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Christian salvation, having been presented as lordship over the world to come, and as deliverance from the fear of death, is now to be presented as participation in the rest of God. The purpose of vers. 1-11 is to confirm the hope of that rest, and to warn against forfeiting it. There is a possibility of your forfeiting it. The rest of God was proclaimed to your forefathers, but they did not enter into it because of their unbelief. It has been proclaimed to you. You may fail as did they, and for the same reason.
1. Being left (kataleipomenhv). Still remaining: not being neglected. It is not a reason for fearing that is given, but a circumstance connected with the thing to be avoided. As there is now left a promise, let us fear. Being left announces the thought which is afterward emphasized, and on which the whole treatment of the subject turns - that God's original promise of rest remains unchanged, and still holds good. Such being the case, he who doubts the promise itself, or thinks that it is too late for him to enjoy its fulfillment, runs a risk.
Should seem to come short (dokh usterhkenai). According to this rendering, the meaning is that one must avoid the appearance of having failed to enter into the rest; the perfect tense (usterhkenai) placing the reader at the parousia, when judgment will be pronounced. This is forced, tame, and irrelevant to the previous discussion. Rend. lest any one of you think he has come too late for it. This accords with the previous admonitions against unbelief. For one to think that he has come too late to inherit the promise is to disbelieve an immutable promise of God. Hence the writer may well say, "Since this promise remains, let us fear to distrust it." JUsterein is to be behind; to come late; to come short; hence, to suffer need, as Philip. iv. 12; of material deficiency, Luke xv. 14; John ii. 3; of moral and spiritual shortcoming, Rom. iii. 23; 1 Corinthians viii. 8; Heb. xii. 15.
2. For unto us was the gospel preached (kai gar esmen euhggelismenoi). Lit. we have had good tidings proclaimed to us. The translation of the A.V. is unfortunate, since it conveys the technical and conventional idea of preaching the gospel, which is entirely out of place here. The reference is to the special announcement of the rest of God; the glad tidings that God has provided a rest for his people. This announcement was made to the fathers, and signified to them the promise of the rest in Canaan. It has been proclaimed to us, and to us is the announcement of the heavenly rest. The emphasis is on the entire statement, "we have had the good tidings proclaimed to us," rather than on we as contrasted with they.
The word preached (o logov thv akohv). Lit. the word of the message. See on 1 Thess. ii. 13.
Not being mixed with faith in them that heard it (mh sunkekerasmenouv th pistei toiv akousasin). Rend. because not incorporated by faith in them that heard. 182 A body of obedient hearers with whom the erring Israelites were not incorporated would be an idea foreign to the discussion. Moreover, in ch. iii. 16, the writer has declared that there were practically no believing hearers. He says that although the good tidings were announced to them, they did not profit them. The word did not profit them because it (the word) was not assimilated by faith in those that heard. They did not make the promise of rest their own. Their history was marked by continual renewals and rejections of the promise.
3. For we which have believed do enter into rest (eisercomeqa gar eiv thn katapausin oi pisteusantev). I say by faith, for, we believers, who embraced the Christian faith when it was offered to us (note the aorist participle), do enter into the rest. jEisercomeqa categorical; not are entering or are on the way to, but entering into the rest is a fact which characterizes us as believers.
As he said (kaqwv eirhken). We enter in accordance with the saying which follows.
As I have sworn - if they shall enter. The statement is somewhat obscure. The meaning is, we (who believed) enter into rest in accordance with God's declaration that they (who did not believe) should not enter. The point is faith as the condition of entering into the rest.
Although the works were finished (kaitoi twn ergwn genhqentwn). This is an awkward and indirect way of saying, "these unbelievers did not enter into God's rest, although he had provided that rest into which they might have entered." The providing of the rest is implied in the completion of God's works. The writer assumes the readers' acquaintance with the narrative of the creation in Genesis.
4. What was implied in the preceding verse is now stated.
5. In this place (en toutw). The passage already cited, ver. 3. It is cited again to show that the rest was not entered into.
It remaineth that some must enter therein (apoleipetai tinav eiselqein eiv authn). jApoleipetai "remains over from past times." The promise has not been appropriated. It must be appropriated in accordance with God's provision. The rest was not provided for nothing. God's provision of a rest implies and involves that some enter into it. But the appropriation is yet in the future. It remains that some enter in. They to whom it was first preached (oi proteron euaggelisqentev). Lit. they who were first the subjects of the announcement of the glad tidings. It is desirable to avoid the word preached. See on ver. 2. The Israelites under Moses and Joshua are meant.
Because of unbelief (di apeiqeian). Rend. for unbelief, disobedience. Comp. ch. iii. 18. jApeiqeia disobedience is the active manifestation of ajpistia unbelief.
7. Again he limiteth a certain day (palin tina oJrizei hJmeran). For limiteth rend. defineth. For the verb see on declared, Rom. i. 4. The meaning is, he gives another opportunity of securing the rest, and calls the period in which the opportunity is offered today.
In David. The date of the composition of Psalm 95 is uncertain. In LXX (94) it is called a Psalm of David. In the words in David the writer may adopt the LXX title, or may mean simply in the Psalms. In the Hebrew the Psalm has no inscription.
As it is said (kaqwv proeirhtai). Rend. as it hath been befor e said; referring to the citations, ch. iii. 7, 8, 15.
8. But it might be said that under Joshua the people did enter into the promised rest. He therefore shows that Israel's rest in Canaan did not fulfill the divine ideal of the rest.
Jesus (Ihsouv). Rend. Joshua, and see on Matt. i. 21.
After this (meta tauta). After the entrance into Canaan under Joshua.
9. There remaineth therefore a rest (ara apoleipetai sabbatismov). Remaineth, since in the days of neither Moses, Joshua, or David was the rest appropriated. He passes over the fact that the rest had not been entered into at any later period of Israel's history. Man's portion in the divine rest inaugurated at creation has never been really appropriated: but it still remaineth. This statement is justified by the new word for "rest" which enters at this point, sabbatismov instead of katapausiv, N.T.o , o LXX, o Class., signifies a keeping Sabbath. The Sabbath rest points back to God's original rest, and marks the ideal rest - the rest of perfect adjustment of all things to God, such as ensued upon the completion of his creative work, when he pronounced all things good. This falls in with the ground-thought of the Epistle, the restoration of all things to God's archetype. The sin and unbelief of Israel were incompatible with that rest. It must remain unappropriated until harmony with God is restored. The Sabbath-rest is the consummation of the new creation in Christ, through whose priestly mediation reconciliation with God will come to pass.
For he that is entered into his rest (o gar eiselqwn eiv thn katapausin autou). Whoever has once entered. 183 His God's. The aorist marks the completeness of the appropriation - once and for all. He also hath ceased from his own works (kai autov katepausen apo twn ergwn autou). Omit own. The statement is a general proposition: any one who has entered into God's rest has ceased from his works.
As God did from his (wsper apo twn idiwn o qeov). Rend. as God (did) from his own. jIdiwn own signifies more than mere possession. Rather, works peculiarly his own, thus hinting at the perfect nature of the original works of creation as corresponding with God's nature and bearing his impress. The blessing of the Sabbath-rest is thus put as a cessation from labors. The basis of the conception is Jewish, the rest of the Sabbath being conceived as mere abstinence from labor, and not according to Christ's conception of the Sabbath, as a season of refreshment and beneficent activity, Mark ii. 27; John v. 17. Our writer's conception is not the rabbinical conception of cessation of work, but rather of the cessation of the weariness and pain which accompany human labor. Comp. Apoc. xiv. 13; xxi. 4; Luke xi. 7; xviii. 5; Gal. vi. 17.
Let us labor therefore (spoudaswmen oun). For the verb, see on Eph. iv. 3. Give diligence, not hasten, which is the primary meaning. That rest (ekeinhn thn katapausin). The Sabbath-rest of God, instituted at creation, promised to the fathers, forfeited by their unbelief, remaining to us on the condition of faith.
Lest any man fall after the same example of unbelief (ina mh en tw autw tiv upodeigmati pesh thv apeiqeiav). Pesh fall is to be taken absolutely; not, fall into the same example. jUpodeigma example, mostly in Hebrews. Rejected as unclassical by the Attic rhetoricians. Originally a sign which suggests something: a partial suggestion as distinct from a complete expression. See ch. viii. 5; ix. 23. Thus Christ's washing of the disciples' feet (John xiii. 15) was a typical suggestion of the whole field and duty of ministry. See on 1 Pet. ii. 6. It is not easy to give the exact force of ejn in. Strictly speaking, the "example of disobedience" is conceived as that in which the falling takes place. The fall is viewed in the sphere of example. Comp. 2 Macc. iv. 30; 1 Cor. ii. 7. Rend. that no man fall in the same example of disobedience: the same as that in which they fell.
12. The exhortation is enforced by reference to the character of the revelation which sets forth the rest of God. The message of God which promises the rest and urges to seek it, is no dead, formal precept, but is instinct with living energy.
The word of God (o Logov tou Qeou). That which God speaks through any medium. The primary reference is to God's declarations concerning his rest. The fathers explained it of the personal Word as in the Fourth Gospel. But in the Epistle there is no approach to any definite use of logov with reference to Christ, not even in the description of his relation to God in ch. 1, where, if anywhere, it might have been expected. In ch. vi. 5 and xi. 3 we find rJhma. Everywhere in the Epistle Christ appears as the Son, not as the Word. In this passage, the following predicates, ejnerghv, tomwterov, kritikov, would hardly be applied to the Logos, and in ver. 14 he is styled Jesus the Son of God.
Quick and powerful (zwn kai energhv). Note the emphatic position of zwn living. Living is the word of God, since it is the word of "the living God" (ch. iii. 12). Living in its essence. For ejnerghv active, energizing, and kindred words, see on John i. 12; Philip. iii. 21; Col. i. 29; Philemon 6. Manifesting itself actively in the world and in men's hearts. Comp. 1 Pet. i. 23.
Sharper than any two-edged sword (tomwterov uper pasan macairan distomon). Tomwterov sharper from temnein to cut, N.T.o . o LXX. The word of God has an incisive and penetrating quality. It lays bare self-delusions and moral sophisms. For the comparison of the word of God or of men to a sword, see Psalm lvii. 4; lix. 7; lxiv. 3; Eph. vi. 17. Philo calls his Logos oJ tomeuv the cutter, as cutting chaos into distinct things, and so creating a kosmos. JUper than, is literally, above. Pasan any, is every. Dismoton only here and Apoc. i. 16; ii. 12, lit. two-mouthed. In LXX always of a sword. See Judg. iii. 16; Psalm cxlix. 6; Prov. v. 4; Sir. xxi. 3. In Class. of a cave with a twofold mouth (Soph. Philoct. 16); of double-branching roads (Soph. Oed. Col. 900); of rivers with two mouths (Polyb. xxxiv. 10, 5). Stoma mouth, of the edge of a sword, Luke xxi. 24; Heb. xi. 34. Often in LXX, as Gen. xxxiv. 26; Joshua x. 28, 33, 35, 37, 39; Judg. i. 8. So occasionally in Class., as Homer, Il.
15. 389. Katesqiein or katesqein to devour is used of the sword, Deut. xxxii. 42; 2 Sam. ii. 26; Isa. xxxi. 8; Jer. ii. 30, etc. Macaira sword, in Class. a dirk or dagger: rarely, a carving knife; later, a bent sword or sabre as contrasted with a straight, thrusting sword, xifov (not in N.T. but occasionally in LXX). JRomfaia, Luke ii. 35 (see note), elsewhere only in Revelation, very often in LXX, is a large broadsword. In LXX of Goliath's sword, 1 Sam. xvii. 51 Piercing (diiknoumenov). Lit. coming through. N.T.o .
Even to the dividing asunder of soul and spirit and of the joints and marrow (arci merismou yuchv kai pneumatov armwn te kai muelwn).Merismov dividing, only here and ch. ii. 4, is not to be understood of dividing soul from spirit or joints from marrow. Soul and spirit cannot be said to be separated in any such sense as this, and joints and marrow are not in contact with each other. Merismov is the act of division; not the point or line of division. Joints and marrow are not to be taken in a literal and material sense. 184 In rendering, construe soul, spirit, joints, marrow, as all dependent on dividing. Joints and marrow (aJrmwn, muelwn, N.T.o ) are to be taken figuratively as joints and marrow of soul and spirit. This figurative sense is exemplified in classical usage, as Eurip. Hippol. 255, "to form moderate friendships, and not prov arkon muelon yuchv to the deep marrow of the soul." The conception of depth applied to the soul is on the same figurative line. See Aesch. Agam. 778; Eurip. Bacch. 203. Attempts to explain on any psychological basis are futile. The form of expression is poetical, and signifies that the word penetrates to the inmost recesses of our spiritual being as a sword cuts through the joints and marrow of the body. The separation is not of one part from another, but operates in each department of the spiritual nature. The expression is expanded and defined by the next clause.
A discerner (kritikov). N.T.o . o LXX. The word carries on the thought of dividing. From krinein to divide or separate, which runs into the sense of judge, the usual meaning in N.T., judgment involving the sifting out and analysis of evidence. In kritikov the ideas of discrimination and judgment are blended. Vulg. discretor.
Of the thoughts and intents of the heart (enqumhsewn kai ennoiwn kardiav). The A.V. is loose and inaccurate. jEnqumhsis rare in N.T. See Matt. ix. 4; Acts xvii. 29. Comp. ejnqumeisqai, Matt. i. 20; ix. 4. In every instance, both of the noun and of the verb, the sense is pondering or thinking out. Rend. the reflections. Ennoia only here and 1 Pet. iv. 1. It is the definite conception which follows ejnqumhsiv Rend. conceptions.
Opened (tetrachlismena). N.T.o . o LXX. Only later Greek. Evidently connected with trachlov neck, throat. The exact metaphor, however, it is impossible to determine. The following are the principal explanations proposed: taken by the throat, as an athlete grasps an adversary; exposed, as a malefactor's neck is bent back, and his face exposed to the spectators; or, as the necks of victims at the altar are drawn back and exposed to the knife. The idea at the root seems to be the bending back of the neck, and the last explanation, better than any other, suits the previous figure of the sword. The custom of drawing back the victim's neck for sacrifice is familiar to all classical students. See Hom. Il. i. 459; ii. 422; Pindar, Ol. xiii. 114. The victim's throat bared to the sacrificial knife is a powerful figure of the complete exposure of all created intelligence to the eye of him whose word is as a two-edged sword.
With whom we have to do (prov on hmin o logov). Rend. with whom is our reckoning; that is to whom we have to give account. 185
14. Chapter ii. 17, 18 is now resumed. This and the following verse more naturally form the conclusion of the preceding section than the introduction to the following one.
Passed into the heavens (dielhluqota touv ouranouv). Rend. "passed through the heavens." Through, and up to the throne of God of which he wields the power, and is thus able to fulfill for his followers the divine promise of rest.
Jesus the Son of God. The name Jesus applied to the high priest is forcible as recalling the historical, human person, who was tempted like his brethren. We are thus prepared for what is said in ver. 15 concerning his sympathizing character.
15. We have not an high priest who cannot, etc. Whatever may be thought to the contrary; whatever contrary conclusion may be drawn from the character of the Levitical priests, or from Christ's exalted dignity and purity.
Infirmities (asqeneiaiv). Not sufferings, but weaknesses, moral and physical, which predispose to sin and facilitate it.
Like as we are (kaq omoiothta). Lit. according to likeness. JHmwn of us or our is to be understood, or, as some, hJmin, according to his likeness to us.
Without sin (cwriv amartiav). This, of course, implies that he was not led into sin by temptation, and also that no temptation aroused in him sin already present and dormant. It is not meant that temptation arising from sin external to himself was not applied to him.
16. Come - unto (prosercwmeqa). o P., often in Hebrews, and commonly in the same sense as here - approach to God through the O.T. sacrifices or the sacrifice of Christ. Paul's word prosagwgh access expresses the same idea. 186 See Eph. ii. 18; iii. 12. The phrase come boldly expresses a thought which the Epistle emphasizes - that Christianity is the religion of free access to God. Comp. 2 Corinthians iii. 12, 13.
Unto the throne of grace (tw qronw thv caritov). The phrase N.T.o . Throne of glory, Matt. xix. 28; xxv. 31: of majesty, Heb. viii. 1. In Revelation throne occurs over forty times, either the throne, or his throne, or throne of God. Once throne of the beast, xvi. 10. Throne of grace expresses grace as the gift of divine power.
Mercy - grace (eleov-carin). Mercy for past sins; grace for future work, trial, and resistance to temptation.
To help in time of need (eiv eukairon bohqeian). Lit. for seasonable help, or help in good time; before it is too late; while there is still time to seek God's rest. Others, however, explain, when it is needed; or, before temptation leads to sin.