PREVIOUS CHAPTER - HELP - FB - TWITTER - GR VIDEOS - GR FORUMS - GR YOUTUBE
ST. PATRICK’S HYMN.
NT1 The following is the Irish preface to the Hymn found in the Liber Hymnorum, Trinity College, Dublin, folio 196. The translation is given, with the original Irish, on p. 381 of the Rolls Tripartite Life of St.
Patrick. We quote it as a curiosity, and nothing more, not, of course, endorsing the truth of the legend referred to. “Patrick matte this hymn. In the time of Loegaire, son of Niall, it was made. Now, the cause of making it was to protect himself with his monks against the deadly enemies who were in ambush against the clerics. And this is a corslet of faith for the protection of body and soul against devils and human beings and vices. Whosoever shall sing it every day, with pious meditation on God, devils will not stay before him. It will be a safeguard to him against all poison and envy. It will be a defense to him against sudden death. It will be a corslet to his soul after dying. Patrick chanted this when the ambushes were set against him by Loegaire, that he might not go to Tara to sow the faith, so that there they seemed before the liers-in-wait to be wild deer, with a fawn behind them, to wit, Benen. And Faed Fiada (“Deer’s Cry”) is its name.”
According to the story set forth in the Rolls Tripartite Life (p. 48), Patrick, with eight young clerics and Benen, his faithful servant or gillie, sometimes called his “foster-son” (Tripartite, p. 144), passed safely through all the men who were lying in wait for them on the occasion of his visit to Tara. The persons lying in ambush saw only eight deer running away, and a fawn after them, which was Benen.
NT2 “The first word of this hymn Atomring was mistaken by Dr. Petrie and Dr. O’Donovan for an obsolete form of the dative of Temur Temoria or Tara, and was by them translated “At Tara.” We cannot now regret this error, as to it we owe the publication of this curious poem in the Essay on Tara. But it is certainly a mistake, and was acknowledged as such by Dr. O’Donovan before his death. The word is a verb; addomring, i.e., ad-riug, adjungo, with the infixed pronoun dom, “to me” (see Zeuss, Gram. Celt. p. 336); the verb riug, which occurs in the forms ad-riug, con-riug, signifies “to join.”’ (Dr. Todd’s St. Patrick, p. 426.) The true analysis of the word was first pointed out by Dr.
Whitley Stokes in the Saturday Review, September 5, 1857, p. 225.
NT3 “Drs. O’Donovan and Petrie translate the original word togairm, invoco, but it is a substantive, not a verb.” (Todd, p. 46.)
NT4 Dr. Todd thought cretim in this line was a noun, but it is obviously the common verb, i.e., the Latin credo. The word for “Threeness” is different from that for “Trinity,” hence we have followed Dr. Whitley Stokes’ new version. The sense is the same as that given in our former edition, “the faith of the Trinity in Unity,” only fuller in expression. Foisin in this line was rendered by Petrie “under the.” But the correct reading is foisitin, the instrumental sing “with the confession.” (See the Rolls Tripartite Life, pp. 48, 650.)
NT5 The original is dail, genitive sing. of dal, “judgment,” “doom,” as in dal bais, “doom of death,” Lebor na hUidre, p. 118 b., not duile, “elements,” as generally given. (See the Rolls Tripartite, pp. 566, 645.)
The expression in the Hymn “the Creator of Judgment” or “Creator of Doom,” appears to afford an undesigned evidence of the Patrician authorship of the poem. “God of Judgment” (dar moDla mbratha— Lebar Brecc in the Rolls Tripartite, p. 460) was a favorite expression of Patrick (compare Isaiah 30:18, Malachi 2:17, Deus judicii).
Compare his saying: “I cannot judge, but God will judge.” (Rolls Tripartite, p. 288.) Another expression, “My God’s doom!” or “judgment” (mo debrod, mo debroth), was constantly in his mouth. (See the Rolls Tripartite, pp. 132, 138, 142, 168, 174, etc.) It is explained in the extract from Cormac’s Glossary, p. 571. The thoughts of the saint, on his way to Tara, must necessarily have dwelt much on the judgment and doom of idolaters in “the day of vengeance of our God” ( Isaiah 61:2). The Irish for the “judgment of doom” in the last line of the second stanza of the Hymn is brethemnas bratha. Hence we have used a different English word in these places to express the difference in the original Irish.
NT6 Dr. Whitley Stokes has throughout “virtue” in place of “power.”
NT7 The original is grad hiruphin, which is thus rendered by Dr. Whitley Stokes. The former translation was “the love of seraphim.”
NT9 Dr. Todd renders “in the prayers of the noble fathers.” Hennessy and Dr. Whitley Stokes, “patriarchs.”
NT10 The original has “in the preachings” of apostles and “in the faiths of confessors” in the plural, instead of “preaching” and “faith.”
NT13 Dr. Whitley Stokes would render “firmness” or “steadiness of rock.”
NT14 So Dr. Whitley Stokes. The former translation was “to give me speech.” Comp. 1 Peter 4:11.
NT15 So Dr. Whitley Stokes. The former version was “to prevent me.”
NT16 The translation of the word “the lusts” is uncertain, and consequently there is a blank left here in Dr. Whitley Stokes’ version.
NT17 So Dr. Whitley Stokes. The former translation was “with few or with many,” which gives almost the same sense.
NT18 Dr. Whitley Stokes has “I summon today all these virtues between me land these evils.” Dr. Todd’s translation is “I have set around me.”
NT19 So Dr. Whitley Stokes, as the Irish is heretecda. There are slight verbal changes in his translation here which are of little importance.
NT21 So Dr. Whitley Stokes renders. The words are an imitation of Ephesians 3:18,19, “That ye being rooted and grounded in love, may be strong to apprehend with all the saints what is the breadth and length and height and depth, and to know the love of Christ which passeth knowledge.” The original in the Trinity College MS. is Crist illius, Crist issius [ipsius in the Bodleian MS.], Crist inerus. Dr.
Whitley Stokes, in his Goidelica (2nd edit., London, 1872, p. 153), regards lius as a derivative of leth “breadth”; sius as derived from sith , “long”; and crus as a derivative of “cr,” which is glossed by uasal.
This Irish gloss is decisive, and shows the reference to be to Ephesians 3. The words in the original have not yet been discovered elsewhere in old Irish. The former version was “Christ in the fort, Christ in the chariot-seat, Christ in the poop,” and was explained to mean: Christ with me when I am at home; Christ with me when I am travelling by land, and in the ship when I am travelling by water. The Irish words were formerly explained: lius as dat. sing. of “les,” “fort”; sius as dat. of ses, cognate with suidim, “I sit”; erus as dat. sing. of cross, “poop.”
NT22 See note 5.
The last stanza is— Dominiest salus, Domini est salus, Christi est salus, Salus tua, Domine, sit semper nobiscum.
NT24 This is the title given in three manuscripts. Some have “the beginning of the Confession of St. Patrick, Bishop.”
NT25 Patrick or Patricius was a common name among the Romans of Britain. It occurs in Hubner’s volume of British Inscriptions in Mommsen’s great Corpus of Latin Inscriptions, Tom. 7, Nos. 1198 and 1336. Like many persons mentioned in the Scriptures, Patrick had many names. Patrick was his Roman or Latin name. Tirechan tells us that he had no less than three Celtic names, Succetus [Sucat], Magonus, and Cothraige (Cothrighe). See Anal. Bolland 2. 35. (G.T.
Stokes.) See Tripartite, p. 17.
NT26 According to the Trip. the Irish name of Politus was Fotid. Patrick’s mother was Concessa, sister of Martin of Tours (so Marianus Scotus).
There is, moreover, a citation from a text of the Confessio, not now in existence, but quoted in Colgan’s Quarta Vita, which says, “I am Patrick, son of Calfurnius, having a mother Conchessa” (Rolls Trip., p. 93.).
NT27 Archdeacon Hamilton, partly following the Bollandist text, translates: “I, Patrick, a most unlearned sinner, the least of all the faithful, and the most contemptible amongst many, have had for my father Calphurnius, a deacon, who was the son of Potitus, formerly a priest.” The construing of “rusticissimus” with “peccator” is faulty; but the translation of the next clause is more so. The Bollandist text has “filium quondam Potiti Presbyteri,” rendered by Hamilton “son of Potitus, formerly a priest.” The order of the words proves, however, that Nicholson’s translation of that text is correct: “the son of the late Potitus, a presbyter.” Olden adopts that reading. The reading of the Book of Armagh is, however, probably correct: “filium quendam Potiti [filii Odissi] presbyteri,” lit. “a certain son of Potitus, a presbyter.” The words in brackets are written in the margin of the Armagh copy. If the word “presbyteri” be referred to Odissus, the Confession would contradict the statement of Fiacc’s hymn, according to which Patrick is described as “son of Calpurn, son of Potitus, grandson of Deacon Odisse.” If we combine the two statements, St. Patrick’s parents up to the third generation must have been clergymen. In his summary of the Life of St. Patrick, Hamilton remarks, “His father’s name was Calphurnius; he was a Decurion, and had been formerly a deacon. I say formerly, because the law of ecclesiastical celibacy being then, as now, in force, his acceptation of Holy Orders was in conformity with this law.” Hamilton here confuses what is said of the father with what is recorded of the grandfather. But even thus the passage is against clerical celibacy. The Archdeacon is, however, more honest than the Very Revelation Arthur Ryan, of Thurles, who, in his St. Patrick, Apostle of Ireland, ignores the entire statement as to St. Patrick’s ecclesiastical progenitors, stating that “his father Calphurnius was, the saint tells us, a Roman officer of good family.” This is a suppressio veri with a vengeance.
St. Patrick was proud of his noble birth and of his Roman descent.
Compare his remark, the Epistle to Coroticus, § 5, p. 76, and one of the “sayings” on p. 84. This makes the fact more remarkable that he nowhere alludes to any commission received from Rome.
NT28 Variously spelled in the MSS. Banavem or Benaven.
NT29 The birthplace of Patrick has been the subject of a prolonged controversy. Scotland, France, Ireland, have each had their champions.
The claim of Ireland may be at once dismissed. It is grounded on a paragraph in the Epistle to Coroticus (p. 78), where he identifies himself with his injured converts and disciples, and protests against the Welsh invaders: “with them it is a crime that we have been born in Hibernia.” In other parts of his writings he equally clearly asserts that he was not an Irishman by birth. As to the claim of France, some have upheld Boulogne as his natal place. This is possible, for, as is shown in note 6, the predatory expeditions of Niall of the Nine Hostages extended to that port during the boyhood and youth of our Saint. The majority of critics now uphold the claim of Dumbarton. Dumbarton in ancient times was called Alclut, [old Welsh, Ail cluaithe in old Irish], and formed the western termination of the Roman Wall; extending from the Forth to the Clyde. That wall was constructed by Agricola about the year 80 A.D., and renewed in the second century under Antonius Plus. Dumbarton, with its great rock as an acropolis, formed a natural stronghold and post of observation against the Scotic freebooters of the Antrim coast. The Romans, though they never settled in Ireland, yet made the acquaintance of the Irish. Agricola even in the first century contemplated the conquest of the island, and with that design entertained a fugitive Irish prince, as Tacitus tells us. The Romans of Dumbarton must have suffered much at the hands of Irish pirates down to the fifth century, as is testified by the numerous finds of Roman coins all along the Antrim coast. (See Ireland and the Celtic Church, p. 16, where I discuss this point and refer to Proceedings of Royal Irish Academy, volume 2, 184-190; 5. 199; 6. 442, 525; John Scott Porter in the Ulster Journal of Archaeology, 1854, pp. 182-191; and Hubner’s Brit. Ins. in Corp. Ins. Lat. tom. 7, p. 22l, No. 1198.) As soon as the Romans abandoned Britain, the Antrim Celts established the kingdom of Dalriada, in Argyleshire, which became the root out of which sprang the mediaeval kingdom of Scotland. (G.T. Stokes.) NT30 The Book of Armagh says, “villulam enim prope habuit ubi ego capturam dedi.” In the Bollandist edition it is “villain enim (Enon) prope habuit ubi ego in capturam decidi.” Archdeacon Hamilton incorrectly renders this “near the village of Enon where I was made captive.” If the reading of the Bollandist copy be correct, we might conjecture that St. Patrick’s father gave the name Enon to his farm because of its abundance of water (comp. John 3:23).
NT31 The date of Patrick’s first captivity cannot be exactly determined, but the known facts of history all coincide with his own statements. The last half of the fourth century was marked by continual ravages of the English coasts by the Pities and Scots, or Irish, as the word Scot in those days always signified. Ammianus Marcellinus the historian, and the poet Claudian were contemporaries of the incursions. They both testify to the vigor with which the Irish desolated the English coasts. In A.D. 343 they began the confict. In A.D. 360 they kept possession of a great portion of Britain for ten years, till overthrown and repelled by Theodosius, the most celebrated Roman general of the day, in A.D. 369. On this occasion the Irish were commanded by an Irish king named Crimthann. Claudian the poet speaks of “Icy Ierne,” weeping for the heaps of those slain in that campaign. The Annals of the Four Masters tell us that in A.D. 405, Niall of the Nine Hostages was slain at Boulogne, after a life spent in such ravages. See Keating’s History of Ireland, ed. O’Mahony, pp. 369-390; Ussher’s Works, 6. 116. (G. T.
Stokes.) NT32 Compare what St. Patrick says here as to his ignorance of God in the days of his youth with the similar statement made in the end of this chapter at p. 50 that he was “like a stone lying in deep mud,” and with the more detailed account of his irreligion, § 12, p. 58, and § 15, p. 61.
These statements are in direct contradiction to the legendary stories which make him out a marvel of sanctity and n worker of miracles from his very infancy.
NT33 The Latin is here “sacerdotibus nostris.”
NT34 The phrase seems taken from 2 Chronicles 29 to, where, however, the Vulgate Latin has furorem irae suae, in place of the words quoted by Patrick, iram animationis suae w hich, however, agree in sense with the Vulgate. The Itala rendering of the passage in 2 Chronicles is not extant. Hennessy and others have, however, translated the phrase “the anger of His Spirit.”
NT35 Archdeacon Hamilton has “amongst the Gentiles.” The Latin is simply “in gentibus multis,” which does not convey that idea.
NT36 Lat. “parvitas mea.” Archdeacon Hamilton, somewhat too strongly, “my unworthiness.”
NT37 Lat. “sensum incredulitatis meae” (Book of Armagh). The Bollandists have “sensum incredulitatis cordis mei.” Archdeacon Hamilton, freely, “ the ears of my incredulous heart.”
NT38 So Dr. Whitley Stokes reads ut converterem The Cottonian MS. (converterer) is “and that I might be converted.” The Armagh MS. is ut confirmarem, “that I might strengthen.”
NT39 Archdeacon Hamilton, too freely, “had compassion on the ignorance of my youth.” Our translation is literal.
NT40 The Cottonian MS. has “admonished.” So the Bollandists whom Hamilton has followed.
NT41 Patrick had evidently here in his mind, as may be seen from the Latin, the passage in <19A715> Psalm 107:15 (106:15, Douay Version), Confiteantur... mirabilia ejus. The Vulg. and the Itala here are alike.
NT42 Lat. “prater Deum Pattern ingenitum.” Not as Hamilton, “except our unbegotten God, the Father.”
NT43 The Armagh MS. has inerrabiliter, which means “unerringly,” but as Prof. O’Mahony suggested, and the suggestion is adopted by Hennessy, it was probably intended for inenarrabiliter, which is the reading of the Bodleian MS., “ineffably,” or “inexplicably.” Sir S.
Ferguson translates: “in wise unspeakable.”
NT44 The words “and invisible” are omitted in the Book of Armagh.
NT45 According to the Armagh MS. the sentence reads “death having been vanquished, in the heavens.” But the text is evidently defective. The Cottonian and Bodleian MSS. and the Bollandist have as above.
NT46 “And under the earth,” Lat. “et infernorum,” as in the Vulgate, which is translated in the Douay “and under the earth.” Hence our version.
Hamilton has “and in hell.” After the words, “above every name,” the words, “that in the name of Jesus every knee shall bow,” are inserted in brackets by Whitley Stokes without any note as to the MS. which gives that addition. Olden inserts them in his translation. But they are omitted in the Cottonian MS. and in the Bollandist text, and it would seem also in the Armagh MS.
NT47 “To Him” is added in the Book of Armagh. We have marked with inverted commas the portions of the verses quoted ( Philippians 2:9-11) which agree with the Vulgate, and are translated in the Douay. The text, as a whole, differs from both the Vulgate and the Itala. Some MSS. follow the Vulgate in the last clause, reading: “that the Lord Jesus Christ is in the glory of God the Father.”
NT48 Romans 2:6. Patrick agrees substantially with the Vulgate, which has opera ejus; Patrick, ungrammatically, facta sua.
NT49 So the text should be rendered: “et effudit in nobis habunde Spiritum Sanctum donum et pignus immortalitatis.” The first part of this sentence is taken from Titus 3:6, with the ungrammatical alteration of in nobis instead of in nos.
NT50 The Bollandists add “the Father,” followed naturally by Hamilton.
NT51 The Creed of Patrick differs in form from the Nicene Creed, so does the Irish Creed found in the Antiphonary of Bangor, reprinted in O’Laverty’s Diocese of Down and Connor. In the fourth century the forms of the Creed varied very much. The early custom of preserving the creeds by memory done tended to increase such variations. (G.T.
Stokes.) NT52 Psalm 1:15 ( Psalm 49:15, Douay Version). Patrick’s quotation is not from the Vulgate Version, though there is no substantial difference made thereby in the sense of the passage. The Itala is nearer Patrick’s text, reading et magnificabis me, but it also differs from Patrick, for it has eripiam for liberabo.
NT53 Tobit 12:7. The quotation is identical with the passage in the Vulgate.
NT54 Lat. “scire qualitatem meam.” Hamilton renders too freely, “should be made acquainted with my circumstances.”
Some MSS. of Patrick agree with the Vulgate.
NT56 Some MSS. omit “says in the Gospel.”
NT57 Matthew 12:36. The Vulgate and Itala correctly, following the original Greek, have “every idle word.” So Hamilton; but the text of St.
Patrick is as in our translation.
NT58 The Book of Armagh has “Domini Christi.” The Bollandists read, “Domini nostri Jesu Christi,” which Hamilton follows.
NT59 That is, “I feared their censure.” So Sir S. Ferguson, and Archdeacon Hamilton, “I feared I would encounter the reproaches of men.” The clause has, however, been explained otherwise. Dr. Whitley Stokes renders in a note: “I feared offending against (doing violence to) the language of men,” i.e., that I could not express myself like others.
NT60 We have followed here Sir S. Ferguson’s translation— Who, excellently versed in civic law, And sacred letters, in a like degree.
The original is ungrammatical, and therefore obscure. O’Conor supposed the “in both ways” to refer to the knowledge of both the Greek original and the Latin Version, and so Nicholson. The Armagh MS. has “quia non dedici sicut et caeteri qui optime itaque jure et sacras literas utroque pari modo combiberunt et sermones illorum ex infantia numquam motarunt.” The Bollandists have quin non legi, sicut caeteri qui optime sacris litteris sunt imbuti, et studium suun ex infantia nunquam mutaverunt,” which appears to be a correction of the original, and which Hamilton translates freely, “not being educated as others, who were very learned in the sacred Scriptures, and who have never changed their studious condition since infancy.”
NT62 Ex salive (saliva) scripturae meae. Hamilton, incorrectly, “from the context of my writing.”
NT63 So, after Sir S. Ferguson, we render in sermonibus. Nicholson translates “in languages.” Hennessy has “in speech.” Hamilton “in my conversations.”
NT64 Ecclesiasticus 4:29. The Vulgate and Itala are somewhat fuller here: “For by the tongue wisdom is discerned, and understanding and knowledge and learning by the word of the wise.” (Douay Version.) The last clause in the Vulgate is et doctrina in verbo sensati. Stone MSS. read varietatis, “of variety,” in place of veritatis.
NT65 That is, what use is it to plead my deficiencies when I have still the presumption to become an author in spite of them? The Book of Armagh has “sed quid prodest excussatio,” etc. The Bollandist text omits quid, though it preserves the interrogation at end. Hamilton, not regarding the latter, renders “but defense is profitable if true, especially when one has anything to presume upon.”
NT66 The Bollandists and the Cottonian MS. read, “my sins prevented me,” and so Hamilton. The meaning is as Olden translates, “circumstances prevented me.” In the end of the sentence the Cottoninn MS. reads, “quod ante non perlegeram.” The insertion of the non is incorrect, though adopted by Olden.
NT67 That is, scarcely above childish language. So the Armagh MS., the Bodleian MS., and the Bollandist, puer in verbis. Nicholson reads, after the Cottonian MS., puer imberbis, “a beardless boy;” and so Hamilton.
NT68 The clause vel quid adpeterem is omitted by Nicholson, and passed over by Hennessy.
NT69 We follow here the Cottonian MS., correcting, with Dr. Whitley Stokes, desertis into disertus.
For the original of the latter clause is: Sicut enim spiritus gestit et animas (animus) et sensus monstrat adfectus. Hennessy renders: “as the spirit desires, and the mind and intellect point out,” but that rendering ignores adfectus.
NT71 The reference is to Isaiah 32:4, where the Latin Vulgate, following the Hebrew, has “and the tongue of stammerers shall speak readily (velciter) and plain.” (Douay Version.) The Itala is nearer to Patrick, linguae balbutientium cito discent loqui pacem. Hamilton corrects the quotation after the Vulgate.
NT72 The text quoted is 2 Corinthians 3:3. It is substantially, but not verbally, the same as the Vulgate, which has “written in our hearts.”
NT73 Ecclusticus 7:16. Patrick evidently understood by rusticatio “rural life,” with the want of learning which generally accompanies it. Hence Sir S. Ferguson renders the word “unlearning.” Hamilton renders “simplicity,” forgetful of the sense of the passage in Ecclesiastes 7.
NT74 Nicholson and others read as above, following the Cottoniam MS., and the Bollandists who read in summo pariete. Hennessy, after the Armagh MS., reads in sua parte, “in His part.”
NT75 Vos dominicati, which is the reading of the Armagh MS., is rendered by Sir S. Ferguson, “you lords of the land.” But Dr. Whitley Stokes prefers the reading of the Bodleian MS., et vos Domini ignari rethorici. Hennessy renders “and ye of the Lord.” Nicholson reads et vos ignari Domini, “and ye ignorant of the Lord,” and so the Bollandists.
NT76 The Cottonian MS. adds “I should serve” (prodessem). The verb is omitted in the Armagh MS.
Whitley Stokes reads, after the Cottonian MS., si dignus fuero, which is given in the margin of the Book of Armagh.
NT78 Instead of “et natutaliter deservirem illis,” which is the reading of the Book of Armagh, the Cottonian MS. has the adverb “veraciter,” and the Bollandists read the whole passage, “et veraciter deservirem illi in mensura.” The clause is translated freely from the latter text by Archdeacon Hamilton. “Finally, that in all humility and truth I should serve Him [Christ] without end or measure.”
NT79 The Book of Armagh and the Cottonian MS. commence this paragraph with “in mensura,” which phrase the Bollandist edition connects with the close of the preceding chapter. See note there.
NT80 Exgallias, usually explained as “Gallican,” but Sir S. Ferguson renders it as above, and so Dr. Whitley Stokes explains it as exagallias, “legacies,” “patterns,” pp. 361, 673.
NT80b The Book of Armagh and Cottonian MS. have “post erumas et tantas moles,” the Bollandist, “post aerumnas tantae molis.” Hence Hamilton’s translation, “after so many changes of such magnitude.”
NT82 Patrick’s place of captivity was close to the village of Broughshane, five miles from Ballymena. He lived in a valley near the Hill of Slemish, now called the Valley of the Braid, from the river which flows through it. There is a townland in the valley still called Ballyligpatrick, or the town of Patrick’s Hollow. In this are still some remains of an Irish chieftain’s rath, or fort. See Reeves’ Antiquities of Down and Connor, pp. 83,84. (G.T. Stokes.) NT83 There was a frequent commerce by ships between Ireland and France in those early centuries. Columbanus in the sixth century was placed on board a ship of Nantes, bound for Ireland, by order of Queen Brunehault. Bishop Arculf, about A.D. 690, escaped from Iona in a ship which traded to France. See Ireland and the Celtic Church, pp. 99, 142. (G.T. Stokes.) NT84 Lat. intermissi hominem. Hamilton renders, “met the man” but such a rendering does not suit the context.
NT85 This was Milchu, son of Hua Bain, King of North Dalaradia. There were two districts of Antrim, one called Dalriada, now corrupted into the word Route, embracing the glens of Antrim; another called Dalaradia, forming the center of the county. Milchu is said to have burned himself to death when Patrick came to preach the gospel to him. See the Patrician History in the Book of Armagh, as printed in the Analecta Bollandiana, 1. 559, by Revelation E. Hogan, S.J. (G.T.
Stokes.) NT86 Hamilton has, “‘and in the power of God, he directed my course till I came to Benum.” But, according to the Bollandist text, the “in virtute Dei” should be connected with the “veni ad Benum.” Upon this name many theories have been raised as to the special locality where Patrick took ship. All the MSS., however, including the Book of Armagh, the Cottonian, and Bodleian, read ad bonum, which is translated in our text. Sir S. Ferguson compares the Irish expression go maith.
NT87 So the Book of Armagh, reading ut abirem unde navigarem, but the Cottonian MS. has ut haberem unde navigarem, which would mean. “I told them that I had the wherewith to sail with them,” that is, that I could pay for my passage. Hamilton translates the Bollandist text, “I asked for the means to set sail.” The probability is that Patrick told his dream to the sailors in order to induce the captain to take him on board.
NT88 So Bodleian MS., reading cum indignatione. The Book of Armagh reads cum interogatione.
NT89 The Book of Armagh and the Cottonian MS. have “quia ex fide recipimus to .” The Bollandists have “qu ia ex fide reperimus to,” which Hamilton translates, “Come, for we have found thee faithful.”
NT90 The original is itaque reppuli sugere (.Gilbert reads fugere) mammallas ecrum. Dr. Whitley Stokes (pp. 362,666) compares Isaiah 60:16. This is, however, scarcely possible, though supported by Olden. The Cottonian MS. reads itaque repuli fugere, omitting the rest of the sentence. The Bollandist has et in illa die debui surgere in navem eorum propter Deum, but in the note it adds that the MS. had repuli sugere mammas eorum. The Bodlein MS. bas itaque repulis fugire mammas. Archdeacon Hamilton’s translation, based upon the Bollandist edition, is not very clear. It is thus rendered and punctuated: “Upon that day I entered their ship. On account of God, nevertheless, I had no hopes that they would say to me, ‘Come to us in the faith of Christ,’ because they were Gentiles.” The Latin gentes is evidently used in this passage in the sense of heathen.
NT91 We have followed Sir S. Ferguson’s rendering. It is difficult to understand what is meant by the Latin et obhoc obtinui cure illis, which gives no sense when rendered literally. Hennessy paraphrases: “and this I obtained from them.” The other translations depart more widely from the text.
NT92 The Armagh MS. omits “and we sailed immediately.”
NT93 The Bollandist edition has twenty-seven, Hamilton’s thirty-seven is probably a mere typographical mistake. Compare this statement about the twenty-eight days’ journey through a desert with that in second paragraph of chapter 3. p. 56. The two accounts seem somewhat mixed up together.
NT94 The life and writings of Gregory of Tom’s clearly prove that Paganism extensively prevailed in Gaul between A.D. 400 and 600. Even amongst Christians their conversion was very imperfect. Many Pagan customs even still survive in our midst. It was the same in the East. In the sixth century a strong Pagan party still existed in Constantinople, some interesting notices of which are to be found in the Ecclesiastical History of John of Ephesus, translated from the Syriac by Dr. R. Payne Smith, Dean of Canterbury. (G. T. Stokes.) NT95 Other MSS. “with faith and the whole heart.”
NT96 The words ‘this day’ are not in Hennessy’s text, which gives the Armagh reading, but they are in the Cottonian and Bollandist texts. In the sentence following the Bollandists have nobis and in viam nostram, which is expressed in Hamilton’s translation.
NT97 Hamilton incorrectly, “until we are comforted.”
NT98 The words “fainted and” are supplied from the Cottonian MS. 21. The Book of Armagh omits ‘ from that day forth they had food in abundance,” but the words are found in the Bollandist text, and in the Cottonian and Bodleian MSS.
NT99 In the Brussels codex of Muirchu’s Life of St. Patrick there is a strange construction put upon this statement which shows how easily the simplest story can be transformed into the miraculous. “But the holy Patrick tasting nothing of this food, for it was offered in sacrifice, being neither hungry nor thirsty, remained unharmed.” See Hogan’s Analecta Bollandiana, tom. 1, and the Rolls Tripartite, p. 494. The sequel of the story shows, however, plainly that Patrick did suffer from partaking of the pork after his long hunger, and ha,I a nightmare in consequence of that repast.
NT100 It is evident from the context that Satan is here the subject of the verb, and therefore that the passage should be rendered as in our text.
Hamilton renders it, “for there fell upon me as it were, a huge piece of rock.”
NT101 We have followed here substantially Sir S. Ferguson’s translation. He connects the words et nihil membrorum praevalens sod unde mihi venit in spiritum, observing that the Latin sod is used after the analogy of the Irish acht as equivalent to nisi, a usage elsewhere found in the Confession.
NT102 Helias has been explained by Dr. Todd as equivalent to Eli, the Hebrew for “my God,” which occurs in the Gospel account of the Crucifixion, Matthew 27:45; Mark 15:34. Others, as Probus, the author of the Fifth Life of Patrick, consider the word to have been the Greek Helios, “the sun,” and that Patrick “invoked Christ, the true Sun.” Helios and Helias were associated at an early period, (see Whitley, Stokes, p. 669). Others, with Jocelin, explain the passage to mean that Patrick invoked the aid of the prophet Elias or Elijah; but that is far-fetched. The contrast between the sun and Christ is alluded to in the end of the Confession, p. 71.
NT103 Stone MSS. Helias! Helias!
NT105 Matthew 10:20. There are unimportant variations here in the MSS.
Some do not give the whole verse.
NT106 Sir S. Ferguson maintains that the Latin iterum pest annos multos adhuc capturam dedi ca nocte prima, especially the use of adhuc, “still,” shows that these words are necessarily to be understood of a spiritual captivity, a captivity still continuing. “It was the first occasion on which he had experienced what he conceived to be the presence of an indwelling coercer of his will, to obedience to whose promptings all his subsequent life was to be conformed.” (Ferguson, pp. 113,114.)
Others consider a second actual captivity to be here referred to.
Hamilton translates “I was again made captive by the Gentiles,” but the words “by the Gentiles” are not in any of the MSS.
NT107 The Armagh MS. omits “saying to me.”
NT109 Some MSS. read here also ad homines for omnes.
NT110 The order of the first two paragraphs is reversed in the Bollandist edition, where the second pargraph of our chapter 3 is placed at the end of chapter 2.
NT111 “Amongst the Britons”: in Britannis, as in the Irish gloss on Fiacc, in bretnaib. (Sir S. Ferguson.) Patrick wrote “in the Britains.” This was strictly accurate, and is an interesting little proof of the genuineness of our document. The correct designation among the Romans for Britain was Britanniae, because it was divided in the fourth century, the age of Patrick’s youth, into five provinces; Britannia Prima, Britannia Secunda, Maxima Coesariensis, Flavia Coesariensis, and Valentia the fifth province. The last was organized by Theodosius after he repelled the Irish invaders. It comprised the extreme northern portion of the Roman dominions and embraced Southwestern Scotland. (G.T.
Olden has noted, situated in and near the parish of Killala, barony of Tirawley, and county of Mayo. Compare the remarks of the Revelation E. Hogan, S.J., in his Analecta Bollandiana, 2. 42, and O’Donovan’s Hy-Fiachrach, pp. 465;, 464. (G.T. Stokes.) NT113 “As if with one voice,” is omitted in the Book of Armagh.
NT114 The Bollandist edition has in me, an juxta me verbis peritissimis andiebam quosdam ex spiritu psallentes intra me, et nesciebam qui essent quos andivi: “I heard within me, or beside me, some persons singing from the spirit within me the most eloquent words, and I knew not who they were whom I heard.” But this reading does not agree with the close of the passage in which the singular is used as in our translation. Archdeacon Hamilton has in his translation rendered the latter words in the plural. But this is not in accordance with the Bollandist text. The plural quos before audivi is found in some MSS., but not the phrase ex spiritu psallentes intra me.
NT115 The Bollandist edition omits the words “is He who speaks in thee” (ipse est qui loguitur in te). And so consequently Hamilton.
NT116 The phrase “full of joy” (gandibundus) is omitted in the Bollandist edition, and so by Hamilton.
NT117 The Bollandists read audivi, “I heard,” instead of vidi, “I saw,” as in the other MSS.
NT118 Hennessy and Gilbert, with Cottonian and other MSS., read eram. Dr.
Whitley Stokes, with the Bollandists, has erat.
NT119 The Armagh MS. omits “above me.”
NT120 Lat. super interiorem hominem, not “within my inner man,” as Hamilton.
NT121 The Bollandists have dixit se esse spiritum, rendered by Hamilton “he said he was a spirit.” It ought to be the Spirit. The Armagh and other MSS. “sic effatus est ut sit eps,” i.e., episcopus. Others have sps., spiritus. These contractions are easily, as Dr. Todd says, confounded in the MSS. If the former be the true reading, the meaning seems to be that he spoke with authority as the great “bishop of souls” ( 1 Peter 2:25). The reference must be either to Christ or the Spirit.
NT122 The quotation is from Romans 8:26, and agrees with the Vulgate and Douay, save that the expression “the infirmities of our prayers” (some MSS. have the sing. “infirmity”) is used instead of “our infirmity.”
NT123 Or “which I cannot express in words.” So Bollandists.
NT124 Probably a quotation compounded from 1 John 2:1, and Romans. 8:34.
NT125 This paragraph, with the first paragraph of § 12 and the two first lines of the second, which we have placed within brackets, are not found in the Book of Armagh, but are contained in the Cottonian MS., the Bollandist, and the Bodleian texts.
NT126 The Latin is quia needum prevalebam, which Hamilton in correctly translates “for as yet I had no understanding.”
NT127 We have followed the Cottonian MS. in connecting et quotidie with the preceding sentence, and making the new sentence commence with contra used as an adverb. Hamilton, closely following the Bollandist edition (which here agrees with the Cottonian, the passage not being in the Book of Armagh, see note 125), translates “and daily proceeded, though not willingly, towards Ireland, until I nearly fainted away.” But the passage so punctuated affords no good sense.
NT131 Some MSS. “divine response.” And so Hamilton translates “an answer from the Lord.”
NT132 So MSS. and the Bollandist edition, but the Armagh MS. reads audivimus, which is opposed to the male vidimus in the following clause. Male is generally rendered “with displeasure.” Sir S. Ferguson points out that Facciolati gives examples of the phrase in the sense of “to be ill-styled.” Archdeacon Hamilton translates the sentence, “we have imperfectly seen the face of him who was marked out to us, and whose name was discovered,” thus rendering male by “imperfectly,” and so in the following sentences.
NT133 That is “of the Bishop-designate.” The “name stripped” of honor means, according to the Bollandists, without any title of honor or mark of episcopal dignity.
NT134 Zechariah 2:8. The quotation is slightly different from the Vulgate version, and also from the Itala.
NT135 “In myself” is inserted by the Cottonian and Bodleian MSS.
NT136 The Bollandist edition omits hic et in futurum, “now or for the future.”
NT138 Lat. ante defensionem illam, which Hamilton strangely renders, “before such prohibition.”
NT139 “In the Britains.” See note 111.
NT140 Cottonian MS., pro me pulsaret; Bollandist edition pulsetur pro lilt.
NT140b The Cottonian in S. reads audenter; Sir S. Ferguson andiemer, which he translates “audibly.” The adverb is omitted in the Bollandist text and in the Book of Armagh.
NT141 The Latin is “ita ut hodie confidenter offeram illi sacrificium ut hostiam viventem animam meam Christo Domino meo.” The reference is to Romans 12:1, as is seen by the Latin hostiam viventem, which occurs in Patrick’s original and in the Itala and Vulg. Archdeacon Hamilton translates obscurely, “so that daily, with confidence, I offer sacrifice to him, and consecrate my soul a living victim to my Lord.”
NT144 The Cottonian MS. has qui mihi tantam divinitatem cooperulsti. The Bollandist reading is qui mihi tantam divinitatem denudasti.
Hamilton’s rendering is “that you should have showered such graces on me.”
NT145 The Bollandist edition omits the words “ingentibus constanter,” which are therefore not in Hamilton’s translation.
NT147 We here followed Sir S. Ferguson in supposing indubitabilem cum to refer to God. So Hamilton, who renders it by “faithful.” Hennessy refers it to Patrick, rendering “undoubtedly”; so Olden, and similarly Nicholson, who loosely renders the clause: “That I should place no bounds to my trust in Him.”
NT148 Hamilton has accidentally omitted to translate the words “at qui me andierit,” which are found in the Bollandist as well as in the Cottonian copy.
NT149 Matthew 24:14. The clause “before the end of the world” does not agree with the Itala or Vulg. versions.
NT150 Here ends the portion noticed in note 125 as not found in the Book of Armagh.
NT151 The Armagh MS. has pissimus, as Gilbert and Whitley Stokes give it.
Nicholson, after the Bollandists, piissimus, which Hamilton renders “God of piety,” and so Olden. Possibly the true reading of the Armagh MS. is pissimus, i.e., potentissimus. So Sir S. Ferguson seems to have read, for he renders the word “Almighty.”
NT152 Lat. ex duodecim periculis. Hamilton renders freely “from the many dangers.” Olden illustrates the expression by quoting the following from the Irish Nennius, p. 112, “Like seven to the Hebrews, twelve was to the Britons, the absolute number significant of perfection, plenitude, and completeness.”
NT154 The Latin is ut me pauperculum pupillum (the Bollandists have pauperculum et pussilum pupillum) ideo tamen. (Bollandists omit ideo tame.) responsum divinum creberrime admoneret. Hamilton, much too freely, “admonished me, a poor wretched creature, by his divine revelations.”
NT157 The Bollandist edition has non ego, sed Deigratia, and therefore Hamilton, “not I, but the grace of God,” and so Olden.
NT158 Lat. ut andirem opprobrium peregrinationis meae. Hamilton renders much too freely, “I heard them upbraid me as a stranger.”
NT159 Lat. et ut darem ingenultatem meam. Hamilton incorrectly, “and yet I gave myself up without reserve.” St. Patrick several times alludes to his noble birth and his Roman ancestors, of whom he seems to have been proud. See Confession, chapter 1. 1, and Epistle to Coroticus, § 5, p. 76.
NT160 Here end the brackets noted in note 153. The closing words of the paragraph are in Latin, si Dominus indulguret, incorrectly rendered by Hamilton, “if the Lord should demand it.” St. Patrick both anticipated and longed for his martyrdom, which proves that the legends are wrong which relate that he converted all Ireland. See Confession, chapter 5. §§ 23,24, pp. 69,70.
NT161 Several MSS. add “and afterwards consummated,” i.e., confirmed.
Hamilton translates, “and be afterwards perfected.” But the words are not found in the Book of Armagh.
NT162 Jeremiah 16:19. “To thee the Gentiles shall come from the ends of the earth.” The words, “from the ends of the earth,” are not in the Book of Armagh, and the clauses are there inverted. The passage is somewhat shorter in the Bollandist edition followed by Hamilton. The text quoted does not agree in words with the Vulgate, nor generally with the Itala, which is, however, nearer to Patrick’s quotation, translating quam falsa possederunt partes nostri simulachra et non est in eis utilitas.
NT164 Matthew 8:11. The Book of Armagh adds, after “west,” “and from the south and from the north.”
NT165 Some MSS. omit the words “as we believe,” etc.
NT166 Jeremiah 16:16. The Armagh MS. omits “he says by the prophets.”
It adds after “the Lord” the words et cetera.
NT167 Matthew 28:19,20. The Book of Armagh omits verse 20, but inserts the word reliqua, which intimates that the latter verse was in the copy which the scribe bad before him. See the Rolls Tripartite, p. 369.
NT168 Mark 16:15,16. Some MSS. omit the last clause, and by the Bollandists, which edition Hamilton translates from.
NT169 Matthew 24:14. (See note 44, chapter 3.) The Book of Armagh adds here “the rest are examples,” which Sir S. Ferguson is correct in regarding as a note by the scribe, indicating abridgment from a fuller text. So Dr. Whitley Stokes. The Book of Armagh omits all onward to the end of the section.
NT170 The Bollandist edition omits the clause, “and your sons shall see visions,” and so Hamilton.
NT171 Romans 9:25,26, where the Apostle quotes from Hosea (Osee) 1:9,10.
NT172 Lat. unde autem Hiberione. Hamilton freely, “and now with regard to the Irish.”
NT173 It has been already noted (note 8, chapter 1), that the word Scot always meant Irishman in these early ages. It was only in the twelfth century that it was finally transferred from the inhabitants of Ireland to those of Scotland. The mistake still lingers on, notwithstanding the efforts of scholars. An amusing incident of its prevalence occurred of late years. That eminent Celtic scholar, Mr. W. M. Hennessy, M.R.I.A., published an ancient Irish book of Annals composed at Clonmacnois, about A.D 1100, styled Chronicon Scotorum. It appeared in the English Rolls Series, and is the only one of that series which is now out of print. This “occurred through the fervid patriotism of modern Scotchmen, who purchased it, believing it to he a Scottish and not an Irish history. See on this common error Ussher’s preface to his Sylloge Epist. Hib., and his Eccless. Britan. Antiqq., cap. 16, Works, volume 6, p. 276, 281, cf. p. 112; Skene’s (Celtic Scotland, 1. pp. 137, 398; Keating’s History of Ireland, O’Mahony’s edit., p. 375; Bishop Reeves, Proceedings of Royal Irish Acad. 8. 29; Colgan’s Trias Thaumat., p. 109. (G.T. Stokes.) NT174 Guasacht, son of Milchu, the chieftain whose slave Patrick was, became first bishop of Granard in Longford. He is commemorated in the Martyrology of Donegal, on January 24th. Milchu’s two daughters became consecrated virgins. There is a very curious account of the conversion by Patrick of the daughter of King Laoghaire (Leary). It is preserved in the Book of Armagh. [See p. 90 of this edition.] See Father Hogan’s interesting extracts in Analecta Bollandiana, 2. 49. I have translated the passage in Ireland and the Celtic Church, p. 86.
The incident happened at Croghan, in Roscoramon, the ancient seat of the Connaught kings. Every one knows, of course, that the institution of monks and nuns living in societies, sprang up in the latter part of the third century. A handy account of the origin of such monastic societies will be found in the article Monasticism in the new edition of the Encyclopaedia Britanica; or in the article Monastery in Smith and Cheetham’s Dictionary of Christian Antiquities. (G.T. Stokes.) NT175 From this passage onward to the bracket in § 23 in chapter 5, is omitted in the Book of Armagh, but is supplied from the Cottonian and other MSS.
NT177 A nutu Dei translated as above by Sir S. Ferguson Nicholson, Olden, etc. Hennessy renders simply “from God.” The Bollandist text has a nuntio Dei.
NT178 The Cottonian MS. is ut esset vingo Christi, et ipsa Deo proximaret, which we have translated. The Bollandists read ut permaneret virgo Christi, et sic Deo proximaret. Hamilton renders the latter “who advised her to remain a virgin of Christ, and thus draw near to God.”
NT179 Lat. simply illud. Hamilton paraphrases, “that grace.”
NT181 Compare 2 Timothy 4:18, but that passage is not directly cited here.
NT182 Lat. a fide. Hamilton, incorrectly, “from my purpose.”
NT183 Romans 8:7. Patrick uses caro inimica; the Vulgate, sapientia carnis inimica.
NT184 The Cottonian MS. has quare vitam: perfectam ego non egi. The Bollandist edition has quod ego vitam perfectam non dedici, curiously rendered by Hamilton “that I have not studied eternal life.”
NT185 2 Timothy 9:8. The Latin is fidem servavi.
NT186 The Latin is novit omnia etiam ante tempora secularia. The last phrase occurs in the Vulg. of 2 Timothy 1:9, whence Archdeacon Hamilton gives a reference to that passage. But the passage in Acts 15:18 is on the whole nearer in meaning, although not quoted here with verbal accuracy.
NT187 Hamilton considers there is some gap here in the narrative, but the supposition is unnecessary.
NT188 Lat. in milia milium. Hamilton renders “on account of many thousands.”
NT189 Literally “on account of my rusticity.” The Latin is propter rusticitatem meam.
NT190 The Cottonian MS. has nunc mihi capit. The Bollandist has nunc mihi sapit, rendered by Hamilton “it is delightful for me.”
NT192 Proverbs 10:1; 15:20, but the Vulgate rendering is there, “a wise son maketh the hither glad.” The Itala version or the passage is not extant.
NT193 Compare 1 Thessalonians 2:10, but the passage is only referred to, not quoted.
NT194 The words are ego fidem illis praestiti (Cott. MS., praestavi ) et praestabo. Hennessy renders: “I have given the faith to them, and I will continue to do so.” And similarly Hamilton.
NT197 Lat. ultronea mumiscula.
NT197b “The screpall was an ancient Celtic coin, value about threepence, weighing twenty-four grains. See Petrie’s Round Towers, p. 214.” (Hennessy.) There is evidently a reference to 1 Samuel 12:3; Kings 12:3 (Douay Version).
NT198 When Patrick made his first journey into Connaught, he bargained for a safe conduct with Endeus, a chief, from the plain of Domnon, near the wood of Fochlut, near Killala, in Mayo. See Tirechan’s account of this incident in the Book of Armagh, printed by Father Hogan in Analecta Bollandiana, 2. 42. Patrick on that occasion paid the price of fifteen slaves for the services of Endeus. (G.T. Stokes.) NT199 The Latin et nihil comprehenderunt me can scarcely be explained with Hennessy to mean “and who understood nothing but (to protect) me.”
For, as Hennessy states in his note, Villanueva reads correctly nihilominus instead of nihil, and must have been understood in the sense of nihilominus by Patrick. The Bollandists also read nihilominus.
NT200 These judges were Brehons. The Brehon law lasted in force till the reign of James I. The Brehon laws have been published by the Government under the guidance of eminent Celtic scholars like Dr.
O’Donovan, Mr. O’Curry, Drs. Ritchie and O’Mahony. Dr. Atkinson, of Trinity College, Dublin, is now at work upon the completion of this great work. Sir Henry Maine, in his Ancient Law, chapter 10, and in other works, gives an interesting account of the provisions of the curious code to which Patrick here refers. (G.T. Stokes.) The Cottonian MS. has illis qui judicabant, but the Bollandists read eis qui indigebant. Hence Hamilton has, “how much I bestowed amongst those who were in distress.”
NT202 Here ends the portion that is added from the Cottonian MS. (See note 25, chapter 4.) The passage quoted is 2 Corinthians 12:15.
NT203 This clause is added from the Cottonian MS. It is not in the Armagh or Bollandist texts.
NT204 Some MSS. “neither have I written to you that there may be an occasion of praise or gain from you.”
NT206 There is an allusion here to 2 Corinthians 12:7, but no quotation.
NT207 1 Corinthians 4:3. The words of the Latin of that passage are here quoted, neque meipsum judico. The word dighum is supplied in square brackets  in the Rolls Tripartite, p. 373, and is supplied, also in brackets, in Nicholson’s text of the Bollandists. But it is quite unnecessary. Hamilton omits the words in his translation.
NT208 From here to end of the second paragraph in § 25 is omitted in the Book of Armagh.
NT210 The Cottonian MS. reads “because,” i.e., quia for qui.
NT215 Other MSS. read: “to lose his people whom I have gained.” Dr.
Whitley Stokes notes that in the Armagh MS. suam is written over meam .
NT216 Lat. lucratus sum enimam cum corpore meo. The context shows that St. Patrick refers to the resurrection, and therefore Hamilton’s translation is incorrect, “that by the loss of my body I should save my soul.”
NT218 The last clause “for of Him,” etc., is omitted in the Cottonian MS., but is found in two MSS.
NT219 Lat. neque permanebit splendor ejus. Hamilton renders “and its splendor shall be dimmed.”
NT220 Lat. in poenam miscri male devenient. Therefore Hamilton’s translation is too strong, “shall perish unceasingly for all eternity.”
NT221 Lat. solem verum Jesum Christum. Not, as Hamilton, “Jesus Christ the true Sun of Justice.”
NT222 Lat. interibit, not, as Hamilton, “never shall go down.”
NT223 Some MSS. omit “as Christ continues for ever.”
NT224 Compare 1 Timothy 5:21, although that passage is not quoted, but imitation here.
NT225 Here end the paragraphs inserted from the Bodleian MSS., but not found in the Book of Armagh.
NT226 The Armagh MS. omits “the will of God.”
NT227 Hennessy has the following note on this paragraph: “This sentence is separate from the text in the Book of Armagh, but seems written by the same hand.—T.O’M. [Thaddeus O’Mahony]. Ware does not give it, but quotes it in a note.”
Patrick writes in morte vivunt, while the New Testament phrase is manet in morte.
Columba was a Scot; he summoned Comgall, the founder of Bangor, and Canice, to help him in preaching the Gospel to the Scottish Picts, recognizing the fact that community in blood and language is a great help towards persuasion. There is a tradition that the Picts of Scotland accepted Christianity before Patrick’s day, but soon fell away again into Paganism. Hence Patrick calls them apostate Picts. See Bede, Hist.
The Gallican and Irish Churches of Patrick’s time used only one unction, either at baptism or confirmation. The Roman Church used unction on both occasions. This was one of the great points of difference between Augustine and the Celtic Church of Britain, in the seventh century. See Hefele’s History of Councils, 3. 160 (Clark’s Translation). “There is a reference to these baptismal customs in the story about the conversion of King Leary’s daughters at the well of Croghan referred to in note 24, chapter 4. (G.T. Stokes.) See the story on p. 90 ff.
NT233 John 8:34. The correct text is, “Whosoever committeth sin is the servant (slave) of sin.” See also verse 44.
NT237 Matthew 18:18, though the quotation is not exact. We cannot agree here with Patrick’s interpretation, and may repeat what we have elsewhere written on the subject. The power given to the Church ( John 20:23) seems to have been simply to declare, by the preaching of the Gospel, forgiveness to all who would believe in Christ. Our Lord’s words were not addressed on that occasion especially or entirely to the apostles, since one apostle was not present, namely, Thomas ( John 20:24); and several who were not apostles, such as Cleophas and his companion ( Luke 24:33-36),—and probably the holy women also,—were in the assembly to which our Lord addressed the words recorded in John 20:23. The substance of the commission then given to the Church is given in general terms in Luke 24:47. (See also Mark 16:16.) According to the usage of Scripture prophets are frequently said to do themselves that which they were commanded to announce that God would bring to pass. (See Kings 19:17; Jeremiah 1:10 ; Hosea 6:5; Revelation 11:5,6.)
The power of binding and loosing, which Patrick here refers to, given to Peter ( Matthew 16:19), and to the other apostles as representatives of the Church ( Matthew 18:18), was that of declaring by the power of the Holy Ghost what ordinances of the law of Moses were binding on Christians, and what had ceased to be so. It is well known that in the phraseology of the Jews, which was common in our Lord’s day, to bind means to declare prohibited, and to loose is to declare lawful or permitted. See Lightfoot, Horae Hebraicae.
NT238 The quotation is from Ecclusticus 34:23,24. It coincides with the Vulgate and Itala, save that the word reprobat in the first verse is used in place of non probat, which we have indicated by substituting “reprobates” for the Douay “approveth not.”
NT240 The quotation is from Hebrews 2:6, but is not exact, though Patrick approximates nearer to the Itala than to the Vulgate.
NT243 That is “by our humble exhortations.”
NT244 Note the imitation here of 2 Corinthians 1:15-17.
NT245 Dr. Whitley Stokes gives the reading of the Cottonian in MS. Numquid amo piam miscricordiam quod ago erga gentem, which is translated above. Hennessy gives the reading of that MS. to be Numquid a me piam miscrordiam quod ago, etc ., which would be, “Was it from myself that pious compassion which I exhibit towards,” etc.
NT246 Decurious formed what we might call the local town councils in every small town and village about the year A.D. 400. The notice of this office constitutes an interesting incidental proof of the authenticity of this Epistle. I have given in my Irelamd and the Celtic Church, p. 37, a full explanation of the office and many references to foreign works on the subject, which need not here be repeated. The same title Decurio, used here by Patrick, occurs twice in Hubner’s volume of British Latin Inscriptions, Nos. 54 and 189. If the Epistle to Coroticus had been forged even a century later, the forger would have known nothing of “decurions,” as the barbarian invaders of the Roman Empire substituted their own local organization in the villages and smaller towns for that of the Romans. See Stubbs’ Constitutional History of England, volume 1, chapter 5. (G.T. Stokes.) On Patrick’s noble birth, and the references to it, see Confession, chapter 4, note 9.
NT247 Quoted from Ecclusticus 34:28, but in that place the sentences are reversed, and participles are employed.
NT248 Compare 2 Corinthians 12:14, which passage evidently was passing through Patrick’s mind.
NT249 See Jeremiah 16:16, comp. are the Confession, § 17.
NT250 Qamobrem injuriam justorum non to placeat etiam usque ad inferos non placebit. Dr. Whitley Stokes refers the pronoun to to God, for he adds Domine within brackets. But the sense given in our translation seems to us more natural. Sir S. Ferguson notes: Ad inferos, equivalent to the Irish use of go brath, to the condemnatory judgment, “forever.”
Nicholson supposes a reference here to Proverbs 17:15. The Bollandist edition reads “he who does not appease Thee (Lord) on account of the injury three to the just, even to the lower regions he will not appease Thee.’
NT251 “The Franks who invaded and conquered Gaul, and from whom it derives its modern name of France, did not embrace Christianity until A.D. 496, and therefore this Epistle, which speaks of them as still Pagans, must have been written before that date.” (Olden.) NT252 So the Cottonian MS. But Nicholson has “to send holy presbyters, suitable men, to the Franks and foreign nations.”
NT253 “The solidus was a gold coin originally worth twenty-five denarii, but in the time of Patrick it was reduced to one-half its value, and was probably worth from seven to eight shillings.” (Olden.) NT254 In this passage again we find another undesigned coincidence proving the authenticity of this letter. The Epistle to Coroticus was written when Patrick was now an old man, and after he had labored for many years. It must have been written in the second half of the fifth century, at which period the northern and eastern part of Gaul were desolated by the invasions of the barbarians. It was then counted a most meritorious work to send contributions to purchase back the Christian captives made by the Pagan invaders. (G.T. Stokes.) NT255 This expression seems to have been a common one with Patrick. It occurs again in the Notes of Muirchu (Rolls edition, p. 288): “I cannot judge, but God will judge,” Non possum judicare sed Deus judicabit.
NT256 Romans 1:32 is here referred to, though not accurately quoted.
Hennessy’s text omits the Biblical quotation, which is given in the Bollandist text. The previous clause is slightly different in the Bollandist edition.
NT257 1 Corinthians 12:26. The quotation, though substantially the same in meaning, agrees with neither the Itala nor the Vulgate.
NT258 This, if not partly a quotation, as is possible, is modeled after Psalm 65:3 (Psalm. 64:3, Douay Version). Patrick’s words are praevaluit iniquitas iniquorum supra nos; those of the Itala and Vulgate, verba iniquorum praevaluerunt supra nos.
NT259 Copied from Psalm 69:8 (58:8, Douay Version).
NT260 Patrick evidently speaks here in the name of his converts. (See the Confession, chapter 1:1, and note 24, p. 125.)
NT261 The passage in Malachi 2:10 was evidently here in the saint’s mind. He connected the thought there with the saying of the Apostle in Ephesians. 4:5,6. It is noteworthy that he refers later in this paragraph also to Malachi. 4:3,4.
NT263 The quotation is composed of phrases from Revelation 21:4,25.
NT264 Taken from Malachi 4:3,4; but the quotation, though substantially the same, does not entirely agree with the Vulgate. It is much nearer to the Itala version, which is: et salietis sicut vituli de vinculis relaxati, et conculcabitis iniquos, et erunt cinis subter pedes vestros. Patrick’s version is: exultabitis sicut vituli ex vinculis resoluti, et conculcabitis iniquos, et erunt cinis sub pedibus vestris.
NT265 Revelation 22:15, but the quotation is not exam.
NT266 Revelation 21:8, slightly altered.
NT267 The passage quoted is 1 Peter 4:18, but the quotation is a free one.
NT268 So the Cotton. MS. Nicholson and Sir S. Ferguson, with other MSS., read the whole clause: “who distribute baptized women and the spoils of orphans among their most depraved satellites.” Dr. Whitley Stokes inserts this in his text within brackets.
NT269 Nicholson has rendered the clause, quod ego Latinum expesui, as in our version; but in p. 168 of his work he has explained it to mean “which I have translated into Latin,” and he draws the conclusion from thence that Patrick did not use a Latin translation of the Bible, but translated the passage from the Greek. The conclusion is, however, questionable (see re marks on p. 77), for the Latin may well be interpreted to mean “which I have explained,” i.e., I have explained in this Epistle the purport of the Scriptures quoted.
NT270 Psalm 60:6 (59:8, Douay Version ).
NT271 The original is here “rex regum, dominus dominantium,” which is an exact quotation (et only being omitted) of the Vulgate rendering of Revelation 19:16.
NT272 The phrase here employed, “arbiter onmis seculi,” conveys a deep thought, if we could regard the writer as fully conscious of the difference in meaning between the Latin words “arbiter” and “judex,” the former of which signifies one who gives judgment according to what is right and equitable, the latter, one who judges according to strict law.
NT273 The expression, “magister gentibus,” here employed is somewhat peculiar.
NT274 “Vita perpetua.”
NT275 “Laetitia in veritate.”
NT276 “Tu es exultatio in aeterna patria.”
NT277 The original is here “lux lucis,” which must be distinguished from the Latin “lumen de lumine,” used as the translation of the expression in the Nicene Creed, fw~v ejk fwto>v, which conveys the idea of Christ as the Light proceeding from the Father, the fountain of light.
NT280 Lat. “in onmi corde.”
NT281 Lat. “multiplicata sunt delicta mea super me.” Such passages as Isaiah. 59:12 and Psalm 40:12 may have been in the writer’s mind, but there is no actual quotation of Scripture.
NT282 Lat. “per nos.”
NT283 The Latin here is “et quod velle nos dicimus, nostris actibus adprobamus.” M. Berger suggests that nos is a mistake for non. We have followed his suggestion in the translation above, but with some hesitation.
NT285 Lat. “qui ex nobis duro corde verba non suscipis.”
NT287 The Latin here is faulty, “ego peccavi in caelo et in terra et coram to.”
The Vulgate in Luke 15:21 has correctly “peccavi in coelum et coram to.”
NT288 Lat. “luxoriam” instead of “luxuriam.”
NT289 Lat. “peccavi per fornicationem et per gulam.”
NT290 Lat. “peccavi per instabilitatem mentis fidel et per dubietatis impietatem.”
NT291 Lat. “peccavi per vagationem et per discretionem mentis meae.” In late Latin “discretio” is sometimes used in the meaning of judgment, perhaps here with the idea of straining after matters too high. Comp.
NT292 The MS. has “per observationem.” M. Berger corrects “per [in] observationem.’
NT293 The Latin is, “per amissionem bonorum constitutorum.”
NT294 The Latin is, “per accidiam vanam et per stuporem mentis.” “Accidia,” more correctly spelled “acedia” (see Du Cange’s Glossarium med et infimae Latin), is the Greek [GREEK], loss of care, and then grief, or melancholy, sometimes arising from ennui. Jerome explains “acedia” as a disease common among monks.
NT295 Compare the references to spells and other divinations of that kind in the Hymn of St. Patrick.
NT296 Lat. “per scrutationem Majestatis Dei.”
NT297 Lat. “per dominici diei operationes et per inlecebr[os]as cogitationes.”
So M. Berger correct the MS. reading.
NT299 Lat. “et per amorem pecuniae;” comp. 1 Timothy 6:10, but the Vulgate has there “cupiditas” and not “ator pecuniae.”
NT300 Lat. “per commessationem.”
NT301 Compare the story of St. Patrick having refused the honey offered in sacrifice to false gods, as told in his Confession, at p. 44.
NT302 Lat. “sed habeo to sacerdotem summum ad quem confiteor omnia peccata mea.”
NT303 Lat. “Id tibi soli, Deus meus.”
NT305 Lat. “fletum.”
NT307 Compare St. Patrick’s references to the devil in the Epistle to Coroticus, pp. 68 and 69.
NT308 Lat. “doctrinam meam.”
FOOTNOTES FT1 These expectations were not wholly unfulfilled. Four thousand copies of an 8vo. edition in pica type, published at sixpence sewn, and one shilling in cloth, were disposed of in a little more than eighteen months.
This in itself must be regarded as a very creditable fact. But the price at which the work had been issued was unremunerative, and although a sum of L30 was subscribed in answer to an appeal by the Irish Branch of the Evangelical Alliance that sum was wholly insufficient to print successive editions of the work, and to meet other necessary expenses.
FT2 St. Patricii qui Hibernos ad fidem Christi convertit adscripta Opuscula. Opera et studio J. Waraei, Eq. Aur. Lond. 1656.
FT3 Sancti Patricii, Ibernorum Apostoli. Synodi, Canones, Opuscula et Scriptorum qui supersunt Fragmenta: scholiis illustr, a Joachimo Laurentio Villanueva, Presbyt. Dublini apud R. Graisberry, 1835.
FT4 Tirechan is said to have written his Collections of matters connected with St. Patrick “from the lips or book” of Ultan (died 656), whose pupil he was. This Ultan was (A.D. 652). Bishop of Clonard, which in later times formed part of the diocese of Meath. The Collections of Tirechan form part of the miscellaneous matter contained in the MS. known as the Book of Armagh. According to Tirechan, four special honors were to be paid to him in all the monasteries and churches of Ireland. 1. The festival of St. Patrick’s death, though in Lent (March 17), was to be celebrated by three days’ festivities, during which all kinds of good food and flesh meat might lawfully be partaken of. 2.
There a special mass was to be offered up in his honor on that clay (offertorium ejus proprium in eodem die immolari). 3. The hymn of Secundinus, written in honor of St. Patrick, was to be sung during the whole time. 4. At all times of the year they were to sing Patrick’s Irish hymn (canticum ejus scotticum semper canere). See Dr. Whitley Stokes, Tripartite Life of St. Patrick, p. 333.
FT5 It was on this occasion that St. Patrick is related, in the later legend, to have illustrated the doctrine of the Trinity by the three leaves united into one in the shamrock. Dr. Fowler, in his edition of Adamnan’s Life of S. Columba (p. 33.), observes on the latter point: “The use of the trefoil as an emblem in Ireland is very ancient, but probably of pagan origin. None of the early or mediaeval Lives, however, connect it with St. Patrick, and the legend seems not to be found earlier than A.D. 1600. It is not mentioned by Colgan, who wrote in 1647.”
FT6 St. Patrick, Apostle of Ireland: A Menoir of his Life and Mission, with an Introductory Dissertation on some early usages of the Church in Ireland, and its historical position from the establishment of the English Colony to the present day. By James Henthorn Todd, D.D., Senior Fellow of Trinity College, Regius Prof. of Hebrew in the University, and Treasurer of St. Patrick’s Cathedral, Dublin. Dublin: Hodges, Smith & Co. 1864.
FT7 Life of St. Patrick, Apostle of Ireland. By M. F. Cusack, London:
Longroans, Green & Co. 1871.
FT8 The Tripartite Life of St. Patrick, with other Documents relating to that Saint. Edited with Translations and Indexes by Whitley Stokes, D.C.L., LL.D., Hon. Fellow of Jesus College, Oxford. Parts I. and II. London.
Published under the direction of the Master of the Rolls, by Eyre and Spottiswoode. 1887.
FT10 See Dr. Todd’s St. Patrick, p. 347.
FT11 St. Patrick: Apostle of Ire/and in the Third Century; The story of his mission by Pope Celestine in A.D. 431, and of his connection with the Church of Rome proved to be a mere fiction: with an Appendix containing his Confession and Epistle to Coroticus translated into English. By R. Steele Nicholson, M.A., T.C.D. Dublin: McGlashan and Gill, 1868. Mr. Nicholson’s hypothesis that Patrick lived in the third century is incidentally disproved by several of the historical points noticed by Professor G. T. Stokes in his notes.
FT12 The Epistles and Hymn of St. Patrick, with the Contemporary Poem in his Praise by Secundinus, translated into English. Edited by Revelation Thomas Olden, M.A., M.R.I.A., Vicar of Ballyclough. Third Edition, revised. London: Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge. 1894.
FT13 The Confession of St. Patrick; or, St. Patrick’s Epistle to the Irish People in The Third Century. Translated from copies of MSS. in the British Museum and the Bodleian Library at Oxford. With Introduction and Appendix by A. F. Foster. Glasgow: Printed at the University Press by Robert Maclehose, 153, West Nile Street. Mr. Foster has in many places not at all closely followed the original text.
Since the death of Sir S. Ferguson, a later edition has been issued by Lady Ferguson.
FT15 Evangeliorum Versio Antehieronymiana ex Codice Usseriano (Dublinensi), adjecta collatione Codicis Usseriani Alterius. Accedit Versio Vulgata sec. Cod. Amiatinum, cure varietate Cod. Kenanensis (Book of Kells), et Cod. Durmachenis (Book of Durrow). Edidit et praefatus est T. K. Abbott, S. T. B, Coll. SS. Trin. juxta Dublin, e Sociis; Linguae Hebraicae et Linguae Graecae Bibl. apud Dublinen Professor. 2 vols, Lond., 1884.
FT16 It may be interesting as a proof of Patrick’s love for the Scriptures to call attention to the remarkable reliquary known as the Domnachairgid, or ‘the silver shrine’ which enclosed a copy of the Four Gospels in Latin, presented, according to the Tripartite Life, by Patrick to Aedh MacCarthenn of Clogher. The shrine and the manuscript it contained (which long belonged to the Monastery of Clones) are now among the most prized treasures of the Royal Irish Academy. The MS. is unfortunately for the most part a solid opaque mass; portions of it, however, are still legible. It is highly probable that it was the veritable copy used by Patrick himself during his devotions. The “shrine” is described by Dr. Petrie in volume 18, of the Transactions of the Royal Irish Academy, where several plates are given of its sides. Facsimiles of the leaves which have been opened are given in Gilbert’s Facsimiles of the National MSS. of Ireland, Part 1. 1874, as well as in Eugene O’Curry’s Lectures on Manuscript Materials of Ancient Irish History.
Dublin: Duffy, 1861. The subject is referred to in Miss Cusack’s St.
Patrick, p. 431.
FT17 The original of Secundinus’ Hymn is given in Dr. Whitley Stokes’ work, pp. 386-389, with various documents connected therewith. A good English translation with illustrative notes is given in Olden’s little work, note in our Introduction, p. 23.
Christian Knowledge Society, 1890. A very good account of St.
Patrick and his times is contained in Dr. J. T. Fowler’s (Vice-Principal of Bishop Hatfield’s Hall, Durham), Introduction to his valuable work, Adamnavi Vita S. Columbae, edited from Dr. Reeves’s text, with an Introduction on early Irish Church History, notes, and a glossary.
Oxford: At the Clarendon Press, 1894. Dr. Fowler’s notes upon the legend of St. Patrick’s driving out the snakes from Ireland, on that of the shamrock (which is not mentioned earlier than A.D. 1600), and in reference to the relics of the saint, such as his bell and crozier, are all interesting.
FT19 The figures refer to the notes at the end of the book.
FT20 The figures in the text refer to the notes at the end of the book.
FT21 2 Chronicles 29:10.
FT22 Psalms 112:15.
FT23 Revelation 3:21.
FT24 Philippians 2:9-11.
FT25 Acts 10:42.
FT26 Romans 2:6.
FT27 Titus 3:6.
FT28 Romans 8:17.
FT29 Psalm 1:15.
FT30 Tobit 12:7.
FT31 Psalm 5:6.
FT32 Wisdom 1:11.
FT33 Matthew 12:36.
FT34 Ecclusticus 4:29.
FT35 Isaiah 32:4.
FT36 Acts 13:47.
FT37 2 Corinthians 3:3.
FT38 Ecclusticus 7:15.
FT40 Romans 12:3.
FT41 2 Thessalonians 2:16.
FT42 Matthew 10:20.
FT43 1 John 3:16.
FT44 Romans 8:26.
FT46 Zechariah 2. 8.
FT48 Romans 8:11.
FT49 Romans 12:10.
FT50 Psalm 34:7.
FT51 2 Samuel 7:18.
FT52 2 Corinthians 1:26.
FT53 Romans 15:9.
FT54 2 Corinthians 12:9,10.
FT55 Matthew 24:14.
FT56 Psalm 39:4.
FT57 1 Corinthians 15:10.
FT58 Jeremiah 16:19.
FT60 Matthew 8:11.
FT61 Matthew 4:19.
FT62 Jeremiah 16:16.
FT63 Matthew 28:19,20.
FT64 Mark 16:15,16.
FT65 Matthew 24:14.
FT68 Acts 20:22.
FT69 Acts 20:23.
FT70 James 4:15.
FT72 Romans 7:24.
FT73 Romans 8:7.
FT74 2 Timothy 4:8.
FT75 Acts 15:18.
FT76 Comp. 1 Thessalonians 5:17,18.
FT80 Comp. 2 Corinthians 6:3 ff.
FT84 Galatians 1:20.
FT85 2 Corinthians 12:7.
FT86 2 Corinthians 8:9.
FT87 1 Corinthians 4:3.
FT88 Revelation 2:10.
FT89 Psalm 55:22.
FT90 1 Peter 4:19.
FT92 <19B612> Psalm 116:12.
FT94 Matthew 20:22,23.
FT95 Hosea 1:10.
FT96 Romans 8:17.
FT97 Romans 8:29.
FT98 Romans 11:36.
FT99 1 John 2:17.
FT100 1 Timothy 5:21.
FT101 Lat. inter barbaras, which must either be corrected into barbaros, as we have done, or the word gentes, nations, supplied, as by Dr. W.
FT102 John 8:34.
FT103 John 8:44.
FT104 Acts 20:29.
FT107 Ecclusticus 34:23,24.
FT108 Job 20:15,16.
FT109 Matthew 3:12.
FT110 Matthew 16:26.
FT111 Exodus 20:13.
FT112 1 John 3:15.
FT113 1 John 3:14.
FT114 Comp. 2 Corinthians 1:15-17.
FT115 John 4:44.
FT116 Matthew 12:30.
FT117 2 Corinthians 12:14.
FT118 Jeremiah 16:16.
FT119 Comp. Acts 20:29.
FT120 Romans 1:23.
FT121 Romans 12:15.
FT122 1 Corinthians 12:26.
FT123 Comp. Psalm 65:3.
FT124 Psalm 69:8.
FT125 Comp. Ephesians 4:5.
FT126 Malachi 2:10.
FT127 Revelation 21:4,25.
FT128 Matthew 8:11.
FT129 Revelation 22:15.
FT130 Revelation 21:8.
FT131 1 Peter 4:18.
FT132 Mark 16:16.
FT133 Psalm 60:6.
FT134 Cliabach. (Trip. ) FT135 Cruachan. (Trip. ) FT136 “Loegaire, son of Niall.” (Trip. ) FT137 “to wash their hands.” (Trip. ) FT138 “the maidens found beside the well the assembly of clerics in white garments with their books before them.” (Trip. ) FT139 “And they wondered at the shape of the clerics, and thought that they were men of the elves or apparitions.” (Trip. ) Dr. Whitley Stokes’ note on Tirechan is, “Firu side , ‘males of the side ’ or terrestrial gods, corresponding, perhaps, with the qeoi cqo>nioi or Inferi.”
FT140 The questions are somewhat transposed in the Tripartite Life, but are substantially identical.
FT141 This is a conjectural translation. The Latin is [lunae] lumen noctis ad [MS. et ] notitias valat.
FT142 The white garment of baptism worn for eight days by the newlybaptized in the ancient church. See Coroticus, p. 68. Some Roman Catholic writers have endeavored to explain this that the virgins took the veil, but that is not the meaning. See Dr. Todd’s St. Patrick, p. 456.
FT144 The translator has here taken an unwarranted liberty with the hymn, which does not contain any reference to the Virgin Mary. The term “immaculate” is, of course, highly objectionable, as introducing an epithet which would be interpreted by all as referring to the novel dogma of the immaculate conception. The term “immaculate” might in itself be defensible in the loose sense of “stainless,” i.e., one whose life was pure and unspotted