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  • Treasury of Scripture Knowledge -
    1 SAMUEL 20

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      1  David consults with Jonathan for his safety.
    11  Jonathan and David renew their covenant by oath.
    18  Jonathan's token to David.
    24  Saul, missing David, seeks to kill Jonathan.
    35  Jonathan affectionately takes his leave of David.
    
    
    VERSE 1
    - fled.
       * 1Sa 19:19-24; 23:26-28 Ps 124:6-8 2Pe 2:9
    - What have.
       * 1Sa 12:3; 24:11,17 Ps 7:3-5; 18:20-24 2Co 1:12 1Jo 3:21
    
    
    VERSE 2 
     - God forbid.
       * 1Sa 14:45 Ge 44:7 Jos 22:29; 24:16 Lu 20:16
    - shew it me.  Heb. uncover mine ear.
       * :12; 9:15 *marg:
       * Ps 40:6 Isa 50:5 Joh 15:15; 17:8
    
    
    VERSE 3 
     - sware.
       * De 6:13 Jer 4:2 Heb 6:16
    - but truly.
       * 1Sa 25:26; 27:1 2Sa 15:21 2Ki 2:2,4,6
    - as thy soul.
       * 1Sa 1:26; 17:55 Jer 38:16
    - but a step.
       * 1Sa 27:1 De 28:66 Ps 116:3 1Co 15:30,31 2Co 1:9,10
    
    
    VERSE 4 
     - Whatever, etc.  or, Say what is thy mind, and I will do,
      etc.  soul.  Heb. nephesh.
       * Ge 34:3
    - desireth.  Heb. speaketh, or thinketh.
       * Joh 14:13
    
    
    VERSE 5 
     - the new moon.
      The months of the Hebrews were lunar months, and they reckoned
      from one new moon to another:  and, as their feasts,
      particularly the passover, were reckoned according to this,
      they were very scrupulous in observing the first appearance of
      each new moon.  On these new moons, they offered sacrifices,
      and feasted together:  but the gathering together of all the
      families of a tribe on such occasions seems to have taken
      place only once in the year.
    
       * :6 Nu 10:10; 28:11 2Ki 4:23 Ps 81:3 Col 2:16
    - that I may.
       * :19; 19:2 Ps 55:12 Pr 22:3 Joh 8:59 Ac 17:14
    
    
    VERSE 6 
     - Beth-lehem.
       * 1Sa 17:58 Joh 7:42
    - sacrifice.  or, feast.
       * 1Sa 9:12; 16:2-5
    
    
    VERSE 7 
     - It is well.
       * De 1:23 2Sa 17:4
    - evil.
       * :9; 25:17 Es 7:7
    
    
    VERSE 8 
     - deal kindly.
       * Ge 24:49; 47:29 Jos 2:14 Ru 1:8 Pr 3:3
    - thou hast.
       * :16; 18:3; 23:18
    - if there be.
       * Jos 22:22 2Sa 14:32 Ps 7:4,5 Ac 25:11
    - why shouldest.
       * 1Ch 12:17 Ps 116:11
    
    
    VERSE 9 
     - then would.
       * :38,42; 19:2
    
    
    VERSE 10 
     - answer thee.
       * :30-34; 25:10,14,17 Ge 42:7,30 1Ki 12:13 Pr 18:23
    
    VERSE 11
    
    
    VERSE 12 
     - O Lord.
      This verse is evidently deficient.  The LXX. have [
                             ,] "The Lord God of Israel doth know;"
      the Syraic and Arabic, "The Lord God of Israel is witness;"
      either of which makes good sense.  But two of Dr. Kennicott's
      MSS. supply the word {chai,} "liveth;" and the text reads
      thus:  "As the Lord God of Israel liveth, when I have sounded
      my father,--if there be good unto David, and I then send not
      unto thee," etc.; which is a still better sense.
    
       * Jos 22:22 Job 31:4 Ps 17:3; 139:1-4
    - sounded.  Heb. searched.
       * Pr 20:5; 25:2,3
    - shew it thee.  Heb. uncover thine ear.
       * :2
    
    
    VERSE 13 
     - The Lord do.
       * 1Sa 3:17; 25:22 Ru 1:17 2Sa 3:35; 19:13 1Ki 19:2; 20:10
    - the Lord be.
       * 1Sa 17:37 Jos 1:5 1Ch 22:11,16 Mt 28:20 Php 4:9
    - he hath been with my father.
       * 1Sa 10:7; 11:6-13; 14:47 2Sa 7:15
    
    
    VERSE 14 
     - the kindness.
       * 2Sa 9:3 Eph 5:1,2
    
    
    VERSE 15 
     - thou shalt.
       * 1Sa 24:21 2Sa 9:1-7; 21:7
    
    
    VERSE 16 
     - made.  Heb. cut.
       * 1Sa 18:3 Ge 15:18
    - Let the Lord.
       * 1Sa 25:22; 31:2 2Sa 4:7,8; 21:8
    
    
    VERSE 17 
     - because he loved him.  or, by his love toward him.  for he
      loved.
       * 1Sa 18:1,3 De 13:6 2Sa 1:26 Pr 18:24
    
    
    VERSE 18 
     - new moon.  See on ver.
       * :5
    - and thou shalt.
      Among the forms of salutation and compliment used in Persia,
      one was, "according to my mode of notation in italics, {J i
      shma khali bud pish yrn,} signifying, Thy place or seat was
      empty among thy friends.  This phrase, or the greater part of
      it, was frequently addressed to myself when coming into a
      circle of Persian acquaintances, after an absence of several
      days or weeks.  It reminded me of a passage in the First book
      of Samuel, (ch. 18 20:18.)  And thou shalt be missed, because thy
      seat will be empty.  And again, David's place was empty."  Sir
      W. Ouseley's Travels, vol i. preface, p.16.
    
    - empty.  Heb. missed.
    
    
    VERSE 19 
     - quickly.  or, diligently.  Heb. greatly.  hide thyself.
       * :5; 19:2
    - when the business.  Heb. in the day of the business.  Ezel.
      or, that sheweth the way.
    
    VERSE 20
    
    
    VERSE 21 
     - no.  Heb. not any thing.  as the.
       * Jer 4:2; 5:2; 12:16 Am 8:14
    
    VERSE 22
    
    
    VERSE 23 
     - the matter.
       * :14,15
    - the Lord.
       * :42 Ge 16:5; 31:50
    
    
    VERSE 24 
     - the king.
       * Ps 50:16-21 Pr 4:17; 15:17; 17:1; 21:3,27 Isa 1:11-15 Zec 7:6
       * Joh 18:28
    
    
    VERSE 25 
     - as at other times.
       * Jud 16:20
    
    
    VERSE 26 
     - he is not clean.
       * Le 7:21; 11:24,27,31,40; 15:5,16,17,19-21 Nu 19:16
    
    
    VERSE 27 
     - Wherefore.
       * 1Sa 18:11; 19:9,10,15
    - the son.
       * 1Sa 22:7-9,13,14; 25:10 Isa 11:1,2 Mt 13:55 1Pe 2:4
    
    VERSE 28
    
    
    VERSE 29 
     - my brother.
       * 1Sa 17:28
    
    
    VERSE 30 
     - Saul's.
       * Job 5:2 Pr 14:29; 19:12,19; 21:24; 25:28; 27:3 Jas 19 1:19,20
    - Thou, etc.  or, Thou perverse rebel.  Heb. Son of perverse
      rebellion.
       * Pr 15:2; 21:24 Mt 5:22 Eph 4:31; 6:4
    - and unto the.
      This reflection on the mother of Jonathan, by the passionate
      monarch, reflects more dishonor on himself than on his brave
      and noble minded son.  Mungo Park gives an instance of the
      prevalence of the same principles in Africa; for he says,
      "Maternal affection is every where conspicuous among the
      Africans, and creates a correspondent return of tenderness in
      the child.  'Strike me,' said my attendant, 'but do not curse
      my mother.'  I found the same sentiment to prevail universally
      in all parts of Africa." King Saul, unable to villify Jonathan
      to his own satisfaction by personal reproaches, outstepped the
      ordinary abuse of his day, and proceeded to that which was
      designed to produce unusual vexation, and vented the
      bitterness of his mind by maligning the character of his own
      wife and Jonathan's mother.
    
    
    VERSE 31 
     - send.
       * :8; 19:6,11-15
    - shall surely die.  Heb. is the son of death.
       * 1Sa 26:16 2Sa 19:28 Ps 79:11 *marg:
    
    
    VERSE 32 
     - Wherefore.
       * 1Sa 19:5 Pr 24:11,12; 31:8,9 Joh 7:51
    - what hath.
       * Mt 27:23 Lu 23:22
    - cast.
       * 1Sa 18:11; 19:10,11 Pr 22:24 Ec 9:3 Jer 17:9
    - whereby.
       * :7 Ec 7:9
    
    VERSE 33
    
    
    VERSE 34 
     - in fierce.
       * Ec 7:20 Eph 4:26
    - he was grieved.
       * Mr 3:5
    
    
    VERSE 35 
     - at the time.
       * :19 2Sa 20:5
    
    
    VERSE 36 
     - Run.
       * :20,21
    - beyond him.  Heb. to pass over him.
       * :21,22
    
    VERSE 37
        * :37
    
    VERSE 38
        * Ps 55:6-9 Pr 6:4,5 Mt 24:16-18 Mr 13:14-16 Lu 17:31,32
    
    VERSE 39
    
    
    VERSE 40 
     - artillery.  Heb. instruments.
       * 1Sa 21:8
      Rather weapons, as the word {kelim} also denotes; and here
      means the bow, quiver, and arrows.  This is probably the only
      place in our language in which the word artillery is not
      applied to cannon or ordinance, but simply to weapons of war.
    
    - his lad.  Heb. the lad that was his.
       * 1Sa 24:4
    
    
    VERSE 41 
     - and fell.
       * 1Sa 25:23 Ge 43:28 2Sa 9:6
    - and they kissed.
       * 1Sa 10:1 Ge 29:11,13; 45:15 2Sa 19:39 Ac 20:37
    - David exceeded.
       * 1Sa 18:3 2Sa 1:26
    
    
    VERSE 42 
     - Go in peace.
       * :22; 1:17 Nu 6:26 Lu 7:50 Ac 16:36
    - forasmuch as.  or, the Lord be witness of that which, etc.
       * :23
    - And he arose.
       * 1Sa 23:18
      The separation of two such faithful friends was equally
      grievous to them both, but David's case was the more
      deplorable:  for when Jonathan was returning to his family and
      friends, David was leaving all his comforts, even those of
      God's sanctuary, and therefore his grief exceeded Jonathan's;
      or, perhaps it was because his temper was more tender and his
      passions stronger.  They referred each other to the covenant
      of friendship that was between them, both of them being
      comforted thereby in this very mournful separation:--"We have
      sworn both of us in the name of the Lord, for ourselves and
      our heirs, that we and they will be faithful and kind to each
      other from generation to generation."
    
    
    
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