VINCENT'S NEW TESTAMENT PREVIOUS - 1 Corinthians 3 - ROBERTSON - GRK NT - HELP - FB - TWITTER - GR VIDEOS - GR FORUMS - GR YOUTUBE
1. With excellency (kaq uperochn). Lit., according to elevation or superiority. The noun occurs only here and 1 Tim. ii. 2, where it is rendered authority. The phrase expresses the mode of his preaching. For similar adverbial phrases, see kaq uJperbolhn exceedingly or according to excess, Rom. viii. 13; kata kratov mightily or according to might, Acts xix. 20. Construe with declaring.
Testimony (marturion). Some of the best texts read musthrion mystery. So Rev. See on Rom. xi. 25.
2. Crucified. Emphatic. That which would be the main stumbling-block to the Corinthians he would emphasize.
3. I was with you (egenomhn prov umav). I was is rather I became. I fell into a state of weakness, etc., after I had come among you. With you, i.e., in intercourse with. See on with God, John i. 1. The implication is that his condition grew out of the circumstances in which he found himself in Corinth.
4. In demonstration (en apodeixei). Only here in the New Testament. Lit., a showing forth.
6. Wisdom. Emphatic. Lest his depreciation of worldly wisdom should expose him and his companions to the charge of not preaching wisdom at all, he shows that they do preach wisdom, though not of a worldly kind, among matured Christians.
Them that are perfect (toiv teleioiv). American Rev., them that are full-grown. Paul's term for matured Christians. See Eph. iv. 13, where a perfect (teleion) man is contrasted with children (nhpioi, ver. 14). So 1 Corinthians xiv. 20: "In malice children, in understanding men (lit., perfect);" Philip. iii. 15. "This wisdom is the Christian analogue to philosophy in the ordinary sense of the word" (Meyer), and the perfect to whom he delivered it would recognize it as such.
That come to nought (katargoumenwn). The A.V. states a general proposition, but the Greek present participle a fact in process of accomplishment: which are coming to nought. So Rev. 7. In a mystery. Connect with we speak. See on Matt. xiii. 11; Romans xi. 25. 80 The in (en) has a kind of instrumental force: by means of a mystery; i.e., by delivering a doctrine hidden from the human understanding and revealed to us by God.
9. Eye hath not seen, etc. From Isa. lxiv. 4, freely rendered by Septuagint. The Hebrew reads: "From of old men have not heard, not perceived with the ear, eye has not seen a God beside Thee who does (gloriously) for him who waits on Him." Septuagint, "From of old we have not heard, nor have our eyes seen a God beside Thee, and Thy works which Thou wilt do for those who wait for mercy." Paul takes only the general idea from the Old-Testament passage. The words are not to be limited to future blessings in heaven. They are true of the present. Have entered (anebh). Lit., went up. See on Acts vii. 23. Compare Daniel ii. 29, Sept.
11. Spirit (pneuma). See on Rom. viii. 4. The things of God can be recognized only by the highest element of the human personality. They have not entered into the heart (kardia, see on Rom. i. 21), but into the spirit, which is the highest and principal point of contact with the Spirit of God.
12. The spirit of the world (to pneuma tou kosmou). For this use of pneuma, see on Rom. viii. 4, under 7. Kosmov world, is used with the ethical sense. See on John i. 9, under 4, e, The phrase means the principle of evil which animates the unregenerate world; not the personal spirit of evil or Satan, since Paul does not use pneuma spirit, elsewhere in the personal sense of an evil spirit. See note on Eph. ii. 2.
13. Not in the words which man's wisdom teacheth. Lit., not in the taught words of human wisdom. Compare Plato: "Through love all the intercourse and speech of God with man, whether awake or asleep, is carried on. The wisdom which understands this is spiritual; all other wisdom, such as that of arts and handicrafts, is mean and vulgar" ("Symposium," 203).
Comparing spiritual things with spiritual (pneumatikoiv pneumatika sugkrinontev). Notice the paronomasia. See on Romans i. 29, 31. The dispute on this verse arises over the meanings of sugkrinontev, A.V., comparing, and pneumatikoiv spiritual. As to the latter, whether the reference is to spiritual men, things, or words; as to the former, whether the meaning is adapting, interpreting, proving, or comparing. The principal interpretations are: adapting spiritual words to spiritual things; adapting spiritual things to spiritual men; interpreting spiritual things to spiritual men; interpreting spiritual things by spiritual words. Sugkrinontev occurs only here and 2 Cor. x. 12, where the meaning is clearly compare. In classical Greek the original meaning is to compound, and later, to compare, as in Aristotle and Plutarch, and to interpret, used of dreams, and mainly in Septuagint. See Gen. xl. 8. The most satisfactory interpretation is combining spiritual things with spiritual words. After speaking of spiritual things (vers. 11, 12, 13), Paul now speaks of the forms in which they are conveyed - spiritual forms or words answering to spiritual matters, and says, we combine spiritual things with spiritual forms of expression. This would not be the case if we uttered the revelations of the Spirit in the speech of human wisdom. 81
14. The natural man (yucikov anqrwpov). See on Rom. xi. 4, on the distinction between yuch soul, life, and pneuma spirit. The contrast is between a man governed by the divine Spirit and one from whom that Spirit is absent. But yucikov natural, is not equivalent to sarkikov fleshy. Paul is speaking of natural as contrasted with spiritual cognition applied to spiritual truth, and therefore of the yuch soul, as the organ of human cognition, contrasted with the pneuma spirit, as the organ of spiritual cognition. The man, therefore, whose cognition of truth depends solely upon his natural insight is yucikov natural, as contrasted with the spiritual man (pneumatikov) to whom divine insight is imparted. In other words, the organ employed in the apprehension of spiritual truth characterizes the man. Paul therefore "characterizes the man who is not yet capable of understanding divine wisdom as yucikov, i.e., as one who possesses in his yuch soul, simply the organ of purely human cognition, but has not yet the organ of religious cognition in the pneuma spirit" (Dickson). 82 It is perhaps impossible to find an English word which will accurately render yucikov. Psychic is simply the Greek transcribed. We can do no better than hold by the A.V. natural. 83 Receiveth not (ou decetai). Not, does not understand, but does not admit them into his heart; thus, according to New Testament usage, when the word is used in connection with teaching. See Luke viii. 13; Acts viii. 14; xi. 1; 1 Thess. i. 6; Jas. i. 21.
Are foolishness. Not merely seem. To him they are.
Neither can he know (kai ou dunatai gnwnai). Rev., more strictly, and he cannot know. "It is an utter perversion of such statements to maintain that there is in the natural man any organic, constitutional incapacity of spiritual perception requiring to be created in them by the Holy Spirit.... The uniform teaching of Scripture is that the change effected in regeneration is a purely moral and spiritual one" (Brown).
Discerned (anakrinetai). Rev., judged. Used only by Luke and Paul, and by the latter in this epistle only. By Luke, mostly of judicial examination: Luke xxiii. 14; Acts iv. 9; xii. 19; xxiv. 8; xxviii. 18. Of examining the Scriptures, Acts xvii. 11, but with the sense of proving or coming to a judgment on. The fundamental idea of the word is examination, scrutiny, following up (ana) a series of objects or particulars in order to distinguish (krinw). This is its almost universal meaning in classical Greek. At Athens it was used technically in two senses: to examine magistrates with a view to proving their qualifications; and to examine persons concerned in a suit, so as to prepare the matter for trial, as a grand jury. The meaning judged is, at best, inferential, and the Rev. inserts examined in the margin. Bishop Lightfoot says: "Anakrinein is neither to judge nor to discern; but to examine, investigate, inquire into, question, as it is rightly translated, 1 Cor. ix. 3; x. 25, 27. The apostle condemns all these impatient human praejudicia which anticipate the final judgment, reserving his case for the great tribunal, where at length all the evidence will be forthcoming and a satisfactory verdict can be given. Meanwhile the process of gathering evidence has begun; an ajnakrisiv investigation is indeed being held, not, however, by these self-appointed magistrates, but by one who alone has the authority to institute the inquiry, and the ability to sift the facts" ("On a Fresh Revision of the New Testament"). See, further, on ch. iv. 3, 4.
Instruct (sumbibasei). See on proving, Acts ix. 22.