nostrae London. diocesis, Cantuariensisque provinciae, praemissa aut eorum aliqua sic providere, comparare, accedere, audire facere et suscipere, vel omnino contempnunt, aut saltem plus aequo et justo differunt:
Nos, volcutes (prout ex officio debito tenemur) congruam in eisdem reformationem ac debitam provisionem adhibere, vobis conjunctim et divisim tenore praesentium committimus ac mandamus, quatenus receptis praesentibus, una cum schedula eisdem annexa, parochianos eujuscunque paroehiae infra diocesim nostram London. ubilibet, in exemptis vel non exemptis locis quibuseunque, in praemissis aut eorum aliquibus cessatores, aut negligentes, vel culpabiles qualitereunque existentes, moneatis, quos etiam nos tenore praesentium, primo, secundo, et tertio, ae peremptorie monemus, quod ipsi parochiani onmes et singuli ad praemissa omnia et singula faeienda et expedienda, quatenus eos quovismodo tangunt aut concernunt, cum annexis, connexis, dependentibus, ac debitis circumstantiis, diligenter se praeparent, eaque faeiant, ac fieri debite procurent, ante festum Puschae proxime futurum, mora et culpa quibuscunque cessantibus. Porro si cessatores ipsi, ac negligentes, vel culpabiles, aut remissi, sic per vos moniti, illa aut eorum aliqua sic facere aut perimplere non curavetes, negligentes, culpabiles, vel remissos, in hac parte, autoritate nostra citetis, seu citari faciatis peremptorie, quod illi, ac eorum quilibet, coram nobis, seu nostro in spiritualibus vicario generali, aut Commissario nostro quocunque, in ecclesia nostra cathedrali Divi Pauli London., loco consistorii ibidem, die Veneris (videlicet sexto die mensis Aprilis proxime futuro post datam praesentium), hora causrum consueta, personaliter compareant et compareat, causam rationabilem et legitimam (si quam pro se habeant aut habeat), quare ob eorum culpam et negligentiam hujusmodi excommunicari, aut aliter debite juxta juris exigentiam corrigi et puniri, non debeant et debeat, in juris forma dieturi, allegaturi, et proposituri; ulteriusque facturi et recepturi, quod juris fuerit et rationis. Et quid in praemissis etc.
Nos autem dictum nostrum vicarium etc. dictis die hora et loeo, una cum nominibus omnium et singulorum in ea parte monitorum et citatorum, debite certificetis, una cum praesentibus. Datum Londini viiio. die Marcii, Anno Domini secundum cursum etc. 1553 et nostrae translationis Anno decimo quinto.
THE SAME IN ENGLYSHE Edmund etc. T — etc. Forasmuch as both lawe and equitie so requiring, the parishioners of all and singuler churches, within the province of Caunterbury, are bound duly and conveniently to provide for thinges necessary and requisite to divine service, to thadministration of the holy Sacramentes, and sacramentalles; and namely amongest other things for chalice, bokes, vestimentes, vessels, and other ornaments fit and requisite any maner way to the furniture of divine service: and furthermore for as touche as the sayde parishioners for the soules health, are bound lykewyse by the ordinaunce of the Catholike churche, and the laudable custome of the same, to come to their churches, to hear messe and other divine service, and there to make their auricular confession, and also devoutly there to take their rites: namely at tymes thereunto appointed and accustomed: and moreover for so muche as by credible report of divers, and by the manifest apperaunce of the facte and by publique fame, it hath come to our eares, that divers parishioners of our dioces of London, and within the province of Caunterbury, do either contemne utterly, or els doo differ by to touche negligence, to accomplish the premisses, either in the whole, or in part, in so procuring, providing, hearing, making and receiving: we therefore minding as we are bound to doe, to see a convenient reformation. and due provision of the same. do charge and commaunde you, bothe jointly and severally, by 1 the tenor hereof, that you fourthwith upon the receipt of these presentes, and of the schedule hereunto annexed, do admonishe suche our parishioners, whersoever, within our dioces of London, in all places as well exempt as not exempt, as you shall see slack or negligent, or culpable any maner wayes in the premisses, whom also we ourselves by the tenor of these presentes do admonish first, second, and third tyme, and peremptorily, that all and singuler the sayd parishioners do diligently addresse them selves, to the performing and executing of all and singuler the premisses, so farre fourth as they touch and concerne them any maner of wales, with suche therunto adnexed, connexed, depending, and with the due circumstancies of the same: and both do themselves, and also see them duely to be accomplyshed and performed, before the feast of.
Easter next cornming, all delay and stay whatsoever being set aside.
Moreover, if such as be slack, negligent, or culpable, or remisse, beyng so admonished of you, shall delay or not regard to do or to performe the premisses, or any part thereof, then in so doing you by our autoritie do cite, or cause to be cited, peremptorily, all and singuler suche persones, being so slack, negligent, culpable or remisse, in that behalf: so that they, and every one of them, do appeare personally before us, or before our vicar-general, or any other commissary whatsoever, in our Cathedrall Churche of Sainte Paule of London, in our Consistory, upon fryday (that is the 6 day of Aprill) next after the date herof, at the hour of sitting accustomed, there 1 in forme of lawe to saye for themselves, to alledge, and to propose, cause reasonable and lawfull (if they or he have any for them selfe), wherefore that they, for this theyr demerite and negligence, ought not to be excommunicate, or otherwise to be corrected and punished according to the determination of lawe, and farther to do and receave that, which lawe and reason shall require. And what ye have done in the premisses etc. you. do duly certify us or our sayd vicar etc. the. day, houre, and place aforesayd, with the names of al and singuler of them, in this parte by you admonished and cited, together with these presentes with al. Geven at London the 8th day of March An . secundum cursum etc. 1553, and of our translation the xv.
NO. A BRIEF ACCOUNT OF THE DISPUTATIONS AT OXFORD IN 1554, BY A SCHOLAR OF THE UNIVERSITY, AN EYE-WITNESS (See Note in the Appendix of this Volume .)
From the Edition of 1563, pp. 931-936. ABOUT the tenth of Apryll, Cranmer Archbishop of Canterburye, Ridley Bishop of London, and Hugh Latimer, once bishop of Worcester, were conueyghed as prisoners from the Tower to Wyndsore: And after from thence to the vniuersitie of Oxforde, there to dispute with the diuines and learned men of the contrary opinion. Two dayes after theyr commyng to the vniuersitie, being the 12th of Apryll, diuerse learned men of bethe the vniuersities were sente in commission from the conuocation aboue mentioned, of the clergye, to examine them, and dispute with them in certaine articles. The names of the chief were these: of Oxforde, Doctor Weston Prolocutor: Cole, Chedsey, Pye, Harpsfielde, Smyth. Of Cambridge, Yong, Seton, Watson, Atkinson, Thecknam, etc. On the 13th of Apryll, these learned men conuented in Saint Maries Churche, and the three persoils before named were brought out of prison, and seuerally one after another were asked their opinions in in. questions, whiche were these. 1. Whether the naturall bodye of Christ was really in the sacramente by vertue of the words spoken by the priest, or no? 2. Whether in the sacrament, after the words of consecration, were any other substance, then the substance of the body and bloud of Christ? 3. Whether in the Masse were a sacrifice propitiaterye, for the sinnes of the quicke and the dead?
Forsomuehe as they aunswered negatiuely vnto these three questions, disputations wer offred them the Tuisdaye folowing, being the 16th of that moneth: and thereto wer they willed to prepare themselues. Cranmer and Ridley vppon protestation agreed to dispute: Latimer reftued, sayinge that he woulde offer to them in fewe wordes the summe of his faith, and thereto woulde stande, without disputation.
Nowe to declare consequently all thynges in ryght ordre, the next is, to set foorth fyrste the ordre and runner of that disputation, then what theyr argumentes were on bethe sides, whiche disputed with them. Al whiche here foloweth orderly to be sene.
The whole discourse of the disputations holden at Oxforde betwixt the thre Bishops, and other diuines, descrybed in a certayne letter of a scholer of the same vniuersity, who was himself present therat, and semeth in his report, moste nexte to come to the truth of the matter.
These are to let you knowe the effecte and summe of the examination of the Doctors, or Byshoppes, whiche were here vpon Sonday before Doctor Weston, with many other mo, bothe of Oxforde and Cambridge, to the number of 33.
First was brought before him the Byshop of Canterbury that was: to whome Doctor Weston made a short preface, in prayse of vnitie, and especially in the churche of Christe. Then did he declare, that he was one of that vnitie, and a member thereof in time past: but of late yeares he did separate, and cut of hymselfe from it, by teaching and setting forth of erronious doctrine, making euery yere a newe Faith. Therefore it pleased the Quenes grace, to sende them of the conuocation, and other learned men, to bryng him to this vnitye again, if it might be. Then shewed he hym how they of the conuocation house had agreed vpon certaine articles, wherevnto they wylled hym to subscribe. The Bishop aunswered to the preface very wittely, modestly, and learnedly, shewing that he was verye glad of an vnitie, forasmuche as she was Conseruatrix onmium rerum publicarum, tam Ethnieorum quam Christianorum.
That is to saye, mainteiner of all common wealthes, as well Heathen, as of Christians: and so he dilated the matter, with one or twoo stories of the Romanes common wealth, and declared that the common wealth of Rome was the authour of all destruction, sedition, and abominable doctrine in the church of Christ: whiche thing when he had doone, he saide: that he was verye glad to come to an vnitie, so that it were in Christ, and agreable to his holy worde.
Then did the Notarye reade the articles vnto him, whiche were these: In sacramento Altaris, quod verba consecrationis a sacerdote prolata, diuina virtute efficiunt rerum corpus, reale, et naturale, natum ex virgine, sub speciebus panis et vini. That is: In the sacrament of the altar, that the wordes of consecration vttered by a Priest, by the diuine vertue, is made the verye reall and naturail bodye borne of the virgyn, vnder the kyndes of bread and wyne.
The second article, Post consecrationem non remanet substantia panis et vini, neque vlla alia substantia nisi dei et hominis. That is:
After the consecration, the substance of bread and wine doe not remaine, nor any other substaunce, but of God and man. The third article. In missa est sacrificium propitiatorium et viuificum pro vials et defunctis. That is: In the Masse there is a propitiatory and liuely sacrifice, for the quick and the dead. The Byshop of Canterbury did reade them ouer thre or foure times, and asked them what thei ment by these termes (rerum et naturale) that is, true and naturall. Doe you not meane, saith he, corpus organicum, that is, a sensible body? Some aunswered, Idem quod natus ex virgine, that is: the same that was borne of the virgin: and so confused, som said one thing, some another. Than the Bishop of Canterbury denied it vtterly: and when he had looked vppon the other two, he sayd they wer all false, and against Goddes holy word. Therfore woulde not he agree in that vnitie wyth them. Then they willed him to write his mind of them, that they might see them that nyght. He was so contented, and so they appoynted him with Anthony Smith, a time and leasure to defende him against Monday in the diuinitie scholes, whiche the Bishop was contented to doe. He was greatly commended of euerye bodie for his modestye: insomuche, that I dyd see some maisters of Arte wepe for him, which in Judgement were contrarye to him. Then Doctor Ridley, when he heard the articles red vnto him, aunswered without any delay, saying: they were all false, and saide further, that they sprang out of a bitter and soure foote. His aunsweres were sharpe, witty, and verye learned. Then did they lay to his charge a sermon that he made, when he was Bishop of Rochester, wherein (they said) he spake wyth the transubstantiation. He denied it vtterlye, and asked whether they could bring out anye that heard him, which would say and affyrme with them the same. They coulde bring no proofe of it at al. After that he was asked of one whether he desired not my Lorde Chauncellour that howe is, to sticke to the Masse, and other thinges: He saide, that my Lorde woulde saye no such thinges, or wordes of him: for if he did, he reported not the truthe of him. Then he was asked whether he would dispute or no. He answered: As long as God gaue him life, he shuld not onely haue his heart, but also his mouthe and penne, to defende his truthe: but he required time and bookes. They sayd he could not, and that he should dispute on Thursday, and till that time he should haue bookes: He sayde it was not reason that he mighte not haue hys owne bookes, and time also to looke his disputations. Then gaue they him the articles, and bad him write his minde of them that nyght, and so did they commaunde the Mayre to haue hym from whence he came.
Then was brought to them olde Latimer, whiche had not with them so many woordes, as the other: his royce was very lowe, so that I coulde not heare him as the other, but that I heard hym say the articles were al false. Again they tolde him that he should dispute in them. He saide, he was almost as mete to dispute, as to be a captayne of Callis: but he saide, that he would declare his minde, either by writing, or by worde. Furthermore, he sayde he woulde stande to all that they coulde laye vppon his backe. He sayde also, that he could not be suffered to haue penne, ynke, paper, nor bokes, neuer since he was in trouble laste, but onely the newe testament, whiche (he sayde) he had read over seuen times deliberately, and yet coulde not finde neither marybones, nor sinowes of the Masse in it. At whiche aunswere they were sore offended: And Doctor Weston sayde that he would make him graunte, that it had bothe mary and sinowes in the new testament.
Then saide maister Latimer, that will you neuer do maister Doctor, and so was he commauntied to be had to the place where he came fro.
Nowe for the disputations on Monday, as it was appoynted before, dyd aunswere to the same maister Doctor Cranmer: I coulde not write the argumentes, there was such throng of people. They wer such as we heard before, and he aunswered in lyke maner. And where some haue reported him to bee vtterly vnlearned, and not able to vnderstande a latin text of a Doctor: hee hath shewed himselfe learned bothe in latin and Greke, for truely he bad a better latin tonge, then diverse that dyd oppose hym. There were sometyme flue or sixe at him at one tyme, so that if he had answered to one, other two or three would haue bene at him at one tyme, before he had spoken halfe a sentence. The strongest argument which was thought to blank hym, was out of Chrisostom, which is this. Idem est in tetris quod est summo honore dignum.
Ergo naturale corpus Christi est praesens in terris: alioqui non est in terris quod est summo honore dignum. That is: Ergo the naturall bodye of Christ is present in earth, or els there is not in earth that is worthy greatest honor. He aunswered that Chrisostome had in that place: ostenditur, representatur, et per sacramenta tanquam ob oculos ponitur Christus, eius verum corpus fide et digne sumentibus, et sic est in tetris quod est summo honore dignnum.
That is: Christ is shewed and represented by the sacramentes, euen as hee were putte before oure eyes, to such as receyue his true bodye in faith, and so is on earth that is woorthye greatest honor, as Paule to the Galatians sayeth: Christus Iesus depictus pre oculis illorum, et inter illos crucifixus, because he was so set foorth to them, as it had bene before theyr eyes, predicatione verbi, by preaching the worde. Then arose there a controversy about the translation of a word in the Bishop of Canterburies boke. it was about (verum) and (vere) truely or of a truthe, whiche the Bishoppe sayde little or nothing differed in sense: and saide as farre as he remembred it was also in Doctor Smythes booke. Then did Doctor Weston bid Doctor Smith aunswere for himselfe. He aunswered neuer a worde. Than maister Price sayde by the Canon lawe, diabolo non permittitur defensio, sed prohibetur. To the devil defense must not be geuen, but taken away from him. For ther were so many at him still, that it was impossible for any one man to aunswere directlye to them all. There were that disputed besydes these Doctors, Doctor Chedsey, D. Weston, Doctor Tresham, and Yong, Doctor Cole, Doctor Coke, Doctor Oglethorp, Doctor Seton, maister Pye, and maister Harpsfield.
The next day did they dispute with Doctor Ridley. First Doctor Smith, Doctor Weston, Doctor Tresham, Doctor Oglethorp, Doctor Cole, maister Warde, maister Harpsfield, D. Watson, maister Price, maister Harding, maister Cartor, maister Brandor, to all them he aunswered very learnedly. He made a preface to these questions, but they would not let hym go thrth in it, but caused hym to make an ende of the same, and saide it was blasphemye, and some saide he droue away the time in ambyguous thinges, nothing to the purpose, and so they would not suffer hym to saye his mynde. Doctor Smith could get nothing at his hand, in so touche other did take his argumentes, and prosecuted them. He shewed himself to be learned, and a great seholer: they could bryng nothing, but he knewe it as well as they. Thus for lacke of leasure I make an ende.
The Doctors of Cambridge broughte all the subscriptions of the scholers, and a letter sealed with the Uniuersitie scale, wherin they semed to lament, that these men beyng once of their bodie, nowe hadde separated themselues from them, and the churche. Here is suche subscribing as neuer hath bene sene afore: for thei say they will haue them to prison out of hand, and the Canon lawes executed vppon them, that would not subscribe. All oure house haue subscribed, sauing I and my chamberfelowe, and we looke euery houre, when we shall not onely loose our coiledge, but also goe to prison, whiche maister Doctor Weston threateneth sore. But if I can escape with loosinge of my Colledge, he shal assoone cut of my right hand, as to make me subscribe.
On the 18. daye of Apryll, Latimer came into the diuinitie scholes, at the same houre: and after the same maner that the other came before, and he refused to dispute, deliuerynge the Queues maiesties visitours the declaration of his minde in Latin, alleging that disputations required a stedfast memorye, and that his by age and other infirmities fayled, and therfore he would content himself with the declaration of his conscience. And when Doctor Weston vrged him to aunswere, he denyed, syngynge styll one song: yet for all that, they woulde nedes dispute with hym, and maister Smithe of Oriall Colledge, Doctor Scot, and maister Burman were set to oppose hym, which went still to the Doctors: then tolde he them, that thei promised him to proue it by the scriptures with which said Doctor Weston being moued: maister Latimer on Saterday last past you said you could not finde in the testament no mary, sillowes, nor bones of the masse, and therefore nowe you shall haue bread to the mary: and so asked him whether he would haue all. thinges kept, that Christ did at his last supper. Maister Latimer aunswered, he would have the instytution of Christ kept, but not all thyngs. Then saide Doctor Weston, if you wil haue al thinges kept, then must Priestes wash their feete, whiche doe communicate and be banged themselues the morowe after. And I pray you (sayd he) where (maister Latimer) haue you in al the newe testament that euer any woman did communicate? Then did maister Latimer desire licence to speake, and that obtained, put on hys spectacles and turned to the 11:chapter of the first to the Corinthians, where Paule sayeth: Probet seipsum homo, et sic de pane illo edat, et calice bibat. That is: Let a man examine himself and so let him eate of the bread and drink of the cup. After that he asked Doctor Weston:
Cuius generis homo est, what gender manne is. He aunswered:
Communis generis: ergo sayde maister Latimer, there is mention made that a woman should receiue the communion by the scriptroes. And Doctor Weston replied by reprehending the translation, that it had homo for vir, and brought this argument, that Paul gaue that same that Christe gaue to his discyples, but Christ gaue the communion to no woman, therefore the same scriptures oughte not to be so largely vnderstanded. He denyed hys minor, saying that Christ gaue it to his 12 Apostles, whiche did represent the church, wherin wer women, as wel as men. Doctor Smith also replying, sayde: it was in the text, probet seipsum homo, which did make as it wer against communis generis naturam, declaryng that it ought to be vnderstande of the man only: and at the very same time of the Doctors replying, there stoode a boy by me, whiche sayd to two or thre that stode by him, it may be very well seipsum, and yet it may stande both for man and woman, for the Masculine gendre is more worthy then the Feminine. Latimer as I suppose heard it not, there spake so many at once. Then sayd Doctor Weston, your communion is not onely euyil, but you haue geuen an euyll name to the sacrament, calling it the Lordes supper.
He is a very poore lord (saide he) that hath no more to his supper then a pece of bread, and a cup of wine: To that Latimer answered, that Iudaica coena peracta, qua pascha sabbato comedebant, dominica coena incepta est. The iudaical supper being past, in whiche on the Sabboth day they dyd eate, the Lordes supper is begonne, not that it shoulde be no supper at al. Ye see verely it must nedes be the wordes of the scriptures. Then Doctor Weston made a digression or falling awaye from this to another matter. In the communion booke is a saying: This take, eate, and bee thankeful. On these wordes (said Doctor Weston) it is a worthy saying to say: this take, eat, and be thankefull. Mary syr I thanke you, I praye you be mery as I may saye. Then sayde Doctor Weston agayne: maister Latimer, ye can neyther finde in the scripture that a Woman should receiue the communion, nor your Oyster borde, nor yet lofe bread, nor your bare bread, and therefore ye are lyke to eate youre mary bones without bread, and then may they chaunce to choke you: And when maister Latimer aunswered them of their Doctors, he recited the sentence of Melanthon:
Commodius senserunt doctores nonnunquam, quarn locuti sunt.
The Doctors did thynke often tymes better then they did speake.
He sayde also Augustine was a reasonable man, that required vs not to beleue him farther, then the scripture dyd allowe, or that he brought scripture for himself. After this Doctor Cartwrite declared in open audience, that he had bene in errours, and was come home agayne to the church, wylling him to do the same. Latimer aunswered, that the losse of goodes and possessions, putting out of favor, hinderaunce from promotions, feare of imprisonment and burning, semed to some an inuincible argument, and had blanked manye, iudgyng Doctor Cartwrite to bee one of them. Then sayde Doctor Weston, you haue sayde Masse many a tyme (maister Latimer) whiche he graunted: but holding vp his hands and lifting vp his eyes, sayd: I cry God hartely mercy for it.
Then Doctor Weston asked hym whether he thought it wel done, to take out of the church the crosse of Christ, and to leaue there the signe of the Gallowes: He aunswered it was ryghte wel doone: for the Gallowes is a necessarye monument of Justice to be obserued, and the crosse was a monument of Idolatrye to be committed.
Finally Doctor Weston exhorted him to leaue his Heresies, saying it would do hym no good, to see his beard burned with a fagot, and so ended wednisdayes worke. It semed to me and a number more, that they caused hym to bee brought foorth for nothing els, but to laugh at hym and mocke hym: suche was their behauiour in the scholes that daye. Uppon Thursdaye, at the accustomed houre did Mayster Harpsfield aunswere in the same questyons, sua forma, for his forme, for his grace to be Doctour. Doctour Weston did oppose him with Peter Martirs argumentes. In like maner dyd Doctor Cranmer oppose, tyll Doctor Weston saide: Haec tibi sufficiant, ynoughe for you syr. For truely he passed al mennes expectation in doyng the same. I myselfe whiche dyd euer thynke that he was better learned, than many reported he was, yet would I haue thought he could not haue done so well, nor would not haue beleued it, yf I had not heard hym my selfe. They disputed de corpore quantitatiuo, which they said was ther sine momento quantitatiuo: but he proued the contrary, in so touche they wet madde with him for asking whether there were in the naturall bodye of Christ proportio, spatium, ac distantia inter membrnm et membrum, that is, aproportion, space or distaunce betwixt member and member. One aunswere one thyng, another another thyng. At length stoode vp maister Ward, and would proue it ex predicamento quantitatis of a predicament of quantitie. The Byshop sayde Ego etiam legi praedicamenta Aristotelis, nunquam tamen potui inuenire talem quantitatem, qualem vos hic ponitis: I also haue red the predicamentes of Aristotle, neuer for all that coulde I fynde suche a quantitye, as you dooe putte foorth. And then was mayster Warde vp with his positio per actum et posicio loci and mathematicall, Metaphisicall positions, whiche farre passed my capacitie, and I thinke few or none vnderstoode hym, in all the diuinitye scholes: but he coulde not deceive him in al the predicamentes. Then dyd they dispute, whether Impii, that is the wicked, do receue the body of Christ or no, of whiche he reasoned wonderfull learnedly out of the sixt of John. After these argumentes Doctor Weston tooke the matter in hand, and continued tyll twelue of the clocke.
Doctor Ridley came not forth to oppose, and I cannot tell the cause why, but I thynke he woulde halle bene to good for them. Uppon Friday the Commissioners sate in sainte Maries churche, as they dyd the Saterday before, and Doctor Weston vsed particularly dissuations with euery of them, and would not suffer them to aunswer in any wyse, but directly and peremptorily (as his wordes wet) to saye whether they would subscribe or no. And fyrst to the Bishop of Canterbury, he sayde he was ouercom in disputations: whom the B. answered, that whereas Doctor Weston sayde he hadde answered and opposed, and could neither mayntayn his own errors, nor impugne the verity, al that he said was false. For he was not suffered to oppose as he would, nor could answer as was required, vnlesse he woulde haue brawled with them: so thycke theyr reasons came one after another. Euer foure or fyue dyd interrupte hym, that he coulde not speake. Mayster Ridley, and Maister Latimer wer asked what they would doe, they sayde they would stande to that they had sayd: then were they all called together, and sentence red ouer them, that they were no members of the Churche. And therefore they, their fautours, and patrones were condempned as heretikes: and in readyng of it, they were asked whether they would turne or no, and they badde them read on in the name of God. for they were not mynded to turne. So were they condemned all three. After they sayd some what eueryche one of them.
THE BISHOP OF CANTERBURY FYRSTE SPEAKETH.
DOCTOR WESTONS ANSWERE VNTO LATIMER.
After the sentence pronounced, they were separated one from the other: videlicet, My lord of Canterbury was put in Boeardo, D.
Ridley was caried to maister Shriues house, maister Latimer in maister Bailifs. On Saterday we had Masse with ora pro nobis, with great solemnitie. Dr. Cranmer was caused to beholde it out of Bocardo. Doctor Ridley, out of the sheriues house. Latimer also being brought to see that, from the Baylifes house, thoughte that he should haue gone to burning, and spake to one Augustine Cooper, a Catchpole, to make a quicke fier. But when he came to Karfox, and sawe the matter, he ranne as faste as his olde bones woulde carye hym. to one Spensers shop, and would not looke towardes it. Laste of all, Doctor Weston caryed the sacrament and foure Doctors carled the Canipe ouer him.
NO. TRANSLATION OF RIDLEY’S PREFACE TO HIS REPORT OF HIS DISPUTATION AT OXFORD, IN (See -Note in Appendix of this Volume .)
From the Edition of 1663, p. 956.
NICOLAS RIDLEY TO THE CHRISTIAN READER I NEUER yet sithens I was horne, sawe or heard any thyng doone, or handled more vaynelye or tumultuouslye, then the disputation whiche was had with me in the scholes at Oxforde. Yea verely, I could neuer haue thought, that it had bene possible to haue found among men of any knowlege, and learnyng in this realme, any so brasen faced and shameles, which could haue abidden, much lesse then, whiche coulde haue had pleasure in suche Robynhoode pastimes, as that disputation had plenty of.
The Sorbonicall clamours whiche at Paris (when Popery most reygned 1 ) I in tymes past haue seen, myght bee worthely thought (in comparison of this Thrasonicall ostentation) to haue had muche modestye. Howe be it, it was not to be wondred at, for that they which should ther haue bene Moderatours, and Ouerseers of others, and whiche should haue geuen a good example in wordes and grauitie etc. as Paul sayeth: It is not to be wondred at (I saye), in that these, of all others, gaue worst example, and did (as it were) blow the trumpet to other, to raile, rage, rare, and cry out. By reason wherof, good Christian Reader, it is very manifest, that they neuer sought for any truthe or veritye, but alonely for the glory of the world, and a Thrasonicall or braggyng victory. But least by the innumerable railinges, and contfitious tauntes, wherewith I was throughly thrust at, and as muche as in them laye ouerthrowne, our cause, yea, rather gods cause, and his churches should be euyll spoken of and slaundered to the world, by the false examples of our disputations, and so the veritye it self susteyne some dammage, and reproche, I haue thought it my duety to wryte my aunsweres, that whosoeuer is desirous to knowe them, and the truthe withall, maye by this perceaue as well those thyngs, which wet chiefly objected, as that which was aunswered of me to euery of them.
Howbeit (good Reader) I confesse this to be moste true, that it is impossible to set foorth either al that was (God knoweth) tumultuously spoken, and lyke as of mad men obiected of so many, whiche spake often times huddle, so that one coulde not well heare an other, eyther all that was aunswered of me briefly, to suche, and so diuers Opponents. Moreouer, a great part of the tyme appointed for the disputations, was vaynly spent in moste contumelious rebukes, and more then theatricall, or stage playe exibilations, or hissynges, clappyng of handes, and tryumphes, and that in the Englyshe tonge, to get the peoples fauour withall.
All whiche thynges, when I with Godlye grief dyd suffer, and theron did openly bewaile and wytnes, that that company of learned men and soholos, whiche were appoynted to graue men, and to graue matters, were contamynate and defyled by suche foolyshe and Robinhood pastimes, and that they whiche were the doers of suche thynges, dyd but thereby openly show theyr vanitie: I was so farre by my suche humble complaynt from doyng good, or helpyng any thyng at all, that I was inforced, what with hyssyng and shoutyng, and what with autoritye, to heare suche great reproches and slaunders uttred agaynst me, as no graue man wythoute blushyng, could abyde the hearyng of the same spoken of a moste vyle knaue, agaynste a moste wretched Lout. At the beginning of the dysputation, when I shoulde haue confyrmed myne aunswere, to the fyrst proposition, in few wordes, and that after the maner of disputations: before I coulde make an ende of my probation, which was not very long, euen the very doers themselues cried out, he speaketh blasphemies, blasphemies, blasphemies.
And when I on my knees besoughte them, and that hartely, that they would vouchsafe to hear me to the ende, whereat the Prolocutour some thyng moued, cried out, let hym read it, let him reade it: yet when I agayn beganne to read it, there was by and by suche acrie and noise, blasphemyes, blasphemyes, as I (to my remembraunce) neuer heard or redde the lyke, excepte it be one, whiche was in the actes of the Apostles, styrred vp of Demetrius, the siluer Smith, and others of his occupation, crying out agaynst Paulo, great is Diana of the Ephesians, greate is Diana of the Ephesians. And except it were a certayne disputation, whiche the Arrians had against the Orthodoxes, and suche as were of Godly iudgement in Affricke: where it is sayd that suche as the presidente and rulers of the disputations be, such be the endes of the disputations. All were in hurly burly: and so greate were the slaunders that the Arrians caste out, that nothyng coulde quietly bee heard. Thus wryteth Victor in the seconde booke of his hystory. And the cryes and tumultes of these men at Oxforde nowe so preuayled, that woulde I, noulde I, I was inforced to leaue of the readyng of my probations, althoughe they were short.
If anye manne doubte of the truthe hereof, lette hym aske of anye one that was there, and not vtterlye peruerted in Poperye, and I am sure he wyl saye, that I speake the least. But to complayne of thynges further, I wyll ceasse: And howe wyll I goe about syncerely to note the arguments made agaynst me, and mine answeres vnto them, as muche and as nere as my memorye will serue me, by diligent consyderyng and callynge to mynde euery cyrcumstance to the vttermost I can.
NO. TRANSLATION OF RIDLEY’S CONCLUSION TO HIS REPORT (See page 535 of this Volume , note (1).)
From the Edition of 1563, p. 978.
DOCTOR RIDLEY TO THE READER.
KNOW (gentle Reader) [that maister Prolocutour did promise me in the scholes, in the disputations, publikely, that I shoulde see myne aunsweres, howe they were collected and gathered of the Notaries, and that I shuld haue licence to adde, or diminyshe, to alter or chaunge afterwarde, as I shoulde thinke beste would make for me to the answering of the propositions. He promised moreouer publikely that I shoulde haue bothe time and place for me to bring in frankely, all that I could for the confirmation of myne aunsweres. Nowe when he had promised all these thinges openly in the hearing of the other Comissioners, and of the whole vniuersitie of Oxford, yet good Reader marke this, that in very deede he perfourmed nothing of all that he promised. what faithe then shall a man 1ooke to finde at suche Judges handes in the secrete misteries of God, which in their promises so openly made, and so duely dette (I wil not speake of the witnes of the matter), ar found to be so faithles both to God and man. well I wyll leaue it to the Judgement of the wyse.
And nowe for that is left for vs to doo, let vs praye that God woulde haue mercie on his churche of England, that yet once, when it shal be his good pleasure, it may clearly see and gredely embrace in the face of Jesus Christe the will of the heauenly father, and that of his infinite mercy, he woulde either turne to him the raging and rauening wolues, and moste subtill seducers of his people, whiche are by them altogether spoyled and bewitched, either that of his moste righteous Judgement he woulde driue these faithies feedours from his flock, that they may no more be able to trouble and scatter abrode Christes sheepe from their shepeheard, and that spedely:
Amen, Amen. And let euerye one that hath the spiritie (as S. John sayeth) say Amen. Yet further knowe thou that when maister Prolocutor did put furthe three propositions, he did commaunde vs to aunswere particularly to them al. After our aunsweres, neither he, nor his fellowes did euer enter into any disputation of any one of them, then only of the first. Yea, when that he had asked vs after disputations of the first (as ye haue hearde for my part) whether we woulde subscribe to the whole, in such sort, forme, and wordes as ther are set fourth, without further disputation, (which thyng we denied) by and by he gaue sentence against vs all, that is against me, Doctor Cranmer, and Doctor Latimer, my moste dere fathers and brethren in Christ, condempning vs for heinous heretikes concerning euery of these propositions, and so separated vs one from another, sending vs seuerally into sundry and diuerse houses, to be kept moste secretly to the daye of our burning, and as before, so still commaunded that all and euery one of our seruauntes should be kept from vs, whereto he added that at his departure thence, penne, inke, and paper, should depart from vs also. But thankes be to God that gaue me to wryte this before the vse of suche thinges were vtterly taken away. Almighty god which beholdeth the causes of the afflicted, and is wonte to lose and loke mercifully on the bondes and gronyngs of the captiues, he vouchesafe now to loke vpon the causes of his poore church in England, and of his great wisdom and vnspeakeable mercie with speade to make an end of our mysery. Amen, Amen, Amen.
Further here is to be noted, that after these disputations ended, the Prolocutor layd vnto the charges of them that were Exceptores argumentorum, that they were more diligent in writing of the other part then of his, and in very deede they coulde not agree amonge them selues for the first dayes worke, albeit they had conferred twise or thrise. Notwithstanding at length a conference was made, which beinge sealed with the vniuersitie scale, was exhibited vp in the Conuocation house at London, the sayd moneth of Aprill the 27.
NO. CARDINAL POLE’S LETTER TO POPE JULIUS III REPORTING THE RECONCILIATION OF ENGLAND (See page 573 of this Volume , note (1).)
From the Edition of 1563, p. 1012.
Exemplum literarum Reuerendissimi, et illustriss. Domini Cardinalis Poli, Legati Apostolici de latere in Regno Angliae, ad Sanctiss. Dominure nostrum Iulium Tertium, super eadem reductione, et obedientia. QVAE superioribus diebus ad Sanctitatem vestram scripsi de ea spe, quam ceperam, fore vt breui hoc Regnum ad ecclesiae vnitatem, et Sedis Apostolicae obedientiam rediret, etsi non sine magna causa scripsi, non poteram tamen non in aliquo timore vetsart, non solum ob earn difficultatem, quam afferebat nostrorum hominum abalienata a sede Apostolica voluntas, et inueteratum iam per tot annos eius nominis odium, sed multo magis, quod verebar, ne ingressus ipse in causam, aliqua interposita minus honesta pactione, inquinaretur. Quod quidem ne accideret, vehementer egi cum Sereniss. Regibus. Sed nihil sane id necesse erat. Vicit eorum pietas, ac rei perficiendae studium, omnem expectationem meam, quamuis maximam. Hodie autem vesperi, quo die Sancti Andreae Apostoli memoria colebatur, qui primus Petrum fratrem suum ad Christum adduxit, diuina prouidentia factum est, vt hoc Regnum ad praestandam debitam Petri sedi et Sanctitati Vestrae obedientiam reuocaretur, quo per illam Christo capiti, et eius corpori, quae est Ecclesia, coniungeretur. Acta vero, et confecta res est in parlamento, praesentibus Regibus, tanta omnium consensione, et plausu, vt cum ego perorassem, post benedictionem statim ab vniuersis mirifica laetitiae significatione acclamatum seepius sit, Amen. Ex quo plane perspectum est, in his sanctum illud semen, etsi diu oppressum, non tamen extinctum fuisse, quod vel maxime nobilitas declarat. Haec reuersus domum ad Sanctitatem Vestram scripsemm, vt ei de tanta re tamque feliciter diuino consilio gesta, subito gratularer, cogitans has litems regio tabellario dare, qui paulo post discessurus dicebatur: post veto mutata sententia, cum statuissem certum hominem ex meis mittere, hoc tantum his literis addere volui ad gratulationis cumulm, eiusque laetitiae gratulationem, quam cum maximam cepi ex ipsius rei euentu, omnium maximae, tam sanctae, tam vtilis vniuersae Ecclesiae, tam salutaris huic patriae, quae me genuit, tam honorificae ei, quae me excepit, tum vero non minorem ex ipsis Regibus, ex quorum virtute, pietateque id perfectum est, atque confestum. Quam multa, et quanta potest Ecclesia sponsa Christi, et mater nostra de his suis filijs sibi polliceri! O pietas, O prisca fides, quae quidem in vtrisque sic elucet, vt qui eos videat, idem, quod Propheta de primis filijs Ecclesiae dixit, cogatur dicere: “Isti sunt semen, cut benedixit Dominus; Haec plantatio Domini ad gloriandum.” Quam sancte Sanctitas Vestra omni autoritate, studioque huic rnatrimonio fauit! quod sane videtur prae se ferre magnam summi illius Regis similitudinem, qui mundi haeres, a regalibus sedibus a patre demissus est, vt esset Virginis sponsus et filius, et hac rattone vniuersum genus humanum consolaretur: sic enim Rex ipse, maximus omnium, qui in terris sunt, haeres, patrijs relictis regnis, et illis quidem maximis, in hoc paruum Regnum se contulit, huius virginis sponsus, et filius est factus (ita enim se gerit, tanquam filius esset, cum sit sponsus) vt, quod tam plane perfecit, Sequestrem se atque adiutorem ad reconciliandum Christo, et eius corpori, quod est Ecclesia, hunc populum, praeberet. Quae cum ita sint, quid tandem non ipsi Ecclesiae matri ab eo expectandum est? qui id effecit, vt conuertat corda patrum in filios, et incredulos ad prudentiam iustorum, quae sane virtus in ipso valde elucet. Haec vero Regina, quae tum, cum Sanctitas V. me ad eam legauit, tanquam virgula illa fumi ex arboribus mirrhae, et thuris ex deserto ascendebat, ipsa paulo ante ab omnibus derelicta, quam nunc splendet! quale tam mirrhae, ac thuris odorem suis effundit! quae, vt de Christi matre ait Propheta, “antequam parturiret peperit, antequam veniret partus eius, peperit masculum. Quis unquam audiuit tale? et quis vidit huic simile: nunquid parturiet terra die vna, aut parietur gens simul? haec vero gentem totam nunc peperit, antequam eum partum ediderit, cuius in spe maxima sumus.”
Quanta nobis gratulandi causa datur! quanta gratias agendi diuinee misericordiae, S. Vesttee, et Caesaris Maiestati, qui auctores tam foelicis, tamque pij coniugij fuistis, per quod nos Deo patti, et Christo, et Ecclesiee reconciliati coniungimur! Qua de re gaudium, quod cepi, cum verbis consequi non possim, tacere tamen non possum. Huic vero gratulationi meae coniunctum est id, quod quidem cum ex literis Reuerendi Archiepiscopi Consani, Sanctitatis Vestrae apud Casaream Maiestatem Nuntij cognouerim, maximam mihi letitiam attulit, illam cepisse, ea, quae in Ecclesia Romana vitio temporum deformata sunt, in pristinum decorem restituere. Quod quidem cum factum fuerit, tum vero exclamare vna cum Propheta, et Vestram Sanctitatem appellate licebit illis verbis: “Exue to stola luctus, et vexationis, et indue to decore, quia Deo tibi est in gloria sempiterna: nominabitur enim tibi nomen tuum a Deo sempiternum, pax iustitiae, et honor pietatis tum autem dicetur, circumspice, et vide collectos filios tuos ab oriente sole, vsque in occidentem in verbo sancto gaudentes.” Nihil certe est (vt de filijs in occidente collectis loquar, qui se ad occurrendum matri praeparant) quod libentius videre possint, quam illam (vt verbis Propheticis vtar) ea diploide iustitiae amictam, qua Deus olim ipsam ornauit: hoc vnum reliquum est, vt Vestrae Sanctitatis gaudium cumuletur, et vniuersae simul Eeclesiae, quae vna cum nobis indignis filijs suis deum pro hoc orare non desinet. Deus optimus maximus Sanctitatem Vestram diu Ecclesiac suee incolumen conseruet. Londini die vltima Nouembris. 1554. E.S.V.
Humillimus seruus Reg. Cardinalis Polus.
END OF VOLUME 6