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1. Also an elder (sumpresbuterov). Only here in New Testament. Better, as Rev., fellow-elder. The expression is decisive against the primacy of Peter.
Witness (martuv). The word is used in the New Testament to denote:
(a) a spectator or eye-witness (Acts x. 39; 6;13).
The first three meetings run into each other. The eye-witness, as a spectator, is always such with a view to giving testimony. Hence this expression of Peter cannot be limited to the mere fact of his having seen what he preached; especially since, when he wishes to emphasize this fact, he employs another word, ejpopothv (2 Pet. i. 16). Therefore he speaks of himself as a witness, especially in the sense of being called to testify of what he has seen.
2. Feed (poimanate). Better, Rev., tend, since the verb denotes all that is included in the office of a shepherd - guiding, guarding, folding, no less than feeding, which latter is expressed by boskw. There is, doubtless, a reminiscence in the word of Christ's charge to Peter (John xxi. 15-17). Both words are used there: "Feed (boske) my lambs" (ver. 15); "tend (poimaine) my sheep" (ver. 16); "feed (boske) my sheep" (ver. 17). The A.V. obliterates the distinction by rendering all three feed. Bengel rightly remarks, "Feeding is part of tending." See on Matt. ii. 6.
Taking the oversight. The best texts omit. Rev. retains.
By constraint (anagkastwv). Only here in New Testament.
Willingly (ekousiwv). Only here and Heb. x. 26.
For filthy lucre (eiscrokerdwv). From aijscrov, disgraceful, and kerdov, gain. Only here in New Testament. The word filthy is intended to convey the idea which lies in aijscrov, base or dishonorable; becoming such if it is made the motive of the minister's service. Compare 2 Corinthians xii. 14.
Willingly (proqumwv). Not strong enough. The word is compounded of pro, forward, and qumov, heart or spirit. Hence Rev., with a ready mind; a forward spirit; denoting not mere willingness, but zeal. Only here in New Testament. Compare the kindred adjective proqumov, ready (Romans i. 15; Matt. xxvi. 41; Mark xiv. 38), and the kindred noun proqumia, readiness (2 Cor. viii. 11, 12, 19; ix. 2).
3. As lording it (katakurieuontev). See Matthew 20;25; Acts xix. 16. Other words are used for the exercise of legitimate authority in the church; proistamai, to be over (1 Thess. v. 12; 1 Tim. v. 17); poimainw, as ver. 2, tend. But this carries the idea of high-handed rule. Heritage (klhrwn). Plural. Klhrov means a lot. See on inheritance, ch. i. 4. From the kindred adjective klhrikov comes the English cleric, contracted into clerk, which in ecclesiastical writings originally signified a minister; either as being chosen by lot like Matthias, or as being the lot or inheritance of God. Hence Wycliffe translates the passage, "neither as having lordship in the clergie." As in the Middle Ages the clergy were almost the only persons who could write, the word clerk came to have one of its common modern meanings. The word here, though its interpretation is somewhat disputed, seems to refer to the several congregations - the lots or charges assigned to the elders. Compare proseklhrwqhsan, were added as disciples; A.V., consorted with (Acts xvii. 4). Rev. renders charge.
Why not charges?
Examples (tupoi). Peter uses three different terms for a pattern or model: uJpogrammov, a writing-copy (ch. ii. 21); uJpodeigma, for which classical writers prefer paradeigma, an architect's plan or a sculptor's or painter's model (2 Pet. ii. 6); tupov (see on ch. iii. 21), of which our word type is nearly a transcript. The word primarily means the impression left by a stroke (tuptw, to strike). Thus John xx. 25, "the print of the nails." Used of the stamp on coin; the impression of any engraving or hewn work of art; a monument or statue; the figures of the tabernacle of Moloch and of the star Remphan (Acts vii. 43). Generally, an image or form, always with a statement of the object; and hence the kindred meaning of a pattern or model. See Acts xxiii. 25; Rom. v. 14; Philip. iii. 17; Heb. viii. 5.
4. The chief Shepherd (arcipoimenov). Only here in New Testament. In harmony with ver. 2. "The last thing Peter could have dreamed of as possible would be its misapplication to himself or his so-called successors" (Cook). Compare Heb. xiii. 20, great Shepherd; and John x. 11, 14, good Shepherd. Also, Ezek. xxxiv. 15, 16, 23.
Crown (stefanon). From stefw, to put round, encircle. It is the crown of victory in the games; of military valor; the marriage wreath, or the festal garland, woven of leaves or made of gold in imitation of leaves. Thus it is distinguished from the royal crown, which is diadhma, of which diadem is a transcript. In Paul, stefanov is always used of the conqueror's crown, not of the king's (1 Cor. ix. 24-26; 2 Tim. ii. 5). Though it is urged that Peter would not have employed a reference to the crown of the victors in the games, because of the abhorrence of the Palestinian Jews for heathen spectacles, yet the reference to the crown of leaves seems to be determined by the epithet unfading, as compared with garlands of earthly leaves. The crown of thorns woven for Jesus is called stefanov, with reference rather to its being twined than to its being a caricature of a kingly crown.
5. Be clothed with humility (thn tapeinofrosunhn egkombwsasqe). The last word is a very peculiar one, occurring only here. It is derived from kombov, a roll, band, or girth: a knot or roll of cloth, made in tying or tucking up any part of the dress. The kindred word ejgkombwma, from which the verb is directly formed, means a slave's apron, under which the loose garments were girt up. Compare Horace's "puer alte cinctus," a slave girt high. Hence the figure carries an exhortation to put on humility as a working virtue employed in ministry. This is apparent from the evident reminiscence of that scene in which Peter figured so prominently - the washing of the disciple's feet by the Lord, when he girded himself with a towel as a servant, and gave them the lesson of ministry both by word and act. Bengel paraphrases, "Put on and wrap yourselves about with humility, so that the covering of humility cannot possibly be stripped from you."
Resisteth (antitassetai). A strong and graphic word. Lit., setteth himself in array against, as one draws out a host for battle. Pride calls out God's armies. No wonder, therefore, that it "goeth before destruction." The proud (uperhfanoiv). See on pride, Mark vii. 22. Compare Jas. iv. 6. To the humble. See on Matt. xi. 29.
6. Mighty hand (krataian ceira). A phrase found nowhere else in the New Testament, but occurring in the Septuagint, Exod. iii. 19; Deut. iii. 24; Job xxx. 21. The adjective kratrian, mighty, is, moreover, used only here. Compare Luke i. 51, 52.
All your care (pasan thn merimnan). The whole of your care. "Not every anxiety as it arises, for none will arise if this transference has been effectually made." Care. See on Matt. vi. 25, take no thought. Rev., rightly, anxiety.
He careth (melei). Meaning the watchful care of interest and affection. The sixth and seventh verses should be taken together: Humble yourselves and cast all your anxiety. Pride is at the root of most of our anxiety. To human pride it is humiliating to cast everything upon another and be cared for. See Jas. iv. 6, 7.
8. Be sober (nhyate). See on ch. iv. 7.
Be vigilant (grhgorhsate). Rev., be watchful. See on Mark xiii. 35; and 1 Thessalonians v. 6, where both verbs occur: watch and be sober. A reminiscence of the scene in Gethsemane: Could ye not watch with me? (Matt. xxvi. 40, 41).
Adversary (o antidikov). The article points to a well-known adversary. From ajnti, against, and dikh, a lawsuit. Strictly, an adversary in a lawsuit. Here an adversary in general. Compare Zech. iii. 1-5. Only here, in New Testament, of Satan.
The devil. See on Matt. iv. 1.
Roaring (wruomenov). Only here in New Testament. The word conveys somewhat of the sense by the sound (oruomenos). It denotes especially the howl of a beast in fierce hunger.
Lion. Augustine says, "Christ is called 'a lion' (Apoc. v. 5) because of his courage: the devil, because of his ferocity. The one lion comes to conquer, the other to hurt." Seven Hebrew words are used for this animal; six to describe his movements and four to describe his roar. He is mentioned in the Bible about one hundred and thirty times. In Job iv. 10, 11, give different words are used for him. In Judg. xiv. 5; Ps. xxi. 13; ciii. 21 (Sept.), the same word as here is used for the roaring of the lion as a translation of the Hebrew word for the thunder in Job xxxvii. 4. Walketh about (peripatei). Compare Job i. 7; ii. 2. This word gave name to that sect of Greek philosophers known as Peripatetics, because they walked about while teaching or disputing. "St. Peter calls Satan the Peripatetic" (Cox, on Job). The Arabs call him the Busy One. It was to Peter that Christ said, "Satan hath desired to have you," etc. (Luke xxii. 31). Devour (katapih). Lit., swallow down. See on Matt. xxiii. 24.
9. Resist (antisthte). The Rev., very judiciously, substitutes withstand; resist having been already used in ver. 5 for ajntitassetai. Withstand is, moreover, the more accurate rendering; as the verb means rather to be firm against onset than to strive against it. With in withstand is the Saxon wid, against, which appears in the German wider.
Steadfast (stereoi). Compare 2 Tim. ii. 19; and the kindred verb stereow, to strengthen (Acts iii. 7, 16; xvi. 5). Paul, in Col. ii. 5, uses a cognate noun, sterewma, evidently as a military metaphor: "Beholding your order (taxin, compare ajntitassetai, ver. 5) and your solid front or close phalanx" (sterewma). It might be difficult to find, on the whole, a better rendering than steadfast, yet it falls a little short of the meaning. Steadfast is Anglo-Saxon, stede, a place, and faest, fast; and hence means firm in its place; but stereoi conveys also the sense of compactness, compact solidity, and is appropriate, since a number of individuals are addressed and exhorted to withstand the onset of Satan as one compacted body. Stereov implies solidity in the very mass and body of the thing itself; steadfastness, mere holding of place. A rock is stereov, firm, solid; but a flexible weed with its tough root resisting all efforts to pull it up, may be steadfast. The exhortation is appropriate from Peter, the Rock. The same afflictions (ta auta twn paqhmatwn). Rev., better, sufferings. A very peculiar construction, occurring nowhere else in the New Testament. Lit., the same things of sufferings, emphasizing the idea of identity.
Are accomplished (epiteleisqai). More correctly, are being accomplished. The present infinitive denotes something in process of accomplishment.
Brethren (adelfothti). Lit., brotherhood. Only here and ch. ii. 17.
10. Who hath called us (o kalesav hmav). But the tense is the aorist, and the true reading is uJmav, you, instead of us. Render, therefore, as Rev., who called you; before the foundation of the world. See Rom. viii. 29, 30, and compare unto his eternal glory and them he also glorified.
By Christ Jesus (en Cristw Ihsou). The best texts omit Jesus. So Rev., which also renders, better, in Christ, denoting the sphere or element in which the calling and its results take place: "Christ as the life, head, and very principle of all existence to the Christian" (Cook).
Awhile (olifon). Rev., more literally, a little while. See on ch. i. 6. Make you perfect, etc. The Tex. Rec. makes this and the three following verbs in the optative mood, expressing a wish. So the A.V. But the best texts make them all indicative future, and thus convert the wish or prayer into an assurance. Thus, then, Shall himself perfect (autov katartisei). The A.V. overlooks the aujtov, himself, which is very significant as indicating God's personal interest and energy in the work of confirming his children.
Shall perfect. Rev. reads restore, in margin. The root of this word appears in arw or ajrariskw, to fit or join together. So arqron means a joint. The radical notion of the verb is, therefore, adjustment - the putting of all the parts into right relation and connection. We find it used of mending the nets (Matt. iv. 21), and of restoring an erring brother (Gal. vi. 1); of framing the body and the worlds (Hebrew x. 5; xi. 3); of the union of members in the church (1 Cor. i. 10; 2 Cor. xiii. 11). Out of this comes the general sense of perfecting (Matt. xxi. 16; Luke vi. 40; 1 Thessalonians iii. 10).
Shall stablish (sthrixei). The word is akin at the root to stereov, steadfast (ver. 9), and is the very word used by Christ in his exhortation to Peter, "strengthen thy brethren" (Luke xxii. 32). Possibly there is a reminiscence of this in Peter's use of the word here. Compare 1 Thessalonians iii. 13; 2 Thess. ii. 17; Jas. v. 8; Apoc. iii. 2. Shall strengthen (sqenwsei). Only here in New Testament. Compare Eph. iii. 16.
Shall settle (qemeliwsei). Omitted by some texts, and by Rev. From qemeliov, a foundation. The radical notion of the word is, therefore, to ground securely. It occurs in Matt. vii. 25, of the house founded on a rock; in Heb. i. 10, of laying the foundations of the earth. In Ephesians iii. 18, it is joined with rooted. The massings of these expressions, unconnected by conjunctions, indicates strong feeling. Bengel thus sums up the whole: "Shall perfect, that no defect remain in you: shall stablish, that nothing may shake you: shall strengthen, that you may overcome every adverse force. A saying worthy of Peter. He is strengthening his brethren."
A faithful brother. Brother has the definite article, the faithful brother, designating him as one well known for his fidelity. Rev. renders our, with the in margin.
Unto you. Construe, not as A.V., a brother unto you, but I have written unto you. So Rev. As I suppose (wv logizomai). Too feeble, since the verb denotes a settled persuasion or assurance. See Rom. iii. 28, "we conclude" or reckon, as the result of our reasoning. Compare Rom. viii. 18; Heb. xi. 19. Rev., as I account him.
I have written (egraya). Lit., I wrote. An example of what is known as the epistolary aorist. The writer regards the time of writing as his correspondent will do when he shall have received the letter. We say in a letter, I write. Paul, writing to Philemon, says ajnepemya, I sent; since to Philemon the act of sending would be already past. Therefore in using this form of expression Peter does not refer to the second epistle, not to another now lost, but to the present epistle.
Testifying (epimarturwn). Only here in New Testament. See on ver. 1. Wherein ye stand (eiv hn esthkate). The best texts read sthte, imperative. So Rev., stand ye fast therein. Lit., "into which stand," the preposition with the verb having the pregnant force of entering into and standing fast in.
13. The church. The word is not in the Greek, but is supplied with the feminine definite article hJ. There is, however, a difference of opinion as to the meaning of this feminine article. Some suppose a reference to Peter's own wife; others, to some prominent Christian woman in the church. Compare 2 John 1. The majority of interpreters, however, refer it to the church.
Babylon. Some understand in a figurative sense, as meaning Rome; others, literally, of Babylon on the Euphrates. In favor of the former view are the drift of ancient opinion and the Roman Catholic interpreters, with Luther and several noted modern expositors, as Ewald and Hoffmann. This, too, is the view of Canon Cook in the "Speaker's Commentary." In favor of the literal interpretation are the weighty names of Alford, Huther, Calvin, Neander, Weiss, and Reuss. Professor Salmond, in his admirable commentary on this epistle, has so forcibly summed up the testimony that we cannot do better than to give his comment entire: "In favor of this allegorical interpretation it is urged that there are other occurrences of Babylon in the New Testament as a mystical name for Rome (Revelation xiv. 8; xviii. 2, 10); that it is in the highest degree unlikely that Peter should have made the Assyrian Babylon his residence or missionary center, especially in view of a statement by Josephus indicating that the Emperor Claudius had expelled the Jews from that city and neighborhood; and that tradition connects Peter with Rome, but not with Babylon. The fact, however, that the word is mystically used in a mystical book like the Apocalypse - a book, too, which is steeped in the spirit and terminology of the Old Testament - is no argument for the mystical use of the word in writings of a different type. The allegorical interpretation becomes still less likely when it is observed that other geographical designations in this epistle (ch. i. 1) have undoubtedly the literal meaning. The tradition itself, too, is uncertain. The statement in Josephus does not bear all that it is made to bear. There is no reason to suppose that, at the time when this epistle was written, the city of Rome was currently known among Christians as Babylon. On the contrary, wherever it is mentioned in the New Testament, with the single exception of Revelation (and even there it is distinguished as 'Babylon, the great'), it gets its usual name, Rome. So far, too, from the Assyrian Babylon being practically in a deserted state at this date, there is very good ground for believing that the Jewish population (not to speak of the heathen) of the city and vicinity was very considerable. For these and other reasons a succession of distinguished interpreters and historians, from Erasmus and Calvin, on to Neander, Weiss, Reuss, Huther, etc., have rightly held by the literal sense." Marcus. Rev., Mark. John Mark, the author of the gospel. See Introduction to Mark, on his relations to Peter.
My son. Probably in a spiritual sense, though some, as Bengel, think that Peter's own son is referred to.
14. Kiss of charity. Compare 1 Cor. xvi. 20.