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2. Among many witnesses (dia pollwn marturwn). Dia through the medium of, and therefore in the presence of.
3. Endure hardness (sunkakopaqhson). Comp. chapter i. 8. A.V. verse fails to give the force of sun with. Rend. suffer hardship with me. Soldier (stratiwthv). Only here in Pastorals. o P. Frequent in Acts.
In the affairs of this life (taiv tou biou pragmatiaiv). Better, affairs of life. Not as A.V. verse implies, in contrast with the affairs of the next life, but simply the ordinary occupations of life. In N.T., biov means either means of subsistence, as Mark. xii. 44; Luke viii. 43; 1 John iii. 17; or course of life, as Luke viii. 14. Biov P o .
Him who hath chosen him to be a soldier (tw stratologhsanti). N.T.o . o LXX. Better, enrolled him as a soldier.
5. Strive for masteries (aqlh). N.T.o . o LXX. Paul uses ajgwnizesqai (see 1 Cor. ix. 25), which appears also in 1 Tim. iv. 10; vi. 12; 2 Timothy iv. 7. For masteries is superfluous. Rev. contend in the games; but the meaning of the verb is not limited to that. It may mean to contend in battle; and the preceding reference to the soldier would seem to suggest that meaning here. The allusion to crowning is not decisive in favor of the Rev. rendering. Among the Rom. crowns were the highest distinction for service in war. The corona triumphalis of laurel was presented to a triumphant general; and the corona obsidionalis was awarded to a general by the army which he had saved from a siege or from a shameful capitulation. It was woven of grass which grew on the spot, and was also called corona graminea. The corona myrtea or ovatio, the crown of bay, was worn by the general who celebrated the lesser triumph or ovatio. The golden corona muralis, with embattled ornaments, was given for the storming of a wall; and the corona castrensis or vallaris, also of gold, and ornamented in imitation of palisades, was awarded to the soldier who first climbed the rampart of the enemy's camp.
Lawfully (nomimwv). Past o . See 1 Tim. i. 8. According to the law of military service which requires him to abandon all other pursuits. So the law of the ministerial office requires that the minister shall not entangle himself with secular pursuits. If he fulfills this requirement, he is not to trouble himself about his worldly maintenance, for it is right that he should draw his support from his ministerial labor: nay, he has the first right to its material fruits.
Must be first partaker (dei prwton - metalambanein). Better, Must be the first to partake. His is the first right to the fruits of his labor in the gospel. The writer seems to have in his eye 1 Cor. ix. 7, where there is a similar association of military service and farming to illustrate the principle that they who proclaim the gospel should live of the gospel. Metalambanein to partake, o P, and only here in Pastorals. Paul uses metecein. See 1 Cor. ix. 10, 12; x. 17, 21, 30.
7. Consider (noei). Better, understand.
8. Remember that Jesus Christ - was raised, etc. Incorrect. Rend. remember Jesus Christ raised from the dead. Mnhmoneue remember, only here in Pastorals: often in Paul. Egeirein to raise, very often in N.T., but only here in Pastorals. The perfect passive participle (eghgermenon) only here. The perfect marks the permanent condition - raised and still living. Of the seed of David. Not referring to Christ's human descent as a humiliation in contrast with his victory over death (eghgermenon), but only marking his human, visible nature along with his glorified nature, and indicating that in both aspects he is exalted and glorified. See the parallel in Rom. i. 3, 4, which the writer probably had in mind, and was perhaps trying to imitate. It is supposed by some that the words Jesus Christ - seed of David were a part of a confessional formula.
9. Wherein I suffer trouble (en w kakopaqw). Wherein refers to the gospel. Kakopaqein only here, chapter iv. 5, and James. v. 13. LXX, John. iv. 10.
As an evildoer (wv kakourgov). Only here and in Luke. Better, malefactor. The meaning is technical. Comp. Luke xxiii. 32, 33, 39. Unto bonds (mecri desmwn). Comp. Philippians. ii. 8, mecri qanatou unto death: Hebrews. xii. 4, mecriv aimatov unto blood. Const. with I suffer trouble But the word of God is not bound (alla o logov tou qeou ou dedetai). Nevertheless, although I am in bonds, the gospel which I preach will prevail in spite of all human efforts to hinder it. Word of God often in Paul. In Pastorals, 1 Tim. iv. 5; Tit. ii. 5. Bound, in Paul metaphorically, as here, Rom. vii. 2; 1 Cor. vii. 27, 39.
That they may also (ina kai autoi). More correctly, they also may, etc. Also, as well as myself.
Obtain the salvation (swthriav tucwsin). The phrase N T.o . Paul has peripoihsiv swthriav obtaining of salvation, 1 Thess. v. 9. Which is in Christ Jesus. The phrase salvation which is in Christ Jesus, N.T. For other collocations with in Christ Jesus in Pastorals, see 1 Timothy i. 14; iii. 13; 2 Tim. i. 1, 9, 13; ii. 3, 15.
With eternal glory (meta doxhv aiwniou). The phrase eternal glory ony here and 1 Pet. v. 10. Paul has aijwnion barov doxhv eternal weight of glory, 2 Corinthians. iv. 17. Glory here is the eternal reward of Christians in heaven.
11. It is a faithful saying. Better, faithful is the saying. See on l Timothy. i. 15. It refers to what precedes - the eternal glory of those who are raised with Christ verse 8) which stimulates to endurance of sufferings for the gospel.
For (gar). Faithful is the saying that the elect shall obtain salvation with eternal glory, for if we be dead, etc. 136 The following words to the end of verse 12 may be a fragment of a hymn or confession, founded on Romans vi. 8; viii. 17.
12. If we suffer we shall also reign with him (eij uJpomenomen, kai sunbasileusomen). For suffer, rend. endure. Sunbasileuein to reign with, only here and 1 Cor. iv. 8. Comp. Luke. xix. 17,19; xxii. 29, 30; Rom. v. 17; Apoc. iv. 4; v. 10; xxii. 5.
If we deny him he also will deny us (ei arnhsomeqa. kakeinov arnhsetai hmav). The verb P o . Him must be supplied. The meaning of the last clause is, will not acknowledge us as his own. Comp. Luke ix. 26; Matt. x. 33.
13. If we believe not (ei apistoumen). Better, are faithless or untrue to him. Comp. Rom. iii. 3. In Pastorals only here.
Faithful (pistov). True to his own nature, righteous character, and requirements, according to which he cannot accept as faithful one who has proved untrue to him. To do this would be to deny himself.
14. Put them in remembrance (upomimnhske). o P. See on uJpomnhsin reminding, chapter.i. 5.
Charging (diamarturomenov). In Paul only 1 Thess. iv. 6. Very frequent in Acts. See on Acts ii. 40; 20. 23. The sense is rather conjuring them by their loyalty to God. Paul uses the simple marturesqai in a similar sense. See Gal. v. 3; 1 Thess. ii. 12 (note); Ephesians iv. 17.
To no profit (ejp' oujden crhsimon). Lit. to nothing useful. Ep' oujden, o P. He uses eijv kenon to no purpose. See 2 Cor. vi. 1; Gal. ii. 2; Philip. ii. 16; 1 Thess. iii. 5. Crhsimov useful, N.T.o . To the subverting (epi katastrofh). Epi does not mean here to or for (purpose or object). but indicates the ground on which the unprofitableness of the wordy strife rests. Unprofitable because it works subversion of the hearers. Katastrofh subversion, transliterated into catastrophe, only here and 2 Pet. ii. 6. In LXX of the destruction or overthrow of men or cities. Katastrefein to overturn, Matt. xxi. 12; Mark. xi. 15; Acts xv. 16, cit. Paul uses kaqairesiv pulling down, 2 Corinthians x. 4, 8; xiii. 10
To shew thyself approved (seauton dokimon parasthsai).
Parasthsai, better, present. In Pastorals only here and chapter iv. 17. Often in Acts and Paul. See on Acts i. 3; Rom. xvi. 2; Eph. v. 27. Dokimon approved, only here in Pastorals, five times by Paul. See on James. i. 12. On dokimh approvedness, Rom. v. 4; and on dokimazein to approve on test, 1 Pet. i. 7.
Rightly dividing (orqotomounta). N.T.o . o Class. In LXX, Prov. iii. 6; xi. 5; both times in the sense of directing the way. From ojrqov straight and temnein to cut. Hence, to cut straight, as paths; to hold a straight course; generally, to make straight; to handle rightly. Vulg. recte tractare. The thought is that the minister of the gospel is to present the truth rightly, not abridging it, not handling it as a charlatan (see on 2 Corinthians ii. 17), not making it a matter of wordy strife verse 14), but treating it honestly and fully, in a straightforward manner. Various homiletic fancies have been founded on the word, as, to divide the word of truth, giving to each hearer what he needs: or, to separate it into its proper parts: or, to separate it from error: or, to cut straight through it, so that its inmost contents may be laid bare. Others, again, have found in it the figure of dividing the bread, which is the office of the household steward; or of dividing the sacrificial victims; or of cutting a straight furrow with the plough.
16. Shun (periistaso). P o . In Pastorals, here and Tit. iii. 9. Originally, to place round; to stand round. In the middle voice, to turn one's self about, as for the purpose of avoiding something: hence, avoid, shun. Often in Class., but in this sense only in later Greek.
Profane and vain babblings (bebhlouv kenofwniav). For profane, see on 1 Tim. i. 9. Vain is superfluous, being implied in babblings. For babblings, see on 1 Tim. vi. 20. Babble is a word of early origin, an imitative word, formed on the efforts of a young child to speak, and having its counterparts in many languages. It appears very early in English, as in Piers Plowman:
"And so I bablede on my bedes." Vis. 2487.
Bacon: "Who will open himself to a blab or a babbler? " Ess. vi
Shakespeare: "Leave thy vain bibble babble." Twelfth X. iv. 2.
17. Will eat (nomhn exei). Lit. will have pasturage, and sO grow. Nomh purov a spreading of fire: a sore is said nomhn poieisqai to spread. Comp. Acts iv. 17, dianemhqh spread, of the influence of the miracle of Peter, from the same root, nemein to distribute or divide; often of herdsmen, to pasture. Nomh only here and John x. 9 Canker (gaggraina). Transliterated into gangrene. An eating sore; a cancer. N.T.o . o LXX. Comp. Ovid:
"Solet immedicabile cancer Serpere, et illaesas vitiatis addere partes." Metam. ii. 826
18. Have erred (hstochsan). See on 1 Tim. i. 6.
The resurrection (anastasin). Only here in Pastorals.
19. Nevertheless (mentoi). Mostly in John. o P. Only here in Pastorals. The foundation of God standeth sure (o stereov qemeliov tou qeou esthken). Wrong. Stereov sure is attributive, not predicative. Rend. the firm foundation of God standeth. The phrase foundation of God, N.T.o . Qemeliov foundation is an adjective, and liqov stone is to be supplied. It is not to be taken by metonymy for oijkia house verse 20), but must be interpreted consistently with it, 137 and, in a loose way, represents or foreshadows it. So we speak of an endowed institution as a foundation. By;' the sure foundation of God" is meant the church, which is "the pillar and stay of the truth" (1 Tim. iii. 15), by means of which the truth of God is to withstand the assaults of error. The church has its being in the contents of "the sound teaching" (1 Tim. i. 10), which is "according to godliness" (1 Tim. vi. 3), and which is deposited in it. "The mystery of godliness " is intrusted to it (1 Tim. iii. 16). Its servants possess "the mystery of the faith" (1 Tim. iii. 9). In 1 Cor. iii. 11, Christ is represented as " the chief corner-stone." In Eph. ii. 20, the church is built "upon the foundation of the apostles and prophets," with Christ as the corner-stone, and grows into a "holy temple (naon) in the Lord." Here, the church itself is the foundation, and the building is conceived as a great dwelling-house. While the conception of the church here does not contradict that of Paul, the difference is apparent between it and the conception in Ephesians, where the church is the seat of the indwelling and energy of the Holy Spirit. Comp. 1 Cor. iii. 16,17. Stereov firm only here, Heb. v. 12, 14, and 1 Pet. v. 9 (note). %Esthken standeth, in contrast with overthrow verse 18).
Seal (sfragida). Mostly in Revelation. Only here in Pastorals. In Paul, Rom. iv. 11; 1 Cor. ix. 2. Used here rather in the sense of inscription or motto. Comp. Deuteronomy. vi. 9; xi. 20; Apoc. xxi. 14. There are two inscriptions on the foundation stone, the one guaranteeing the security, the other the purity, of the church. The two go together. The purity of the church is indispensable to its security.
The Lord knoweth them that are his (egnw kuriov touv ontav autou). The first inscription: God knows his own. Comp. Num. xvi. 5; 1 Cor. xiii. 12. For egnw knoweth, see on Gal. iv. 9. Them that are his, his ejklektoi chosen; see verse 10; Tit. i. 1; Rom. viii. 33; Col. iii. 12; 1 Pet. ii. 9; Apoc. xvii. 14. Not, however, in any hard, predestinarian sense. 138 Comp. John x. 14; Matt. vii. 23; Luke xiii. 25, 27.
Let every one that nameth the name of Christ depart from iniquity. The second inscription, concerning the purity of the church. For of Christ rend. of the Lord (kuriou). Onomazwn nameth, only here in Pastorals. It means to give a name to, to style, as Mark. iii. 14; Luke vi. 14; 1 Corinthians v. 11: to pronounce a name as having a special virtue, as in incantation. as Acts xix. 13: to utter a name as acknowledging and appropriating what the name involves, as a confession of faith and allegiance. So here. Comp. Rom. xv. 20; 1 Cor. v. 11; Isa. xxvi. 13. For onoma name, see on 1 Thess. i. 12. Aposthtw ajpo ajdikiav depart from iniquity. For the verb, see on 1 Tim. iv. 1. Mostly in Luke and Acts. Comp. Num. xvi. 26; Isaiah. 52. 11. Whatever may be implied in God's election, it does not relieve Christians of the duty of strict attention to their moral character and conduct. Comp. Philippians. ii. 12. The gift of grace (Eph. ii. 8) is exhibited in making one a coworker with God (1 Corinthians iii. 9). The salvation bestowed by grace is to be "carried out" (Philippians. ii. 12) by man with the aid of grace (Rom. vi. 8-19; 2 Corinthians vi. 1). What this includes and requires appears in Philippians. iii. 10; iv. 1-7; Eph. iv. 13-16, 22 ff.; Col. ii. 6, 7.
House (oikia). As qemeliov foundation indicates the inward, essential character of the church, oijkia exhibits its visible, outward aspect. The mixed character of the church points to its greatness (megalh).
Of wood and of earth (xulina kai ostrakina). Xulinov wooden only here and Apoc. ix. 20. Ostrakinov of baked clay, only here and 2 Corinthians iv. 7 (note). Comp. the different metaphor, 1 Cor. iii. 12. Some to honor and some to dishonor. After Rom. ix. 21.
From these (apo toutwn). From such persons as are described as;'vessels "unto dishonor." Some attempt to relieve the awkwardness of this figure by referring these to persons mentioned in vv. 16,17. Unto honor (eiv timhn). Const. with vessel, not with sanctified. Sanctified (hgiasmenon). Comp. 1 Tim. iv. 5. Set al art to noble and holy uses, as belonging to God. See on aJgiasmov sanctification, Romans vi. 19. For agiov holy, see on 1 Tim. v. 10.
Meet (eucrhston). From euj well and crasqai to use. Hence, easy to make use of, useful. The A.V. meet, is fit, suitable. Rend. serviceable. In contrast with to no profit, verse 14. See Philemon 11, where the contrast with acrhstov useless is brought out. Only here, chapter iv. 11, Philemon 11.
Peace (eirhnhn). Not a distinct virtue in the list, but a consequence of the pursuit of the virtues enumerated. Const. with with them that call, etc. For peace with diwkein pursue, see Rom. xiv. 19; Heb. xii. 14, and Psalm xxxiv. 14, cit. 1 Pet. iii. 11.
23. Foolish (mwrav). In Pastorals only here and Tit. iii. 9. Mwrov means dull, sluggish, stupid: applied to the taste, flat, insipid: comp. mwranqh have lost his savor, Matt. v. 13. In Pastorals never substantively, a fool, but so in 1 Cor. iii. 18; iv. 10. Comp. afrwn, 1 Corinthians xv. 36.
Unlearned (apaideutouv). Rev. ignorant is better; but the meaning at bottom is undisciplined: questions of an untrained mind, carried away with novelties: questions which do not proceed from any trained habit of thinking.
Questions (zhthseiv). Better, questionings. See on 1 Tim. vi. 4. Avoid (paraitou). See on 1 Tim. iv. 7 Better, refuse or decline. Gender (gennwsi). Only here in Pastorals. In Paul, metaphorically, 1 Corinthians iv. 15; Philemon 10; Gal. iv. 24.
24. The servant of the Lord (doulon kuriou). The teacher or other special worker in the church. Comp. Tit. i. 1; Rom. i. l; Gal. i. 10; Philip. i. 1, Col. iv. 12. Of any Christian, 1 Cor. vii. 22; Ephesians. vi. 6. The phrase is often applied to the Old Testament prophets as a body: see Amos iii. 7; Jer. vii. 25; Ezra ix. 11; Dan. ix. 6. To Joshua, Judg. ii. 8; to David, Psalm lxxvii. 70.
Must not (ou dei). Moral obligation.
Gentle (hpion). Only here and 1 Thess. ii. 7 (note).
Apt to teach, patient (didaktikon, ajnexikakon). Didaktikov apt to teach, only here and 1 Timothy. iii. 2 (note). Anexikakia forbearing, N.T.o . Anexikakia forbearance Wisd. ii. 19. Rend. Forbearing.
25. In meekness (en prauthti). A Pauline word, only here in Pastorals, But comp. praupaqia, 1 Tim. vi. 11 (note). Const. With instruction. Instructing (paideuonta). See on 1 Tim. i. 20. Better, correcting!.
Those that oppose themselves (touv antidiatiqemenouv). N.T.o LXX. Class. only late Gleek. Themselves is wrong. The meaning is, those who oppose the servant of the Lord; Who carry on the ajntiqeseiv oppositions (1 Tim. vi. 20); =gainsayers (ajntilegontev Tit. i. 9). Paul's word is ajntikeisqai to oppose: see 1 Corinthains xvi. 9; Gal. v. 17; Philip. i. 28; 2 Thessalonians. ii. 4.
Repentance (metanoian). Only here in Pastorals. See on repent) Matthew. iii. 2.
To the acknowledging of the truth (eiv epignwsin alhqeiav). More correctly, the knowledge. The formula Past o . See 1 Tim. ii. 4 (note); 2 Timothy iii. 7. For eijv unto after metanoia repentance, see Mark. i. 4; Luke iii. 3; xxiv. 47; Acts xi. 18; xx. 21; 2 Cor. vii. 10.
26. May recover themselves (ananhywsin). Lit. may return to soberness. N.T.o . See on be sober, 1 Thess. v. 6. A similar connection of thought between coming to the knowledge of God and awaking out of a drunken stupor, occurs 1 Cor. xv. 34.
Out of the snare of the devil (ek thv tou diabolou pagidov). Comp. Psalm cxxiv. 7. The phrase snare of the devil, only here and 1 Tim. iii. 7 (note). The metaphor is mixed; return to soberness out of the snare of the devil.
Who are taken captive (ezwgrhmenoi). Or, having been held captive. Only here and Luke v. 10 (note on thou shalt catch!.
By him (up autou). The devil.
At his will (eiv toekeinou qelhma). Better, unto his will: that is, to do his (God's) will.