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  • FOOTNOTES


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    - This committee was appointed by the House of Lords, March 12,1640. It sometimes bears the name of the Committee of Accommodation, and consisted of ten earls, ten bishops, and ten barons. To prepare the subjects of discussion, some bishops and several divines of different persuasions were appointed a subcommittee.

    The duty of the committee was to examine all innovations in doctrine and discipline, illegally introduced into the church since the Reformation. See Neal’s History, vol. 2:395. — ED. - He alludes to the attempted invasion of England by the Spanish Armada in 1588. In France the civil wars on account of religion were terminated about 1628, when the Protestants secured the confirmation of the Edict of Nantes, but lost possession of the towns that had been given in guarantee for the faithful observance of it. — ED. - Sleid. Com. - Greg. Naz. - Profitentur Remonst, hasce ad promotionem causae sure artes adhibere, ut apud vulgus non ulterius progrediantur quam de articulis vulgo notis, ut pro ingeniorum diversitate quosdam lacte din alant, alios solidiore cibo, etc. — Festus Hom. praestat ad specimen Con. Bel. - Hieron. Zanch. ad Holderum. Res. Miscel. - John 6:42, 7:52. “Natura sic apparet vitiata ut hoc majoris vitii sit, non videre.” — Aug. - Pelag. Semipelag. Scholastic. - “In hac causa non judicant secundum aequitatem, sed secundum affectum commodi sui.” — Luth, de Arbit. Serv. - Philippians lib. quod sit Deus immutabilis. - “In ordine volitorum divinorum, quaedam sunt quae omnem actum creaturae praece-dunt, quaedam quae sequuntur.” — Corv, ad Molin., cap. 5. sect. 1, p. 67. - “Certum est Deum quaedam velle, quae non vellet nisi aliqua volitio humana antece-deret.” — Armin., Antip., p. 211. - “Multa tamen arbitror Deum velle; quae non vellet, adeoque nec juste velle posset, nisi aliqua actio creaturae praecederet.” — Ad Ames., p. 24. - “Deus facit vel non facit id ad quod, ex se et natura sua ac inclinatione propria est affectus, prout homo cum isto ordine conspirat, vel non conspirat.” — Corv. ad Molin., cap. 5. ad sect. 3. - “Falsum est quod electio facta est ab seterno.” — Rem. Apol., cap. 18. p. 190. - “Volitiones aliquae Dei cessant certo quodam tempore.” — Episcop.

    Disp. de Vol. Dei., thes. - “Deus vult omnes salvos fieri, sed compulsus pertinaci et incorrigibili malitia quorundam, vult illos jacturam facere salutis.” — Armin. Antip. fol. 195. - Bell. Amiss. Grat.; Armin. Antip. Rem. Apol. - “(Docent) unumquemque invariabilem vitae, ac morris protaghcap. 9. p. 105. - Jackson, of the Divine Essence. - “Non mirum videri debet quod aliquando ex electis reprobi et ex reprobis electi fiant.” — Welsin, de Of. Ch. Hom. - “Omnia Dei decreta, non sunt peremptoria, sed quaedam conditionata ac mutabilia.” — Concio. ad Cler. Oxon. ann. 1641, Rem. Decla. Sent. in Synod., alibi passim. “Electio sicut et justificatio, et incerta et revocabilis, utramque vero conditionatam qui negaverit, ipsum quoque evangelium negabit.” — Grevinch, ad Ames., pp. 136,137. - “Ad gloriam participandam pro isto tempore quo credunt electi sunt.” — Rem. Apol., p. 190. - “Decreta hypothetica possunt mutari, quia conditio respectu hominis vel prsestatur vel non praestatur, atque ita existit vel non existit. Et quum extitit aliquandiu, saepe existere desinit, et rursus postquam aliquandiu desiit, existere incipit.” — Corv. ad Molin., cap. 5. sec. 10. - “Dicique beatus — Ante obitum nemo,” etc. — Ovid. - “Quis enim comminetur poenam ei, quem peremptorio decreto a poena immunem esse vult ?” — Rem. Apol., cap. 17. p. 187. - Author of “God’s Love to Mankind,” p. 4, [a treatise written by Hoard. Davenant, professor of divinity in Cambridge, and afterwards bishop of Salisbury, wrote in reply his “Animadversions” on it. Dr Hill, in his Lectures on Divinity, pronounces this work of Davenant to be “one of the ablest defences of the Calvinistic system of predestination.” — ED.] - “Quicquid operatur, operatur ut est.” - Dioeto boulh> , Hom; — “God’s will was done.” - “Quaecunque possunt per creaturam fieri, vel cogitari, vel dici, et etiam quaecunque ipse facere potest, omnia cognoscit Deus, etiamsi neque sunt, neque erunt, neque fuerunt, scientia simplicis intelligentiae.” — Aquin, p. q. 14, a. 9, c. Ex verbis apostoli, Romans 3, “Qui vocat ea quae non sunt tanquam ea quae sunt.” Sic scholastici omnes. Fer.

    Scholast. Orthod. Speci. cap. in., alii passim. Vid. Hieron. Zanch. de Scientia Dei, lib. diatrib. 3., cap. 2, q. 5. - Vid. Sam. Rhaetorfort. Exercit. de Grat., ex. 1. cap. 4. - “Res ipsae nullo naturae momento possibiles esse dicendae sunt priusquam a Deo in-telliguntur, scientia quae dicitur simplicis intelligentiae, ita etiam scientia quae dicitur visionis, et fertur in res futuras, nullo naturae momento, posterior statuenda videtur, ista futuritione, rerum; cum scientia,” etc. — Dr Twiss. ad Errat. Vind.

    Grat. - “Scientia visionis dicitur, quia ea quae videntur, apud nos habent esse distinctum extra videntem.” — Aq. p. q. 14, a. 9, c. - “In eo differt praescientia intuitionis, ab ea, quae approbationis est, quod illa praesciat, quod evenire possibile est; hoc vero quod impossibile est non evenire.” — Ferrius. Orthod. Scholast. Spoci. cap. 23. Caeterum posterior ista scientia non proprie dicitur a Ferrio scientia approbationis, illa enim est, qua Deus dicitur nosse quae amat et ap-probat; ab utraque altera distincta. Matthew 7:23; Romans 11:2; 2 Timothy 2:19. “Quamvis infinitorum numerorum, nullus sit numerus, non tamen est incomprehensibilis ei, cujus scientiae non est numerus.” — Aug. de Civit. Dei, lib. 12. cap. 18. - “Quibusdam effectibus praeparavit causas necessarias, ut necessario eveniret, quibus-dam vero causas contingentes ut evenirent contingenter, secundum conditionem proximarum causarum.” — Aquin. p. q. 28, a. 4, in Cor. Zanch. de Natur. Dei, lib. v., qu. 4, thes. - “Res et modos rerum” — Aquin. - “Cui praescientiam tollis, aufers divinitatem.” — Hieron. ad Pelag., lib. - “Deus ita omnium salutem ex aequo vult, ut illam ex aequo optet et desideret.” — Corv. ad Molin., cap. 31. sect. 1. - “Talis gratia omnibus datur quae sufficiat ad fidem generandam.” — Idem, ibid, sect. 15. - “Pertinaci quorundam malitia compulsus.” — Armin., ubi sup. - “Reprobatio populi Judaici fuit actio temporaria et quae bono ipsorum Judaeorum si modo sanabiles adhuc essent, animumque advertere vellent, servire poterat, utque ei fini serviret a Deo facta erat.” — Rem.

    Apol., cap. 20. p. 221. - “Injustum est apud Deum vel non credentem eligere, vel credentem non eligere.” — Rem. Apol. - “Concedimus in Deo desideria, quae nunquam implentur.” — Corv. ad Molin., cap. v. sect. 2. - “Bona quaedam Deus optat et desiderat.” — Rem. Confes., cap. 2. sect. 9. - “Dei spes et expectatio est ab hominibus elusa.” — Rem. Scrip. Syn. in cap. v., Isaiah 5:1. “In eo vis argumenti est, quod Deus ab Israele obedientiam et sperarit, et expectarit.” — Idem, ibid. “Quod Deus de elusa spe sua conqueratur.” — Idem, ubi supra. - “Deum futura contingentia, decreto suo determinasse ad alterutram partem (intellige quae a libera creaturae voluntate patrantur), falsum, absurdum, et multiplicis blasphemiae praevium abominor et exsecror.” — Armin. Declarat. Senten. - “Disquiri permittimus: — 1. Operosam illam quaestionem, de scientia futurorum contingentium absoluta et conditionata; 2. Etsi non negemus Deo illam scientiam attribui posse; 3. Tamen an necessarium saluti sit ad hoc ut Deus recte colatur examinari permittimus; 4. Tum merito facessere debent a scholis et ecclesiis, intricatae et spinosae istae quaestiones quae de ea agitari solent, — quomodo illa cum libertate arbitrii, cum seriis Dei comminationibus, aliisque actionibus, consistere possit: quae omnia crucem potius miseris mortalibus fixerunt, quam ad religionem cultumque divinum, momenti aliquid inquisitoribus suis attulerunt.” — Episcopius, Disput. 4. sect. 10.; Rem. Apol., pp. 43,44. - Ames. Antisynod, p. 10. - “Deus suo modo aliquando metuit, hoc est, merito suspicatur et prudenter conjicit, hoc vel illud malum oriturum.” — Vorsti. de Deo, p. 451. - “Deus non semper ex praescientia finem intendit.” — Armin., Antip., p. 667; Corv. ad Molin., cap. 5. sect. 5. - “Cum et pater tradiderit filium suum, et ipse Christus corpus suum: et Judas dominum suum: cur in hac traditione Deus est pius, et homo reus, nisi quia in re una quam fecerunt, causa non fuit una propter quam fecerunt.” — Aug., Epist. 48. - “Deus non particulatim, vel singillatim omnia videt, velut alternanter concepta, hinc illuc, inde huc, sed omnia videt simul.” — Aug., lib. 15. de Trinit., cap. 14. “In scientia divina nullus est discursus, sed omnia perfecte intelligit.” — Tho., p. q. 14, a. 7. c. - Tilen. Syntag. de Attrib. Dei, thes. 22; Zanch. de Nat. Dei.

    Unumquodque quod est, dum est, necesse est, ut sit. - “ Qei>a pa>ntwn ajrch< di> h=v a[panta kai< e]sti kai< diame>nei .” — Theophrastus, apud Picum. Vid. Senecam de Provid. et Plotinum. - “An actus divinae providentiae omnium rerum conservatrix, sit affirmativus po-tentiae, an tantum negativus voluntatis, quo nolit res ereatas perdere.” — Rem. Apol., cap. 6. - “Providentia seu ratio ordinis ad finem duo praecipue continet: principium decernens seu ipsam rationem ordinis in mente divina, ipsi Deo coaeternum, et principium exequens, quo suo modo, per debita media, ipsa in ordine et numero disponit.” — Thom. - “Majcstatem Dei dedecet scire per momenta singula, quot nascantur culices, quae pulicum et muscarum in terra multitudo.” — Hieron, in cap. 1, Hab. - “Quis disposuit membra pulicis ac culicis, ut habeant ordinem suum, habeant vitam suam, habeant motum suum,” etc. “Qui fecit in coelo angelum, ipse fecit in terra vermi culum, sed angelum in coelo pro habitatione coelesti, vermiculum in terra pro habitatione terrestri, nunquid angelum fecit repere in coeno, aut vermiculum in coelo,” etc. — Aug., tom. 8, in <19E801> Psalm 148. - Rem. Apol., cap. 6. - “Qui sic homines voluit esse liberos ut fecit sacrilegos.” — Aug. - Ta< ejf j uJmi~n ouj th~v pronoi>av ajlla< tou~ hJmete>rou aujtezousi>ou . — Damascen. - “Deus influxu suo nihil confert creaturae, quo ad agendum incitetur ac adjuvetur.” — Corv. ad Molin., cap. 3. sect. 15, p. 35. - “Quae Deus libere prorsus et contingenter a nobis fieri vult, ea potentius aut efficacius quam per modum voti aut desiderii, velle non potest. — Vorst. Parasc., p. 4. - “Deinde etsi in isto casu destinatum aliquod consilium ac voluntas Dei determi-nata consideranda esset, tamen in omnibus actionibus et in its quidem quae ex deliberato hominum consilio et libera voluntate et male quidem fiunt, ita se rem habere inde concludi non possit, puta, quia hic nullum consilium et arbitrii libertas locum habent.” — Corv. ad.

    Molin., cap. 3. sect. 14, p. 33. - “Respectu contingentiae quam res habent in se, tum in divina scientia Deo expectatio tribuitur.” — Rem. Defen. Sent. in Act. Syn., p. 107. - “Potentia voluntatis, ab omni interna et externa necessitate immunis debet mahere.” — Rem. Confes., cap. 6. sect. 3. Vid. plura. Rem.

    Apol., cap. 6. p. 69, a. - “In arbitrio creaturae semper est vel influere in actum vel influxum suum suspendere, et vel sic, vel aliter influere.” — Corv, ad. Molin., cap. 3. sect. 15. - “An conservatio ista sit vis sive actus petentiae an actus merus voluntatis negativus, quo vult res creatas non destruere aut annihilare, — pesterius non sine magna veri specie affirmatur: locus ad Hebrews 1:3 inepte adducitur.” — Rem. Apol., cap. 6. sect. 1, p. 68, a. - “Curandum diligenter, ut Deo quidem universalis, homini vero particularis influxus in actus tribuatur, quo universalem Dei influxum, ad particularem actum determinet.” — Corv, ad Molin., cap. 3. sect. 5. - “Ita concurrit Deus in agendo, cum hominis voluntate, ut istam pro genio suo agere et libere suas partes obire sinat.” — Rem. Confes., cap. 6. sect. 3. - “Influxus divinus est in ipsum actum non in voluntatem.” — Armin.

    Antip., alii passim. - “Determinatio cum libertate vera nullo modo consistere potest.” — Rem. Apol., cap. 7. fol. 82. - “Providentia divina non determinat voluntatem liberam ad unam contradictionis vel contrarietatis partem.” — Armin. Artic. Perpen. - “Dominus dissipavit consilium quod dederat Achitophel agendo in corde Absolon, nt tale consilium repudiaret, et aliud quod ei non expediebat eligeret.” — Aug, do Grat., et Lib. Arbit., cap. 20. - “Qui aliquid boni a Deo non effici affirmat, ille Deum esse negat: si namque vel tantillum boni a Deo non est: jam non omnis boni effector est eoque nec Deus.” — Bucer. 3 cap. 9. ad Rom. - Aquin., p. q. 19, ar. ad. 1. - Aquin., q. g. 19, a. 11, c. - Durand, Dist. c. 48, q. 3. - The words “former” and “latter” evidently refer to the previous sentence, — “former” corresponding with the revealed will, “latter” with the secret will of God. The order is reversed in the first clause of this sentence, and hence the author’s meaning might be mistaken. — ED. - “Multi voluntatem Del faciunt, cum illam nituntur vitare, et resistendo impruden-ter obsequuntur divino consilio.” — Greg. Moral., lib. 6. cap. 11. - Aug. Enchirid. ad Lauren., cap. 101. - “Ea sententia non continet apostoli verba, sed Judseorum objectionem ab apostolo rejectam.” — Corv, ad Molin., cap. 3. per. 19. - “Multa non fieri quae Deus fieri vult, vel non dubitamus.” — Ibid, cap. 5:p. 5. - “Multa fiunt quae Deus fieri non vult: nec semper fiunt quae ipse fiere vult.” — Vorst. de Deo, p. 64. - “Ab homine esse agnoscimus, quod voluntatis (divinae) executio saepe suspendatur.” — Corv., ubi sup. parag. 12; Episcop. Disput. Pri. de Volun. Dei, corol. 5. - “Possumus Deo resistere, cum nos vult per gratiam suam convertere.” — Rem. Coll. Hag., p. 193. “Objiciet quis, ergo illum suum finem Deus non est assecutus, respon-demus, nos hoc concedere.” — Rem.

    Defens. Sent. in Synod., p. 256. - “Nobis certum est, Deum multorum salutem intendere, in quibus eam non assequitur.” — Grevinch, ad Ames., p. 271. - “Vehemens est in Deo affectus ad homini benefaciendum.” — Corv, ad Molin., cap. 5. sect. 8. - “Esse in Deo desideria quae non implentur concedimus.” — Idem, sect. 9. “Non decet ut Deus infinita sua potentia utatur ad id efficiendum, quo desiderio suo naturali fertur.” — Armim Antip., p. 584. - “Deus eo fine et intentione remedium praeparavit, ut omnes ejus actu fierent participes, quamvis id non actu evenit.” — Rem. Apol., cap. 7. fol. 86. - “Ne credere cogamur aliquid omnipotentem Deum voluisse factumque non esse.” — Aug. En., cap. 103. - “Electio non est ab aeterno.” — Rem. Apol. - “Electio alia completa est, quae neminem spectat nisi immorientem.

    Electio peremptoria totum salutis complementum et consummationem decernit, ideoque in objecto requirit totam consummatam fidei obedientiam.” — Grevinch, ad Ames. p. 136, passim. dis. - “Non agnoscimus aliam praedestinationem in evangelio patefactam, quam qua Deus decrevit credentes et qui in eadem fide perseverarent, salvos facere.” — Rem. Coll. Hag., p. 34. - “Electionis fructum aut sensum in hac vita nullum agnosco.” — Grevinch. - Episcop. Thes., p. 35; Epist. ad Walach., p. 38; Grevinch. ad Ames., p. 133. - “Electio alia completa est, quae neminem spectat nisi morientem, alia incompleta, quae omnibus fidelibus communis est; ut salutis bona sunt incompleta quae continu-antur, fide contlnuata, et abnegate, revocantur, sic electio est incompleta in hac vita, non peremptoria, revocabilis.” — Grevinch, ad Ames. - “Tres sunt ordines credentium et resipiscentium in Scripturis, novitli, credentes aliquandiu, perseverantes. Duo priores ordines credentium eliguntur vere quidem, at non prorsus absolute, nec nisi ad tempus, puta quamdiu et quatenus tales sunt,” etc. —Rem. Confess., cap. 18, sect. 6,7. - Aquinas. - “Nos negamus Dei electionem ad salutem extendere sese ad slngulares personas, qua singulares personas.” — Rem. Coll. Hag., fol. 76. - “Deus statuit indiscrimlnatim media ad fidem administrare, et prout has, vel illas personas, istis mediis credituras vel non credituras videt, ita tandem de illis statuit.” — Corv. ad Tilen., 76. - “Ecclesiae tanquam sacrosancta doctrina obtruditur, Deum absolutissimo et immutabili decreto ab omni retro aeternitate, pro puro suo beneplacito, singulares quosdam homines, eosque, quoad caeteros, paucissimos, citra ullius obedientiae aut fidei in Chris-tum intuitum praedestinasse ad vitam.” — Praefat. Lib. Armin. ad Perk. - “Nulla Deo tribui potest voluntas, qua ita velit hominem ullum salvari, ut salus inde illis constet certo et infallibiliter.”--Armin. Antip., p. 583. - “Praedestinatio est praeparatio beneficiorum quibus certissime liberantur quicunque liberantur.” — Aug, de Bono Per. Sen., cap. 14. - “Decretum electionis nihil aliud est quam decretum quo Deus constituit credentes in Christo justificare et salvare.” — Corv, ad Tilen., p. 13. - “Ratio dilectionis personae est, quod probitas, tides, vel pietas, qua ex officio suo et prrescripto Dei ista persona praedita est, Deo grata sit.” — Rem. Apol., p. 18. - “Rotunde fatemur, fidem in consideratione Dei in eligendo ad salutem antecedere, et non tauquam fracture electionis sequi.” —Rem. Hag.

    Coll., p. 85. - Grevinch. ad Amea, p. 24; Corv. ad Molin., p. 260. - “Electionis et reprobationis causa unica vera et absoluta non est Dei voluntas, seal respectus obedientise et inobedientise.” — Epis. Disput. 8. - “Cum peccatum pono causam merltoriam reprobationls, ne existlmato e contra me ponere justitiam causam meritoriam electionis.” — Attain.

    Antip.; Rein. Apol., p. 73. - God’s Love, p. 6. - “Deum nullam creaturam preecise ad vitam ,eternam amare, nisi consideratam ut justam sire justitia legali sire evangelica” — Armin.

    Artic. Perpend., fol. 21. - Vid. Prosp. ad Excep. Gen. ad Dub., 8,9. Vid. Car. de Ingratis., c. 2,3. - “Non potest defendi praedestinatlo ex operibus praevisis, nisi aliquid boni ponatur in homine justo, quo discernatur ab impio, quod non sit illi a Deo, quod sane patres omnes summa consensione rejiciunt.” — Bellar, de Grat., et Lib. Arbit., cap. 14. - “Non ob aliud dicit, ‘Non vos me eligistis, seal ego vos elegi,’ nisi quia non elegerunt eumut eligeret eos; sed ut eligerent eum elegit eos.” — Aug, de Bono Perse, cap. 16. - “Dicis electionem divinarn esse regulam fidei dandae vel non dandae; ergo, electio non est fidelium, sed tides electorum: seal liceat mihi tua bona venia hoc negare.” — Armin. Antip., p. 221. - Joseph. Antiq. Judeo., lib. 15. cap. 11, sect. 6. - “Infantes sunt simpliees, et stautes in eodem statu in quo Adamus fuit ante lapsum.” — Venat. Theol. re. et me., fol. 2. - “Nec refert an infantes isti sint fidelium, an ethnicorum liberi, infantium enim, qua infantium, eadem est innocentia.” — Rem. Apol., p. 87. - “Malum culpee non est, quia nasci plane est involuntarium,” etc. — Ibid, p. 84. - “Imbecillitas membrorum infantilium innocens est, non animus.” — Aug. - Adamus in propria persona peceavit, et nulla est ratio cur Deus peccatum illud infantibus imputet.” — Bor. in Artic. 31. - “Contra aequitatem est, ut quis reus agatur propter peccatum non suum, ut vere nocens judicetur, qui quoad propriam suam voluntatem innocens est.” — Rem. Apol., c. 7. p. 84. - An old Saxon word denoting a fence or border . —ED. - “Contra naturam peccati est, ut censeatur peccatum, aut ut proprie in peccatum imputetur, quod propria voluntate commissure non est.” — Rem. Apol., c. 7. p. 84. - Omnes eramus unus ille homo.” — Aug. - “Est voluntarium, voluntate primi originantis, non voluntate contrahentis: ratione naturm, non personm.” — Thom, 1,2., q. 81, a. - “Absurdum est ut ex unius inobedientia multi actu inobedientes, facti essent.” — Corr. ad Molin., cap. 7. sect. 8. - “Fatemur peccatum Adami, a Deo posse dici imputatum posteris ejus, quatenus Deus posteros Adami eidem malo, cui Adamus per peccatum obnoxium se reddidit, obnoxios nasci voluit; sive quatenus Deus, malum, quod Adamo inflictum erat in poenam, in posteros ejus dimanare et transire permisit.” — Rem. Apol., p. 84. - “Peccatum itaque originale nec habent pro peccato proprie dicto, quod posteros Adami odio Dei dignos faciat, nec pro malo, quod per modum proprie dictae poenae ab Adamo in posteros dimanet sed pro infirmitate,” etc. — Rem. Apol., fol. 84. - Pareeus., ad Rom. 5. - “Cure de aeterna morte loquuntur Remonstrantes in hac deAdamo quaestione, non intelligunt mortam illam, quae aeterna pcena sensus — dicitur,” etc. — Rem. Apol., cap. 4. p. 57. - “An ullus omnino homo, propter peccatum originis solum damnetur, ac aeternis cruciatibus addicatur, merito dubitari potest: imo nullum ita damnari affirmare non veremur.” — Corv, ad Molin., cap. 9. sect. 5. - “Verissimum est Arminium docere, perverse dici peccatum originis reum facere mortis.” — Corv, ad Tilen., p. 888. - “Perverse dicitur peccatum originis, reum facere mortis, quum peccatum illud poena sit peccati actualis Adami.” — Armin. Resp. ad Quaest. 9. a. 3. - “Deus neminem ob solum peccatum originis rejecit.” — Episcop., disp. 9. thes. 2. - “Pro certo statuunt Deum nullos infantes, sine actualibus ac propriis peccatis morientes, aeternis cruciatibus destinare velle, aut jure destinare posse ob peccatum quod vocatur originis.” — Rem. Apol., p. 87. - “Ex ratione creationis homo habebat affectum ad ea quae vetabantur.” — Corv. ad Molin., cap. 6. sect. 1. - “Deus homini repugnantiam indidit adversus legem.” — Joh. Gest. in Synod. Confes. - “Homo non est idoneus cui lex feratur, quando in eo, ad id quod lege vetatur, non est propensio, ac inclinatio naturalis.” — Corv. ad Molin., cap. 10. sect. 15. - “Inclinatio ad peccandum ante lapsum in homine fuit, licet non ita vehemens ac inordinata ut nunc est.” — Armin. ad Artic. Respon. - “Justitia originalis instar fraeni fuit, quod preestabat internae concupiscentiae ordinationem.” — Corv. ad Molin., cap. 8. sect. 1. - “In spirituali morte non separantur proprie dona spiritualia a voluntate, quia illa nunquam fuerunt ei insita.” — Rem. Coll. Hag., p. 250. - “Vidi ego zelantem parvulum qui nondum loquebatur, et intuebatur pallidus, amaro aspectu colluctaneum suum.” — Aug. - “Operatio quae simul incipit cum esse rei, est ei ab agente, a quo habet esse, sicut moveri sursum inest igni a generante.” — Alvar., p. 199. - Molin. Suffrag. ad Synod. Dordra. - “Immediata morris Christi effectio, ac passionis, illa est non actualis peccatorum ab his aut illis ablatio, non actualis remissio, non justificatio, non actualis horum aut illorum redemptio.” — Armin.

    Antip., p. 76. - “Reconciliatio potentialis et conditionata non actualis et absoluta, per mortem Christi impetratur.” — Corv. ad Molin., cap. 28. sect. 11. - “Remissionis, justificationis, et redemptionis, apud Deum impetratio, qua factum est, ut Deus jam possit, utpote justitia cui satisfactum est non obstante, hominibus peccatoribus peccata remittere.” — Armin., ubi sup. - “Autoris mens non est alia, quam effuso sanguine Christi reconciliandi mundum Deo jus impetratum fuisse, et inito novo foedere et gratioso curn hominibus, Deum gratiae ostium omnibus denuo, poenitentiae ac verae in Christum fidei lege, adaperuisse.” — Epistol. ad Wal., p. 93. - “Potuisset Deus, si ita sapientiae suae visum fuisset, operarios, Judaeos, vel alios etiam praeter fideles eligere, quia potuit aliam salutis conditionem, quam fidem in Christum exigere.” — Grevinch, ad Ames., p. 415. - “Christus non est proprie mortuus ad aliquem salvandum.” — Idem, ibid, p. 8. - “Postquam impetratio praestita ac peracta esset, Deo jus suum integrum mansit, pro arbitrio suo, eam applicare, vel non applicare; nec applicatio finis impetrationis proprie fuit, sed jus et potestas applicandi, quibus et qualibus vellet.” — p. 9. - “Fides non est impetrata merito Christi,” etc. — Corv. ad Molin., cap. 28. p. 419. - “Se omnino credere, futurum fuisse, ut finis mortis Christi constaret, etiamsi nemo credidisset.” — Idem, cap. 27, sect. 3,4. - “Posita et praestita Christi morte et satisfactione, fieri potest, ut, nemine novi foederis conditionem prastante, nemo salvaretur.” — Idem. Grevinch. ad Ames. p. 9. - “Impetratio salutis pro omnibus, est acquisitio possibilitatis, ut nimirum Deus, illaesa sua justitia, hominem peccatorem possit recipere in gratiam.” — Rem. Coll. Hag., p. 172. - “Pro Juda ac Petro mortuus est Christus, et pro Simone Mago et Juda tam quam pro Paulo et Petro.” — Rem. Synod, p. 320. - “Sic efficacia meriti Christi tota penes nos stabit, qui vocationem alioqui inefficacem, efficacem reddimus; sane, fieri aliter non potest.” — Rem. Apol., p. 93. - “Nihil ineptius, nihil vanius, quam regenerationem et fidem merito Christi tribuere; si enim Christus nobis meritus dicatur fidem et regenerationem, tum fides conditio esse non poterat quam a peccatoribus Deus sub comminatione morris aeternae exigeret.” — Rem. Apol., cap. 8. p. 95. - “Si fides sit effectum meriti Christi, non potest esse actus officii nostri.” — Idem. - Rem. Apol., ubi sup.; Corv. ad Molin., cap. 28. sect. 9. - “Illud certissimum est, nec jubendum esse quod efficitur, nec efiiciendum quod jubetur. Stulte jubet et vult ab alio fieri aliquid, qui ipse quod jubet in eo efficere vult.” — Rem. Apol., cap. 9. p. 105, a. - “At exigua conclusione pene tu totum Pelagianum dogma confirmas, dicendo, nullius laudis esse ac meriti; si id in eo Christus quod ipse donaverat praetulisset.” — Prosp. ad Collat., cap. 36. - “Da, Domine, quod jubes, et jube quod vis.” — Aug. - “O Domine, doce nos quid agamus; quo gradiamur ostende; quid efficiamus operare.” — Ben. Pap. in Concil. Legunstad. - “Multa in homine bona fiunt. quae non facit homo: nulla vero facit homo bona, quae non Deus praestet ut faciat.” — Consil. Arau. 2. can. 20. “Quoties enim bona agimus, Deus in nobis et nobiscum, ut operemur, operatur.” — Can. 9. - “Anne conditionem quis serio et sapienter praescribet alteri, sub promisso praemii et poenae gravissimae comminatione, qui eam, in eo cui praescribit efficere vult! Haec actio tota ludicra, et vix scena digna est.” — Rem. Apol., cap. 9. p. 105, a. - “Fides et conversio non possunt esse obedientia, si tantum ab aliquo, in alio, efficiantur.” — Rem. Coll. Hag., p. 196. - “Absurdem est statuere Deum ant efficere per potentiam, aut procurare per sapientiam, ut electi ea faciant, quae ab ipsis, ut ipsi ea faciant, exigit et postulat.” — Episcop., Disp. Pri. 8. thes. 7. - Apol., cap. 9. ubi. sup. — “ Deum dona sua in nobis coronare, dictum hoc Augustini nisi cum grano salis accipiatur, neutiquam est admittendum.” — Idem, ibid p. 115. - “Atqui dices, sic servatores nostri essent omnes,” — eodem sensu quo Christus, — “saltem ex parte qui praeconio, miraculis, et exemplo salutis viam, confirmant; esto, quid tum? “ — Rem. Apol., cap. 8. [p. 94.] - “Petamus ut det quod ut habeamus jubet.” — Aug. - “Virtutem autem nemo unquam acceptam deo retulit. Nimirum recte: propter virtutem enim jure laudamur, et in virtute recte gloriamur.

    Quod non contingeret, si id donum a Deo, non a nobis haberemus.” — Cicero De Nat. Deor. 3. 36, - Alvarez, Disput. 81., ubi Aug., Thom., alios, citat. - “Certum est nos facere cum facimus; sed ille facit ut faciamus.” — Aug. de Grat., et Lib. Arbit., cap. xvi. - “ — Neque id donum Dei esse fateamur, quoniam exigi audivimus a nobis, praemio vitae si hoc fecerimus oblato? Absit, ut hoc placeat participibus et defensoribus gratiae.” — Aug, de Praedest. Sanc., cap. 20. - “Tanta est erga homines bonitas Dei, ut nostra velit esse merita quae sunt ipsius dona.” — Coelest. Epist. ad Ep. Gal., cap. 12. - “Non enim conturbat nos superbientium inepta querimonia; quia liberum arbitrium causantur auferri: si et principia, et profectus, et perseverantia in bonis usque ad finem Dei dona esse dicantur.” — Prosp. ad Collat., p. 404. - “Certum est locum nullum esse, unde appareat fidem istam, sub Vet.

    Test., praeceptam fuisse ant viguisse.” — Rem. Apol., cap. 7. p. 91. - “Consideretur omnis descriptio fidei Abrahae, Romans 4; et apparebit in illa Jesu Christi non fieri mentionem, expresse, sed illa tantum implicatione, quam explicare cuivis non est facile.” — Armin. “Gavisus est videre natalem Isaac, qui fuit typus mei.” — Idem. - “Gentes sub Veteri Testamento viventes licet ipsis ista ratione qua Judaeis non fuit revelatum, non tamen inde continuo ex faedere absolute exclusae sunt, nec a salute praecise exclusi judicari debent, quia aliquo saltem mode vocantur.” — Corv. Defens. Armin. ad Tilen., p. 107. - “Nego hanc propositionem: neminem posse salvari, quam qui Jesu Christo per veram fidem sit insitus.” — Bert, ad Sibrand., p. 133. - “Ad hanc queestionem an unica via salutis, sit vita, passio, mors, resurrectio, et as-censio Jesu Christi? respondeo, Non.” — Venat., apud Fest. Hom. et Peltium. - Zulng. Profes. Fid. ad Reg. Gall. - Art. of the Church of Eng., art. xvii. - “Nihil magis repugnat fidei, quam sine fide salvum esse posse quempiam hominum.” — Acost. de Indo. Salu. Proc. - Aquin. 2, 2ae q. 2, a. 7, c. — “ Christus nascitur ex virgine, et ego credo in eum. O sol, sub Irenae et Constantini temporibus iterum me videbis.” - “Dum multum sudant nonnulli, quomodo Platonem faciant Christianum, se probant esse ethnicos.” — Bern. Epist. - Paradoqei>v ge , tw~n dia< Cristonoin , ajpo< tou~ ai]matov ]Azel tou~ dsikai>ou . — Ignat. Epist. ad Ephes. [cap. 12.] - Pa>ntev ou=n eiJ a[gioi ejn Cristw~| ejsw>qhsan , ejlpi>santav eijv aujtonantev , kai< di j aujtou~ swthei>av e]tucon . — Epist, ad Philippians [cap. 5.] - “Non alia fide quemquam hominum, sive ante legem sive legis tempore, justificatum esse, credendum est, quam hac eadem qua Dominus Jesu,” etc. — Prosp. ad Ob. 8., Gallorum. - “Omnes ergo illos qui ab Abraham sursum versus ad primum hominem, generationis ordine conscribuntur, etsi non nomine, rebus tamen, et religione Christianos fuisse, si quis dicat, non mihi videtur errare.” — Euseb. Hist. Eccles., lib. 1. cap, 4. - Hieron. ad Ruff - “Pelagius: Dogma quod — Pestifero vomuit coluber sermone Britannus.” — Prosper. de Ingrat., cap. 1. - Adfuit, exhortante Deo provisa per orbem, Sanctorum pia cura patrum: — 1. Pestern subeuntem Prima recidit, Sedes Roma Petri. 2.

    Non segnior inde, orientis Rectorum cura emicuit. Synod. Palest. 3.

    Hieronymus libris valde excellentibus hostem Dissecuit. 4. Atticus Constantinop. 5. Duae Synodi Africanae.” — Prosper. de Ingrat. - “Concilium cui dux Aurelius ingeniumque Augustinus erat. Quem Christi gratia cornu Uberiore rigans, nostro lumen dedit aevo.” — Prosp., ibid. - “Dixit Pelagius, quis est mihi Augustinus? Universi acclamabant blasphemantem in episcopum, ex cujus ore, dominus univerae Africae, unitatis indulserit felicitatem, non solum a conventu illo, sed ab omni ecclesia pellendum.” — Oros. Apologet., p. 621, de Synod. Palest. “Prae omnibus studium gerite libros. S. Aug. quos ad Prosp. et Hilar. scripsit, memoratis fratribus legendos iugerere,” etc. — Epist. Synod.

    Byzac. - “Imo noverunt, non solum Romanam Africanamque ecclesiam, sod per omnes mundi partes, universae promissionis filios, cum doctrina hujus viri, sicut in tota fide, ita in gratiae confessione congruere.” — Prosp. ad Rufin. “Augustinum sanctae recordationis virum pro vita sua, et meritis, in nostra communione semper habuimus, nec unquam hunc sinistrae suspicionis saltem rumor suspexit.” — Coelest., Epist. ad Gal. Episcop. These I have cited to show what a heavy prejudice the Arminian cause lies under, being professedly opposite to the doctrine of St. Austin, and they continually slighting of his authority. - Homo non libertate gratiam, sed gratia libertatem, assequitur.” — Aug. - “Libertas Arbitrii consistit in eo, quod homo, positis omnibus requisitis ad volendum, indifferens tamen sit, ad volendum vel nolendum, hoc vel illud.” — Armin. Art. Perpend., p. 11. - “Voluntatem comitatur proprietas quaedam inseparabilis, quam libertatem vocamus; a qua voluntas dicitur potentia, quae positis omnibus praerequisitis ad agendum necessariis, potest velle et nolle, aut velle et non velle.” — Remon. in Act. Synod, p. 16. - “Omnes irregeniti habent Lib. Arbit. et potentiam Spiritui Sancto resistendi, gratiam Dei oblatam repudiandi, consilium Dei adversus se contemrendi, evangelium gratiae repudiandi, ei qui cot pulsat non aperiendi.” — Armin. Artic. Perpend. - “Positis omnibus operationibus gratiae, quibus Deus in conversione nostri uti possit, manet tamen conversio ita in nostra potestate libera, ut possimus non converti; hoc est, nosmet ipsos convertere vel non convertere.” — Corv, ad Bog., p. 263. - “Non potest Deus Lib. Arbit. integrum servare, nisi tam peccare hominem sineret, quam bene agere.” — Corv, ad Molin., cap. 6. - “Semper Remonstrantes supponunt liberam obediendi potentiam et non obediendi; ut qui obediens est idcirco obediens censeatur, quia cum possit non obedire obedit tamen, et e contra.” — Rem. Apol., p. 70. - “Quod si quis dicat omnes in universum homines, habere potentiam credendi si velint, et salutem consequendi: et hanc potentiam esse naturae hominum divinitus collatam, quo tuo argumento eum confutabis?” — Armin. Antip., p. 272. - “Lib. Arbit. est rei sibi placitae spontaneus appetitus.” — Prosp, ad Collat., cap. 18, p. 379. - “An ulla actio S. S. immediata in mentem aut voluntatem necessaria sit, aut in Scriptura promittatur ad hoc, ut quis credere possit verbo extrinsecus proposito, negativam tuebimur.” — Episcop., Disput.

    Privat. - “Adamus post lapsum potentiam credendi retinuit, et reliqui reprobi etiam in illo.” — Grevinch. ad Ames., p. 188. - “Adamus non amisit vires eam obedientiam praestandi quae in novo foedere exigitur, prout puta ea consideratur formaliter, hoc est, prout novo foedere exacta est, nec potentiam credendi amisit; nec amisit potentiam, per resipiscentiam, ex peccato resurgendi.” — Rem. Declar.

    Sent. in Synod., p. 107. - Fides vocatur opus Dei, quia Deus ipse id a nobis fieri postulat.” — Rem. Apol., cap. 10. p. 112. - “Ea quae de habituum infusione dicuntur, ante omnem fidei actum, rejiciuntur a nobis.” — Epist, ad Wal., p. 67. - “Principium internum fidei a nobis in evangelio requisitum, esse habitum quendam divinitus infusum, cujus vi ac efficacitate voluntas determinetur; hoc negavi.” — Grevinch, ad Ames., p. 324. - “Quid in eo positum est, quod homo discriminare seipsum dicitur?

    Nihil verius; qui fidem Deo praecipienti habet, is discrimiunt se ab eo qui Deo praecipienti fidem habere non vult.” — Rem. Apol., cap. 14. p. 144. - “Ego meipsum discerno, cum enim Deo ac divinae praedeterminationi resistere possem, non restiti tamen. Atqui in eo quidni liceat mihi tanquam de meo gloriari? Quod enim potui Dei miserentis est, quod autem volui cum possem nolle, id meae potestatis est.” — Grevinch, ad Ames., p. 253. - “Interdum Deus hanc vel illam gentem, civitatem, personam, ad evangelicae gratiae communionem vocat, quam ipse dignam pronuntiat comparative,” etc. — Rein. Declarat. Sent. Synod. - “Illi, in quorum gratiam, Dominus Paulum in Corinthum misit, dicuntur Dei populus, quia Deum turn timebant, eique, secundum cognitionem quam de eo habebant, serviebant ex animo, et sic ad praedicationem Pauli,” etc. — Corv. ad Molin. 3. sect. 27. - “Per legem, vel per piam educationem vel per institutionem — per haec enim hominem praeparari et disponi ad credendum, planissimum est.” — Rem. Act. Synod. - “Praecedit aliquid in peccatoribus, quo quamvis nondum justificati sunt, digni efficiantur justificatione.” — Grevinch, ad Ames., p. 434. - “Tenendum est, veram conversionem praestationemque bonorum operum esse conditionem praerequisitam ante justificationem.” — Filii Arm. Praef. ad cap. 7. ad Rem. - “Deus statuit salvare credentes per gratiam, id est, lenem ac suavem liberoque ipsorum arbitrio convenientem seu congruam suasionem, non per omnipotentem actionem seu motionem.” — Armin. Antip., p. 211. - Corv. ad Molin. — “His ita expositis ex mente Augustini,” etc. — Armin. Antip. De Elec. - “Fatemur, aliam nobis ad actum fidei eliciendum necessariam gratiam non agnosci quam moralem.” — Rem. Act. Synod. ad Art. 4. - “Annuntiatio doctrinae evangelicae.” — Popp. August. Port. p. 110. - “Operatur in nobis velle quod bonum est, velle quod sanctum est, dum nos terrenis cupiditatibus deditos mutorum more animalium, tantummodo praesentia diligentes, futurae gloriae magnitudine et praemiorum pollicitatione, succendit: alum revelatione sapientiae in desiderium Dei stupentem suscitat voluntatem, dum nobis suadet omne quod bonum est.” — Pelag., ap. Aug. de Grat. Ch. cap. 10. - “Ut autem assensus hic eliciatur in nobis, duo in primis necessaria sunt: — 1. Argumenta talia ex parte Dei, quibus nihil verisimiliter opponi potest cur credibilia non sint. 2. Pia docilitas animique probitas.” — Rem. Declar., cap. 17. sect. 1. - “Ut gratia sit efficax in actu secundo pendet a libera voluntate.” — Rem. Apol., p. 164. - “Imo ut confidentius again, dico effectum gratiae, ordinaria lege, pendere ab actu aliquo arbitrii.” — Grevinch, ad Ames., p. 198. - “Manet semper in potestate Lib. Arbit. gratiam datam rejicere et subsequentem repudiare, quae gratia non est omnipotentis Dei actio, cui resisti a libero hominis arbitrio non possit.” — Armin. Antip., p. 243. - This nobleman is represented by Neal as having been “the greatest patron of the Puritans.” He was admiral of the parliamentary fleet. He seized on the ships belonging to the king, and during the whole course of the war made use of them against the royal interest. Owen had received the presentation to Coggeshall from this nobleman, whose upright and amiable character was celebrated long after his death under the designation of THE GOOD EARL OF WARWICK. — ED. - A Puritan divine of considerable eminence, and a member of the Westminster Assembly. He was at first minister of Brampton Bryan, Herefordshire. Latterly he was a minister at Dorchester, where he seems to have been alive about 1660. — ED. - Richard Byfield was ejected by the Act of Uniformity from Long Ditton, in the county of Surrey. Besides some sermons and tracts, he was the author of a quarto volume, “The Doctrine of the Sabbath Vindicated,” etc. He suffered suspension and sequestration for four years for not reading the Book of Sports. He was a member of the Westminster Assembly. During the time of Cromwell, a difference occurred between him and the patron of the parish, Sir John Evelyn, about the repairs of the church. Cromwell brought them together, succeeded in reconciling them, and, to cement the reconciliation, generously advanced £100, one-half of the sum needed for the repairs.

    Byfield did not know Owen, even by name, when he gave his recommendation to this work. It was then of some importance to our author that he should have the sanction of Byfield’s name; and the favor is requited when the latter owes most of his own reputation with posterity to the countenance which he gave to the young and rising theological author of his day. — ED. - T. M., Universality of Free Grace. [He refers to an author of the name of Thomas More. See page 153 of this preface. — ED.] - Camero, Amirald, etc. - Iren. lib. 2., cap. 6, 7, 14, 15, etc.; Clem. Strom. 3.; Epiph. Haeres. 31.; Tertul. ad Valen. - Virg. Aen. 8:273, et seq. - “Quidam creduli quidam negligentes sunt, quibusdam mendacium obrepit, quibusdam placet.” - “In tam occupata civitate fabulas vulgaris nequitia non invenit. — Sen.

    Ep. 120. - Juv. Sat. 1:74. - Pers. Sat. 1:2. - “Natura sic apparet vitiata ut hoc majoris vitii sit non videre.” — Aug. - Laert. in Vit. Epimen. - Plato de Legib., lib. 7. - The word is here used in the obsolete sense of “mistake,” and has no reference so the legal offense of evasion or concealment now understood by the term. — ED. - Virg. Buc. Eclesiastes 2:25. - Ad.Mar. - Ovid. Met. 2:79 - Ovid. Met. 1:44. - Vindic. Redempt., by my reverend and learned brother, Mr. John Stalham; Mr. Rutherford, Christ Drawing Sinners. - Hor. De Art. Poet., ver. 38. - Hor. Epist. lib. 2. Epist. 1:117; lib. 1. Epist. 2:32. - More’s Universality of Grace - The reader may be referred to the treaties by the author at the end of this volume, “De Divina Justitia,” for the full and mature expression of his views on the necessity of the atonement. In the statements above, it is implied that salvation might have been accomplished without the absolute necessity of such a satisfaction to the claims of justice as the death of Christ afforded Dr. Owen, it will be found in the treaties referred to, latterly changed his views on this point, and held thenecessity for the satisfaction of divine justice by an atonement, in order to salvation, to be absolute. — ED. - These figures are designed by the author to connect each argument which he is refuting with the answer he supplies to it in the succeeding paragraphs. — ED. - Camer, Testardus, Amyraldus. - More, with some others of late. - See book 4, chapter 2 and chapter 4, where John 3:16, and Romans 5:8, are very fully considered. These must be the two passages to which he refers. — ED. - Display of Arminanism - “I own myself conquered,” Facciolati. — ED. - Aristotle is speaking of soldiers who “barter their life for small gains.”

    The quotation is exceedingly apt and felicitous when the reference is understood. — ED. - The allusion is toGrotius, among whose varied and elaborate theological works there is a treatise entitled, “Defensio Fidei Chatolicae de Satisfactione Christi, contra F. Socinum.” The distinguished reputation of Grotius in legal science explains some references which Owen makes in discussing his views. — ED. - Aufert, sustulit, tulit. - - Remon. Scripta Synod. - He refers to the eminent Scotch divine, Samuel Rutherford, 1600-1661.

    The work mentioned above was published in 1647, and is entitled, “Christ Dying, and Drawing to Himself; or, a survey of our Savior in his soul’s suffering,” etc. The opinions of More are discussed in it from page 375 to 410. — ED. - In these passages the LXX. has hJgiasme>noi mo>scoi , and citw~na hJgiasme>non . — ED. - The last clauses of this sentence are obscure. In the edition by the Reverend Adam Gib, 1755, it is proposed to render them, — “which is not revealed to the object of justification, or in the way whereby a sinner may be justified.” If we were at liberty to change the “nor” into “but,” a meaning sufficiently intelligible would be obtained, without any violent alteration of the text, and quite in harmony with the scope of the reasoning. — ED. - From the particulars enumerated in the following sentence, and the three objections that are considered, “two” seems to have been written, by an oversight, for “three.” — ED. - These seven sermons on the cardinal works of Christ are the production of Arnoldus.Carnotensis, abbot of the Benedictine monastery of Bonneval, in the diocese of Chartres. He flourished about the middle of the twelfth century. several of his practical treatises were for a time ascribed to Cyprian. — ED. - This was a council held at Valence in A.D. 855, and convened from the three provinces of Lyons, Vienne, and Arles. Remigius presided, five canons by a council in A.D. 853, at Chiersey, were condemned, and the cause of Godeschalcus, who had raised the controversy, was warmly supported. The canon quoted above is designed to contradict the fourth canon of the council at Chiersey, according to which “there never was, is, or will be a man for whom Christ has not died.” — ED. - Mr. Sprigge, after having been educated at Oxford, took the degree of M.A. at Edinburgh. He became a preacher at St Mary, Aldermanbury, and subsequently at St Pancras, London. After the Restoration he purchased an estate, Crayford, in Kent, and lived there in retirement.

    He married in 1673, Frances, the daughter of Lord Wimbledon, and widow of Lord Say. He returned to London and died at Highgate. He was the author of some political works, “Anglia Rediviva,” a folio volume, containing the history of the army under Fairfax, and published in 1647; and “Certain Considerations tendered to the Consideration of the High Court of Justice for Trial of the King,” 1648. His theological works are chiefly sermons. It is rather strange that Owen never indicates the title of the work by Sprigge on which he is animadverting; and Mr Orme mentions that he had not ascertained to which of Sprigge’s works our author refers. It, was, however, a collection of five sermons which Sprigge had delivered at St Pancras, and which were published under the title of, “A Testimony to Approaching Glory.” Anthony Wood affirms that they contained “several blasphemies;” and they drew forth some pamphlets, besides this Appendix of Owen, in exposure of their errors. Two of these pamphlets, published in 1652, bore the titles, “The Beacons Quenched,” and “The Beacons Flaming.” —ED. - Lib. de Satisfac. Christi. Vos. Def. Grot. alii. - The reverend licenser being informed of this book of Mr Sprigge, disclaimeth the licensing of any more thereof than that Sermon on Song of Solomon 1:1. - Display of Arminianism; Salus Electorum, Sanguis Jesu. - Salus Elect. - hJ nu>mfh tou~ Cristou~ uJpegw| ejxe>cee to< oijkei~on ai+ma , i[na aujthsh| .— Ignat. ad Philad. - jEpe>wn de< poluEphesians 4:11-13. “Haereses, de quorundam infirmitatibus habent, quod valent, nihil Valentes, si in bene valentem fidem incurrant.’ — Tertul de Praesc. ad Haer., Matthew 24:24. - “The Aphorisms of Justification.” See Prefatory Note to this treatise. — ED. - The figures in brackets indicate where the passages are to be found in the present volume. — ED. - “Distingnenda sunt tria momenta divinae voluntatis. Primum est, ante Christi mortem positam ant re ipsa, aut in decrcto Dei et praescientia.

    In hoc momento iratus peccatori est Deus, sed ita, ut non aversetur omnes irae deponendae vias, ac rationes.” - “Secundum momentum est, posita jam Christi morte, in quo Deus jam non constituit tantum, sed et promittit iram se depositurum.” - “Tertium est, cum homo vera fide in Christum credit, et Christus ex foederis formula credentem Deo commendat. Hic jam Deus deponit iram, hominemque id gratiam recipit.” — De Satisfact. Christi, cap. vii. - “Quicunque negat aliquid de Deo, quod ei convenit, vel asserit de co, quod ei non convenit, derogat divinae bonitati, et est blasphemus.” — Thom. 22, ae. q. 13, a. 1. c. - Quae dicuntur ajnqrwpopaqw~v intelligenda aunt zeoprepw~v . Amor et gaudium, et alla ejusmodi, cum attribuuntur Deo, significant simplicem actum voluntatis, cum similitudine effectus, absque passione. — Aquin. 12. q. 22. a. 3. - Libera voluntas ulciscendae injuriae. — Ephesians 1:11. - Arm. Disp. Pub. de Natur. Dei, thes. 51. - What has become of the references alluded to, it is difficult to say. — ED. - Aliud est mutate voluntatem, aliud velle aliquarum rerum mutationem. - Cum voluntas sit ejus essentia, non movetur ab alio a se, sed a se tantum, eo modo loquendi, quo tntelligere, et velle, dicitur motus, et secundum hoc Plato dixit, primum movens movet seipsum. — Aq. p. 1, q. 19, a. 2, a 3. - “Omnes illi, pro quibus Christus ex intentione Dei satisfecit, sunt Deo reconciliati, i. e ., in favorem salutiferum aliquo modo restituti.” — Ames. Antisynod., p. 104. - “Si de debito quaeratur, respectu creaturae in Deum cadere non potest; nisi ex aliqua supposi-tione ipsi Deo voluntaria et libera: quae non potest esse nisi promisaio aut pactio aliqua, ex quibus fidelitatis aut justitiae debitum oriri solet.” — Suares. Relect. de Lib. Div. Volu.

    Disp. L. Di. sec. in n. 5. - “Nulla justitia proprie esse potest, ubi nulla intercedit obligatio; Deus autem nulla obligatione tenetur, autequam ipse fidem suam astringat; ergo ante promiasionem nulla justitia etiam distribu-tiva in Deo reperitur.” — Vas, n. 1, q. 21, a. 1, disp. 80. - “Jus est operatio illa qua sit aequalitas.” — Pesant, in Thom. 22, ae. q. 57. - Several works by this author were published, partly during his lifetime and partly posthumous, at Franeker and Amsterdam, from 1623 to 1680, such as his “Quaestiones Theologicae,”” Collegia Theologica,” etc. Maccovius, or Makowski, is said to have been the first among the Reformed that restored the scholastic treatment of theology. — ED. - jRa]|on to< mwmei~sqai , h\ mimei~sqai . - “Lex aut punit, aut vetat, aut permittit, aut consulit, aut hortatur.” — F. de Leg. 1 John 3:4. Decretum nil ponit in esse, praedestinatio in praedestinato.” — Aquin. - “Cur urceus exit?” - JYperti>mion , invaluable, unspeakably precious. — ED. - Thereby hastening their own destruction. — TR. - The meaning is, “But to make a most elaborate display of their ignorance.” — ED. - Vado isto enavigato, “Having cleared these shallows.” — ED. - This treatise was written in the time of the Commonwealth. — TR. - [A few crumbs of these, by way of specimen are] added, etc. “Abstract” conveys a widely different idea from ajpospasmawide deviation from Owen’s meaning, — “From the infancy and origin of our religion,” that is, the Christian religion. — ED. - The full sentence in the original runs in the following terms: — “Not a few wooers of truth having followed their guidance, grieve and lament how they have strayed in their whole course, after finding themselves pushed into inextricable difficulties, (like that old man in Terence who was directed by a villain of a slave backward and forward, by steeps, and precipices, and obscure comers, to land at length in a narrow alley with no thoroughfare,) and left in possession only of a human system of doctrine, having scarcely any thing in common with true theology.” — ED. - See Owen on the Holy Spirit. [This note is by the translator. We apprehend that Owen alludes his work on “Communion with God.”

    See vol. 2 of his works. — ED.] - This paragraph is neither correctly rendered nor consistent with fact.

    The whole paragraph stands thus in the original: — “As to the work now in hand it is the first art of a dissertation concerning the causes of the death of Christ; to which I willingly apply because I have determined to know nothing but Jesus Christ, and him crucified: though sadly provoked to turn my thoughts in another direction by the insolent haughtiness of adversaries, who cannot think highly enough of themselves and their productions; — a sort of persons than whom none are more silly, or held more cheap by wise and thoughtful men.”

    Owen does not seem to have ever fulfilled his intention to complete this work on the causes of our Lord’s agony. The subject is fully considered in the Exercitations 29 and 30, prefixed to his Exposition of the Epistle to the Hebrews. — ED. - “Inculpatae politei>av ,” — rather, “Blameless administration.” — ED. - Mr. T. Goodwin, president of Magdalen College. - In the year 1651 Dr Owen was settled in the deanery of Christ Church, and in 1652 chosen vice-chancellor of that university. - This word commonly means a previous and concise view of a subject, or an anticipation of objections. In this treatise it means a natural or innate conception of divine justice. — TR. [See note on page 517. — ED.] - The Word in the original means either to claim and assert a right, or to punish the violation of it. By “vindicatory justice,” then, we are to understand that perfection of the Deity which disposes him to vindicate his right by punishing its violators. It ought never to be translated vindictive, or understood as meaning revengeful. — TR. [Though Dr Owen uses the expression, “My book of the Vindictive Justice of God,” see vol. 12, “Vindiciae Evangelicae,” chap. 30, he explains his meaning in different parts of his works: see vol. 11, “Saints’ Perseverance,” chap. 7; vol. 12, chap. 23; and vol. 2, “On Communion with God,” chap. 3, digression 2, p. 84. — ED.] - Poluouv proprie dictos et speculative, seu plene persuasos, agnoscunt pene omnes.” — Vid.

    Voet. Disp. de Atheismo. Psalm 14:1. “Non est potestas Dei in terris.” — Chal. Par. “Eorum qui antiquitus horrendi criminis rei existimabantur vindicias instituerunt inulti.” — Vid. Vos. de Idol. 51:cap. 1. jWv tou~ piei~n ge , kai< fagei~n touj f j hJme>ran , Zeupoisi toi~si sw>frosi . — Eurip in Cyclop - “Veritatis argumentum est omnibus aliquid videri tanquam deos esse, quod omnibus de diis opinio insita sit, neque ulla gens usquam est, adeo extra leges moresque posita ut non aliquos Deos credat.” — Seneca, Epist. in. - Sueton. in Vita Titi, cap. 10. - A sudden, unconnected exclamation. — TR. - Mersen. ad Deistas Gall. - Eurip. in Cyclop., verse 350. - A slight alteration seems needed to elicit the real meaning, — “than to folly, in ascribing,” etc. Owen is speaking of “the audacity of these triflers” “in ascribing” unworthy attributes to God. — ED. - Diogen. Laert. in Protag., Ep. in. 12. - “Cur bonis mala fiant, cum sit providentia.” — Sen. - “Illos qui nullum esse Deum dixerunt non mode philosophos, sed ne homines quidem esse dixerim, qui brutis simillimi solo corpere constiterunt, nihil omnino cernentes animo, sed ad sensum corporis cuncta referentes, qui nihil putabunt esse. nisi quod oculis tuebuntur.” — Lactan, de plur., lib. i., etc. cap. 8. “Quia rationem mali non intellexerunt, et natura ejus abscondita fuit, duo principia bonum et malum finxit tota ethnicorum (ante nature Marcionem) antiquitas.” — Vid. Vos. de Idol., lib. 1. cap. 5. - That which relates to fair exchange. — TR. - Lombard., lib. 4:dist. 46; Thorn. 2:2, 2:51; Pesant. in Thom., 2. a. ti. 58, ar. 4; Suarez. Relec, de Just. Div.; Hom. Iliad, 10:291. - Analogy means a resemblance between things with regard to some qualities or circumstances, properties or effects, though not in all. — TR. - That is, the first being whose perfections have been explained by analogy, or by tracing a resemblance between these perfections and something like them in ourselves, in kind or sort, though differing infinitely with respect to manner and degree. — TR. - Zanch. de Nat. Dei., lib. i.; Ames. Cas. Consc.. lib. 5:cap. 2; Armin.

    Disput., part 4. thes. 15; Voet. Dis. de Jure et Just. Mares; Hyd.

    Socin., lib. 1. c. 25, etc. - Or, have a respect to any other being. — TR. - Conditional. — TR. - Namely, the egresses in words of legislation and in words of declaration and narration. — TR. - Namely, the egresses in the government of things according to what is due to them by the counsel of his will; or in judgments rewarding or punishing, according to the rule of his right and wisdom.. — TR. - That is, any distinguishing sort or quality. — TR. - In the general sparing mercy of God, the particular quality of mercy, — namely, a disposition of assisting the miserable, with a compassion of their misery, — is not wholly found, because there are many of mankind towards whom this disposition of assisting is never effectually exerted; but, in the pardoning mercy of God to his people, it is fully and gloriously displayed. — TR. - Palud. on the Sent., book 4. dist. 46. - Thomas, first page of quest. 21, and Cajetan, 2:2, q. 61, a. 4. - Ethics, book 8. chap. 8. - On dist. 46. - In 2:2, Thomas. - A work to which he alludes. — TR. - A kind of fencers who fought on horseback hood-winked. — TR. - Suarez’s Lectures of the Justice of God. - Sect. 5. - Or quality. — TR - That is, inducing to, or drawing forth, the act of punishing. — TR. - In the original, “Immo etiam ex condigno,” “And that, too, of condignity.” — ED. - Ethics, book 5. chap. 1. - De Finibus. - Or class. — TR. - Quest. 2, 2, quest. 108, a 2. - Competere, “belongs.” — ED. - The largest anchor in a vessel, used only in extreme danger, was so called. —ED. - “Compensatio” is the word in the original, and as “retaliation” is frequently used in a particular sense as connected with evil feeling, perhaps “retribution” would better express the meaning of Owen. — ED. - Here it is necessary to supply another translation: “Yet in respect of its source and root, so far as pertains to its subject, if God be absolutely perfect, it cannot be derived to him from any other source.” — ED. - The sentence might be more intelligibly rendered: “There is nothing which we affirm of vindicatory justice, — whether that it is meant of God essentially, and not only denominatively, that it has an absolute name (for it is called “holiness” and “purity”), that we have it expressed both in the abstract and concrete, that it requires the punishment of sinners, that it implies a constant and immutable will of punishing every sin, according to the rule of divine wisdom and right, — but what is oft-times affirmed expressly, directly, and particularly, in the passages above mentioned.” —ED. - The Greek word pro>lhyiv is employed in the original, for which perhaps it was difficult to find a precise rendering in one English word.

    It was a word employed in the canonics or psychology of Epicurus to denote the second of his conditions or criteria of truth, which related to ideas as distinguished from sensations or emotions, though, like them, derived from sensuous perception. It implied such a primary and absolute idea of a thing as existed in the mind antecedently to any objective presentation of it, and without which no mental act can take place regarding it, whether of naming, thinking, doubting, or inquiring.

    It is used by Owen to describe a principle in the human mind which is not created by the evidence of testimony or any course of training, which is naturally and essentially interwoven with our mental constitution, and is ready beforehand, by anticipation, as the word pro>lhyiv simply means, to respond to the abstract idea of equity, or to confirm the concrete application of it in the common awards of good or evil. — ED. - ]Wemwxa ka|jgw< proknwn ceivoume>nhv .

    Ne>mei toi di>kan zeoch| .

    Sce>tlia mesia d j eijrga>sw Ta>lain j eujne>tan . — Eurip. Elec., 1168. - Or, chief. — TR. - Translated thus by Pope: — “Ah! fleeting spirit! wandering fire, That long hast warm’d my tender breast, Must thou no more this frame inspire?

    No more a pleasing, cheerful guest?

    Whither, ah! whither art thou flying?

    To what dark undiscover’d shore?

    Thou seem’st all trembling, shiv’ring, dying, And wit and humor are no more.” — TR. - His mother, Agrippina, had poisoned her last husband, the Emperor Claudius, to make way for his succession, and Nero rewarded her by causing her to be murdered. He likewise caused his wife, Octavia, and his tutor, Seneca, to lose their lives; and was in every respect, perhaps, one of the greatest monsters of wickedness that ever disgraced human nature. — TR. - Hor. Epis. 2:2,208. - Socin., de Authoritate Scripturae; lib. edit. sub nomine Dominici Lopez, Soc. Jes. - Namely, Helenus, Aeneid, book 3. — TR. - See note, p. 517. - “Were initiated by the devil in the same abomination.” — ED. - Concerning the Tyrians, see Curtius, book 4; and concerning the Carthaginians, see Diodorus, book 20:— TR. - Namely, Anglesey. — TR. - The words in the original apply much better to our author’s meaning.

    See them, Odyss., lib. 8. 5:550. — TR. - Abraham is said to have been now a hundred and thirty-three years of age; for some are of opinion that Isaac, at the time he was to hate been sacrificed, was thirty-three years old. Josephus says twenty-five; the Jews in Seder Olam, thirty-six. Nor is it any objection that he is called naar, for so Benjamin, the father of many children, is called, Genesis 43 — TR. - Agamemnon, as the story runs, had killed one of Diana’s stags, and the goddess would be appeased on no other terms than by the sacrifice of his daughter; but after she was laid on the pile, Diana, pitying the virgin, put a doe in her room, and made Iphigenia her priestess. — TR. - That is, the expressions relating to this subject are capable of more meanings than one, and to ascertain the right one is attended with difficulties. — TR. [This seems a mistake. It is a Greek word in the original, ajnamfiszh>thta , and signifies” indisputable,’’ or “beyond controversy.” Had the word been ajmfinzh>shta , it might have borne the meaning attached to it by the translator. — ED] - A thing or person so devoted as not to be redeemed. — TR. - That is, pointing not at the persons vowing, but at the object of their vow, or at the thing vowed or devoted by them. — TR. - The author here uses the words, “at least interpretatively,” before, so requiring it;” meaning thereby, as I understand him, that the just and proper interpretation of the passage wherein this history is recorded, and of the others quoted, relating to vows, had clearly determined him to adopt this opinion. — TR. - That is, both of the Jewish and Christian persuasion. — TR, - Patriarch of Constantinople in the year 520. — TR. - Iphianassa, as the story says, was daughter of Proetus, king of the Argives, who preferring herself in beauty to Juno, was struck with such a madness as to believe herself to be a cow, but was afterwards cured by Melampus, a famous physician, to whom she was given in marriage. — TR. - Or, than the daughter of Jephthah. For Iphigenia, see note on p. 532. - Dr Gill agrees with our author that the king of Moab sacrificed his own son, and thinks that he might be induced to offer him thus publicly on the wall, that it might be seen by the camp of Israel, and move their compassion; but rather that he did it as a religious action, to appease the Deity by a human sacrifice; and that it was offered either to the true God, in imitation of Abraham, or to his idol Chemosh, the sun. It was usual with the heathens, particularly the Phoenicians, when in calamity and distress, to.offer up what was most dear and valuable to them. See p. 527. Dr Gill seems of opinion that the cause why the three kings broke up the siege was, that after this barbarous and shocking sacrifice the Moabites became quite desperate, and that the kings, seeing them resolved to sell their lives so dear, and to hold out to the last man, thought fit to raise the siege; a very natural explication of these words, “And there was great indignation against Israel,” if the indignation be understood as applicable only to the Moabites. But the concluding sentence of our author on this subject seems to imply it to be his opinion, that there were also dissensions and indignation in the allied army; perhaps between the Edomites, the idolatrous Israelites, and the worshippers of the true God, arising from the horrid spectacle they had witnessed. This is only ventured as a conjecture, that may better account for the sudden departure of the kings. — TR. - Their religion at best had been contaminated with the superstitions of the church of Rome. — TR. - That is, their acts or ceremonies of cleansing or purifying themselves from guilt by sacrifice, or otherwise; the latter word more particularly means the operation of cleansing by water. — TR. - Hieroglyphics are emblems or pictures that were used in the first method of writing; but after characters were introduced, they became generally unintelligible, and contributed much to promote idolatry.

    They were used by the Egyptian priests to conceal the mysteries of their religion from the vulgar, and were thence called hieroglyphics; that is, sacred engravings or carvings. They were originally engraven or carved on walls and obelisks. — TR. [It is hardly needful to advert to modern discoveries, from Champollion to Wilkinson, according to which it appears that, instead of being subservient merely to the purpose of concealment, these mystic characters, now that the key to them has been discovered, contain a rich treasury of information in regard both to the history and customs of ancient Egypt. — ED.] - A dynasty in history means a succession of kings in the same line. — TR. - Genesis 3:21, “Unto Adam also and to his wife did the LORD God make coats of skins, and clothed them.” — TR. - See division, page 512. - Book 8. chapter 5, of his Topics. - A deprivation of irascibility. - The materiality of anger is what is essentially necessary to constitute anger; the formality means its external marks and characters. — TR. - That is, the principle from which they immediately flow. — TR. - Quest. 47, art. 1. - Namely, from those instances of punishment which he is pleased in his wisdom sometimes openly and awfully to inflict upon the wicked. — TR. - Habitude means the state of a person or a thing with relation to something else. The habitude of the divine nature with respect to sin is a disposition to punish it. — TR. - The word in the original is “combustible,” meaning something that is susceptible of and consumable by fire. It must be evident to every one that the phrase is used in allusion to the metaphor which represents God as a consuming fire. The Son of God, then, was not, strictly and properly speaking, consumable, or susceptible of this fire, — that is, he was by no means the object of divine anger or punishment, considered as the Son of God, and without any relation to mankind, — but, on the contrary, was the beloved of his Father, with whom he was always well pleased. But he was liable to the effect of this fire, — that is, of God’s vindicatory justice, — as our representative and federal head. And every sinner is consumable by this fire; that is, is properly and naturally the object of divine wrath and punishment. — TR. - Our author here speaks in the language, and reasons in the manner, of logicians; the prevalent mode of reasoning at the tune when he wrote.

    For the sake of those unacquainted with that art, it may not be improper to observe that the above argument is what they call a syllogism, and that a syllogism consists of three propositions. The first is called the major, the second the minor, and the third the conclusion. In the above argument the major proposition is, “It is absolutely necessary that God should preserve his glory entire to all eternity.” The minor is, “But sin being supposed, without any punishment due to it he cannot preserve his glory free from violation.”

    The conclusion is, “Therefore, it is necessary that he should punish it.” The minor is sometimes called the assumption, and sometimes the conclusion is so named. They are both included under this title by our author in the following sentence. — TR - The misprint of quia for quin has occasioned some confusion in the translation. It should run thus: “I cannot see but that Christ has died in vain, on the supposition that God could pardon sins without the intervention of a ransom, consistently with the preservation of his right and glory entire, justice not demanding their punishment.” — ED. - Or ransom. — TR. - That is, which showeth what the divine will is. — TR. - In the original, “just.” — TR. - Hebrews 10:1. There the apostle argues for the necessity of the satisfaction of Christ, which he could not if the guilt of sin could have been taken away by any other way whatever. — TR. - The Racovian Catechism is generally said to have been compiled by Smalcius, from the writings which Faustus Socinus left behind him at his death. Other authorities, who seem to have investigated this point with particular care, hold that a catechism under this name was in existence before Socinus repaired to Poland. The catechism of Smalcius is now, however, commonly regarded as the Racovian Catechism. An English translation of it was published by Biddle in 1652. It is fully reviewed and discussed in Owen’s “Vindiciae Evangelicae,” vol. 12. of his works. — ED. - Let the reader remember that the compilers of the Racovian Catechism are now speaking, and that the words “they think” allude to the sentiments of the orthodox. — TR. - De Provid., cap. 22. assert. 6, p. 845. - This point is treated at great length, and clearly proved, in the third chapter. — TR. - The original word means a just sentence, or righteous judgment. — TR. - The argument from 1 John 1:9, which would resolve justice simply into a modification of benevolent feeling, and confound it with a disposition to forgive, is sufficiently met by the considerations urged by our author. The reply to the inference founded on the words “just,” and “the justifier of him which believeth in Jesus,” Romans 3:26, is not so clear. The question turns upon the import of di>kaiov . Two passages are quoted by Socinians in proof that it may denote clemency or mercy; and if in this sense exclusively the term were applicable to the Divine Being, no argument for the necessity of a proper atonement could be founded on the texts that speak of the justice of God. The passages urged by the Socinians with this view are Matthew 1:19 and Romans 3:26. Di>kaiov , however, in its primary meaning, signifies, “observant of rule and custom,” “having a respect to order and decency;” as when Cheiron, in contrast with his ruder brethren (II. 11:832), is described as dikaio>tatov kentau>rwn . In this sense, the term admirably befits the state of mind in which Joseph must have been when he discovered the condition of Mary, and before the truth was supernaturally explained to him. In its secondary meaning, di>kaiov signifies equal, just, fair, every shade of meaning it bears coming under the category of right or equity ; and in no instance of which we are aware can it be rendered as expressive of clemency or mercy. In the two passages to which an appeal is made, the adversative force of kai< is overlooked, “just, and yet not willing,” “just, and yet the justifier.” That kai< frequently conveys this antithetic meaning might be proved from several passages, such as John 7:19, Mark 12:12, etc. See Winer’s “Idioms of the Greek Language,” part in. chap. 5. s. 57. — ED. - Chap. 23, title, “Of the Power of God,” p. 181, etc. - As supreme Lord of the universe he exerciseth an uncontrolled dominion, doing “in the army of heaven, and among the inhabitants of the earth,” whatsoever seemeth good unto him; but as the Ruler and Judge of the world he distributeth impartial justice, “giving to every one according to his works.” The force of this argument, then, is this, — That in viewing God as punishing sin, we are not to consider him as supreme Lord, who may exercise an absolute and uncontrolled will, but as a righteous Judge, bound by a law to administer justice, and by a law founded in his nature, necessarily requiring him so to do. — TR. - The translation of the last clause is ambiguous. The words in the original are, “Justitiae illius, cui poenas irrogare incumbit,” — “ That justice on which rests the obligation, which is bound, to inflict the punishment.” — ED. - The debt of a sinner is not any valuable consideration due to him, as a debt is to a creditor, but due by him as a debt is by a debtor; and in consequence of the failure of payment, punishment becomes due to him, — i.e., is or may be inflicted in vindication of violated justice. But this is what he could not either claim or would wish to receive. — TR. - Sin is most accurately defined by our Westminster divines, in that inimitable compendium of sound doctrine, the Shorter Catechism, to be “any want of conformity unto, or transgression of, the law of God.” — TR. - Book 1. chapter 23, p. 180, “Of the True Religion.” - Chapter 28. - Chapter 22:186, and chapter 28. - Chapter 30:3,9. - Chapter1. p. 78, of his Answer to Grotius. - Namely, Whether vindicatory justice be essential and natural to God, and the exercise of it, or the punishment of sin, consequently necessary? — TR. - That is, by consequence. — TR. - That is, the existence and misery of a rational creature being supposed. — TR. - Omitted: “though it is plain from the holy Scriptures that God not unfrequently manifests some kind of anger, in his paternal chastisements, towards those who all the while are the objects of his supreme love and mercy.” — ED. - That is, as it relates to God, who is the subject of it. — TR. - “Behold my servant, whom I uphold; mine elect, in whom my soul delighteth.” — Isaiah 42:1. — TR - They agree that the satisfaction by Christ is the way of salvation revealed in the Scriptures, but that it is so because God willed it should be so, and deny that there was any necessity for such a satisfaction arising from the nature of divine justice. — TR. - Twiss. Vind. Grat. lib. 1. p. 2, sect. 25, digress. 8. - Namely, Piscator and Lubbertus. - Namely, That he willed to create a rational being, and to permit it to transgress the law of its creation. — TR. - “Actu primo et signato,” — “In its first and manifested act, its first act and manifestation.” — ED. - At the end of the “Defensio Fidei Catholicae de Satisfactione Christi,” by Grotius, there is appended “G. J. Vossii Responsio ad Herm.

    Ravenspergeri Judicium de eodem.” It is in this “Responsio” that the sentiments refuted by Owen occur. — ED. - Namely, That God, by his absolute power, can suspend the punishment of sin altogether. — TR. - That is, their relation to their objects, or their qualities considered in this point of view, is different. Divine justice necessarily operates towards its object to punish the sinner, otherwise it would not be justice; but as no creature can merit any thing of God, it depends on God’s good pleasure whether he bestow rewards or not. — TR - Crellius, “Of the True Religion,” p. 308. - Namely, Twisse’s. — TR. - A learned protestant divine, who was born in Friesland, and lived 1556-1625. He wrote several works against Bellarmine, Socinus, Arminius, etc., but his best work is said to be “De Papa Romana.” — ED. - See 1 Corinthians 12:12, etc., “For as the body is one, and hath many members, and all the members of that one body, being many, are one body; so also is Christ,” etc. — TR. - Being founded on the words of Scripture. — TR. - “Objects to the argument on various grounds, which we shall, as briefly as possible, consider in succession.” — ED. - God’s will of giving to every man his own was from everlasting, justice being an essential attribute of his unchangeable nature; but it is only after the supposition of a rational being that had sinned, that he must necessarily, — that is, from the very principles of his nature, — exercise that will towards sinners, and give them the wages of sin, namely, death. — TR. The Latin is: “Cum prior res ipsa sit, posterior aliquarum rerum, vel in actu primo vel secundo, modus seu affectio,” — “ Since the former is the thing itself, the latter a mode or affection of some things,” etc. — ED. - A learned professor of divinity at Herborn. He was born at Strasburg 1546, and died 1626. He was the author of several commentaries, controversial treatises, and a translation of the Bible into German. — ED. - “In Collationem Vorstii.” The translation is not very intelligible.

    Vorstius wrote work with this title, “Parasceue ad amicam collationem cum Jo. Piscatore,” and Owen refers to Piscator’s notes upon it. — ED. - It is not Piscator’s reasoning, but the kind of necessity implied in the reasoning, to which Owen takes exception. The words “nature” and “natural” also occasion considerable ambiguity. Justice is natural and necessary, according to Owen. in so far as it is not an act of the will merely; but he does not hold it to be natural in Piscator’s sense, as operating by a blind and physical necessity, apart from the exercise of intelligence and volition, and the existence of an object requiring the manifestation of it. We might render the passage above as follows: “To this extent, then, I adopt Piscator’s conclusion, — namely, in so far as he maintains the existence of a necessity, but not as regards the mode or kind of it.” — ED. - Namely, Piscator’s. — TR. - Because if he punished a creature for sin merely because he willed or determined so to do, and not because the nature of sin necessarily so required, he might as easily will the contrary; and, consequently, the subordination of the creature would be entirely subverted. — TR. - In his book on Providence, chapter 22. page 845, assert. 6. - “Necessary from the essential justice of God that he should suffer the punishment due to sinners, either in his own proper person, or in that of a surety.” — ED. - Namely, mercy. — TR. - “Et moderari et suspendere,” — “In his own internal court both mitigate and suspend,” etc. — ED. - See Suarez de Legib. Priv. - “Dei libertati non subjacere,” — “is not subject to.” — ED. - From the figure of notation to the close of the paragraph, the sense of the author has been entirely misapprehended. Read, “must be excited and kept alive by such a fit and adequate view respecting the transgression of the divine law, the nature of sin, or the disobedience of the creature, — those who have spiritual eyes will easily perceive.” — ED.

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