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    EXPOSITION. — Griesbach and Knapp adopt the following punctuation of Hebrews 11:1: ]Esti de< pi>stiv , ejlpizome>nwn uJpo>stasiv , etc.: which is probably correct; for the following verses, to which the first is an introduction, do not point out the evidence of the pi>stiv , but its existence (together with its blissful consequences), in the holiest men of the Old Testament history. Besides, ga>r , in verse 2, would be wholly superfluous, if we translated, with most interpreters, “Faith is the substance”or “evidence.” Punctuated as above, the whole is consistent, and the parts well connected: thus, “There is a faith,” a “confidence,” etc.; “for by it the elders obtained a good report.” It should not be overlooked that e]sti stands in the beginning of the verse; though this in itself is by no means decisive. — Winer. Henry Stephens quotes this verse with the punctuation which is commended by Winer. See his Thesaurus. — ED. See vol. 16 p. 281, of miscellaneous works. — ED. VARIOUS READING. — To< blepo>menon is the reading of the best Mss. “The doctrine negatived is that which teaches that each successive condition of the universe is generated (gegone>nai ) from a preceding condition, (as the plant from the seed,) by a mere material development, which had no beginning in a Creator’s will.” — Conybeare and Howson. ED. VARIOUS READING. — There is a great preponderance of critical authority in favor of lalei~ , — Griesbach, Scholz, Lachmann, and Tischendorf. Ebrard in confirmation of this reading refers to Hebrews 12:24, as somewhat parallel, and remarks that Cain “is spoken of” as well as Abel, so that to read lalei~tai would express no distinction. — ED. Vol. 1 of miscellaneous works. — ED. See miscellaneous works, volume 5. —ED. See vol. 5 of miscellaneous works. — ED. VARIOUS READINGS. — The words stei~ra and e]teken are now omitted in all the critical editions of the New Testament. — ED. VARIOUS READING. — Kai< peisqe>ntev are omitted by Griesbach, Scholz, Lachmann, and Tischendorf. — ED. See vol. 4 of miscellaneous works, book 6, part 2 of Pneumatologia. — Ed. EXPOSITION. — These words, ejn parazolh~| , are particularly difficult.

    Calvin, Castalio, Beza, Schlichting, Grotius, Limborch, Kuinoel, Bleek, etc., take parabolh> in the well-known signification, “figure,” but then refer ejn parazolh~| to o[qen , and obtain this sense: thence, as it were, (namely, ejk nekrw~n , as it were from the grave,) he “received him back.” Others, as Theodoret, Erasmus, Luther, Calov, Bohme, Olshausen, take parazolh> likewise in the signification of. “figure,” b ut with this explanation, “wherefore he received him back as a symbol,” (or in symbol). A third class, Camerarius, Ernesti, Tholuck, etc., take ejn parazolh~| as equal to parazo>lwv , “against expectation,” (comp. Romans 4:18,) par j ejlpi>da . So far Ebrard, who accompanies this synopsis of these three different views with an expression of his preference for the second of them. Wolf brings out the meaning thus: “Abraham not only received Isaac back alive, but obtained this additional benefit, that his recovery was a figure of Christ’s resurrection.” — ED. See volume 16 of miscellaneous works. — Ed. Exposition. — In regard to the discrepancy between the meaning of the Masoretic text and the LXX. translation of the Hebrew passage, see vol. 1 of this Exposition, pp. 116,117. Ebrard supposes the apostle quoted the words, not so much as illustrative of the faith of Jacob in praying at his death, as in order to call to the minds of his readers, who were familiar with the Pentateuch, the context, in which Jacob gives orders to carry his bones to Canaan; and hence the natural transition to the analogous command of Joseph mentioned in verse 22. — Ed.

    Ft14 VARIOUS READING. — For ejn Aijgu>ptw| of the textus receptus, Aijgu>ptou is now generally substituted as the proper reading. — Ed. VARIOUS READING. — jEpeira>sqhsan : unable to account for this word in an enumeration of physical sufferings, critics have proposed other readings. Wakefield suggests ejpeira>qhsan , “transfixed with stakes;” and Juntas, Beza, and others, suggest ejpura>sqhsan or ejpurw>qhsan , “were burned.” — ED. See vol. 6 of the author’s miscellaneous works. — Ed. See vol. 6 of miscellaneous works. — Ed. In treatise on the Holy Spirit, vol. 3 of miscellaneous works. — ED. See miscellaneous works, vol. 1:242, 288 — ED. VARIOUS READING. — ]H boli>di katatoxeuqh>setai are omitted by Bengel, Griesbach, Scholz, Lachmann, and Tischendorf. The insertion of them is contrary to the authority of all the uncial manuscripts, by far the most of the cursive manuscripts, and all the versions. EXPOSITION. — No modern critic agrees with Owen in supposing ta< diastello>menon to be the law, and not the particular interdict immediately quoted. As to the exclamation attributed to Moses, in regard to which Owen appears somewhat at a loss, as it is not recorded in Old Testament history, Knapp, Tholuek, Ebrard, Conybeare and Howson, explain it by reference to the phrase of the Septuagint in Deuteronomy 9:19, ejkfozo>v eijmi . “It was the remembrance,” observe the two last-mentioned authors, “of this terrible sight which caused Moses to say this; much more must he have been terrified by the reality.” — ED. EXPOSITION. — Some critics put a comma after “myriads,” which are considered as comprehending the bodies denoted in the two following clauses, thus: “And to myriads, the general assembly of angels, and the church of the first-born who are written in heaven.” Others, putting the same stop after “myriads,” place a colon or semicolon after the next clause, and thus elicit this sense’ “To rnyriads, the general assembly of angels; and to the church,” etc — Turner. The only right construction is that of Wolf, Rambach, Griesbach, Knapp, Bohme, Kuinoel, Tholuck, Bengel, Lachmann, De Wette, Bleek, etc.; according to which ajgge>lw is dependent on panhgu>rei . It is then most natural to take the two members, ajgge>lwn panhgu>rei , and ejkklhsia~| prwtoto>kwn , as epexegetical of umria>sin — “And to entire hosts, to the hosts of angels, and to the church of the first-born. Ebrard. In regard to the dispute whether the blood of Abel’s sacrifice or Abel’s person be referred to in the last clause, Stuart, Tholuck, Turner, Ebrard, Conybeare and Howson, all interpret the phrase as an allusion to Genesis 4:10. — ED. He has spoken of the old testament in Obs. IX., and as he seems proving the general proposition in Obs. VIII., can this be a misprint for “new”? — ED. See vol. 1 of his miscellaneous works. — ED. Of the uncials, A. C. D. K are in favor of to>n , the uncial J gives to> . The latter is supported by several versions, the Syriac among the rest. — ED. EXPOSITION. — Kai< gav , k . t . l . We have seen no translation but De Wette’s in which effect is given to the kai> in this clause. De Wette translates it by “auch,” — “even our God is a consuming fire;” that is,’ However rich in grace to us who serve him, he is not the less inflexible in justice to those who serve him not, or do not serve him aright.’ — ED. EXPOSTION. — jAfila>rgurov . . . parou~sin . This construction is so remarkable, that it identifies, it has been thought, this epistle as a production of Paul. One nominative absolute in the singular expands into a nominative absolute in the plural, and the only construction parallel to this is to be found in another epistle of Paul, Romans 12:9. —ED. In these two passages, politeu>esqe and poli>teuma are the words employed. —ED. EXPOSTION. — This is a distinct sentence, in which the substantive verb is understood. It is often read as if in grammatical construction with the preceding verse, and Jesus Christ were “the end” there mentioned. But the different cases of the two words in the Greek show that this is a mistake. — Turner. Ebrard understands it as a motive to enforce the exhortation in verse 7, enjoinining the imitation of deceased rulers in the church, and adopts the interpretation of Calvin, “The same Christ, trusting in whom those died, still lives to-day, and is also our consolation.” —ED. See “Duty of Pastors and People,” etc., vol. 13:7; and “A Brief Instruction in the Worship of God,” etc., vol. 15:493, miscellaneous works. — ED. VARIOUS READINGS. — Cristo>n is now commonly omitted.

    Tischendorf also omits tw~n aijw>nwn . — ED. See Vol. I. of his miscellaneous works. — Ed. See Vol. 1 of his miscellaneous works. — Ed. EXPOSITION. — The reference to Timothy is so much after the manner of Paul, and in such harmony with his other allusions to him, that many found on this verse a proof that the epistle was written by Paul.

    So reason Lardner, Stuart, and others. Tholuck takes an opposite view.

    It has been argued that the phrase, “I will see you,” is too peremptory in its tone to have been written by Paul while yet a prisoner, and uncertain of release, as we may gather from verse 19; and if ajpolelume>non mean “set at liberty,” there is no other evidence that Timothy was ever in prison, and the apostle never speaks of him as his companion in bonds. These objections, resting chiefly upon premises of a negative character, hardly outweigh the evidence derived from the Pauline complexion of the reference. — ED. EXPOSITION. — Winer interprets the expression, oiJ ajpo< th~v jItali>av , as equivalent to oiJ ejn th~| jItali>a| , “they in Italy.” Lardner, Hug, and Stuart, derive an argument for the Pauline authorship of the epistle from this expression, as Paul writing from Rome, in the name of all the Christians of Italy, might very naturally give this salutation. It has been thought that if he was in prison at Rome, he could not have had any opportunity of ascertaining the desire of the brethren throughout Italy to be included in this expression of Christian friendship to the believing Hebrews; and that the analogy sometimes urged of Corinthians 16:19 will not really hold. The objection, however, proceeds upon the ground, — which is quite untenable, — that in every instance in which he conveyed such salutations from other brethren in his epistles, he required to be formally empowered to do so. If persons are specially named as transmitting through the apostle these friendly greetings, this might have been necessary, but it is reasonable to allow a somewhat wider import in the case of the more general salutations. When he writes, Romans 16:16, “All the churches of Christ salute you,” (for Tischendorf, along with Griesbach, Scholz, and Lachmann, inserts pa~sai in the clause,) he might simply intimate his knowledge of the fraternal love which, in the various congregations at Corinth and its ports, or wherever he had been, he had heard expressed towards the Christians to whom the epistle in which the salutation occurred was addressed. — ED. In regard to this subscription, it is commonly overlooked that it varies in different Mss. In illustration it may be mentioned, that while D has no subscription, c has Proouv , A adds ejgra>fh ajpo< JRw>mhv , and K appends dia< Timoqe>ou . — ED.


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