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  • Treasury of Scripture Knowledge -
    LEVITICUS 11

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      1  What beasts may;
     4  and what may not be eaten.
     9  What fishes.
    13  What fowls.
    29  The creeping things which are unclean.
    
    
    VERSE 1
       * :1
    
    VERSE 2
        * De 14:3-8 Eze 4:14 Da 1:8 Mt 15:11 Mr 7:15-19 Ac 10:12,14
       * Ro 14:2,3,14,15 1Ti 4:4-6 Heb 9:10; 13:9
      Of the laws relative to clean and unclean beasts, which are
      recorded in this chapter and Deut. ch. 14 the following may
      be found a useful abstract.  1.  In regard to quadrupeds, all
      beasts that have their feet completely cloven, above as well
      as below, and at the same time chew the cud, are clean.
      Those which have neither, or indeed want one of these
      distinguishing marks, are unclean.  This is a systematic
      division of quadrupeds so excellent, as never yet, after all
      the improvements in natural history, to have become obsolete,
      but, on the contrary, to be still considered as useful by the
      greatest masters of the science.  2.  With regard to fishes,
      Moses has in like manner, made a very simple systematic
      distinction.  All that have scales and fins are clean; all
      others unclean.  3.  Of birds, he merely specifies certain
      sorts as forbidden, thereby permitting all others to be
      eaten.  4.  Insects, serpents, worms, etc., are prohibited;
      but with regard, however to those winged insects, which
      besides four walking legs, also have two longer springing
      legs, (Pedes saltatorii,) Moses makes an exception, and under
      the denomination of locusts, declares them clean in all four
      stages of their existence.  In Palestine, Arabia, and the
      adjoining countries, locusts are one of the most common
      articles of food, and people would be very ill of if they
      dare not eat them:  For, when a swarm of them desolates the
      fields, they prove in some measure themselves an antidote to
      the famine which they occasion.  They are not only eaten
      fresh, immediately on their appearance, but the people
      collect them, and know a method of preserving them for a long
      time for food, after they have dried them in an oven.
      --Niebuhr's Description of Arabia, pp. 170-175.
    
    
    VERSE 3 
     - parteth.
       * Ps 1:1 Pr 9:6 2Co 6:17
    - cheweth.
       * De 6:6,7; 16:3-8 Ps 1:2 Pr 2:1,2,10 Ac 17:11 1Ti 4:15
    
    
    VERSE 4 
     - unclean unto you.
       * Ge 7:1,2 De 14:1-29 Isa 52:11 1Co 8:13 1Th 5:22 1Jo 3:4
    
    
    VERSE 5 
     - the coney.
      {Shaphan,} most probably an animal resembling the rabbit,
      called by Dr. Shaw, {daman} (probably for {ganam}) Israel,
      "Israel's lamb," and by Bruce, {ashkoko,} which name he
      imagines is "derived from the singularity of these long
      herenacious hairs, which, like small thorns, grow about his
      back, and which an Amhara are called {ashok.}"  This curious
      animal abounds in Judea, Palestine, Arabia, and Ethiopia; and
      is described as being about seventeen inches when sitting.
      It has no tail; and at first sight gives the idea of a rat.
      Its color is grey, mixed with reddish brown; the belly
      white, the body covered with strong polished hairs, for the
      most part about two inches in length; the ears round, and not
      pointed; the feet round, of a soft, pulpy, tender substance;
      the toes projecting beyond the nails, which are rather broad
      than sharp; the upper jaw is longer than the other; it lives
      upon grain, fruit, and roots, and certainly chews the cud;
      and it does not burrow like the hare and rabbit, but lives in
      clefts of the rocks.
    
       * Ps 104:18 Pr 30:26
    - but divideth.
       * Job 36:14 Mt 7:26 Ro 2:18-24 Php 3:18,19 2Ti 3:5 Tit 1:16
    
    
    VERSE 6 
     - the hare.
       * De 14:7
    
    
    VERSE 7 
     - swine.
       * De 14:8 Isa 65:4; 66:3,17 Mt 7:6 Lu 8:33; 15:15 2Pe 2:18-22
    
    
    VERSE 8 
     - they are unclean.
       * Le 5:2 Isa 52:11 Ho 9:3 Mt 15:11,20 Mr 7:2,15,18 Ac 10:10-15
       * Ac 10:28; 15:29 Ro 14:14-17,21 1Co 8:8 2Co 6:17 Eph 5:7,11
       * Col 2:16,21-23 Heb 9:10
    
    VERSE 9
        * De 14:9,10 Ac 20:21 Ga 5:6 Jas 2:18 1Jo 5:2-5
    
    
    VERSE 10 
     - they shall be.
       * Le 7:18 De 14:3 Ps 139:21,22 Pr 13:20; 29:27 Re 21:8
    
    VERSE 11
        * :11
    
    VERSE 12
    
    
    VERSE 13 
     - the eagle.
      In Hebrew, {nesher,} Chaldee, {neshar,} Syriac, {neshro,} and
      Arabic, {nishr,} the eagle, one of the largest, strongest,
      swiftest, fiercest, and most rapacious of the feathered race.
      His eye is large, dark, and piercing; his beak powerful and
      hooked; his legs strong and feathered; his feet yellow and
      armed with four very long and terrific claws; his wings very
      large and powerful; his body compact and robust; his bones
      hard; his flesh firm; his feathers coarse; his attitude
      fierce and erect; his motions lively; his flight extremely
      rapid and towering; and his cry the terror of every wing.
    
       * De 14:12-20 Job 28:7; 38:41; 39:27-30 Jer 4:13,22; 48:40 La 4:19
       * Ho 8:1 Hab 1:8 Mt 24:28 Ro 1:28-32; 3:13-17 Tit 3:3
      the ossifrage.
      {Peres,} from {paras} to break, probably the species of eagle
      anciently called {ossifraga} or bone-breaker, (from {os,} a
      bone, and {frango,} to break,) because it not only strips off
      the flesh, but breaks the bone, in order to extract the
      marrow.
    
      the ospray.
      Hebrew {¢zniyah,} Arabic {azan,} and Chaldee {azyah,} (from
      {azaz,} to be strong,) a species of eagle, probably the black
      eagle, so remarkable for its strength.
    
    VERSE 14
        * :14
    
    VERSE 15
        * Ge 8:7 1Ki 17:4,6 Pr 30:17 Lu 12:24
    
    VERSE 16
        * De 14:15-18 Ps 102:6 Isa 13:21,22; 34:11-15 Joh 3:19-21
       * Eph 2:2,3; 4:18,19; 5:7-11 Php 3:18,19 1Th 5:5-7 Re 18:2
    
    VERSE 17
        * :17
    
    VERSE 18
    
    
    VERSE 19 
     - bat.
       * Isa 2:20; 66:17
    
    VERSE 20
        * :23,27 De 14:19 2Ki 17:28-41 Ps 17:14 Mt 6:24 Php 3:18,19
       * 2Ti 4:10 1Jo 2:15-17 Jude 1:10,19
    
    VERSE 21
        * :21
    
    VERSE 22
        * Ex 10:4,5 Isa 35:3 Mt 3:4 Mr 1:6 Ro 14:1; 15:1 Heb 5:11
       * Heb 12:12,13
    
    VERSE 23
        * :23
    
    VERSE 24
        * :8,27,28,31,38-40; 17:15,16 Isa 22:14 1Co 15:33 2Co 6:17
       * Eph 2:1-3; 5:11 Col 2:16,17,20 Heb 9:26 1Jo 1:7
    
    
    VERSE 25 
     - wash his clothes, and be unclean.
       * :28,40; 14:8; 15:5,7-11,13; 16:28 Ex 19:10,14 Nu 19:8,10,19,21,22
       * Nu 31:24 Ps 51:2,7 Zec 13:1 Joh 13:8 Ac 22:16 Heb 9:10; 10:22
       * 1Pe 3:21 1Jo 1:7 Re 7:14
    
    VERSE 26
    
    
    VERSE 27 
     - See ver.
       * :20,23
    
    
    VERSE 28 
     - beareth.
       * :24,25
    - shall wash.
       * :14
    
    
    VERSE 29 
     - creeping things that creep.
       * :20,21,41,42 Ps 10:3; 17:13,14 Hag 2:6 Lu 12:15; 16:14 Joh 6:26
       * Joh 6:66 Eph 4:14 Php 3:19 Col 3:5 2Ti 3:2-5 Heb 13:5
    
    VERSE 30
        * :30
    
    VERSE 31
        * :8,24,25
    
    
    VERSE 32 
     - it must be put into water.
       * Le 6:28; 15:12 Tit 2:14; 3:5
    
    
    VERSE 33 
     - ye shall break it.
       * :35; 14:45 Jer 48:38 2Co 5:1-8 Php 3:21
    
    VERSE 34
        * Pr 15:8; 21:4,27; 28:8 Tit 1:15
    
    
    VERSE 35 
     - they shall be.
       * :33; 6:28; 15:12 2Co 5:1-7
    
    
    VERSE 36 
     - a fountain.
       * Zec 13:1 Joh 4:14
    - wherein there is plenty of water.  Heb. a gathering together
      of waters.
    
    
    VERSE 37 
     - sowing seed.
       * 1Co 15:37 1Pe 1:23 1Jo 3:9; 5:18
    
    VERSE 38
        * :38
    
    VERSE 39
        * :24,28,31,40; 15:5,7 Nu 19:11,16
    
    
    VERSE 40 
     - eateth.  See on ver.
       * :25; 17:15,16; 22:8 Ex 22:31 De 14:21 Isa 1:16 Eze 4:14; 36:25
       * Eze 44:31 Zec 13:1 1Co 6:11; 10:21 1Jo 1:7
    - shall wash.
       * :28; 14:8,9; 15:5-10,27; 16:26,28 Nu 19:7,8,19
    
    
    VERSE 41 
     - See on ver.
       * :20,23,29
    
    
    VERSE 42 
     - goeth upon the belly.
       * Ge 3:14,15 Isa 65:25 Mic 7:17 Mt 3:7; 23:23 Joh 8:44
       * 2Co 11:3,13 Tit 1:12
    - hath more feet.  Heb. doth multiply feet.
    
    
    VERSE 43 
     - Ye shall.
       * :41,42; 20:25
    - yourselves.  Heb. your souls.
    
    
    VERSE 44 
     - I am the.  See on
       * Ex 20:2
    - ye shall.
       * Le 10:3; 19:2; 20:7,26 Ex 19:6 De 14:2 1Sa 6:20 Ps 99:5,9
       * Isa 6:3-5 Am 3:3 Mt 5:48 1Th 4:7 1Pe 1:15,16; 2:9 Re 22:11
    
    
    VERSE 45 
     - that bringeth.
       * Ex 6:7 Ps 105:43-45
    - be holy.  See on ver.
       * :44 Ex 6:7; 20:2 Ps 105:43-45 Ho 11:1 1Th 4:7
    
    
    VERSE 46 
     - This.
      The distinction of clean and unclean animals, (see note on Le
      2 11:2) existed even before the flood, though it probably then
      only related to sacrifices; but at this time we find there
      were very particular laws enacted respecting the diet of the
      people, and the ceremonial uncleanness contracted by touching
      the carcases of unclean animals.  The reasons for the
      enactment of these laws seem to be--1.  As a test of
      obedience, and to teach the Israelites habits of self-denial,
      and the government of their appetites.  2.  To keep them
      distinct from other nations, and consequently from their
      idolatrous usages, by throwing hindrances in the way of their
      social intercourse; for these distinctions were applicable
      both to persons and things.  The Canaanites not only ate the
      animals prohibited by Moses, which we usually eat, but others
      also, among which dogs were one.  Besides, many of those
      declared unclean were sacred among the heathen, and
      sacrificed to their gods.  3.  Because those prohibited were
      innutritive and unwholesome; as the swine, the flesh of which
      being strong and difficult to digest, affords a very gross
      aliment, and produces, especially in hot climates, cutaneous,
      scrophulous, and scorbutic disorders, as the itch, leprosy,
      etc.
    
       * Le 7:37; 14:54; 15:32 Eze 43:12
    
    VERSE 47
        * Le 10:10 Eze 44:23 Mal 3:18 Ro 14:2,3,13-23
    
    
    
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