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THE EPISTLE OF ROBERTE GLOUER SENT TO HIS WIFE DECLARYNG THEREIN HIS CONFLICTES WITH HYS ENEMIES. (See Note in the Appendix on p. 387.)
From the Edition of 1563, p. 1273. “THE quietnes of conscience which pusseth all understanding, wyth all gladnes, consolation,& bolde speaking in the holye ghoste, increase, and. multiply eternally in three heart, by the lyuelye stable and constante faith, in the onely and moste dearest sauiour Jesu Christe. Amen. “The letters which thou sentest to me in prison, I haue receyued, and geue thee good wife moste hartye and ample thankes for the same, whiche not with-oute teares I perused agayne and agayne: I saye not without teares, but certainlye not for anye griefe or dolour conteyned, but for incredible ioye and gladnes, that aboundantlye flowed in me, assone as I behelde the wonderfull woorkes of God planted in thee: Fyrste in that thy unfayned repentaunce:
Secondlye in thy humble and true reconciliation: and laste of all, in the lowly obedience of thy harte, committyng thy selfe and all thyne to goddes holye wyll and pleasure: whiche all when in those thy letters, as in a playne Index and table I hadde scene and vewed, especiallye perceiuyng it to procede of a symple and inwarde motion of thy hearte. I coulde not but all weepyng aboundantly geue thankes to our Lorde for thee, whoe for hys singuler goodnes hathe vouchesafed to poure and shewe vppon thee, but touche more vppon me hys mercye and clemency. These thy writynges, and the often relation of our frendes to me of thy profytyng and constancye in the knowledge of God, doe greatlye lighten and daylye dymynyshe the sorrowes of rayne imprisonmente, whiche wyll bee for thee at the latter daye a sure and perfecte testimonye agaynste manye deyntie, nice, and luxurious dames, more addicted to the ragynge pleasures of thys worlde, then to God, hauyng neyther regarde (as they seeme) of themselues nor yet of other. So longe as I shall lyue, I wyll not cesse continually to pray for thee, that that whiche the goodnesse of God hathe happyly layde and grafted in thee, maye euerye daye more and more haue better progression and successe, to the glorie of his holye name: And that he woulde vouchesafe so to arme thee with the secrete strengthe of hys holye spirite, and so to guyde, and rule thee in all thy doynges, that we both lincked together in one spirite and fleshe, maye shewe and celebrate hys prayse in the worlde to come, to the euerlastynge ioye and consolation of vs bothe. As longe as thou by goddes permission shalt lyue in thys worlde, chiefely and before all other thinges geue thy selfe to continuall prayer, accordyng to the admonishment of Saint Paule, lyftyng vppe thy pure handes to almightye God, beeynge voyde of wrathe, contention, or staggeryng, remembring no iniurye, but forgeuyng all the worlde, as Christe hath forgeuen us. And the more bente and readye you are to forgeue the iniuries done agaynste you (besydes that you shall profitte your selfe no little thereby, in callyng to remembraunce the greate and houge trespasses, which Christ hath and dothe daylye forgeue and pardonne vs of) the sooner thereby it wyll come to passe (as Saincte Peter sayth) that we embracing mutuall charity, maye forgette and forgeue one an other oure offenses committed, althoughe neuer so greate and heynous: And because by the worde of God we are taughte and instructed howe and after what manner we shoulde praye, What we shoulde followe or eschewe in thys lyre, that pleaseth or displeaseth God: and finally, when hys word as the Lorde testifieth, that he spake, shall Judge vs all at the latter daye: Directe therefore especiallye youre prayer to thys ende, that oure Lorde of hys infinite goodnesse woulde euerye daye more and more vouchsafe to enspire thyne hearte wyth the verye true knowledge of hys woorde, and so to gouerne and dyrect thy lyre, that thy fruites maye bee correspondent and aunswere thy knowledge. And further, because thys woorde is called by the holye ghoste, the woorde of affliction, as to the which for the moste parte do cleaue the incommodities of thys world, as hatred, perills, persecutions, and losse of goodes, (by daylye experience as you doo see) the more earneste you muste bee in callynge to God for hys helpe, and before to trye wyth your selfe, whether you shalbee able to beare the charge vppon you or no. And thus you hauyng leauied and layed a sure and stronge foundation by deuoute prayer, you shall by the helpe of the holye spirite stande faste agaynste all manner of stormes and tempestes: Calle often trines that into youre remembraunce, whyche happened to Lots wyfe, lookyng backe on those thynges whiche she lefte behynde her. Bee you by that example instructed and made the wyser, leste you in anye wales bee cozied and moued wyth those thynges which are displeasant beefore the syghte of almightye God. And beecause nothyng maye or canne more greuouslye offende him then Idolatrye, whiche is the false worshyppyng of God, beware in anye wyse and take good bede, leste that at any tyme you pollute your selfe with the idolatry of the blasphemous masse, whiche is playnelye against the woorde of God, and euidentlye repugueth againste the example and institution of Christ. For what is he, be he neuer so little sene in the readyng of the holye Scriptures, that doth not beleue all thynge now executed in the Englishe churche, to bee done aswell againste the doctrine of the holye woorde, as the edification of Christes churche, when all thynges therein is ministred and doone in a straunge and vnknowen tongue, contrarye to the expresse will and commaundement of the spirite of God? In deede with great bragge they obiecte that they are the churche, chalengyng by this title faith: whome I aunswere on thys wyse, that the true churche of Christe dothe confesse and acknowledge no head but Jesus Christ, the onelye sonne of God. But he forsaken, you do take in hys place to youre heade the Pope of Rome, whiche is the sonne of perdition and aduersary to Christ. For the church of Christ heareth only his voice, & is taught & ruled only by his word, according to the saieng of the lord, my shepe do heare my voice. If you shall dwell in me and my worde in you, then are you my disciples, etc. But contrary their church, the symple doctrine of Christ beeyng neglected, doo intrude and thruste in her tradicions by violence, when the church of Christ dothe nothyng adde nor dyminishe from gods holy Testament, or is in anye thinge preiudiciall to the same. “But these men are not ashamed [not] onely to abolishe suche thinges as are to our soules healthe taught by Christ: but also to reuell and route in their inuentions, reioycing in the woorkes of their owne handes: But contrary the church of Christ hath euer hitherto (wheresoeuer it hath or shalbe) adioyned to it the crosse, oppressed thorough the so great multitudes of troubles and miseries of this worlde. So that it is not of the world, when these me hauyng no respect or difference, do persecute, slaye, hume, and destroye all they fynde to arreste in the true and sincere doctrine of Christ, and finallye spareth none, otherwise beeing neuer so qualified & endued with vertu and excellency of learning.
Furthermore Christ and his church do willingly geue & prech his doctrine, offring it to bee tried and discussed by the misticall fountaine of the holy Scripture suffering all men freelye to conceyue and Judge thereof: saying, searche ye and try out the scriptures. But farre otherwise is the state of theyr churche, wherein they vtterly do interdicte al me the liberty of the worde, suffering neither learned or unlearned to make exploration of theyr actes, and to conferre them with the places and maximes of the holy scripture. “The true church of god striued euer in al that it mighte, to resiste the ille-cebrous desyres and vnbrideled temptacions of the flesh, the world, and the deuil: when most parte of these men (as thou maiest see) do wallowe in all kynde of fylthy lustes, committing secret abbominacion (as Paule reherseth) the names whereof I abhorre to expresse. By these, and the like reasons they shewe what they are, manifestly declaring therby, that they be not of the churche of Christ, but are belongyng to the Sinagoge of Sathan. It were not farre out of the waye, to compare the doynges and sayinges of -them, with the examples of those, whom the worde of god approueth to be as members of Christ and his church, for in so doyng you may no lesse augment their judgement and strength, then therby the boldlier resist and withstand their iniquitie.
Wherfore I may most aptly as it seemed to me, and as I then tould them, apply and liken them to Nemerod, whom scripture doth compare to a mightie hunter or valiant champion: for when they cannot compasse what they woulde, with wordes, by and by they passe it by the sworde: And yet wil they be couted for the church, & who say nay. Therfore with safe conscience I called (as once Christe did) the chiefest of them, the diuels sonnes: For euen as the father of them the diuel, is bothe a lyar and a mur-therer: so is their kingdome (and churche as they terme it) builte and founded upon slaughter and lyes. Wherefore in anye wise deare wyfe, meddle not wyth their doctrine or traditions, leste you bee made partener thereof with them, to whome eternall damnation is due, vnlesse the sooner they do repente. Beware of their priuy whisperyngs, wherby they wyll entyce the to folowe tymes, and serue the worlde. For God in such kynde of matters wyll not bee deceyued and mocked. It is horrible (saithe Saincte Paule) to fall in goddes handes. Remember the saying of Elie the Prophete. Why (saith he) doo ye halte and leane to bothe parties? Is it not the Lorde etc.?
Agayne the wordes of Christ are these. He that putteth hys hande to the ploughe, and looketh backe, is not woorthye of me: And because the chiefest capitayn & emperour Christ hath placed thee in the forefronte, lyke a talle and valiant souldiour, you must not now*, leauyng thy standing and ensygne, ronne awaye lyke a dastarde and beastely cowarde. Saincte John amongs them which deserueth to bee throwne into the lake or quarrye of Brimstone dothe accompte them which timorouslye and cowardlye behaueth themselues in the Lordes quarrell: Haue now before your eyes the example of *them, whiche wyth inuincible courage dyed in Christes quarrel, fightyng valiantly against theyr enemies: suche as among the olde champions were Stephan, Paule, Daniell, the three Hebrues in the furnace, and suche as in our latter dayes were, Anne Askue, Saunders, and Bradford, with many other of that bande, and most faithfull Martyrs of Christe. In no wyse (saith S. Paul) be you afeard of your enemies, which is to them the cause of perdition, and to you of saluation. And in lyke maner Christo exhorteth vs:
Feare not those which slayeth the bedye. etc. We wyll not follow the; example of hym whiche in the Gospell with muche intercession obtayned leaue, fyrste to salute their friendes, and then to returne, which if we doe, we shall fynde but fewe, but that wyll rather go backewarde then forwarde, in thys moste blessed race of life. We reade in diuers places, howe that John, Andrewe, and Symon, beeyng called to serue and follow the Lord incontinently, withoute tariance to salute their Parence and frendes, and in all hast after the most wisest manet leauyng their goods and possessions, rose and folowed hym. “Christe in an otherplace compareth the kingdome of heuen to treasure lyeng, hid in the field or a precious lewell whiche a man founde, and for ioye thereof went and solde all that he had, and boughte that fielde: But the moste men now adayes may be likened to the Cocke in Esopes fables, which fyndyng a precious stone had rather haue one Barley come then at ye precious stones in the world: Eue so but a few god knoweth, understandeth how costly & precious a iewell the worde of god is, before which they prefer worldly things: which as of themselues are but vain: so if they be compared in estimatio with the word of god, are more vile and worse, than any come of Barley or other grayne. In-dede if I should haue any mynde or regarde to worldly things, I shold haue many stoppes, as the desire and 1oue of thee my wife, and of our children dere, who are yet in their yong and teder yeres, and prompt of nature to all cull, and therfore more nedeful of their fathers helpe in bringing them up. “I wyll not speake of my goodes and landes, which surmounteth the common sorte of mens lyuynges: Besydes this, I neuer tooke any sacred orders, nor euer had any ecclesiastical promotion to mayntayne me therewith. Fynally, I myght alledge, (whyche may iustly be feared by this my imprisonmente) leaste for sickenease and feeblenesse, I should perhappes dye, before I came to rayne answere, and so to be profitable to none. But all these thynges I thanke God, through Christe oure onely Sauiour, neuer troubled me: although at the begynnyng (as I must nedes confesse) whan first rayne aduersaryes attempted to apprehende me, I some thynge trembled, beynge dismaied at the sodeyn-nesse of the perylle. But yet by the prouydence of almyghtie God I was delyuered of that quandarie before I was caste into prison. the shiriffe when he tooke me, I demaunded of hym the cause of rayne arreste: who told me that I should know when I carne before the magistrates of the town, and so caried me forth with him: I verily thinking that he wold haue brought me forthwith to the Yeldhall, a place of iudgemet, and there wold haue laid in his accusa-riss, if he had any, against me But he shewyng no cause why, nor commensyng any action, oute of hande caried me innocente to prison against all law and equitie. But doutles I force not therof: for the more vnrightuously they deale with vs by the lawes of thys world, the brighter and Clearer the celestial cosola-tio wil shine vpon vs in our afflictions, presently lightning the same. For those which are addicted and geuen to the world, are of it by all kinde of meanes imbraced: But they contrarye which are not of the world, of the same worlde hated, be despised, and set at nought. And so within a while after, entring into a certain hal, was brought into a chamber, where hauing some intermission, the teares for ioye abundantly issuing from mine eies, I began this to thinke and saye with my selfe. O lorde of all lordes, what am I sely poore wretch, and most vnworthy of all men, whome thou of thy singuler goodnes hast vouchsaued to electe me as worthy of suche a benefit among that blessed and holy number, which shall suffer for the gospell sake? whe that therefore I doe compare my vnworthines and impure synfull life, with the greate goodnes of god which hath called me to that felicitie: all astonled with feare, and rauished with ioy reasoned and debated’with my self after this maner. O lorde which geueth strengthe to the weake, maketh wise the foolish, & forgeueth the sinful: who shall forbid the to elect who & where thou pleasest? As I halle therfore euer hitherto with all imbrasings vnfainedly confessed the truthe, so neuer did I accompt my selfe worthy of such honor, as to suffer affliction for the same. “Not long after this, came vnto me M. William Brasburge, Katherin Phines, and Nicholas Hopkins, who persuaded me all that they might to put iu suerties for my forth comming and I shoulde bee deliuered oute of prison. To whom I gaue this answer. Because the rulers of the citie hauyng no cause against me, hath comitted me to prison, if I should so do, I mighte make my selfe giltye of that wherein I was neuer faultye. And therefore for that they haue caste me into prison for nothyng, they mayo yf it please theim howe deliuer me without putting in of sureties. For why, if I whiche am innocent shold enter bondes by suretiship, what should I do otherwise I beseche you, then to bewray mine own inuocencie, and cloke their vniust doings? They contrary replied, & broughte in many reasons sounding more to safety then honesty, shewing by what policie I might yf I would bothe disappoint them, and also my selfe out of al ieopardy. To whom I answered, that I had fully persuaded my selfe in that behalfe: But yet they not contented, promised me that the bondes should be conceyued of so light conditions yt it should be no great matter to breake them. Finally when thus in persuading of me, they would not cease, I prayed them to be contented, and said to meister Hopkins: that as the quietnes of con. science was a choyse and tender thing, so was it a most precious iewell without all comparison. “And then hauing some time and space to bethinke my selfe, euen from the bottome of mine harte, praied softely to almighty god, beseching him of his aide and redye councell, and that he would vouchsafe in that moment to inspire with his secret grace as should seine most best to hys gracious goodnesse. But when they hadde done their talk and ended their exhortations, me thought that there succeded straight wayes in me a meruelous consolation of my selfe: and not 1onge after came one meister Dudley, and persuaded with me as the former did, whom I answered as before. And so at length comming to my selfe, and with good deliberation pondering this and that, cosidered what great shame and ignominie should redownd vnto me, if I (which alwais encouraged rayne acquaintance to constancie and the defense of the truthe sounding and willing theym not to yelde or geue place to the aduersaries of the Gospell) howe shoulde leaue my standyng, and castyng away of my weapon, shoulde come out of the fielde lyke a coward. But What occasion of griefe and offense shoulde thys tourne to theyr ghostly warriors of Christ: and contrary what cause of reioycing and derision were it to the aduersaries, and might not this of right (I pray you) be spoken of me, and caste in my teethe? Beholde and see howe our woorthie champion and expert captayne, whyche with woordes of late boldly dyd animate us to constancie of doctrine, and stoutely to stycke to it, howe retireth, and ouercomme with feare sheweth no example of fortitude, whyche he so bragged and bested of. Wherefore I thought it my dutie, bothe to God and manne, (especiallye for that the syngular grace of God hath playnely called me to that scope) to despise worldlye minaces and fleshlye prouocations, and finallye wyth manfulnesse to stande to so honeste and good a quarrell. Besydes, what impudencye and dastardye were it for me, that when I beyng oute of all ieoperdye, was authour to all the reste, and encouraged theym to gee thorough the thycke and thinne, in the trade and course of godlines which they hadde begunne, howe when tyme and cause requireth, not to performe the same? Tossing therfore too and fro these thynges in my mynde, at laste wyth touche quietnes of conscience, perswaded my selfe rather to serue the maner of cause and my callyng, then any priuate affection. Wherfore I am redye to suffer and sustaine all thynges, that the violence of the Romayne Antichrist, maye or can inferre. Beyng hartened also the more, for that I dydde understande of the Bishoppe hys commynge shortely into these parties, beyng not ignoraunte how the conscience of the weake shoulde thereby bee molested and tormented. “I doe therefore howe remayne in pryson at Couentry, tenne or twelue dayes, duryng all whiche my abode there, no man hadde anye thyng to burden me wythall, bothe agaynste the common lawe of this realme, and all priuate righte and equitie, no man hauing anye commission, or commaundement to apprehend me. In deede the authors thereof layed all the faulte in the Officers necke: and yet he, when he was called to question for the same, stiffelye denyed, that he had in commaundement to apprehende me, but John mine Elder brother. I beseche God that they maye fynde more mercy at Christes hands in the latter daye, then hitherto I haue founde at theirs.”
But now because mention hath bene made of the Elder brother, I thought good to speake some thynge of him, aswell for that the order of thys tragedye so requireth, as because hys vertues and qualities were suche as I coulde in no wayes committe them to silence. Thys mans name was John Glouer, some thynge Elder then Robert, a Gentleman borne and heire to hys father, a man of fayre landes, but not so aboundyng in worldlye gooddes and possessions, as nourished with heauenlye cogitations and vertuous doynges. The whiche manye yeres hadde professed and acknowleged the blissefull, and gracious knowledge of the Gospell: shewyng no lesse by hys lyfe and example the same, muche vnlyke our gospellers nowe adayes, whiche suppose the profession of the gospell to consiste in woordes. But thys man vsed an other kynde of professynge of it farre differente, conuertyng all hys care that he mighte appeare a gospeller, as well wythin as withoute, Not so touche that he shoulde so seeme afore men, as that he myghte fyrste frame hys lyfe correspondente, and worthy his profession before God. He sawe and perceiued, (as in deede it was) the Summe of Christianitie not to consyste in stoute disputations, contentions, reasonynges, loude clamours, stronge diffinitions, and ambicions pertinacie of mynde: but rather in orderyng and subduynge affections, in the quiet and silente mynde, in good conscience and deuoute prayer: and labored euer to thys ende, not so much to bragge and talke of the Gospell, as to shewe the same by example of his lyfe. And therefore he gaue not daylye diligence to the readyng of the Gospell onelye, to collecte thereof, (as manye doe) common places, but aswell to bee instructed thereby with good mynde and conscience.
He was a greate studente of Diuinitie: the occasyon whereof, was not the desyre of nouelles, arguynge and talkynge, or that he myghte seeme the more learned to other, but that he hymselfe myght bee the better for it. And also not so touche to be the more instructed, to the conflictes of ydle contention, as to be the readyer and meeter for the kyngdome of Christe. To bee shorte, he redde the Gospell of Christe, not so touche to collect therof any Common places, as to gather necessarye matter of edifyenge, whereof he dayelye sucked those thyages, whyche no lease made for the confirmation of hys faythe and godly lyfe, than for the knowledge of Christ and hys saluation. And doubtelesse by this hys assiduous laboure he profyted meruaylouslye, as by the syngular fruites and example of hys lyre, sufficiently is declared, whose mynde was alwayse vppon our Sauiour Jesus Christe and hys woorkes, even so touche that he contemn-yng the worlde, and beeyng all wholye possessed wyth the earneste zeale of Godlynes was in euerye place as well abroad as at home, a Lanterne of godlye lyuynge to all the reste. And also beeyng as one placed in heauen, and deade in thys worlde, he bothe meditated and ledde a lyre altogether celes-tiall, beeynge a worlde to see, how that he abhorred the Prophane doynges: No nor yet hys talke in any wyse differed from hys lyfe: throwyng out neuer anye ydle, vyle, or rayne language. The moste parte of hys landes beeyng distributed amonge hys brethren, and comitted the guyde of the rest to his seruantes & officers, that the more quietlye he mighte geue hymself to hys Godly study, as to a continuall Sabboth reste. And besydes these his great nuber of vertues, he was well learned, although his brother Robert was better sene in ye litterature which doth polish and bring a mall to eloquence. Yet in those things which apperteined to heauenlines, & good conscience, was far more exercysed: lyke disposition and mynde were in both, hauyng wit and memories most happely grafted in them. And as concernyng good zeale and 1oue toward religion, wherunto they semed by nature indifferently to be borne, they were so matched, and so like one to another, that a ma could not tel who excelled the other, vnlesse because Robert, as he was the bigger of stature, so he was a more earnest & myghtier Champion, against the aduersaries of the truth.
But yet John lease feared perill, althoughe thys Robert suffered as a martyr, and was as much desirous of Martyrdome as he, & more to. And verily I cannot tel whether in this case of felicitie John gaue place to hys brother Robert or no, who also myght be counted a martyr, ye and cronicled for a double martyr. For the said Robert was quickly and out of hand dispatched with the sharpe and extreme tormentes of the lyre. But this the moste blessed martyr of all, what greuouser passions, boyling heates of the fyre of hell, so many yeres both in body & soule he suffred and susteined, no togue can expresse. Being a younge man, I my selfe was ones or twise with him, whom as parte by his talke I perceiued, and parte by mine owne eies sawe, to be so worne and consumed by the space of 5:yeres, yt neither almost any brooking of meat, quietnes of sleepe, pleasure of lyre, yea and almost no kynde of senses was lefte in him: And doubtles I haue greatly wondred at the meruailous workes and operation of Christe, shewed vpon him, who vnlesse he had releued betimes his poore wretched shepe, so many tymes in distresse, with continuall consolation, it could not possible be, that he should haue susteined so vntoller-able paines and tormentes. And yet the occasion therof was not of so great momet and weight: But this we see commonly among holye and blessed men, that the more deuout and godlye they are, hauing the feare of god before their eies, the more suspecte and mistruste they haue of themselfes: wherby it commeth to passe that often they are pinched and vexed with very small sinnes as most greuous, when that contrary, you may see very many, whom the greatest crimes of the worlde doe not ones moue or trouble. The occasion of this was, that he being first called by the light of the holy spirite to the knowledge of the gospel, & then fallyng thence, as we commonly see to his former trade of lyre, began to mistrust himselfe, as one that rashly & sodenly had forsake his vocation: and therupon was in beliefe, that he had sinned againate the holy ghost: Euen so touche, that if he had bene in the depest pitte of hell, he coulde haue dispaired no more of his saluation. Here redily euery goodman may Judge of himself, what terrors, boylings, & conuulsions, troubled in the meane tithe his most holye brest. Although it is moste barde for any man to Judge the greuousnes therof, vnlesse he which hath had experiment of the like. In comparing howe the tormentes of all Martyrs, with his paines, I praye you what paines, punishmente, and flames woulde not he willingly haue suffered, to haue hadde some respiration and tyme of breathyng: but thankes he to Christ our lord, his continual keper, which suffreth not any man to be tempted aboue his strength, but so tempereth and seasoneth the asperitye of euils, that [not] onely they doe not withstand them, but also oftentymes falleth out to a further commoditie, then is looked for. Whiche thing didde appeare as muehe in this John, as euer did in.any one’. who albeit, as we haue said, suffered man, yeres so sharpe temptations, yet more happie to hym than tongue can tell: which heaped so many and greate vertues in hym, with reconciliation of his tranquillitie, and so vanquished him from all worldly affections of the same: in so muche yt nothing could be more blessed and purer than his lyfe, nothing more quiet or more feruent to Christ, and his wales: Nor truly it was any meruail if this his ardent and vehement zeale toward the gospell of Christ in this turbulent tyme of persecution (as in deede it did not) either coulde or did lye hid in him. what nedeth manye worries? Assone as the B. of Couentry hard the fame of this John, so to be spred out of hande, wrote to the Major and Officers, to apprehende hym as soone as might be. But it chaunced otherwyse by god his holy prouidence, which disposeth all thing according to his secret pleasure, and contrary to the expectation of man. And althoughe thys John tooke it more inwardlye then anye tongue can expresse, when he beyng euer desirous of death, saw in his stede his brother to be carted to his deth: yet doutlesse it was prouided by ye singuler grace & lust prouidece of god. For he seyng his olde and trusty seruant, so many yeres withso extreme & many torments broke & dried vp, wold in no wise heape so many sorowes vppon one poore sely wretche: neyther woulde corn-mitre hym to the flames of fyre, who hadde ben skorched & so consumed with the sharpe fyres of his mynde, and hadde susteyned so many burnyng dartes and conflicts of Sathan so many yeres: God of his diuine prouidece thought thys too touche, whose custome was neuer so to deale with his seruauntes: and therefore be prouided, that Robert either for his learnyng sake, or soundenesse of his strengthe, shoulde stoutlye suffer and susteyne thys conflicte. And althoughe there lacked no stomacke in the other to suffer martyrdome, yet our lord thought rather to vse this mans stomacke & knowledge, in refutyng the aduersaryes argumentes, & so to be more expedient to ye cause & his saluation. But howsoeuer the matter stode, Robert was taken in the steade of John, and that not without ye singuler wil and lone of God, to either of the. For assone as the Maior of Couentrie had receaued ye Byshops letters, he sent forthwith a priuie watchworde to John, to conuaie away hymselfe: Who with his brother William was not so sone departed out of hys house, but yt yet in syght of the Shriefe and other the searchers came and rushed in to take hym, accordyng to the Byshops commaundement:
Whom when he could in no place be founde, one of ye officers going vp into an vpper chamber, founde there Robert the other brother, lying on his bed, and sicke of a 1og disease, who was by hym brought before the shriefe: And although the shyriefe fauouryng Robert, and hys cause, woulde rayne haue dymissed him, saying, that he was not the man, for who they were sent: Yet being feared with the stout wordes of the officer, contending with hym about hys staying, whyle the Bishop commyng, caryed him away against his will, and layed hym fast, whyle ye Bishop came.
And thys so much concernyng John: now wil I returne to Roberte hys letters, from whence I haue made some digression. “The second daye after the Bishop commyng to Couentrye, about, 53:of the clocke in the after noone, came one D. Warren, commyng to the Yeldehal, & commauded Amon chiefe Gaoler to brynge me before hym, where I beinge placed before hys Mastership, dyd expostulate with hym, whye he so cruelly thyrsted after my bloud, which he denied & earnestlye by al way yt he could, went about to purge hymselfe thereof. But I affirmed it stil it was true, sayig, it could not be auoyded, but that he was giltye before God of my bloude, as if he had kylled me with his owne handes. Who at lengthe goynge away, sayd, yt I had no cause to feare any ioperdye, if that I would forsake myne opinion, and agree to hys religion. Oh Lorde, if it bee thy pleasure, open the eies of his harte, and graunt hym to confesse and acknowledge the lyghte of thy trueth, that bothe he and his complices, whiche so fearsely and cruellye pursueth after the Christians, maye vnderstand, vnlesse the soner they take better wayes, they shall suffer shortelye inextinguyble punyshment, with the deuil, and hys Angels, in the fyrye lake of hel, & the to late shal aske forgeuenesse for the same, hauing verye little reliefe or nothyng at all, of them whom they before in their iolytie had so cruelly & impetuouslye afflicted.
Thus beynge then brought before ye bishops presence, in one Deutons house: He fyrst making a certain preface, declared vnto me, that I was of his diocesse, and he was rayne Ordinarie, exhortyng me to submytte my selfe vnto hym. I aunswered, yt I came not thether to accuse my selfe, to disseble but desired to vnderstad of him, what he had to lay to my charge. First he asked me whether I was learned, who I answered, but basely: Then his Chancelor standyng by, told hym, that I hadde taken degrees of the schoole, and was Master of Arte, wherupon the Byshop did expostulate with me why and what the cause was that I woulde not goe to the Church, and heare the diuyne seruyce there: Here althoughe I mighte haue righte easilye without any difficultye by denyal frustrated the Bishoppes action, as well for that I had not bene longe vnder hys Jurisdiction, as that there was none in the citie that coulde accuse me thereof: yet playnly by the power of god, and simply, eue as it was answered, that hitherto I had not ben at church nor ye thereafter wold come thyther, as long as Masse was vsed & ministred in theyr churches: although I had 5:hundred lyues, and by my going myghte saue the all: demaundyng whether they could fynde any iote in the holy scriptures wherby they could defend the Masse? The Byshop tolde me he came to teache, and not to bee taught: I replyed yt I was most desyrous bothe to heare and learne of him, if that out of the holy woorde he would teach me any thing. Who then shal be (quod the Byshop) Judge of the said holy worde? Christe I answered. For he as also Paule dyd, refused not to geue hys doctryne to be examined and construed of the people, with the perscrutacion of the holye Scriptures. And now therefore not to be lawful, that he should chalenge more authoritie and priuiledge then they dyd permytte to them selves. And if thys woulde not suffice him, I moreover added, that I would stande to the Judgement of the primatiue church, which was next after the Apostles time, and that to be a iudge betwene them, if it shoulde please hym. Neyther to this he said he would stand to, but. that he was mine Ordinarye: and therfore it was my part to beleue as he dyd, & to be of his iudgement. Yea should? (quod I) what yf you shold say, black were whyte, and darknesse light? should I therfore of necessitie grant it to you because you are rayne Ordinarie? And why I praye you, fynde you fault with the people, and rebuke them for folowmg Latimer, Hooper, and other suche Bishops in their fayth, as well as you folow your bishops in your fayth?.
Bicause, sayd he, they were heretykes. What! (quod I) cannot error fal as well upon you, as them? I loked all thys whyle of him for learned talke and bishoplyke genre. But he only vrged me with his hare authoritie, objecting agaynst me, that I dissented and was gone from the Catholyke Churche, byd-ding me to shewe him, where my Catholyke Churche was before Kyng Edward his dayes. And tha I asked of him, wher their church was become in the time of Elias? or what lyghte it had in the tyme of Christ? Elias (sayd he) onely complayned agaynst the company of X. trybes which made defections from ye house of Dauid, whom he called heretikes: I answered, yt there was at that time no prophet left in the other 2. tribes besides, which he could shew and alledge unto me. Whereat whan he was dumpe, stepped in one Roger, a Magistrate of ye citye, and made as though he woulde answere to yt texte of Scripture. But the Byshoppe interrupting hym, commaunded me to bee caryed thence, to some strayghte and more close prison then ye towne Gaole was, if there were any, declaring that he woulde fynde a meane at hys retourne, to weede and dispatche suche kynde of wolues oute of the waye, the sayd Roger counsellynge hym not to trouble hys lordship any more therwith that night, whyle that further considering the matter, they shoulde appoynte what should be done with me: Whereunto I said: My Lord, wheresoeuer you shall com-maunde me to bee caryed, I shalbe redye and obedient: Doe with me your pleasure. And so was caryed to the comon prison from whence I came. “The nexte daye it was tolde me earely in the mornyng, by one of my fellowes in prison, that I should make my selfe redye, with all speede to take my iourneye, for that it was appoynted, that the same day I with my fellowes prisoners shoulde ryde from thence to Lychefelde, & there such order to bee taken with vs, as should seme beste to the Byshop. which tydynges at the begynnyng brought to me no lyttle care, fearyng lest by occasion therof, eyther for the Byshops euill entreatyng of me, or ells for weakenesse which had bene so long sycke, I shoulde dye in prison before I came to rayne answere. But strayghtwayes gathering better testimony out of the word of God, I easely remoued and cast awaye thys my fayntenes and lacke of fayth, & reuolued thus with my selfe: What? Is not God as stronge in Lychefeld, as at Couentrye? Is his promyse distynguyshed by cityes and regions?
Is it not throughout vniuersally al one? Dyd Abacuke, Danyell, Mysac, and Jeremias thynk God to be lesse present with them, when they were in prison and exile, then when they were in their owne land and natiue countrey? He assuredly knoweth where we are, what we neede of: Who hath in number euery heare of our heades, without whose wil and care, no not ye least sparow lyghteth or falleth on ye ground: howe muehe more then hath he care and regard on rs, which beleueth in hym, and vpon whom he hath vouchsaued to bestowe the benefit and honor, that we may be witnesses of his truth? As long as we put our trust and confydence in hym, he will neuer deceaue vs, neyther in prison, nor out of prison, neyther in sickenes, nor in health, neyther in our lyfe tyros, nor at the houre of death, neyther yet when we be before Prynces, Byshops, or rulers. In fyne, no not the deuill hymselfe with the gates of hells can preueyle any thyng agaynst vs, much lesse than feble man his mynister, can annoy rs. In ponderyng these and the lyke, at length I got my stomacke to me, and called backe agayne Consolation almost gone: Even so much that wha I heard reported of diuerse, that sufficient copany of horses coulde not be prouided for vs in the citye, I care not (quod I:) All one is to me, if we bee caryed in a dung carte: Albeit at ye request of my frendes, I wrote to the mayor and Aldermen of the citie a letter, of thys tenor that foloweth.
A LETTER OF R. GLOUER TO THE MAYRE AND BENCHE OF COUENTRIE. “I Thynke your wisedomes are not ignorant, (as bothe my keper, and other inhabitantes hereaboute can testafie) how that these, 7:yeares I haue been greuously sycke of a long and continuall maladie, so that I can not be remoued from hense without the playne ieopardie of my lyfe. And because I at your commaundement was committed to your prison, I would gladly if I myght, come to myn answer before you, which if by y. our authorite may be brought to passe you shall so pleasure me, as neuer I shall forgette your equitie and good-nes in that behalfe: if not, I pray god that the Lord imputeth it not to you in that day, vvhan all vve without any respect of persons, shall stands before his face and Judgement, there to geue and receiue an accompt of our doynges in our lyues tyme. “Your captiue in the Lorde always myndfull of you. Rob Glouer. “But no answere of these my letters I receaued: The occasion whereof as I beleue was the Byshop and hys Chancelor which intercepting my letters, after the syght of them, hastned the rather therby my departure: taking as I suppose, occasion rather to oppresse me in close prison, thenne that I shoulde defende openly my cause. Being therefore certayne appoynted to conueye ye to Lychefeld, we were commaunded to take horse on frydaye, aboute, 11:of the clocks, being brought forth into the open market, to be wondered at of the people there assembled. And for that they woulde more inkyndie the peoples heartes & myndes agaynst vs, euen at that tyme they caused ye letters to be proclaymed, concernyng the abolyshyng and defacyng of certayne Bookes, as wel of diverse good authors, as of the holy Scripture it selfe. Being forward therefore on our iourney, within a few houres we cam to Lichopedium, that is, Lichfeld, or the felde of wolfes, hauing it so named, not withoute cause. Where we lighted at the signe of ye swanne, and ther was honestly vsed: And after Supper came to vs one Jephcot the Chauncelors seruaunt, to whose custodye we were then committed. Who at much intreatye fyrst graunted vs to lye in the Inns al ye nyght for that as yet there was nothyng in the prison to susteyne the myserye and hardnes thereof. But afterward, whether by occasion of other, or els for the nonce, he brake hys promyse, and caryed vs to prison, the people being gathered on euery side and wonderyng at rs. I counselled Jephcott to vse his offyce with mercye and clemencye: Otherwise I tolde hym he shoulde lacke it when he would haue it. Of whom I receaued thys mercy for my good councell, that he cast me into the depest dongeon in the prison, but one a verye horrible and filthye pytte, stronge and narrowe, very darke and voyde of a lyght, but that whiche appeared thorough a little hoale frome a backe syde, sufferyng me to haue all that nyght neyther stoole, seate, or table, but a little bundell of strawe in stede of my bed. God of his infynite goodnesse gaue me pacience to susteyne all, euen so much that if I should haue dyed that nyght, I coulde full well haue borne it out. But the nexte daye betymes in the mornyng, Jephcot with one Percye the Bishops seruant, who euer after was my keper, came vnto me. To whome I complayned of theg reate and extreme rigour that was shewed vnto vs, beseching God to indue vs with his grace, pacientlye to suffer and beare them: Whereat I had licence of them to prepare my self a bed, where I coulde. But yet for all that being so sicke as I was, I coulde haue no accesse or helpe of any man, neither yet permytted to haue penne and inke, or any booke, but a latine testament, and an other of praiers, which I secretly hyd fro them. Within.ii. days after, came vnto me in the euenyng ye Chauncelor and one Ternsea a prebendary there: and by all kynde of meanes that they coulde exhorted me to submitt my selfe to the Byshop and the Church, declaryng there that they wyshed no more harme to me tha to themselues, being as glad of my soules health, as of their owne: And the occasion why the Chauncelor so sayed, I thynke was, for that before at Couentrye I burdened hym that he cruellye & vniustely had soughte my des-struction: whom I answered on thys wyse, that I wold be gladly obedient and morigerous to that Churche which submytted it self to the worde of God, and would be ruled thereby. But how, quod he, can you come to the knowledge of the worde of God, but as you be led and taught by the Churche? Whose argument I thus refelled: The Church by premonstration declareth what is ye worde of God.
Ergo, is the Church aboue ye worde of God Thys argumente amonges learned men is nought & of no efficacye. No more tha if you would saye, John Baptist doth shewe Christs commyng to ye people. Ergo, John Baptist is aboue Christ. Or as if I shoulde shewe the King to one, who knoweth hym not, and telle hym thys is he, by and by you shoulde saye, that I was aboue the Kynge.
The Chauncelor answered, yt. he came not to dispute, & so departed with a blank, leauing the argument in the myddes. After thys whyle the Byshops comming no man came to trouble me in the prison, by the space of. 7:dayes, all which vacation I bestowed in meditations & deuout prayers: And yt I thanke God not without fruite of body and soule: For daylye more & more the violence of my disease decreased, and peace of consciece increased: being sent vnto me diuerse & sondrye consolations by the secrete vnction of the holy spirite, sensible felyng and tastyng of a blissefull lyre, to folowe by the onely sonne our Lorde: to whome be honor and glory for euer and euer. Amen. “And yet in the meane season the olde serpent and enemye of oure saluation ceassed not to circumuent me with diuerse craftes and cogitations, shewing howe vnworthye I was of that honorable vocation to be in the cataloge of the whiche shoulde suffer violence for Christ & hys Gospel. But these flying and bryckell cogitations I easelye repressed, by resortynge to the worde of God for succor, and reasonyng thus with my self: And what were those whom God at the begynnyng chose to be witnesses of hys worde and docrtyne? Were they not men as other were, subiect to sinne, iniquitie, & diuerse infirmityes? Was not Noe, Abraham, & Dauyd such? I will not rehearse Paule, Barnabe, and the reste? Who fyrste gaue hym (as Paule sayth) that he should be repayed again of God? and speakygn at once and to all menne, what haue you (sayth he) that you haue not receaued? And John in lykewise sayd, that of hys plentyfulnesse we haue receaued: no man at any time hath brought any thyng to God, but al thinges procedeth frome hym, nor they elected and loued hym fyrst, but he them, when yet they were hys enemyes & voyde of all vertue. The Lorde is Lord of all, and chiefe ouer all, and aboue al men that calle vpon hym without any respect of persons euen to the consumation of ye world. And agayn in an other prophet: the Lord is at hand with them yt calleth upon him, being redy to heare euery man, at all tymes, & all places, whiche with fayth & repentaunce crieth for hys clemencye: And therfore it is no poynt of arrogancye or presumption, that we trustyng vpon hys promyses, doe chalenge as our ryghte hys helpe and ayde, in whatso-euer peryll and dystresse we are put to, not for that we doe of oureselues deserue any thyng, but onely for the confidence and truste whiche we haue of hys pro-myses in Christ our Lord, in whom & through whom he that will attayne to the throne of hys grace, wythoute all fayle shall receaue that which shal be expedient for the health, not only of hys body But also of hys soule, and that farre more liberally and aboundantlye than euer he hoped or trusted: hys word cannot fayle or lye. Call upon me, saith he, in the day of tribulation, and I will heare thee, and thou shalte glorifye me etc. I answered also on thys wyse the aduersary:
I acknowledge and confesse my self to Be a synner and altogether vnworthy to bee accompted amonges the blessed witnesses of his worde. What of that? Shal I therfore because I am a sinner and unworthy, forsake the tutele and defense of such a cause? But what other thynge is thys ells, I praye you: but to heape synne vpon synne, and to make me of an vnworthy person more vnworthy? for what more haynous an offense may be committed, than to denye the trueth of the Gospell, Whereupon Christ sayth, Whosoeuer is ashamed of me Before men, hym will I he ashamed of Before my father and his Angells. And by that reason all other hys commanndementes and godlye offices are to be forsaken of me: As if in case the aduersarye do obiecte agaynst me, beyng in my prayers, that for rayne vnworthynesse I should not lifle vp myne eyes to almyghtye God, In no wyse therefore I will praye, nor yet cease from periurie, thefte, and homicide, for that I am vnwortny to execute Goddes commaundementes, these be the snares and wrynches inuented of the author Satan, which are to be resisted and conuinced by holy prayer, and other remedyes out of the holy Scripture of God are to be reproued. “The Bishop was not so soone come to Lichefelde, but! was sent for. And appearing Before hym in hys vtter chamber, I found about him none ells but only hys Chaplens, and other of hys house, excepte one or two olde mumsibus Priestes. Whereat Being fyrst dysmayde, I lifted vp myne harte to almyghty God, beseching hym of hvs helpe and ayde in thys doubtfull and daungerous case.
Where fyrste the Bishoppe begynnyng, demaunded of me howe I lyked the Priestes? Whereto when I woulde make no answer, leauing that talke perswaded me to he a member of hys Churche, which had hene of so long a continuance, declaryng that my Church was but fresh and new, taking the originall in Kyng Henrye the. 8:and Kynge Edwards times, and neuer before was knowe or heard of: I tolde hym that I was a member of that Church which was founded vpon the Apostles and Prophets, the chiefe & principal piller and corner stone Being Christ Jesu: alledgyng a place out of.
S. Paule, declaryng that thys Churche was euen from the begynnyng. And no maruel is it, although accordyng to the course and rase of thys world, it doth not shew forth the externall lyghte, for that it is afflicted with continuall crosses, euen that there is no tyme or respite graunted to it from feare and tyrannical vsage. The Byshop on y3 other side manfully contended that he was of the church.;So (said I) the whole congregation of ye Church once cryed to the hierosolomyes agaynste the Prophetes, the Temple of the Lorde, the Temple of the Lorde: But when I sayed any thyng for my selfe, by and by the Bishop interrupted me, saying, Holde thy peace: I comaund thee vpon thy alleageance, hold thy tonge, callyng me a proude & arrogant heretyke. I on the other syde desyred of him, if he had any particuler thyng to obiecte agayast me, that he woulde conuynce it by learnyng & Scripture.
Whereupon he proposed certayne questions to me: whereunto I denied to answer in hugger mugger, besechyng him that it might be done in the open face of the worlde. Whereat whe he being very earnest, and vrging me thervnto I denyed his pleasure, he threatened me to prison from whence I came, and there to Be kepte withoute meate & drynke while I woulde answere hym. And so finally hauyng my mind attent vpo god, secretly with my self eftsoones desyred of him to geue me grace frely & without feare to answer, so as should be agreing vnto his will & worde. “The fyrst question was, howe many Sacraments wer instituted by Christ.7 I answered ye Sacrament of Baptisme, & the supper. And no more? (sayd he). Yes truely, I graunte that to the whiche shewe a true and vnfained repentaunce of their former life, with a ful confydence in the death of Christ ye ministers By the worde of God haue authoritye to pronounce forgeuenesse of their sinnes.
Here the Bishop would nedes haue it, that I called it a Sacrament, & would not be perswaded to the contrarye. I would not striue further hereabout, for that it seemed not much to the purpose.
Althoughe I was falsely Borne in hand to holde it as a Sacrament. “Afterwardes he required, whether I allowed confession or no? I denyed it. At length we came to the presence of the true body in ye Sacrament, wherin he commaunded me to say my minde. I answered, that their Masse neither semed to me a Sacrament, nor yet a sacrifyce, for that they differ from the true institution of Christ, takyng cleane away the same: Whch whe they will restore, I then (sayed I) woulde answere what I thought of the presence of Christ in ye sacramet.”
And thus beinge preuented and letted by sufferyng his martyrdome, he wrote no more. Who was burnte at Couentrye with one Cornelys Bungay the. 19:of September, in the yeare of our Lorde God 1555.
NO. 2. From the Edition of’1563, p. 1307.
THIS preaching of master Latimer, as it was then fruitfull, and plausible to all honeste and good natures: so againe, it was as odious to the contrary parte, such as were his aduersaries, of whom was then in Cambridge a greate nuber, that preached against him:
As ye bishop of Ely, who then in the kinges College preached against him. D. Watson, M. of Christes college. D. Notaris M. of Clerehall, D. Philo M. of Michaell house. D. Metcalfe. M. of Saint Johns, D. Blith of the kinges Hall. D. Bullock. M. of quenes College. D. Cliffe of Clement hostle. D. Donnes of Jesus College.
D. Palmes. M. of S. Nicholas Hostle. Bayne of S. Johns, Bach. of Diui. & after Doe. All these aduersaries did maister Latymer susteine: but especially a blacke trier, the Priour of our Lady fryars, called then Domine Labia, was a great doer against him: who about the same time of Christmas, whan maister Lat. brought forth his Christe Cardes, (to deface belike the doings of the said Latimer) he brought out his Christmas dice, casting there to his audience cinque & quater: mealling by ye cinque fiue places in the newe Testament, and the foure doctors by the quater, by which his cinque quater he would proue that it was not expedient the scripture to be in englyshe, least the ignoraunt and vulgar sort through the occasion thereof, might happely be brought in daunger to leaue their vocation, or els to runne into some inconuenience: As the Plowman when he heareth this in the Gospell, no manne that layeth his hand on the plowgh, and loketh backe, is mete for the kyngdome of God, might peraduenture hearing this, cease from his plough. Likewyse the Baker when he heareth that a lytle leauen corrupteth a whole lumpe of dom, may percase leaue our bread unleauened, and so our bodies shalbe vnseasoned. And the symple man, whan he heareth in the Gospell: if thyne eye offende thee, plucke it out, and cast it from thee, maye make him selfe blynde, and so fyll the worlde full of beggars. These with othermo, this clarkely fryar broughte out to the nomber of fyue, to proue his purpose To whome maister Latimer answereth againe briefly, requiring no more but this, that the scripture may be so 16g in englyshe, vntill the people thus dooe as he hath saide, and he would aske no more.
Notwithstanding the withstanding of this Friar, and the malice of all his: enemies, maister Latimer with maister Bylney, continued yet in Cambrydge a certayne space, where he with the sayd Bylney vsed much to conferre & companye together, inso touche that the place where they moost vsed to walke in the fieldes, was called longe after the Heretykes hyll.
NO. 3. From the Edition of 1563, p. 1308.
THE summe and effect of both their letters, as they stande recorded, & regestred, here folowe to be seen. Summa literarum quas Redmannus misit Latimero.
GRATIA tibi, et vera pax in x o Iesu. Obsecro et obtestor to per charitatem, ne ita yells obfirmato animo prudentiae sensus tui inniti, neque velis tuu vnius singulare iudicium in rebus religionis et dogmatis controuersis tot tantis eruditis, imo toti ecclesiae catholicae, anteponere, praesertim cum neque vllum apertum dei verbum habeas quo to tuearis, neque vllius probati scriptoris testimoniu. Quin potius (obsecro) cogitate hominem esse, et mendacium et vanitatem (qure non-nunquam transfert se in angelum lucis) posse tibi imponere. Noli tam temere de nobis iudicare, sicut ille nequa tibi suggessit. Scias nos tui curam habere, et tuam salutem optare, et de nostra quoque sollicitos esse. Demitte quaeso animum, et spiritum humiliato, neque tui cordis duritia sinas ecclesiam vul-nerari, neque eius vnitatem, et tunicam Christi inconsutilem, quantum in to est disrumpi patiaris. Audi quid sapiens dicit, et obtempera. Ne innitaris prudentiae tuae. Dominus Iesus etc. Summa literature Latimeri Redmanno. SVFFICIT mihi, venerade Redmanne, quod oues xpi non nisi vocem Christi audiunt, et vos non habetis aduersum me vlla vocem Christi, et ego habeo cor cuiuis voci Christi parere paratum. Valeto, et nolito me tuis literis amplius a colloquio dei mei turbare.
EPISTOLA MAGISTRI YONGI AD D. CHEKUM, EXSCRIPTA EX IPSIUS YONGI AUTOGRAPHO. From the Edition of 1563, p. 870.
ETSI animus mihi non mediocri dolore perculsus est, vir ampliss., propter immaturam (nisi ita deo visum sit) et flebilem sanctiss, et eruditiss, viri D. Red-mani mortem, adeo vt luctu et maerore multum obstupefactus vix tandem semet aut ad agendum aut ad cogitandum expediat; tamen cum id tuam amplitudinem me facere velle intelligam, libenter me ipse colligo, atque quae ab ipso pio et Docto Redmano bonae memoriae viro, dum adhuc diuturna infirmitate contabescens certam mortem expectaret, de religionis controuersijs, quibus hodie Christi sponsa Ecclesia misere diuexatur, pronunciata audiuerim, fideliter et vere hisce meis literis enarrare instituo. Is vero viginti jam aut amplius annos in sacris literis assidua lectione versatus, atque obortas de religione controuersias magno studio et multis vigilijs diligenter et industrie, non sine assi-duis precibus et singulari quadam animi magnitudine et modestia, excutiens et pensitans, sic semet semper gessit, vt nec quod adulterinum et superstitiosum sibi videretur approbaret, nec quae vera et pia esse sentiret vnquam improbaret. Itaque licet quibusdam in rebus sententiam ipse suam immutaret, idque compluribus, quibus illius singularis grauitas incognita fuerat, vel animi leuitate vel metu et pusillanimitate facere videatur: illis tamen quibus ipsius mores propter familiarem vitae consuetudinem perspectiores fuerunt, illisque qui sibi morienti adfuerunt, animaduerteretur in causis accurate excussis et ponderaris, non temeraria et inconsulta animi perturbatione, sed deliberato atque constanti iudieio et conscientia plane persuasa, in eam quam moriens profitebatur fidei rationem descendisse. Scire verb tuam prudentiam velim, quod vicinus morti, abiecta iam omni ape salutis recuperandae, ipse nihil aliud meditabatur (sicuti qui astitimus facile ex illins sermone deprehendimus) quam coelum et celestia, atque futurum iudicium et seruatorem nostrum Christum, ad quem incredibili quodam ardore animi, corpore exutus, demigrare cupiebat: de quo crebro sermonem faciebat, cuius incredibilem amorem et dilectionem in nos miseros mortals multum et magnifice, idque saepe non sine lachrimis, predicate et efferre solebat, nosque qui adfuimus quo nosmet futuro Christi iudicio praepara-remus mutuoque nos inuicem amore complecteremur, atque a corruptissimo hoc seculo caneremus, vehementer hortaretur et moneret. Atque etiam si quis quid de illo sciscitari vellet, si quae sentiret esse vera, ea (deo teste, ad quem se breui demigraturum sperabat) responsurum polliceretur.
Ibi tum praesens vir magno verae pictatis studio flagrans, D.
Alexander Nowellus, atque illius perpetuo et amana et studiosus, ad hunc modum orsus est: — Tuam et eruditionem excellentem et vitam integerrimam semper adamaui et admiratus sum, atque non alio nomine (Deo, inquit, testimonium mihi perhi-bente) quae propositurus sum rogo, quam vt ipse, quae sit tua sententia de quibus hodie multum obturbamur controuersijs, discam; Ipse enim quae a to pronunciata audiuero tanquam oracula coelitus edita amplectar et approbabo. Cumque D.
Redmanus quaecunque vellet sciscitari iuberet, cumque sepositis omnibus affectibus sincere quae ipse sentiret, quaeque., sibi vera esse persuaderet, responsurum promitteret, Facerem (inquit alter) nisi vererer ne hoc meo sermone et colloquio tibi multum debilitato et iam prope exhausto molestus sim. Cui D. Redmanus, Quid ego iam corpori huic breui perituro parcam? Age age, inquit, quaere quid velis. Tum ille eas quae hic a nobis recensentur quaestiones ordine proposuit, quibus D. Redmanus eadem quae subiunguntur ad singulas quaestiones responsa adhibuit.
Primo rogauit quid ipse de Romano Episcopo sentiret. Cui Redmanus respondet: Sedes Romans posteriori hoc seculo multum a verae pietatis et religionis puritate defecit, grauiter horrendis, vitiis inquiuata eat et deformata Illam itaque sentinam malorum esse, iuxta meam sententiam, pronuntio, breuique nisi resipiscat Domino flagellante collapsuram. Deinde vero de nostrae ecclesiae Anglicanse spurcitie et impuritate breuiter conquestus est.
Rogatus vero quid de purgatorio animi haberet, et quo pacto scholasticorum de eo doctrina sibi placeat, respondet, Subtiles scholasticorum de purgatorio argutias inanes et commenticias sibi videri, multumque verse pietati obesse: hoc etiam adijciens, quod dum homines in Christi occursum rapiantur, quando ad iudicium cum gloria et maiestate venerit magna angelorum frequentia stipatus, per ignem quisque purgaretur, sicuti scripture est: Ignis ante ipsum praecedet, et inflammabit in circuitu inimicos eius: et ignis in conspectu eius exardescet, et in circuitu eius tempestas valida. Dixitque aliquos e veteribus hanc de Purgatorio sententiam comprobasse.
Quando quaerebatur vtrum homines scelerati et impii in saera communione xpi. corpus manducarent et sanguinem biberent, respondit, Illos Christi sacra-tissimam carnem non manducare, sed sacramentam tantum percipere ad suam ipsorum condemnationem, Christumque dicebat tam foedis et spurcis hominibus suam sacratissimam et purissimam carnem non praebiturum, sed semet ab illis subducturum. Atque quod ab Augustino (inquit) contra obijcitur — Iudam idem accepisse quod Petrus, id ego de externo tantum sacramento intelligendum puto: Consimili etenim loquendi formula vti (inquit) possumus de Simonis Magi baptismo, et dicere:
Simon Magus idem accepit quod Apostoli, nam quod ad externi Baptismi sacramentum spectat, idem accepit cum apostolis Simon Magus: At interna ills gratis qua perfusi sunt Apostoli, sanctoque Spiritu quo illi per baptismum sunt donati, caruit. Sic (inquit) perditi homines et profligati, qui impoenitentes ad sacram illam Domini mensam temere acce-dunt, sacramentum vnum et idem quod homines pij accipiunt, Christi tamen corpus non accipiunt; Christus enim suum corpus non dignatur illis donare. Atque hanc dixit suam sententiam et opinionem semper fuisse, etiamsi sciret alios aliter sentire.
Interrogatus postea vtrum Christum existimaret sacramento praesentem esse, respondit, Se credere Christum vere et realiter corpus suum et sanguinem sub sacramentis panis et vini hominibus fidelibus exhibere, adeo vt qui pie ad sacras illas epulas accederent iliarum beneficio Domino carnaliter et corporaliter vnirentur.
Christum itaque suum corpus spiritualiter dixit impartire, sed tamen ita spiritualiter vt veraciter. Non quidem vt per hanc similesque voces vllam crassam et carnalem intelligentiam concipiamus, qualem (inquit) Caphar-nitae olim somniabant, sed vt mysterij (inquit) ineffabilem maiestatem aliquibus vocibus exprimere elaboremus. Nam modus ille, quo Christus praesens adest suntoque suppeditat fidelibus carnem, omnino inexplicabilis existit. Creden-dum veto est (ait) Dei potentia et Spiritus operatione ac virtute hoc tam illustre mysterium confici, coelumque terris illo momento coniungi. Sicuti beatus Gregorius dixit, Ima iunguntur summis. Hoc veto esse sacrum illud pabulum quo qui in baptismo per Spiritum sanctum sunt regeniti ad immortalitatem alerentur, Christique corpus per fidem sub sacramento percipi, dixit; percep-tum vero, tam corpus quam animam ad immortalitatem vegetare.
Rogatus etiam quid de transubstantione sentiret, respondit, Sese multum in ea causa laborasse: multum primo illi sententiae, quae transubstantiationem affirmat, fauisse, atque diligenter et studiose nec paruo tempore in illius disqui-sitione versatum esse, comperisseqne infinitum et nodosum atque prope inex-plicabile absurditatis examen ex ilia sententia erumpere et dimanare. Quibus diluendis quum ipse sibi parum satisfaceret, ad scholasticorum se scripta contu-lisse, Gabrielemque et alios eius farinae scriptores euoluisse. Sperabat etenim illorum opera et subsidio, eas omnes quae ex transubstantiatione asserta nas-cuntur incommoditates dilui et depelli posse. Quae spes penitus frustrata fuit. Nam ridicula multa, inepta, et indigna quae chartis linirentur aut de tanto mysterio effutirentur, se in illorum lucubrationibus inuenisse dicebat. Itaque post illorum (sicuti aiebat) lectionem, illa de transubstantiatione opinio, indies apud se deferuescens, magis et magis elanguebat. Ergo concludebat se sentire nullam esse huiusmodi, quails a scholasticis confingitur, transubstantiationem.
Antiquiores vero scriptores huic de transubstantiatione opinioni palam reclamare dicebat: E; quibus nominatim numerauit Iustinum, Irenaeum, et Tertullianum, apertissimos illius opinionis aduersarios et hostes. Illud preterea adiecit, vniuersam scholam non intelligere quid esset consecratio; quam ille definiuit esse plenam et integram sacrae communionis actionem.
Item rogatus num praesentem in sacra sua coena Christum venerari debeamus et colere, respondit, Nos debere; idque et pietati et nostrae religioni conuenire, vt Christum in sacramento praesentem colamus. Rogatus de sacramento visi-bili quod oculis et aspectui obiicitur, quodque sacerdotis manu in sublime leuatur, respondit, Nihil quod visibile esset, quodque oculorum sensu perciperetur, esse adorandum, Christumque nec in sublimiorem et celsiorem locum extolli, nec in inferiorem posse deprimi, adeoque nec sursum posse leuari nec deorsum. Item, quum esset ab eo quaesitum quid sentiret de illa consuetudine, qua sacramentum in solemnibus pompis et ambarualibus supplicationibus atque (vt vulgariter dici solet) processionibus circumfertur, respondit, Illam sibi consuetudinem semper multum displicuisse, adeoque ipsum ante annos sexdecim contra illum abusum Cantabrigiae e suggestu pronunciasse, illumque ritum improbasse: Christum vero et fructuosum et germanum huius sacramenti vsum disertis verbis expressisse, cum diceret, Accipite — qua voce (inquit) donum se daturum exprimit: Manducate — quo vocabulo illius sui tam eximij doni pro-prium vsum commonstrut: Hoc est corpus meum — quibus verbis, quidnam illo dono ipsis largiretur, et quam illustre ac splendidum munus donaret, euidenter et clare explicat. Itaque superstitiosas illas pomparum ostentationes, tanquam adulterinas et fucatas religionis laruas prorsus damnandas et repudiandas esse putauit.
Quum rogaretur num vtile esse putaret, facere defunctorum commemora-tionem in precibus, respondit, Sibi vtile videri et religiosum atque pium; idque ex libris Machabeorum confirmari posse: quos (inquit) libros] etiamsi diuus Hieronimus tanquam Apocryphos tantum pro ecclesiae aedificatione non etiam dogmatum assertione in templis esse perlegendos censeat, mihi tamen ea in causa reliquorum scriptorum consensus, quibus omnibus isti libri pro canonicis probantur, praeponderat. Tum vero quum rogaretur, vt quid de tri-gintalibus missis et missis de Scala coeli sentiret eloqueretur, dixit, Super-stitiosas illas, irreligiosas, et inutiles esse, atque ex purulento et sordido super-stitionis fonte profluere et dimanare, illumque quem promitterent fructum non prestare. Sacrificium veto dominicae coenae, Eucharistiam inquam, illud sacri-ficium negauit pro peccatis vel viuorum vel mortuorum offerendum esse.
Demum vero vitro, atque (quantum memini) sua sponte, nemine eum rogante, has de nostra per Christum iustificatione protulit sententias. Doleo (inquit) paenitetque precorque vt deus mihi ignoscat, quod tam obnixe et tam asseueranter huic propositioni, (nempe’sola fides iustificat’) obstiterim. Verum ego semper verebar ne in libertatem carnis raperetur, atque eam quae in Christo est vitae innocentiam contaminaret. At illa propositio,’sola nimirum fides iustificat,’vera (inquit) et suauis et plena spiritualis solatij existit, si modo germane et recte intelligatur. Quumque quaereretur, quem ille germanum et verum illius sensum esse diceret, Ego (inquit) fidem illam viuificam, quae in solo seruatore nostro Christo conquiescit, quae illum amplectitur, intelligo, adeoque vt in vno seruatore nostro Christo tota nostra salutis fiducia defigatur.
Opera quidem pia (inquit) suam habent coronam et praemium, propriaque mercede non destituuntur, aeternum tamen et coeleste regnum non merentur: Nulla (inquiens) opera, nulla omnino, beatam illam et foelicem atque perpetuam immortalitatem nobis comparare possunt, non illa etiam quae sub gratia per Spiritus sancti impulsum fiunt; Beata etenim et immortalis gloria nobis mor-talibus confertur a Patre coelesti propter filium suum et seruatorem nostrum Christum, sicuti Diuus Paulus testatur, Donum, inquiens, Dei vita aeterna.
Atque hec quidem sunt, quae ego ad quaestiones sibi propositas eum respondisse audiui. Nec vero usquam (quod memini) ab ea quam ab ipso enunciatam audiui sententia deflexi. Dominus noster Iesus Christus has turbulentas, quibus ecclesia iactatur, tempestates compescere dignetur, miserumque suum ouile miserabiliter iam dissipatum et dispersum propitius intueatur et aspiciat, propter nomen sanctum suum. Amen. Ipse tuam amplitudinem gubernare dignetur et seruet. Londini iij. Nouembris, etc.
NO. LATIMER’S FIRST CONVERSION, AND HIS APPEARANCE BEFORE CARDINAL WOLSEY. F1068 From the Harleian MSS., No. 422, fol. 84.
WHEN as it pleased Almightie God to call Mr. Heugh Latymer unto the knowledge of the truth of God’s holie worde by the godlie Lecture of divinity redde by Mr. George Stafforde in the universite scole at Cambridge, and of a Saule hadd as it were made hym a very Paule: For otherwise all the daies of his lif he hadd bestowed his tyme in the laberynth stodie of the scole doctors, as in Dunce, Dorbell, Tho. of Aquyne, Hugo de Victore, with suche lyke; insomoche that being mightily affected that way he of purpose (perceyving the youth of the universite inclynyd to the reading or’the scriptures, leaving off those tedious authors and kynds of studie, being a bachyler of divinite, and for his gravitie and yers preferred to the keping of the Universitie crosse, which no man had to do withall but such a one as in sanctymony of lif excelled other) cam into the Sophanie scole emonge the youth, there gathered together of dailie custome to keep their sophanies and disputacons; and there moste eloquentelie made to them an oration, dissuading theym frome this newe fangeled kynde of studie of the Scriptures, and vehementely persuaded them to the studie of the scole authors, which he did not long before that he was so mercifullie called to the contrary. And as he felte by this his divine vocation that all his other studie litle profited hym, but was rather a stumbling block unto hym than entending to preche to the worlde the syncere doctrine of the gospell, so he mightelie tractyng no tyme preached dayely in the universitie of Cambridge, both in English and ad clerum, to the great admiration of all men that afore-tyme had knowne hym of a contrarie severe opynyon. Insomoch that bishop Weste than bishop of Ele , hearin of thin Mr. Latymer’s newe conversion, determyned with hymself to come to here hym preache; but that sholde be sodden and withouten any intelligence to be gyven to Latymer. And so it came to passe that on a tyme when Mr. Latymer had prepared to preche in the universitie churche a sermon ad clerum in Latch, the bishopp bering therof came secretelie and soddenlie from Ele, and entered into the universitie church, accompenyd with certen men of worshipp (Latymer then beyng well enteryd into his sermon); whose approche beyng honorable Latymer gave place, and surceased of frome farther speakyng, untill the byshopp and his retynewe were quietlie placed. That done, after a good pause, Latymer begynnyth to speake to his auditorie after this sorte: It ys of congruence mete (quod he) that a newe auditorie, namelie being more honorable, requireth a newe theme, being a new argument to entreat of.
Therfore it behoveth me now to diverte frome myne intended purpose, and somewhat to entreat of the honorable estate of a byshopp. Therfore lett this be the theme (quod he) Christus existens pontifex futurorum bonorum, etc. This texte so fruitefullie he handeled expounding every wourde, and setting forth the office of Christe so syncerlie as the true and perfaite paterne unto all other bishopps that sholde succede hym in his churche, that the bishopp then present might well think of hymself that he nor none of his fellowes were of that race of bishopps whiche Christ mente to have succede in his church after hym, but rather of the feloweshipp of Cayphas and Annas.
This notwithstanding the Bishopp being a verie wise and politique worldlie man, after the sermonde fynyshed called to hym Mr.
Lattymer, and said, Mr. Latymer, I hartelie thanke you for your good sermon, assuring you that yf you will do one tiling at my requeste,! wyll knele down and kysse your fete for the good admonition that I have receyved of your sermon; assuring you, that I never harde rayne office so well and substantiallie declared before this tyme. What ys your lordship’s pleasure that I should do for you? quod Mr. Latymer. Marie, quod the Bishopp, that you will preche me in this place one sermonde againste Marteyn Luther and his doctrine. Saied than Mr. Latymer againe, My lorde, I am not acquaynted with the doctrine of Luther, nor we are not permitted here to reade his wourks, and therefore it were but a rayne thing for me to refute his doctrine; not understanding what he hath written, nor what opinion he holdeth. Suer I am, quod Latymer, that [have preached before you this daie no manys doctrine, but onelie the doctrine of God oute of the Scriptures. And yf Luther do none otherwise than I have done, there nedeth no confutation of his doctrine. Otherwise, when I understande that he doith against the Scripture teache, I wilbe readie with all my harte to confonde his doctrine, as moche as lieth in me. Well well, Mr. Latymer, I perceyve that you somewhat smell of the panne; you will repent this gere one day. And so the Bishopp never a white amendyd by the sermond practized with Mr. Latymers fooes frome that dale forwards to put hym to sylence; insomoche that grevous complaynt Was made of hym by divers papists of the universitie, as by Mr. Tittell and other, unto cardinall Wolsey, that he preached verie seditious doctrine, infecting the youth of the universitie with Luther’s opinions. Whereapon the Cardynall sent for hym to Yorke place; and there attending apon the Cardynall’s pleasure was called before hym into his inner chamber by the sound of a litle bell, whiche the Cardynall used to ryng when any person sholde come or approache unto hym. When M,r. Latymer was before hym he well advysed hym and saied, Ys your name Latymer? Yea forsoth, quod Latymer. You seme, quod the Cardynall, that you are of good yeres, ne no babe, butt netuse yourself in all your doyngs; and yet yt ys reported to me of you, that you are moche infected with this new phantasticall doctrine of Luther and suche like heretiques; that you verie moche harme emonge the youth and other light headds with your doctrine. Saied Mr. Latymer againe, Your grace ys mysinformed, for f ought to have some more knowledge than to be so symplie reported of, by reason that I have studied in my time both of the aunciente doctors of the churche and also of the scole doctors. Marie that ys well said, quod the Cardynall: I am glad to here that of you; and the,’fore, quod the Cardynall, you Mr. doctor Capon, and you Mr. doctor Marshall (as I suppose both being ther present), saie you somewhat to Mr. Latymer touching some question in Dunce.
Mr. Latymer being freshe than of memory, and not discontynued frome studie as those ij doctors hadd byn, answered verie roundely; somewhile helping them to cite their own allegations rightlie, where they had not perfectlie nor trulie alledged them. The Cardynall perceyving the rype and redye answering of Latymer saied, What meane you my masters to bring suche a man before me into accusation? I had thought that he had byn some lighte heddyd felowe, that never studied such kinde of doctrine as the scole authors are. I praie thee Latymer, tell me the cause why the Bishopp of Elie and other doth mislike thie preachings: tell me the trueth, and I will bear with thee upon amendement. Quod Latymer, Your grace muste understande that the byshop of Elie cannot favor me, for that not longe agoo I preached before hym in Cambridge a sermon of this text, Christus existens pontifex etc. Wherein I described the office of a bishopp so uprightlie as I might according to the texte, that never after he colde abide me; but hath not onlie forbydden me to preche in his diocese, but also founde the meanes to inhybite me frome preaching in the universitie. I praie you tell me, quod the Cardynall, what thou dydat preche before hym upon that texte? Mr. Latymer playnelie and symplie (committyng his cause unto Almightie God, who ys director of princes harts) declared unto the Cardynall the hole effecte of his sermon preached before the Bishop of Elie. The Cardynall nothing att all mislyking the doctrine of the wourde of God that Latymer hadd preached, saied unto hym, Dyd you not preche any other doctryne than you have rehersed? No suerlie, said Latymer. And examynyng thoroughlie with the doctors what els colde be objected againate hym the Cardynall said unto Mr. Latymer, Yf the Bishop of Elie cannot abide suche doctrine as you have here repeted, you shall have my Lycence, and shall preache yt unto his barde, lett hym sale what he will. And thereapon after a gentill monition gyven unto Mr. Latymer, the Cardynall dischargyd hym with his Licence home to preache thoroute England.
Now when Latymer cam to Cambridge every man thought there, that he hadd byn utterly put to sylence. Notwithstanding the nexte holyday after he enteryd into the pulpet and shewed his Lycence contrary to all expectation. Not longe after yt chaunced the Cardynall to fall into the kyng’s displeasure. Whereupon divers reported that Mr. Latymer’s Lycence was extincted. Mr. Latymer answaryng therunto in the pulpawed saied, Where ye thynk that my Lycence decayeth with my lord Cardynalls temporail fall, I take yt nothing so: for he being I trust reconciled to God from his pompe and vanyties I nowe sett more by his Lycence than ever I did before, when he was in his moste felicitie.
LETTER FROM RICHARD MORYSON TO [? CRANMER], VENICE, DEC. 30TH. .
Quanquam satis tutum hodie non est, cuiquam melioris fortunae adeptionem, aut (ut rectius dicam) ampliorem honoris gradum, gratulari, quod et quamplu-rimi sunt qui ad certum tempus desumpta honestatis larva eam tum deposituri cure ambitionls itinere confecto divitias sibi pararint, et paucorum annorum molestias facile devorent, ut per omnem deinceps vitae cursum reliquum volup-tatibus deliquescant; tibi tamen optime praesul hanc illustrandi animi tui materiam jampridem fuissem congratulatus, nisi nunc primum to episcopum esse factum audirem. Sed quod tum ex more hominum fecisse videri poteram, id nunc voluntatis meae coactu facio, lubensque facio. Quis enim est, aut quis tandem erit, quem perpetuo bonum nos nobis polliceamur, si vita tua anteacta damni infecti sponsor, si Christus animo tuo inclusus, praecisa omnis fugae spe, si Christus praedes assiduus omnem fraudis culpam praestiturum se polliceatur? Adolescens sam, nec per aetatem multa vidisse potui: vidi tamen, et saepe vidi, quantam innocentiae labem quantam honestaris ruinam pietatisque pestem nova quorundam diguitas, novi honores, invexerint. Vix credibile est, virtutis simu-lationem viruti tam esse similem. Deus bone, quantus hic error, ea bona iudicare quae possidentem deteriorem semper faciunt! Divinitus, ut omnia, Platonis ille Socrates hoc ab Hypparcho sciscitatur; fe>re ga>r eja>n tiv crusi>ou staqmou> h[misu ajnalw>sav, diplasiou la>bh| ajrguri>ou ke>rdov h] zhmi>an aijlhfen; si certum est damnum, certa jactura, nosne luculentum Iucrum fecisse nobis videmur, cum pietas perit, parva paratur pecunia? Cum honestaris assem amittimus, vix falsi honoris unciolam paraturi, tantine est pecunia humanae felicitatis perturbatrix maxima, ut a sacris ad sordes, a rationis tribunali ad libi-dinis forum, a veritatis aula ad gratiae, simulationis, adulationisque culinam, hujus causa velimus descendere? Quid amplum, quid divinum, quid homine majus, imo quid homine dignum ab hoc expectas, cujus non modo orationem sed cogitationes omnes ambitio sibi vendicat? Una haec res, haec una res, non regnis solum sed religioni interitum pene attulit, quod omnes cum ditissimis de pecunia certant, nemo de virtutis possessione contendit. Sed haec cur ad to scribo? dicam. In to et Latomero religio spem omnem reditus sui collocavit, vos suos recuperatores delectos a Deo videt, in vobis esse sutum cernit eam nou modo restituere sed restitutam his praesidiis vallare, ut hostium insidiis nullus ad laedendum aditus sit relictus. Coepisse, nisi perficias, rempublicam turbasse est non juvasse; neque cogitetis post vos successores alios qui prudenter incoepta felicius quam vos absolvant. Quot pictores, et quanta arte praediti, frustra sudarunt in illa Apellis Venere perficienda! Neseio quomodo, facilius est non nullis in rebus auspicata jam nunc jam nunc absolvere, quam ad interrupta longo post tempore supremam manum addere. Principem nacti estis, qualem vix a superis optare potuistis; nobilitas peme tota contra superstitiomem a reli-gione stat, non ignari ceremonias excitandae honestatis causa institutas jam-pridem in quaestum et sordes esse translatas: populus favet: hoc unum reli-quum est, me occasionem vobis ostentarem, non dicam brevem, ne male omi-nari tam honestae causae tam sancto negotio videar; superest (inquam) unum hoc, rei bonae agendae tempus tam optatum, tam insperatum, me amittatis. Cavete ne Carthaginensis ille Barcha, quod Annibali dixit, vobis dixisse potuerit, Vincere scis Annibal, victoria nescis uti. Julius Caesar recte Pompeium accusavit, qui aciem instructam et pugnandi jam tum avidam apud Pharsalum consistere hostemque operiri maluerit, quam vim impetum divinumque ani-morum ardorem recta in hostium castra sequi. Mora comes periculorum. Socordis animi, spem oblatam experiri nolle: certain veto non aggredi non arripere victoriam, optandum quidem in his, qui pro turpi causa bellum gerunt: in vobis veto, qui Christum ab avitis agris deturbatum in possessionem suam restituere conamini, flagitium vix ullo thure expiabile. Vincite, Vincite; neque vincite solum, sed victoriae vestrae usus commodaque populo exhibete. Sed de republica satis.
De me nunc pauca accipe. A literis me abducet ino-pia, nisi cujuspiam boni viri liberalitas illam a me abducat: si commode potes aliquid beneficii in mea studia contulisse, conferres id in hominem et egentem et (quod unum audeo polliceri) non ingratum.
Si me non nosti, sique ad rem pertinere videtur, is sum qui a Cardinalis aedibus abhinc quinquennio ad Canta-brigiam Latomeri cognoscendi causa veneram. Gonellus me in tui amorem rapuit: cum Gonello veneram ad to bis aut ter, credo: semel tecum pransus.
Sed cur haec? Inops sum. Vocor Ricardus Morysonus. Vale.
Venetiis, 3° Calendas Januarias.
NO. LATIMER’S APPEARANCE BEFORE THE CONVOCATION, MARCH 1532.
Ex Registro Convocationis, et Excerptis Heylinianis: Wilkins, vol. in. p. 746.
Sequenti 11 die Martii comparuit in Synodo” convocatus Hugo Latymer, et ostensis articulis prius ministratis, reverendissimus requisivit eundem Latymer subscribere praedictis articulis, qui sic requisitus penitus recusavit: Deinde requisitus per alios episcopos et praelatos, recusavit subscribers: Tertio requi-situs ut subscriberet, recusavit. Quare reverendissimus pronunciavit eum con-tumacem, et in poenam contumaciae eum excommunicabat cum consensu confratrum suorum. Quo facto, reverendissimus decrevit praedietum Hugonem Latymer remanere in salva custodia in manerio suo de Lambeth. “Sequenti 21 die Martii prolocutor cum clero intrans in domum capitularem habuit longum tractatum inter reverendissimi locumtenentem (episcopum London) et alios episcopos super articulos ministratos contra magistrum Latymer, ubi decretum est, quod si ipse velit subscribere XI. et XIV. articulis, absolve-retur a sententia excommunicationis, et quod ipse Latymer appareret in proxima sessione. Quo die praedictus Latymer comparuit flexis genibus coram domino locum-tenente, et submisit se, et veniam petiit, et recognovit se errasse in prae-dicando contra articulos praedictos, sub hac forma verborum: My Lords, I do confess, that I have misordered myself very farre, in that I have so presumptuously and boldly preached, reproving certain things, by which the people that were infirm hath taken occasion of ill.
Wherefore I ask forgiveness of my misbehaviour; I will be glad to make amends; and I have spoken indiscreetly in vehemence of speaking, and have erred in some things, and in manner have been in a wrong way (as thus) lacking discretion in many things; et petiit humiliter se absolvi a sententia excommunicationis. Et postea differebat dominus locum-tenens juramentum ad subscribendum articulis praedictis et ad praesentandum se coram reverendissimo 10 Aprilis, vel ejus locum-tenente, ad audiend, voluntatem dicti reverendissimi, ac etiam ad audiend. voluntatem judicum auctoritate convocationis deputandorum, viz. reverendissimi Edwardi, Ebor. archiepiscopi, Stephani Winton. Job. Roffen. et Job. Exon. episcoporum, et Ric. Wolman, Ric. Sampson, Edw. Fox, etc. Et tune praedictus Latymer exceptis articulis 11:et 14 subscripsit voluntarie, et consignavit sua manu propria. Unde fuit absolutus a sententia excommunicationis, et monitus ad comparendum Aprilis ad audiendum ulteriorem processum.”
FROM THE TUNSTALL REGISTER, FOLIO 142, AND THE EDITION OF 1563, P. 1334.
Articles devised by the bishops for Latimer to subscribe. xxjo. die mensis Martii Anno domini Millesimo quingentesimo xxxjmo, Mr. Hugo Latemer in sacra theologia baccalaurius studens in Universitate Can-tabrigiae, de fide et errones praedicatione notatus et suspectus ac desuper coram reverendm°. patre Cant. archiepiscopo. Job. Lond. episcopo, ac caeteris praelatis et clero Cant. provinciae in convocatione sua tenta apud Westm. vocatus, con-fessus est et recognovit fidem suam sic sentiendo prout sequitur. 1. Sentio purgatorium esse pro animabus defunctorum purgandis post hans vitam. 2. Senrio quod eaedem animae in purgatorio juvantur missis, orationibus, et eleemosinis superstitum. 3. Sentio quod Sancti Apostoli et martires Christi a corporibus exuti sunt in coelis. 4. Senrio quod iidem sancti in coelis tanquam mediatores orant pro nobis. 5. Senrio quod iidem sancti in coelis a nobis honorandi sunt. 6. Senrio quod conducit Christianis sanctos invocare, ut ipsi pro nobis ut mediatores Deum deprecentur. 7. Sentio quod peregrinaciones et oblaciones possunt pie et meritorie fieri apud sepulchra et reliquias sanctorum. 8. Sentio quod qui voveruut castitatem perpetuam non possunt ducere uxores nec votum solvere sine dispensacione pontificis summi. 9. Senrio quod claves ligandi et solvendi traditae Petro perseverant in suc-cessoribus suis pontificibus etiam si male vivant, nec ullo modo nec unquam laicis commissae sunt. 10. Sentio quod homines per jejunia, orationes, et alia pietatis opera, mereri possunt a deo. 11. Senrio quod prohibiti ab episcopis tanquam suspecti cessare debent a praedicacione, donec se spud eosdem vel superiorem legitime purgaverint fue-rintque restituti. 12. Sentio quod jejunium quadragesimale et alia jejunia, a canonibus indicta et christianorum moribus recepta, sunt (nisi necessitas aliter exigat) servanda. 13. Sentio quod Deus in quolibet septem sacramentorum merito passionis Christi confert gratiam rite suscipienti. 14. Sentio quod consecrationes, sanctificationes, benedictiones, usu Christia-norum in ecclesia receptae, laudabiles sunt et utiles. 15. Sentio quod laudabile est et utile ut venerabiles imagines crucifixi et sanctorum statuantur in ecclesiis in memoriam honorem et venerationem Jhesu Christi et sanctorum ejus. 16. Sentio quod laudabile est et utile easdem Imagines ornate, et coram eisdem lucernas ardentes statuere in honorem eorundem sanctorum.
LATIMER’S TROUBLE IN THE CONVOCATION, APRIL 1532, RESPECTING MR. GREENWOOD.
Ex Registro Convocationis, et Excerptis Heylinianis: Wilkins, in. p. 748.
Antequam autem finis sessioni xcviii. [die Lunae April 15, 1532] impone-retur, Magister Latymer ad synodum evocatus fuit ad respondendum in causa literarum ab ipso ad mag. Grenewood in universitate Cantabrig. scriptarum, et monitus ad comparendum personaliter die Veneris proximo 19 Aprilis ad audiend, voluntatem reverendissimi. Quo tempore jussus ut” praestaret jura-mentum de respondendo fideliter die Lunae proximo, respondit, quod appellavit ad serenissimum dominum nostrum regem: cui appellationi voluit stare.” Die Lunae April (Sess. c.)” Episcopus London commissarius archiepiscopi tractavit de materia appellationis mag. Latymer; et tunc Episcopus Winton. significavit regium beneplacitum super materia appellationis praedictae qui remisit eum ad reverendissimum et convocationem praedictam, ut ipsi decer-nerent. Unde dictus Latymer exhibuit se personaliter, et flexis genibus dixit quae sequuntur, viz. That where he had aforetime confessed, that he hath heretofore erred, and that he meaned then it was onely error of discretion, he hath sythens better seen of his own acts, and searched them more deeply, and doth knowledge, that he hath not erred only in discretion, but also in doctrine; and said that he was not called afore the said lords, but upon good and just ground, and hath been by them charitably and favourably intreated. And where he had aforetime misreported of the lords, he knowledgeth, that he hath done yll in it, and desired them humbly on his knees to forgive him: and where he is not of ability to make them recompense, he said, he would pray for them.
Qua submissione facta receptus est in gratiam ad specialem requisitionem domini regis; ita, si postea relapsus fuerit, praemissa tum objicerentur eidem. Et illic episcopi protestati sunt, quod ista submissio non extenderetur ad aliquam abre-nunciationem, quae fieri consuevit in talibus casibus. Deinde facts fide per eundem Latymer de parendo juri et servandis mandatis ecclesiae, Dominus London. locum-tenens absolvit eundem, et restituit eum sacramentis ecclesia?
NO. INHIBITIONS BY STOKESLY, BISHOP OF LONDON, AGAINST LATIMER AND OTHERS PREACHING IN HIS DIOCESE.
Johannes permissione divina London episcopus dilecto nobis in Christo chris-tofero Botterell literato, necnon universis et singulis rectoribus vicariis capel-lanis curatis et non curatis clericis et literaris quibuscunque, per civitatem dioc. et jurisdictionem nostras London ubilibet constitutis, Salutem, gratiam, et benedictionem.
Sane ex fide dignorum relatione ipsaque rei evidentia ad nos-tram jamdudum pervenit notitiam, quod licet secundum canonicas sanctiones sanctorumque patrum decreta nemo prohibitus vel non missus praeter auctori-tatem ab apostolica sede vel catholico loci episcopo susceptam sibi praedicationis officium usurpare debeat, Quidam tamen malignae mentis praedicatores suae salutis immemores ad ecclesias et alia 1oca nostrae dioc. accedentes ac (ut asse-ritur) novam quandam periculosam imo perniciosam et pestilentem doctrinam circumferentes, absque licentia de Jure et provincialibus constitutionibus suffi-ciente, contra canonicas et provinciales sanctiones in ea parte legitime editas et promulgatas, ad praedicandum se temere hactenus ingesserunt ac quotidie se ingetere praesumunt, Quo fit ut sacri ordinis ministerium contempnatur et populus Christianus multipliciter decipiatur.
Unde nos, Johannes episcopus antedictus, de praedictis magnopere dolentes curaque pastorali super grege nobis commisso diligenter invigilare et remedia oportuna praemissis adhibere cupientes, vobis conjunctim et divisim committimus ac firmiter injungendo mandamus, quatenus auctoritate nostra inhibeatis et interdicatis inhiberive et interdici faciatis peremptorie omnibus et singulis personis tam secularibus quam regularibus exemptis aut non exemptis cujuscunque status gradus aut condi-cionis extiterint, ne infra civitatem diocesim et jurisdictionem nostras London in locis exemptis ant non exemptis praeterquam in suis propriis ecclesiis praedi-care aut officium praedicationis in se assumere sine licentia nostra speciali praesumant nec praesumat eorum aliqua, sub poena juris: Et quid in praemissis feceritis nobis debite certificare curetis, cum ad id congrue fueritis requisiti. Datum sub sigillo nostro xxiiij, die mensis Aprilis, Anno Domini Millesimo Quingentesimo xxxiij°, et nostrae consecrationis Anno tertio.
Johannes permissione divina London Episcopus, universis et singulis Recto-ribus Vicariis capellanis curatis et non curatis clericis et literatis quibuseunque per civitatem et dioc. nostras London ubilibet constitutis, Salutem gratiam et benedictionem. Quid nos nuper cuidam Hugoni Latemer presbitero certis de causis justis et legitimis nos et animum nostrum in hac parte moventibus, et praisertim propter perniciosos errores determinatos jam per ecclesiam in decretis decretalibus consuetudinibus provincialibus sive locorum synodalibus contrarios, quibus sua artificiosa illecebra et (ut fertur) fraudulenta et pestifera dicendi et praedicandi figura populum passim inficere et corrumpere atque ita receptis et approbatis ecclesiae dogmatibus seducere praetenditur, auctoritate nobis de Jure et provinciali constitutione in hac parte concessa et competenti inhibuimus et interdiximus ne infra civitat, et dioc. nostras London in locis exemptis aut non exemptis nisi licentia nostra spirituali suffultus praedicaret sub poena Juris; Ac nihilominus (ut accepimus) idem Hugo Latemer, spreta et contempta inhibicione nostra hujusmodi infra nostram diocesim London tertio instantis mensis Octobris temere absque licentia hujusmodi praedicare praesump-sit in Juris ac inhibitionis nostrae vilipendium et contemptum: Vobis igitur conjunctim et divisim committimus et firmiter injungendo mandamus, quatenus ex causis praemissis denuo et secundo auctoritate nostra inhibeatis et interdicatis, ac inhiberi et interdici faciatis peremptorie praefatum Hugonem Latemer, cui nos etiam tenore praesentium sic inhibemus, ne infra civitatem diocesim aut jurisdictionem nostras London in locis exemptis ant non exemptis praedicare aut officium praedicatoris in se assumere praesumat, donec et quousque ad nostrum justum arbitrium defectum suum purgaverit et ad praedicandum legitime fuerit restitutus et literas testimoniales juxta tenorem et formam canonicarum sanctionum seu constitutionum provineialium in hac parte editarum legitime impetraverit et in quocumque loco deinceps praedicare voluerit realiter exhibu-erit, sub. poena et poenis in Jure et constitutionibus provincialibus contentis, et expressis. Ac insuper vobis et cuilibet vestrum conjunctim et divisim commit-timus et mandamus, quatenus universis et singulis abbatibus prioribus et religio-sarum domorum tam exemptarum quam non exemptarum praepositis ac eorum vices-gerentibus quibuscunque, necnon universis et singulis rectoribus vicariis presbyteris cleroque et plebi ubivis infra nostram diocesim etiam in locis exemptis constitutis, ac praesertim egregio viro, fratri Georgio Browne sacrae theologiae professori priori domus sive conventus fratrum heremitarum Sancti Augustini civitatis et dioc. London, praedictam inhibitionem nostram, sic ut praemittitur auctoritate nostra praedicta factam exequutamque fuisse intimetis et significetis, eadem auctoritate ac eisdem de causis inhibentes omnibus et singulis praedictis ne praefatum Hugonem Latemer ad praedicandum in ecclesiis suis qualibuscunque seu infra praecinctum domorum suarum seu infra earum ali-quaro, sub poena et poenis in Jure et constitutionibus provincialibus contentis et expressis, admittant seu aliquis eorum admittat, nisi prius sic ut praefertur, se purgaverit et literas sufficientes super restitutione sua (ut praemittitur) realiter eisdem exhibuerit. Datum sub sigillo nostro quarto die mensis Octobris Anno Domini Millesimo quingentesimo Tricesimo tertio, et nostrae consecrationis anno tertio.
NO PAPERS ILLUSTRATING THE TROUBLES OF LATIMER AT BRISTOL IN 1533. From the Cotton MSS. Cleopatra E. 5:p. 363.
Letter from Richard Browne, priest, to some person in the Convocation Worcester, March 18th, .
Ryght worshypfull mastyr, my dewty unto you rememberyd: Efte sonys in may lyke you to be advertysyd, that up on the Second Sonday thys Lentt art Brystowe, ther prechyd on Lattemare. And as in ys reportyd he hath done moche hurte amongyst the peple by hys seyde prechyng and sowyng errors. His fame ys ther and in most parte of the diocese. He seyde that owr lady was a synnar, and that she owght nott to be worshyppte of the peple ne ony other seyntt. Exclaimyng up on pylgrimage. And also wher the Gospell that seyd Sonday specifying of the woman of Canene, callyng up on Christe to helpe her; and the disciples prayde for her seying, dimittite cam, quia clamat post nos: the same Latemer declaryd in hys sayd prechyng that the woman of Canene by the desire and prayar of the disciples to Christ for her she rather lard the worse than the better by the prayar of them: with divers other opy-nyons in hys preching, fully a genst the determynacion of the cherche. Wherby he hath very sore infect the seyde towne of Bristowe, as in ys reported. The same Latemer is assignyd for to preache agenn at Brystowe the Wensday in Ester wycke, excepte by yowr comaundment un to the deane ther, he be denyd and forbede to preche. The good catholicke peple in the seyde towne do abhorre all soche hys prechyng. The felowe dwellyth with in the diocese of Bathe: and certen tymys commyth in to my lords diocese of Worcetter, thus doyng moch hurtt. I ame requiryd to certify your mastyrshype of thys wrechyd being in his abusyons, and that ye wolde wrytte un to the deane of Brystowe to forbede and deny the seyde Latemer to preche ther or with in ony parte of my seyde lord’s diocese. In ys reportyd that he ys commandyd nott to preche with in the diocese of Bathe. Thys ye knowe now what ys to be done, as in shalbe yowr pleasure; and owr Lord God send you good spede in the Convocation, and send you mery home to Worcetter. This xviiith day of Marche.
EX REG. CONVOC. WILKINS, IN. P. 756. Proceedings of Convocation concerning Latimer, “Primo die [Convocationis, Martii 26, 1533] habita fuit communicatio de examinatione Latimeri et subscriptione ejus certis articulis facts de purgatorio, de veneratione sanctorum, et de peregrinatione, contra quos ille in villa Bristol-liae contra promissum suum praedicasse dicebatur; ubi decretum fuit quod hujusmodi submissio in ea parte facta et manu sua subscripta mitteretur ad aliquem probum et doctum virum in pattibus illis ubi idem Latimer praedicasse asserebatur, aut praedicare contigerit in futurum.”
FROM THE CHAPTER HOUSE PAPERS, ROLLS HOUSE, A. 1.9. P. 111.
The seying of Mr. Hyberdyn yn the pulpytte within the towne of Bristoll from Easter Eve tyll litle Easter Sonday [Palm Sunday April 6th.] Da[ta] est mihi potestas in Coelo et in terra, &c. proveth that the pope is kyng and prynce of all the worlde, etc. Beati pauperes spiritu proveth purgatory, and there he seide that Richesse and povertie yn spirytte wyll not stonde to gether. dabo leges et seribam in cordibus eorum proveth that no man can do Idolatry.
The Churche knoweth those things that Christe preched and dyd, which were not wryten in Scripture.
The Pater Noster to be seyde to Saynts.
The bludde of Christe is not sufficyant for us without the bludde of marturs.
The Gospell in English bringeth men to heresy.
If the pope himself or the bishop of Canterbury give license to any preacher without the license of the bishop of the same diocese, the maire with all the council should take stones and cast at such preachers’ faces.
He broughte in a parable at St. Thomas Churche under a color of the nightingale and the Crowe, which property of the Crowe he said was, that wether the kyng came by, or the maire, or any other honest man, that he called them knaves, knaves.
IBIDEM, FOL. 113.
Memorandum, that doctor Powell yn his Sermonde spokyn at Seynt Augus-tyns grene seide very seducyously to the grete inquyetynge and steryng of the people, When he entreted of the Cheire of Pestylence, seying that two manet of people sytt theryn: one and the firste be those which corrupteth and en-fecteth the people with opyn synnyng and yll ensample of lyvynge. As he that doth putte away his first wiffe and taketh a nother without assente or dis-pensacion of the Churche. And specially in a hedde or a governor as in a Kyng, which, doth occasion other that hereth and seeth the same to folowe and to do likewise, as kyng Davyd with his adultery sate also in the Cheyre of pes-tylence: which his seying sounded to the hyrerers to the reproffe of the Kyng their governor, and to their no litle offense and greffe.
Also upon Sonday after he noted upon this texte Virga directionis the sacrament of Order: and there he noted that kyngs and prynces are subjecte to prests and prelates: with vehement enhauncsyng of the same, and then spake no thinge of their subjection of prests and prelates to the prynces and governors: which offended the people not a litle.
FROM THE CHAPTER HOUSE PAPERS, ROLLS HOUSE, A. 1.7, P. 157.
Letter from some unknown person to [?LATIMER].
Sir the cause why you have not in your prechings moved your parishons to pylgrymage so instantly as you have to the werks of charite ys (as I. suppose) for lack of scripture to beare you to the same. Wherefore [for] your better Instruction I nowe sende to you one of’doctor Powells fynding, which ys this, Math. 19. Omnis qui reliquerit domos, fratres, sorores, patrem, matrem, agros, propter nomen meum, centuplum accipiet in hoc seculo, et vitoe oeternoe sortietur hereditatem tandem. So, quod he, whosoever goith a pylgrymage to Master John Shorne, Walsyngham, to sainte Anne in the wode, etc., leaveth father and mother, suster & brother, domos etc. for the tyme that he ys from home. Therefore putt in the boxe what he wille, he shall have a hundredth tymes as myche here in this worlde, and att the last everlasting lyf. Suche ys the preaching art Bristowe. And the 7:Sacraments he pyked oute of the Psalm Dominus regit me. 22.  baptism, Ibi — super aquam refectionis: confirmacion, Ibi — baculus meus: extreme unction, Ibi — impinguasti in oleo: matrymony, Ibi — virga: and in the same virga he did find Sacramentum Ordinis, but [for this purpose he] borowed of another psalme [110.] Directionis: the sac[rament of the] Alter, Ibi — parasti in conspectu meo men[sam: the sacrament] of penaunce, Ibi — animam meam convertit ..
Tuus L...... [Venando C] f Vene.....
FROM THE CHAPTER HOUSE PAPERS, ROLLS HOUSE, A. 1.9, P. 115.
Evidence respecting Mr. John Floke deane of Brystowe.
Memorandum, that the xth. day of May, in the xxvth yere of the reigne of our Soverayne Lorde Kyng Henry the Eight, I Thomas Smyth coroner to our snide Soverayne Lorde of his towne of Bristowe had certen communicacyon with one Morgan Thomas and in their communynge the said Morgan shewed unto the said Thomas Smyth, that he and John Ameryk and Roger Davys with certen other persons were at henbury in the county of Gloucester the viijth daie of the said moneth. And there one Robert Feyllond fermor of henbury forsaid and the parish clerke of the same shewed unto them that Master Floke deane of the said towne of Bristowe hadd commaunded the curatte of the said henbury in secrette, not to reherse our soverayne lorde the kynge nor quene in his pul-pytte to be prayed for, But onely the spirytualtye the temporaltie and for theym in the peynes of purgatory. And I the said Thomas Smyth with other being the king’s true subjects thoughte that the said commaundement of the said deane was not doone like no true feithful subject of the kyng, but by our esti-macion it sounded agenst his highnes. Wherfore I, the said Thomas Smyth, to knowe the trueth and circumstaunce of the premysses wente and soughte the said Robert Feylonde, whom I found at one William Glaskyryans howse, being within the snide towne of Bristowe, pewterer, which said Robert Feylonde seide in the presence of me the said Thomas Smyth, William Glaskyryan, John Barrette Tyler, John Clarke Bruer, Gryffith Norrys Carver, and one Pullen servante to Mr. Weishe, and one other called Pullen, which belongeth to the Lord Chief Justice, with dyverse other persons, then being presente, how that the said Curatte of henbury tolde it to hym in secrette, and that he shuld not publisshe hit. And the said Robert Feylonde supposed that it were not for the kyng’s honor to have suche secretts kepte and conceled amongs certen prests, but that the kyng shuld be preyed for by name as hath been custumably used, [and] thought like a true subjecte to our said Sorerayne lorde the kyng that he wolde kepe no suche secretnesse, but to declare and publishe it abrode: yn somoche that it came to the said deane’s care that his secretnesse was opyned. Wherupon he hath byn with dyverse of’them that yt was opynned unto, and desired them to speke noo more of the mater.
FROM THE COTTON MSS. CLEOP. E. 4, FOL. 140, AND THE CHAPTER HOUSE PAPERS, ROLLS HOUSE, A. 1.7, P. 162. F1073 Letter from Dr. John Hylsey, prior of the black friars at Bristol, to Dr. Baggard, chancellor of the diocese of Worcester: Bristol, May 2nd.
Master chawnselar, I commende me unto you as hartly as I may thynke, trustynge yn Gode that you be (the which Iesu contynewe) yn good prosperyte. Ytt is nott owt off your mastershyppys remembrance, that yn the Lent I dyd wrete unto you off the grete dyvysyon that was (ye and yett ys) amonge the peple yn the towne of Brystowe, off the whyche I wrote unto yowe that hytt came by the prechynge of owne Mr. Latymar, a man nott unknowne. I wrote to you allsoe that he spake of pylgremages, worshyppyng off seyntes, wurshyp pyng off ymages, off purgatory etc yn the whyche he dyd vehemently perswade towarde the contrary, that the peple ware nott a lytle offendyd. I wrote alsoe that some men thowght necessary to preache agenst hym, the whyche I supposyd nott best, except that he sholde be put to sylence, for fere off fardyr dyvysyon (the whyche by this cause ys nowe happenyd yn dede); and some thowght hyt metur to have hym before hys oraynarye to be examynyde, and soe the trewthe to be knowen; and yn thys thynges I desyryd you to do that you thowght metyst to reforme your peryshynge flocke, to whome I wrote as to the shepparde of the sayd flocke. Nowe upon thys my byll men hathe crafftly usyd them selfe, ye and crafft was usyd to me or thys byll camme from me: but that makyth nott howe, the lettre ys off rayne owne hande as thys ys, and howe seynge that men hathe fownde the way to convey hytt to you otherways then they ynformed me that they wolde, I cannott denye mye hande, nother wyll nott; wherfore puttynge asyde all thinges that sholde seine to excuse myn actte, thes war the occasyons of my letter: fyrst the fame that I harde of thys man, master Latymer, before that I knewe hyme, the whyche fame decevyd nott only me butt other as well lernyd as I; seconde was the vehe ment perswadynge ayenst the abuse off the thynges, as ys above wretyn, wythe more, as off massys, off scala cell, pardons, the fyre off hell, the state off the sowlys yn purgatory, off faythe wytheowt good wurkes, off ower lady to be a synnar or noe synnar etc. The whyche I and syche other dyd suppose that he dyd preache to the yntente to confownde thes thynges; wherapon bothe the worshypfull men, master Doctor Powell, master Goodryche, master Hyber-dyne, master pryour off Seynt Jamys, and I, dyd preache agenst, approvynge purgatory, pylgremages, the wurshyppynge off seyntes and ymages, alsoe approvynge that feyth wytheowt good wurkes ys but deade, and that ower lady beynge full of grace ys and was wytheowtte the spott off synne.
But when we had dunne, I reken we laboryd but yn vayne, and browht the peple yn greter dyvysyon then they war, as they doe hytherto contynewe. I beseeke God to helpe hytt, for ower kryynge owne agenst another ys not frutfull, nother takyth onny effecte; ffor sens I have communyd wythe master Lattymar, and I have harde hyme preache, and have yntytled hys sermon sentens for sentens, and I have percevyd that hys mynd ys myche more agenst the abusynge off thynges then agenst the thynge hytt selfe.
More, the thyrde thynge that causyd me to wrete unto you was thys dyvysyon that remanythe and yncreasethe yett amonge us, the whyche wyll nott (by thys way that we have begone) be ceasyd. Therfore hytt lyythe yn you to devyse some other way, as God and youre goode cownsell shall ynforme you. Yn my jugement, by that I knowe of master Latymars mynde nowe, yff he myght have your lycens, he woolde opyn hys mynde yn thys matters that the peple sholde be content, and thys wolle plese the cownsell of the towne well; for apone thys they be agreyde, and hopen apone your good helpe yn hytt. And yff I may wythe my lytle under-stondynge furder the matter, to brynge hytte to an unyte, as God ys my jugge, I wyll doe my dylygens, and yff he (quod absit) shollde hereaffter sey onny thynge that sholde sounde other wyse then the catholycall determynacion off the chyrche, ther wylbe’* inowhe that wylbe redy to note hyt wythe more dylygens then hytherto. The forth was my conscyens, thowghe hytt ware for the tym erronyows, and decevyd for lacke of takynge hede dylygently, to marke and knowe the abuse off a thynge from the thynge. Thy fythe cause I shall reserve secretly to my selfe, lest that I sholde seine to put other men yn gylty of my factes, that I doe nott yntent, Gode wyllynge, whoe have you yn hys proteccion. Wretyn yn Bristoll, 2da Maii, By me, Frere John Hylsey, doctor, and pryor off the Freers Prechurs ther.
The maire and diverse other of the counsell of the Towne of f1075 wulde or this have certified the kings counsell by er scale, of the mysbehavior of doctor Power, and Mr. Mr. Jubbes Recorder of the same Towne wille wherefore diverse substantiall men of the same lettres may be directed from some of the kinges to the Maire and his brethern, that they incontinent upon the sight of the same lettres doo certefy the pre-misses as beforesaid, for yt ys thought very necessary to be certified.
Memorandum, that the deane of Bristowe hath commanded all the Curates nigh to Bristowe, that they shall not in the pulpetts pray for the kings grace, nor for the Quene’s grace; and when the same deane was asked of the Maire of Bristowe why the Kings grace and the Queues grace were not prayed for, the deane answered, that the Chauncellor of Wurcester had sent hym a commaunde- ment so to doo: the Maire desired to see the commaundement, but the deane wuld none shewe to hym. And amongs other the same deane comaunded the Curate of henbury, that he in the pulpett shulde not pray for the kings grace nor for the Quenes, and theof be diverse honest men witnesses.
I am advertised by lettres from a right credible person of Bristowe, that Doctor Wilson Chapleyn and somtyme confessor to the king’s grace hath preached thryse in Bristowe sithe Easter and there fortefied the preaching of Doctor Powell and Hyberdyne etc. And not in th but to diverse wurshipfull men of Bristowe he said that Latymer was before the bysshopps he appealed to the To whom the kings grace saied, Mr. Latymer I am have good learnyng, yt were pety but ye myche better then ye have, for you & to be abjured, and I wille not take a sueter to the bysshoppe for you penaunce as ye have deserved such things agayne. Ye sha a fagot to burne you (Labelled) Informacions for preching errors at Bristowe in Latymer’s tyme.
FROM THE HARLEIAN MSS. NO. 422, P. 88.
Letter of Remonstrance from Latimer to Hubberdin, Sunday, May 25th.
The Spirite of God be with you to seale the trowth & followe the same, Amen. I dowt not Master Habardyn but that ye have redde the, sayenge of the Spirite by his prophete Esaias, Voe qui dieunt bonum malum, et malum bonum, ponentes lucem tenebras et tenebras lucem, etc. Which wordes after rayne understandinge be this moche in English, woo or eternall dampnacion be unto you which sayeth that good ys evell and that evell ys good, callinge light darknes and darknes light, etc. Take bede. Remember your selfe well. Ye may mocke and deceive us: deus non irridetur, God will not for all that be mocked. It ys not they sayenge of wise Aristotle, of godly Plato, of wholy Thomas, no nor yett of subtile Duns, who for all their wisdome, godlynes, holynes, and subtilty, deceaved, were deceaved, and lyed: but it is the erernall and perpetuall worde of God who as he deceaveth no man, so can he be de-ceaved of no man, nor yet make any lye. God it ys that sayeth woo or eternall damnacion be unto hym that sayeth that good ys evell, etc. It ys no thretnynge of man, but it ys the sentence of God. Wherfore it is the more to be feared and undoutedly to be loked for; for it ys only the worde of God that lasteth ever and may sustayne no mutacion [“ change written over]. Do you merrell wherfore I save this? It is only brotherly love and my conscience which compell me, as bounden, brotherly to admonish you not only of the grevous blasphemies against the truth which ye uttered here on the Ascen-cion daye, but also to exorte you to desist of your purposed blasphemie and lies against God and his worde which ye have promised to prove in this same place this daye. And that ye may know that ye have inexcusably blasphemed and belied the trouth and promised to do the same, partly here I will confute your blasphemies that be past and partly that be promysed. And so fyrst, to begynne with that which ys past: ye sayed that it was plaine that this new lerninge (as ye call it) was not the trowth and so not of God, but contrary wise that it was lyes, and so surely of the devell. This your assercion ye proved by two maner conjectures; the one is, that the professors of it lyve noughtly, and the other ys that prests be persecuted of them. Which two persuasions though they be in very dede lyes, as I trust in God to show them, yet though they were true did but yeasely prove your intention: for after they same maner ye may as well openly improve Christ and all hys doctrine, as ye do now under a color: which I will entreate more largly here after. But to our purpose, that (as ye saye) it is playne, that this new lernynge (as ye call it) ys not the trowth and so not of God, but contrary wise it ys lyes and surly of the devle: here in are contayned thre great blasphemies and abbominable lyes, injuriouse both to God and his worde, and I feare synne against the Holy Ghost, for it are even the same worde with thexample of Christ declaring the synne agaiast the Holy Ghost. For to begyn withall, ye call the scripture the new lerninge, which I am sure ys eldere then any lerning which ye note to be the olde. And if ye will saye that it ys not the Scripture that you call new, but other bokes lately put in English, I answare, that the Scripture was the fyrst which you and your fautors denied: bysyde that those other for the most teache nothinge but that which ys manifest in the scripture and also playne in the auncient doctors. I speake not of your old doctors, Duns and Saint Thomas, Halcot, Briget, et cetera: but of Augusfine, Hierome, Chrisostome, Ambrose, Hilary, and soch other, which in lyke maner be called new doctors, as the scripture new lerninge; and as Tully new laten; as the text of Aristotle new philosophy: and lyke wise of all sciences. And in this appereth your fyrst lye, that ye call the scripture new doctrine: except that ye wold call it new, other because it maketh the receivers of it new men, orels that it ys now newly received into the worlde, for the condemnacion of them that reject it, and the salvacion of the receivers: of which newnes I am sure you spake not. I pray you, was not the scripture, if ye wold contende, before your most auncient doctors, that ye can allege to have written of it? Was it not, afore they wrote apon it, bettur receaved, more purely understande, of more myghty workynge, then it ys now or sens they wrote apen it? In Saint Paul’s tyme, when there [were] no writers apon the New testament, but that the playne story was then newly put forth, were there not more converted, by I dare boldly saye two parties, then there be at this houre — I will not saye Christen men, but that professe the name of Christ? Is it not now the same worde as it was then? Ys not the same scole master that taught them to understonde it then (which as Saint Peter saith ys the Sprete of God) a lyre as well as he was then? Doth he not favor us now as well as be did then? Have we hym not now as well as we hadd then? If we have not the Sprete of Christ, St. Paul sayeth, so be we no Christen men: And yf we be no Christen men, so be you deceavers and fals prophets, prachinge unto your selfe your autorytie and your constitucions, without the worde of God; which is only the rule of faith, accordinge to the sainge of Sainte Paule, where he sayth that faith ys of heareing; and that not of all heareinge, but of hearing of the worde of God. Which faith also is the fyrst frute of the Sprete of God. Whch Sprete yf we have not, so testifie ye against us that we be no Christen men, and against your selfe that ye be no mynistres or shepards of Christ, but the mynistres of Antichrist and shepherds of your own belies. Which Sperite yf we have, so beareth us witnes St. Paule, that we be Christen men, and S. Peter that we maye understande the Scripture. Which only is that the laye people desyre: utterly contemnynge all men’s draghtes and all men’s writinges, how well lerned so ever they be; only contented with their old and new schole master, the holy Spirit of God, and the mynysters thereto of hym electe and by hym sent. But ye will saye ye condempne not the Scripture, but Tyndals translacion: there in ye show your selfe contrary unto your words, for ye have condemned it in all other comen tongues, where in they be approved in other contraies; so that it is playne that it is the Scripture, and not the translacion, that ye barke against, callinge it new lernyng. And Thus moch for the fyrst lye. And as for the two other, be sone confuted, that it is not the trougth, nor of God, but lyes and of the devell. O Jesu, mercy! that ever soch blasphemye against the holy Ghost should procede out a christen man’s mouth! Is it not all one to save that the doctrine of Christ ys lyes and cometh of the devel, and that Christ ys a lyar and the devell? What difference I pray you ys there betwixt this blasphemye and that which the Phariseys imputed unto Christ, when they said we know that thou art a Samaritane and hast the devell within thee? When that Christ sayed that the blasphemye against the Holy Ghost should never be forgeven. If ye have sayed this of ignorance, I praye God bringe you to knowledge and repentance. Yf ye spake it against your conscience, of malice against the trowth (as he knoweth, qui scrutator cordium est) I feare me lest tyme of repentance (which God forbid) shall never be geven you in this lyre. O Lorde God, what a wrestinge of the Scripture was it to enterpretate these before the cominge of antichrist there shalbe a debartinge from the pope: when as the text sayeth plainly Antichrist was come allready, and that he worked secretly, and that there shulde be a departinge from the faith, and that shuld be opened unto all men afore the comynge of Christ. For shame, na for conscience, other allege the scriptures a right without any soch wrestinge, or els absteyne out of the pulpet.
But now to come to your conjectures by which ye persuaded your assercions: that is that the Scripture was new lerning, Christ a lyar and the devle, which are, that the fautors and professors thereof lyve noughtly, and that the persecute prestes. Fyrst, besydes that it ys manyfest that your conjectures both be fals, for the purenes of lyre of the favorers of it (I spayeke of [them] that are of any knowlege); there vertuouse lyvinge ys so knowen that it ys but foly for me to labor to confute it: And that the[y] persecute prests, I wold gladly here of one prest so much as ones prysoned. I meane not for whoredom, theft, and murder, with soch their comen practises; but for his faithes sake: except it were soch as you your selfe persecuted, as ye do us for know-ledginge the trowth. Nede ye that I bring forth examples? Remember ye nott the honest prest that the last yere was martired by you in Kent? Do ye not hold Nicolson, Smyth, Patmere, and Philips, with many other, in pryson yett at this howre?
FROM THE CHAPTER HOUSE PAPERS, ROLLS HOUSE, VOL. A. 1.9, P. 117.
Maister Hyberden seying which he preached within the towne of Bristoll upon Assension daie and on the Sondaie folowinge Anno r. r. Henrici viijvi xxvto.
Unto the right worshipful maister maire of this towne of Bristowe, and unto the wise and sadde councell of the same, the inhabitours or burges of the said towne sendethe (such as it is) in the lorde gretynge of grace peace helthe and humble obeysaunce.
And forasmoche hit is unto our moste soveraine lorde the kings highe honor and quyetnes that his true subjects and moste wisiste councell drawe one lyne and be of one zele towarde the comyn weale of this his Realme, so in case like hit apperteyneth to his honor and quyetnes that his comen subjects leve in unyte cheryte and true obedience unto their hedde Rulers and officers undre our said prynce, fro the which they are drawen by suche overtharte prechinge as hath byu in this towne of late and yet contynueth.
Wheryn the said subjects burges or comyns are not a litle offended.
Wherfore unto your discrete wise-dome they are we that presente this bill, doith opyn the grefe and unquyetnes of our harts and conscyence, desyrynge you for the quyetnes of the said comyns and subjects of our sovraine that suche unfrutefull prechers may be loked upon, seynge that the spirituall officers lokyth not to hit nother sekethe any meane of charite or unyte to be had amongs the said comyns, but rather (as hit semeth) delyteth in devysion and fedeth theym selfe and us with the conty-nuance of syn. Wherby aswell our prynce as almightie God is offended and we mysnamed and slaunderede throwe oute the Realme, the which God amende, to whom honor and glory be from and of all his true Christians.
The cause that we presente this bill howe unto you and so ynstantly desire you to loke upon the effecte of hit is this: Firste, it is well knowen of your maisterships that maister Heberdyn of late hath preched dyverse sermons wherin the comyns were offended and founde theym selfe greyed, but nowe upon this last Sonday before none he promysed us to declare the Epistle, the which (as they say) is of Petyr. But he kepte not his promys in one worde of the said pistle, but wente to his accustumed Roylynge and slaunderynge of other men. Wheryn we are not a litle offended.
First he saide that there were some that wente aboute to enbarre our Lady of her honor and specially to put aside the Ave Maria, the which we thynke shulde be very erronyous to do: but there be none in our Judgemente that goieth aboute any suche thinge: and in the declarynge of this he willed the people to sey not onely ten but ten and ten agenste oon Pater noster, prefer-tinge the Ave afore Pater Noster yn twenty folde: and yet criste preferred ye and commaunded the Pater noster specially and above all other prayer singu-lerly. And that the entente of this Mr. Heberden was this, to putte aside the pater noster, hit appered by his words: for consequentely after-he saide that his devocyon was rather to sey C aves then one Pater noster. Wheryn we rekyn that he hath openned a greate gapp unsparred.
More: in the expoundynge of this texte, Oracio ejus erit execrabilis, he affyrmed that it is a greate presumpcion that a synner shulde make petycyon or preyer to almightie God for his synne and for this purpose he broughte yn this exsample: yf the maire of this towne shulde geve hym exhibicion to Parrysse of x marke or of v marke, this money collide do hym no good excepte he myght brynge hit into his mouthe; nother there, excepte he shulde drawe hit into his throte; nother there, excepte hit be broughte downe yn his stomake. So that the mouthe the throte and the belly be necessary to that, that this some of money sholde or myghte do hym good: the gever of this exhibicion he named hym God by thautoryte of Jamys,” Omne datum, ” etc. The which (as he seyeth unto us) was declared unto us by a blessed doctor of late: the mouthe he applied unto Criste: the throte to our lady: the belly unto the hooly Apostles martyrs and confessours and Virgyns etc.
Whoo can otherwise gather of this, then that almighty God cannot geve his gifts unto us by Criste, but necessaryly, by the wey of Saynts, of the which foloweth error and dyverse ynconvenyens in our Judgements: for almightie God we beleve is as able to geve his gifts unto us nowe as ever he was, and we knowe that before his Saynts come to hevyn he gave theym his grace without the helpe of any Creature; yee and is of the same powre howe: howe be it we knowe and beleve that the holy Seynts doith pray for us, and it is convenyent that we prey unto theym. But this argueth not that almyghtie God cannot geve me his gifts or carl not safe me or us without their helpe; who holpe Mary Magdalen, the woman of Canany, the publycan, the theefe that hynge by Criste, yee and who holpe the thousand thousands that dyed before Criste and syns; in whose Salvacyon no mentyon of Saynts ys made, but the mercy of God, their feith, and good lyvinge etc.
More: in his processe he made a dystynction betwene the Judgemente of God and the Judgemente of man affermynge that the Judgement of man was suche that yf a trespassour dyd knowledge his offense before a Judge his owne confession shulde be his Judgement, and he scaped best yn the lawe that could prattle for hym self, and fynd xij false knaves for to quyte hym: The Judgemente of God ys farr contrary to this: for if a synner knowledge his offense unto God and call for mercy, Almyghtie God wyll not denye hym his mercy. A1 this we reken true, savinge that yn our Judgemente this semeth to be contrary to that was saide before: for before he seyde, hit is presumpcyon for a synner to make petycyon or preyer unto allmyghty God for his synne; and nowe he concludeth as he shulde in deede that a synner that calleth for mercy shall not have mercy denyed hym; and this in our Judgemente ys contrary to the other before.
More: he saide, if a Traytor offende agenste his prynce for the which he were worthy deathe, yf the qwene of her goodnesse opteyne his pardon, this ys no dishonor unto the qwene [?prince], but rather honor. So in case like, yf the hevynly quene our blessed lady opteyne for synners that be traytours to God remyssyon of synne, thys ys no dishonor to Christe: this in our Judgement ys false, for it ys more honor unto a prynce mercyfully to forgeve hys trespassor then to forgeye hym at the desire of his qwene or any other: howe be yt hytt is more honor to his. qwene as a Carnall man wyll take hit: So that in this we geder that he entendeth more to honor our lady then to honor Criste, to whom all honor ys due: the which we rekyn dyspleseth highely that blessed mother and mayde whom we wolde yn her for to be honored and preyed unto.
More: to prove the unyte of the Godhed and the Trynyte of persons he brought yn an exsample of fowre distyncte things, formally distyncte, as of fume of the styllatory, water elementary, and of yse and snowe: the whiche be as conducyble to that purpose as he applyd Criste to a fole, an Asse, a bolte, A fagotte stieke, and suche other naughty feynyngs beside, and contrary to all good Scripture: at lengthe he will compare hym to an horse, A foxtaile, an owle, and suche vylany that abhorreth the Eares of Christen people. More: to prove the same he broughte an exsample of thre maydens that arrayed theym selfe, seyinge that thoughe all thre were abowte to ray one, yet hit is one that wereth the Cote. So is there three persons in Trynyte that worketh one worke, and one wereth the Cote that ys Criste the whiche toke the nature of man upon hym. This he sayd ys no meate for mowers.
More: upon Assertsion da f1076 wonte to be chosen by the of the Cathedrall Chur Sarium and Bath at W wise gevyn and hit wa hurche nother hit wylbe never t contynueth this in th s but we suppose that was not taken for the usynge of h but for the Abu hit. And hit was ordeyned that kyngs with their councells shulde geve Busshopricks in whom is more wisedome Sadnesse lernynge and conscyence then ys in any particler or Cathedrall Churche.
Wherfore we rekyn that this man doith malyeyously preche agenste the kynge and his noble counsell, And agenste conscyenee aria yng as God knoweth. To whois gracious tuycion [we] comytte you with all the comyns of this noble towne Amen.
Hyberdyn in his sermonde at Sent Thomas Churche seide this: some wille have you to folowe the humylyte of our lady, her vyrgynyte, her mekenesse with suche other verrues and the gifts of grace: yt is the leeste way to honor her: so that to honor our lady by his prechyng ys to sey Aves , and that xxa for one pater noster: he saide also as damnacion came unto the worlde by Eve, so salvacion came to us by Chryste and our lady hys mother,] FROM THE CHAPTER HOUSE PAPERS, ROLLS HOUSE, A. 1.7. P. 158. G.M.
Letter from Latimer to G. M. in vindication of himself.]; Salutem plurimam. Nolo esse mearum injuriarum relator: sunt qui a fronte ad tergum narrabunt: master M. you have knowen me.
And if I knowe my self, I am not howe worse than ye have knowen; yf I be better, I thanke hym that maketh of evill goode, and of goode better. Because I wulde have Christe Savior to our Lady, they belye me to have saied that our lady was a synner:
Although that he coulde not as well save preservando as liberando.
And so with theire shameles lyes they wille synne greatly, least our lady shulde have synned a little: they be so preposterusly devoute towards our lady. There is an Anteme songe in Brystowe, wherin she ys called salvatrix ae redemptrix: she might more semely be called salvatoris ac redemptoris mater aut gentrix, quam salvatrix. Yf I might have preached in Bristowe in Easter was [? week] as I was appointed, I wulde have made another manet a Christe, & another manet a kinge then myn adversaries & sclaunderers did; I wulde have made a hole Christe, and a hole kinge: not a patched Christe and a patched kinge: Christus non Christiculus: [Rex] non regulus: Papoe! quanto illi papam feterunt utroque ! Amarulentus videbatur Hubberdinus, sed amarulentia Hubberdinum proe illo modestum. Latymerus ab utroque ratur, opprimitur: quis crederet tantam [stultitia huju]s modi hominibus residere. Septies centum et [im] pudentissima esse mendatia.
Powelus doth alle thinge by information, but that is after an’ evill fation, to sclaunder a man upon information: the deane was the informer: but when Latymer was redy to make theyme both aunswer, they had neither place nor tyme; they had bothe place and time to sclaunder me, and to belye me, but they had neither place nor tyme to here me, when I was redy to justify alle that I had saied. Sic illi quidem impune quidvis et dicunt et faciunt. Sed vivit deus, et ipsi cura est de nobis. After master doctor the Pryor of the blak fryers wrote by occasion of other, before he had hadde communication with me, after that I had answered hym to alle his scrupulls and doubtes, he allowed my preaching and no man better.
But I knowe the waspe that doth stynge them, and make theym to swelle. When purgatory ys purged, and pylgrymage pylled from theire abuses, profettes must nedes falle awey. Aud in tu? hoc illud est: hinc istoe turboe. And nowe comen myn adversaries them self (God be tha[nked] after myche hurly burly have graunted and confes[ed]... abuses, and have preached openly that be paryd awey, or ever they can he well be most pure and all the best, they n tandem sensi stolidus quod Parmeno confirme alle that ever I have reprove that thinge that I doo say, then they will belye me to say that thinge that they can reprove.
FROM THE CHAPTER HOUSE PAPERS, ROLLS HOUSE, 2ND SERIES, NO. 709.
Depositions before the Commissioners at Bristol, respecting the preaching of Latimer, Hubberdin, Powel, etc. from July 6th to 11th. [1st “bill”] In primis seith and will depose that Hubberdyn seid in the pulpitte in seynt Thomas Churche in Bristowe that there where xx or xxx hereticks of the In-habitaunts of this towne of Bristowe. [‘signed in autograph] per me Thomas Sheward per me John Hylle per me John Gorney per me John Wells per me Thomas Stokbryge.
More seith and will depose that Hubberdyn seid in divers places and churches in the pulpitts in this towne, that he or they whatsoever he or they be that speke agenst the pope or eny poynte of his acts or ordynances is an here-tick. [signed in autograph] per me Thomas Sheward, per me John Hylle, per me John Gorney per me John Wells per me Thomas Stokbryge.
Also seith and will depose that Hubberdyn seid art the Churche of the Temple in Bristowe Apon Sension day, that Byshoppes were wonte to be chosen by the hooly goost and by theire Chaptre of the Cathedrall Churches as the Byshop of Salesbury att Salesbury and Bathe att Wellys: but nowe in is otherwise gyven I wot nere howe: butt in was never myrry in the Churche sens nor never wilbe myrry nor well so long as this facion gyven as nowe adaies is gyven doth contynue. [signed in autograph] per me John Hylle per me John Gorney per me Thomas Sheward per me J. Stokbryge per me John Wells. [2nd” bill”] Mr. Hyberdyne seyde at temple churche in the pullpit apon Assencon day that bishops war wont to be chosyne by the Holy Goost and by the Chepi-toure etc. [See Art. 3 above]. [-signed in autograph] per me John Smythe.
Mr. Lattymer prechyd that Sowles in purgatory may meryt to pray for us and we may for them. [signed in autograph] per me John Smythe. [3rd” bill”] Roger Philpotte.
Hubbyrden seyd unto me yn Allhallone Churche that there ys xxti or xxxti erytycks withyn Brystow, and he was examynyd yn the cownsell howse before Mr. Meyer and the hole cownsell and soo he denyd hytt. I askyd hym the questyon at London before Antony Payne and Wyllyam a Powell grocer, and he seyd hyt was best to deny hytt, seying Y was but on man, as myche to seye on recorde to a matyre ys nothyng: and Y told hym of hys prechyng: hys seyng was he wold amende hytt. [4th” bill”] [This consists of the original three Articles, each signed separately in autograph] per me Harry Whyte. [5th” bill”] [This contains the 2nd and 3rd Articles, each signed thus] By me Rychard Typper wrytten by hym that wrytte this bycause I cannot wrytte [followed by his mark.] [1st” “boke,” a folio half sheet, (only one side of which is written upon).] Bristowe.
In primis those persons whose namys her after foloweth Seith and will depose art all tymes to come that they hard Hubberdyn sey in the pupytt in Seynte Thomas Churche in Brittowe that there were xxti or xxxti heryticks of the Inhabitants of this seyd towne of Bristowe. By me Thomas Butler Thomas Walker Richard Evans Johqn Allworth John Amerryck Jamys Prowde Rawlyn Webbe -Thomas Typper -John Hewys Thomas Seward Willyam Preston Thomas Lewys Thomas Smyth John Gourney Thomas Webbe John Barry Thomas Colley Roger Jonys John Munday -Henry Butler John Capper -Roger Philpotte -Willyam Car Willyam Fysher Water Semons John Hawerdyn Thomas Ricards.
More these persons whose namys byn under written here seithe that the same Hubberdyn seyd in the Pulpytts in dyvers places in this towne of Bristowe that he or they what soo ever they be that speke ayenst the pope or eny poynte of his Acts or ordynances is an heretyck.
By me Thomas Walker Jamys Prowde John Allworth John Barry John Hathwey Thomas Colley By me Thomas Seward Wylliam Preston John Ameryck Wylliam Fisher Henry Butler Roger Jonys By me Lewys Robyns John Gorney Wylliam Car Thomas Typper John Capper And also more: these that their names hereafter byn subscribed Seith and also will depose that the said Hubberdyn seid att the Churche of the Temple in Bristowe upon Sension day, that Byshoppes were wonte to be chosen by the hooly goost and by the Chapter of the Cathedral Churches, as the Byshopp of Salesbury art Salesbury, and Bathe at Wellys: but nowe in is otherwise gyven, I wot nere howe: but in was never myrry in the Churche sens nor never wilbe myrry nor well so long as this facion gyven as nowe adaies is gyven doth contynue.
By me Henry Butler Thomas Lewys Thomas Walker Rawlyn Webbe Willyam Fisher John Hewys By me Thomas Seward John Gorney Willyam Car Jamys Prowde David Nelle -Thomas Typper Thomas Amorgan By me John Aileworth Willyam Preston Thomas Webbe Water Semens John Barry Thomas Colley [signed in autograph] Per me John Drews.
Summa; as all these persons stand as well in the ij bokes as in v hills they be in Nombyr cxxvj, but they be no more persons in dede but xliiij lytyll more or lasse for sum be wryttyn iij or iiij times.
In both bokes cxxxv, persons. [This is followed by the 2nd” boke, ” which is a half sheet of paper of the same size with the preceding, containing the three Articles, each signed in autograph by several of the names which have already occurred; among them however appear the following new ones — Thomas Bakhous, Thomas Lows, Rychard Dane, Lawtans Strafford, Roger Thomys in Reclyfe Cherche. [One page only, as before, is written upon, and is nearly filled; most of names recur, and at the bottom of the page we read] Sum of the persons-xvij. in this boke is On the back is the following label.
The bokes & bylls Agaynste huberdyn Only without any Matter agaynst Latymer save on. on Smyth, Sheryff of Bristow.
From the Cotton MSS. Cleop. E. 4 fol. 56. f1079 Letter from John Bartholomew to [Cromwell?] reporting the proceedings of the Commissioners at Bristol, from July 6th to 11th.
In my most humble wyse, with dew recommendacyons as appertaynethe, advertysynge your masterschype that I recevyd your letter the Saterday vth day of Julii, at vi of the cloke at nyghte, commaundynge me by vertu of the same in the kynges name to electe and chose fyve or vi oneste men to assyste and and helpe me in all cawsys consernyng the behavynge as well of Latomer as of Huberdyn, and their prechyns, and spesyally what wordes Hyberdyn schold have consernynge the kynges hyghe magesty. And accordynge to thys com-maundmente immedyatly I electyd and chose the reverend lord abbot of Saynt Augustynes by Brystow, Johan Cabull, Thomas Broke, Richard Tunell, late mayres of the sayde towne of Bristow, and Thomas a Bowen, gentyllman. So electe and chosyn wee concludyd to sytt Sunday the vj day of Julii at after none at a place callyd Saynte Jamys, and then and there apperyd before us as well of the spyrytuallte as of the temporalte, to whome wee declared and rede the commysson wherfore they whet callyd, and so gave them inyoncyon at a day to setrefy the kynges hyghnes and hys most honorable councell what Latomer had prechyd, wherby thys the kynges towne of Brystow rune in infamy, dyscorde, stryfe, and debate. And lyke charge we gave them to sertefy us what Huberdyne had prechyd consernynge the kynges hyghnes, or any worde that myghte sounde to the kynges hygh dysplesure, in any plase or places, as they at ther perell wood aunser. And apon whych inyoncyon, bothe of the spyrytualte and of the temporalty browghte before us and sertyfyed, as by ther sertyfycattes more at large schall appere.
And farder to advertyse your masterschype the very truthe, accordynge to our dewtys and your com-maundment, what we do know in thys matters, we sertefy yow by the relacyons of many onest and credable persons, that the seyde Latomer came to Brystow and preched there the second Sonday in Lente laste paste ij sermons, on in Saynte Nycholas chyrche afore none, and another yn the Blake Fryers at after none., and the Monday nexte followynge he preched the thyrd sermone yn Saynte Thomas chyrche, yn the whych sermondes he preched dyvers sysma-tyke and yronyous opinions: as yn hell to be no fyer sensyble; the sowles that be yn purgatory to have no nede of our prayers, but rather to pray for us; no sayntes to be honoryd; no pylgrymage to be usyd; our blessyd lady to be a synner; as hyt hath been reportyd and taken by the herers but for my selfe I never hard hym preche yn Brystow, for I was then syk: but by reson of his iij sermondes dyvers of the kynges subjectes wythyn thys the kynges sayd towne, as manyfestely hathe apperyd hytherto, ys to be feryd be sore ynfectyd in the same, insomoche grete stryfe and debate ys amonge the kynges subjectes here, and that amonge all maner of sortes of pepyll from the hyeste to the lowesto withyn the same towne. And so dyd continu from the foresayde second Sonday yn Lent unto Ester next ensuynge, and yet dothe contynu, at which tyme of Ester Huberdyn came to Brystow and preched at Sainte Thomas Chyrche at after none on Ester Eve, and at Saynte Nycholas chyrche before none on Ester day, and there prechyd scharply agenste Latomers artycules, provenynge them be auctorites as well by the Olde as the New Testaments sysmatyke and yronyous. And whereas yt was very yll from the seyd seconde Sonday yn Lente tyll Ester then nexte ensuynge, yt hathe ben wors sens Ester; for many that favoryd Latomer and hys new maner of prechynge, and other many that favoryd Huberdyne yn hys olde manner of prechynge, bothe the seyde partes hathe ben more ardente now sens Ester then they were before. Wherefore as to our simple resons, wythowte the kynges moste noble grace provyde some convenyante remedy, muche more ynconvenyens ys lyke to ensu. Also, that same Sonday on Gilberte Cogan came to the howse of the Grey Fryers in Brystow, and sayd to the warden of the same howse that he schowlde be ware what he scholde wryte and testyfy, for there schowlde cume iiij. c. that showlde testely the contrary, as the seyde warden shewyd hyt before all the commyssyoners. On Fryday the xjth day of Julii, Johan Drews wyth others browghte yn before us syttynge yn commyssyon a boke of many names, and iij artycles comprisyd yn the same boke, where apperyth every man’s confessyon. That boke so resevyd, callyd before us on Thomas Butteler, examyned hym what he had herde Hyberdyn prech yn Saynt Thomas Chyrche; he answeryd, that a nombre of Erytykes were yn Brystow, and from that nombre he browghte hyt to xxti or xxxti erytykes, accordynge to the fyrste articull, and he sayd he hard hym say no more, and yet hys name ys to the second and the thyrde artyculles. Also another man came before us, and sayd, that Huberdyn showlde say that all Brystow was knaves and erytykes.
John Drws persevyng every man to be examyned thys by hym selfe, knewe very well ther confessyons wolde nothynge agre wyth the artycles yn ther seyde boke, wherefore he desyryd that every man schowld brynge yn hys confessyon by wrytynge: and for as moche as yt was over longe and tedyous, as well to the commyssyoners as to the partys, we condessendyd to reseve ther bylles, which bylles and bokes, as well of the spyrytualte as of the temporaire, which your mastershype shall reseve of thys beret, wyth our dayly servys and prayer to preserve your longe lyfe and good to the plesure of God and your most harteste desyer. And Almyghty God preserve owre most redoupted soveraynge lord’s moste royall person, bothe bodely and gostely, longe to endure, A.M. E. N. Per me, WILLIELMUM BURTON abbatem monasterii divi Augustini.
By me, JOHN CALLE . “THOMAS BROKE . Per me , RICHARD TENELL . THOMAS ABOWEN .
By me, JOHAN BARTHOLOMEW .
END OF VOL. 7.