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    5:1 {Being therefore justified by faith} (dikaiwqentes oun ek pistews). First aorist passive participle of dikaiow, to set right and expressing antecedent action to the verb ecwmen. The oun refers to the preceding conclusive argument (chapters 1 to 4) that this is done by faith. {Let us have peace with God} (eirenen ecwmen pros ton qeon). this is the correct text beyond a doubt, the present active subjunctive, not ecomen (present active indicative) of the Textus Receptus which even the American Standard Bible accepts. It is curious how perverse many real scholars have been on this word and phrase here. Godet, for instance. Vincent says that "it is difficult if not impossible to explain it." One has only to observe the force of the _tense_ to see Paul's meaning clearly. The mode is the volitive subjunctive and the present tense expresses linear action and so does not mean "make peace" as the ingressive aorist subjunctive eirenen scwmen would mean. A good example of scwmen occurs in #Mt 21:38 (scwmen ten kleronomian autou) where it means: "Let us get hold of his inheritance." Here eirenen ecwmen can only mean: "Let us enjoy peace with God" or "Let us retain peace with God." We have in #Ac 9:31 eicen eirenen (imperfect and so linear), the church "enjoyed peace," not "made peace." The preceding justification (dikai"thentes) "made peace with God." Observe pros (face to face) with ton qeon and dia (intermediate agent) with tou kuriou.

    5:2 {We have had} (eschˆkamen). Perfect active indicative of ecw (same verb as ecwmen), still have it. {Our access} (ten prosagwgen). Old word from prosagw, to bring to, to introduce. Hence "introduction,"approach." Elsewhere in N.T. only #Eph 2:18; 3:12. {Wherein we stand} (en hei hestekamen). Perfect active (intransitive) indicative of histemi. Grace is here present as a field into which we have been introduced and where we stand and we should enjoy all the privileges of this grace about us. {Let us rejoice} (kauch"metha). "Let us exult." Present middle subjunctive (volitive) because ecwmen is accepted as correct. The exhortation is that we keep on enjoying peace with God and keep on exulting in hope of the glory of God.

    5:3 {But let us also rejoice in our tribulations} (alla kai kaucwmeqa en tais qliyesin). Present middle subjunctive of same verb as in verse #2. Kauch"mai is more than "rejoice," rather "glory,"exult." These three volitive subjunctives (ecwmen, kauch"metha, twice) hold up the high ideal for the Christian after, and because of, his being set right with God. It is one thing to submit to or endure tribulations without complaint, but it is another to find ground of glorying in the midst of them as Paul exhorts here.

    5:4 {Knowing} (eidotes). Second perfect participle of eidon (oida), giving the reason for the previous exhortation to glory in tribulations. He gives a linked chain, one linking to the other (tribulation qliyis, patience hupomone, experience dokime, hope elpis) running into verse #5. On dokime, see #2Co 2:9.

    5:5 {Hath been shed abroad} (ekkecutai). Perfect passive indicative of ekcew, to pour out. "Has been poured out" in our hearts.

    5:6 {For} (eti gar). So most documents, but B reads ei ge which Westcott and Hort use in place of gar. {While we were yet weak} (ontwn hemwn asqenwn eti). Genitive absolute. The second eti (yet) here probably gave rise to the confusion of text over eti gar above. {In due season} (kata kairon). Christ came into the world at the proper time, the fulness of the time (#Ga 4:4; Eph 1:10; Tit 1:3). {I or the ungodly} (huper aseb"n). In behalf, instead of. See about huper on #Ga 3:13 and also verse #7 here.

    5:7 {Scarcely} (molis). Common adverb from molos, toil. See on #Ac 14:18. As between dikaios, righteous, and agaqos, good, Lightfoot notes "all the difference in the world" which he shows by quotations from Plato and Christian writers, a difference of sympathy mainly, the dikaios man being "absolutely without sympathy" while the agaqos man "is beneficent and kind." {Would even dare} (kai tolmai). Present active indicative of tolmaw, to have courage. "Even dares to." Even so in the case of the kindly sympathetic man courage is called for to make the supreme sacrifice. {Perhaps} (tacha). Common adverb (perhaps instrumental case) from tacus (swift). Only here in N.T.

    5:8 {His own love} (tˆn heautou agapen). See #Joh 3:16 as the best comment here. {While we were yet sinners} (eti hamartwlwn ontwn). Genitive absolute again. Not because we were Jews or Greeks, rich or poor, righteous or good, but plain sinners. Cf. #Lu 18:13, the plea of the publican, "moi t"i hamart"l"i."

    5:9 {Much more qen} (pollwi oun mallon). Argument from the greater to the less. The great thing is the justification in Christ's blood. The final salvation (s"thˆsometha, future passive indicative) is less of a mystery.

    5:10 {We were reconciled to God} (katellagemen twi qewi). Second aorist passive indicative of katallassw for which great Pauline word see on ¯2Co 5:18f. The condition is the first class. Paul does not conceive it as his or our task to reconcile God to us. God has attended to that himself (#Ro 3:25f.). We become reconciled to God by means of the death of God's Son. "Much more" again we shall be saved "by his life" (en tˆi z"ˆi autou). "In his life," for he does live, "ever living to intercede for them" (#Heb 7:25).

    5:11 {But also glorying in God} (alla kai kauch"menoi en twi qewi). Basis of all the exultation above (verses #1-5). {Through whom we have now received the reconciliation} (di hou nun ten katallagen elabomen). Second aorist active indicative of lambanw, looked at as a past realization, "now" (nun) in contrast with the future consummation and a sure pledge and guarantee of it.

    5:12 {Therefore} (dia touto). "For this reason." What reason? Probably the argument made in verses #1-11, assuming our justification and urging exultant joy in Christ because of the present reconciliation by Christ's death and the certainty of future final salvation by his life. {As through one man} (hwsper di' henos anqrwpou). Paul begins a comparison between the effects of Adam's Sin and the effects of the redemptive work of Christ, but he does not give the second member of the comparison. Instead of that he discusses some problems about Sin and death and starts over again in verse #15. The general point is plain that the effects of Adam's Sin are transmitted to his descendants, though he does not say how it was done whether by the natural or the federal headship of Adam. It is important to note that Paul does not say that the whole race receives the full benefit of Christ's atoning death, but only those who do. Christ is the head of all believers as Adam is the head of the race. In this sense Adam "is a figure of him that was to come." {Sin entered into the world} (hˆ hamartia eis ton kosmon eiselqen). Personification of Sin and represented as coming from the outside into the world of humanity. Paul does not discuss the origin of evil beyond this fact. There are some today who deny the fact of Sin at all and who call it merely "an error of mortal mind" (a notion) while others regard it as merely an animal inheritance void of ethical quality. {And so death passed unto all men} (kai houtws eis pantas anthr"pous diˆlthen). Note use of diercomai rather than eisercomai, just before, second aorist active indicative in both instances. By "death" in #Ge 2:17; 3:19 physical death is meant, but in verses #17,21 eternal death is Paul's idea and that lurks constantly behind physical death with Paul. {For that all sinned} (eph' h"i pantes hˆmarton). Constative (summary) aorist active indicative of hamartanw, gathering up in this one tense the history of the race (committed Sin). The transmission from Adam became facts of experience. In the old Greek eph' h"i usually meant "on condition that," but "because" in N.T. (Robertson, _Grammar_, p. 963).

    5:13 {Until the law} (acri nomou). Until the Mosaic law. Sin was there before the Mosaic law, for the Jews were like Gentiles who had the law of reason and conscience (#2:12-16), but the coming of the law increased their responsibility and their guilt (#2:9). {Sin is not imputed} (hamartia de ouk ellogeitai). Present passive indicative of late verb elloga" (-e") from en and logos, to put down in the ledger to one's account, examples in inscription and papyri. {When there is no law} (mˆ ontos nomou). Genitive absolute, no law of any kind, he means. There was law _before_ the Mosaic law. But what about infants and idiots in case of death? Do they have responsibility? Surely not. The sinful nature which they inherit is met by Christ's atoning death and grace. No longer do men speak of "elect infants."

    5:14 {Even over them that had not sinned after the likeness of Adam's transgression} (kai epi tous mˆ hamartˆsantas epi t"i homoi"mati tˆs parabase"s Adam). Adam violated an express command of God and Moses gave the law of God clearly. And yet Sin and death followed all from Adam on till Moses, showing clearly that the Sin of Adam brought terrible consequences upon the race. Death has come upon infants and idiots also as a result of Sin, but one understands Paul to mean that they are not held responsible by the law of conscience. {A figure} (tupos). See on ¯Ac 7:43; 1Th 1:7; 2Th 3:9; 1Co 10:6 for this word. Adam is a type of Christ in holding a relation to those affected by the headship in each case, but the parallel is not precise as Paul shows.

    5:15 {But not as the trespass} (all' ouch h"s). It is more contrast than parallel: "the trespass" (to parapt"ma, the slip, fall to one side) over against the free gift (to carisma, of grace caris). {Much more} (pollwi mallon). Another _a fortiori_ argument. Why so? As a God of love he delights {much more} in showing mercy and pardon than in giving just punishment (Lightfoot). The gift surpasses the Sin. It is not necessary to Paul's argument to make "the many" in each case correspond, one relates to Adam, the other to Christ.

    5:16 {Through one that sinned} (di' henos hamartˆsantos). "Through one having sinned." That is Adam. Another contrast, difference in source (ek). {Of one} (ex henos). Supply parapt"matos, Adam's one transgression. {Of many trespasses} (ek pollwn paraptwmatwn). The gift by Christ grew out of manifold sins by Adam's progeny. {Justification} (dikai"ma). Act of righteousness, result, ordinance (#1:32; 2:26; 8:4), righteous deed (#5:18), verdict as here (acquittal).

    5:17 {Much more} (pollwi mallon). Argument _a fortiori_ again. Condition of first class assumed to be true. Note balanced words in the contrast (transgression parapt"mati, grace caritos; death qanatos, life z"ˆi; the one or {Adam} tou henos, the one {Jesus Christ}; reign basileu" in both).

    5:18 {So qen} (ara oun). Conclusion of the argument. Cf. #7:3,25; 8:12, etc. Paul resumes the parallel between Adam and Christ begun in verse #12 and interrupted by explanation (#13f.) and contrast (#15-17). {Through one trespass} (di' henos parapt"matos). That of Adam. {Through one act of righteousness} (di' henos dikaiwmatos). That of Christ. The first "unto all menw (eis pantas anthr"pous) as in verse #12, the second as in verse #17 "they that receive, etc."

    5:19 Here again we have "the one" (tou henos) with both Adam and Christ, but "disobedience" (parakoˆs, for which see #2Co 10:6) contrasted with "obedience" (hupakoˆs), the same verb kaqistemi, old verb, to set down, to render, to constitute (katestathˆsan, first aorist passive indicative, katastathˆsontai, future passive), and "the many" (hoi polloi) in both cases (but with different meaning as with "all menw above).

    5:20 {Came in beside} (pareisˆlthen). Second aorist active indicative of double compound pareiserchomai, late verb, in N.T. only here and #Ga 2:4 which see. See also eiselqen in verse #12. The Mosaic law came into this state of things, in between Adam and Christ. {That the trespass might abound} (hina pleonasei to paraptwma). It is usual to explain hina here as final, as God's ultimate purpose. So Denney who refers to #Ga 3:19ff.; Ro 7:7f. But Chrysostom explains hina here as ekbasis (result). this is a proper use of hina in the _Koin‚_ as we have seen. If we take it so here, the meaning is "so that the trespass abounded" (aorist active subjunctive of pleonas", late verb, see on ¯2Th 1:3; 2Co 8:15). this was the actual effect of the Mosaic law for the Jews, the necessary result of all prohibitions. {Did abound more exceedingly} (hupereperisseusen). First aorist active indicative of huperperisseu". Late verb, in N.T. only here and #2Co 7:4 which see. A strong word. If pleonazw is comparative (pleon) perisseuw is superlative (Lightfoot) and qen huperperisseu" goes the superlative one better. See huperpleonazw in #1Ti 1:14. The flood of grace surpassed the flood of Sin, great as that was (and is).

    5:21 {That--even so grace might reign} (hina--houtos kai he caris basileusei). Final hina here, the purpose of God and the goal for us through Christ. Lightfoot notes the force of the aorist indicative (ebasileusen, established its throne) and the aorist subjunctive (basileusˆi, might establish its throne), the ingressive aorist both times. " this full rhetorical close has almost the value of a doxology" (Denney).


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