VINCENT'S NEW TESTAMENT PREVIOUS - Colossians 4 - ROBERTSON - GRK NT - HELP - FB - TWITTER - GR VIDEOS - GR FORUMS - GR YOUTUBE
1. Be risen (sunhgerqhte). Rev., correctly, were raised. See ch. ii. 12. In their baptism in which they died (ch. ii. 20). Compare Rom. vi. 2 sqq. Sitteth (estin kaqhmenov). According to the A.V. the literal rendering would be is sitting. Is, however, must be taken separately; where Christ is, seated. Seated is a secondary predicate, as hidden in ch. ii. 3. Compare Eph. ii. 4-6; Apoc. iii. 21.
2. Set your affection (froneite). Lit., be minded, think. As Rev., set your mind. Seek marks the practical striving; set your mind, the inward impulse and disposition. Both must be directed at things above. "You must not only seek heaven, you must think heaven" (Lightfoot). Compare Philip. iii. 19, 20.
3. Ye are dead (apeqanete). Rev., correctly, ye died, as ch. ii. 20. Is hid (kekruptai). Your new spiritual life is no longer in the sphere of the earthly and sensual, but is with the life of the risen Christ, who is unseen with God. Compare Philip. iii. 20.
4. Who is our life (zwh). See on John i. 4. The life is not only with Christ, it is Christ. Compare John xiv. 6; 2 Cor. iv. 10, 11; 1 John v. 11, 12. For the change of person, our for your, see on ch. ii. 13.
In glory. Compare Rom. viii. 17.
So Erasmus: "Christ was mortified and killed." And Shakespeare:
" - his wildness mortified in him, Seemed to die too."
"I Henry v., 1, 26"
Which are upon the earth. Compare ver. 2. The organs of the earthly and sensuous life.
Fornication, etc. In apposition with members, denoting the modes in which the members sinfully exert themselves.
Inordinate affection, evil concupiscence (paqov, ejpiqumian kakhn). See on Rom. i. 26.
And covetousness (kai pleonexian). And has a climactic force; and especially; see on Rom. i. 29.
7. In the which (en oiv). The omission of upon the children, etc., necessitates the reference to which things (ver. 6) Otherwise we might render among whom.
Anger, wrath (ojrghn, qumon). See on John iii. 36.
Malice (kakian). See on naughtiness, Jas. i. 21.
Filthy communication (aiscrologian). Only here in the New Testament. Not merely filthy talking, as A.V., but foul-mouthed abuse. Rev., shameful speaking.
9. Seeing that ye have put off (apekdusamenoi). See on ch. ii. 15. The old man. See on Rom. vi. 6.
10. New (neon). See on Matt. xxvi. 29. Compare Eph. v. 24. Is renewed (anakainoumenon). Rev., better, giving the force of the present participle, is being renewed: in process of continuous renewal. The word kainov new, which enters into the composition of the verb, gives the idea of quality. Compare 2 Cor. iv. 16, and the contrast in Eph. iv. 22.
In knowledge (eiv epignwsin). Rev., correctly, unto knowledge, the end to which the renewal tended. Compare Eph. iv. 13.
Where there is (opou eni). Where, in the renewed condition; there is, better, as Rev., can be: eni strengthened from ejn in signifies not merely the fact but the impossibility: there is no room for.
Greek, Jew, etc. Compare Gal. iii. 28. National, ritual, intellectual, and social diversities are specified. The reference is probably shaped by the conditions of the Colossian church, where the form of error was partly Judaistic and ceremonial, insisting on circumcision; where the pretense of superior knowledge affected contempt for the rude barbarian, and where the distinction of master and slave had place as elsewhere.
Barbarian, Scythian. See on 1 Cor. xiv. 11. The distinction is from the Greek and Roman point of view, where the line is drawn by culture, as between the Jew and the Greek it was drawn by religious privilege. From the former stand-point the Jew ranked as a barbarian. Scythian. "More barbarous than the barbarians" (Bengel). Hippocrates describes them as widely different from the rest of mankind, and like to nothing but themselves, and gives an absurd description of their physical peculiarities. Herodotus describes them as living in wagons, offering human sacrifices, scalping and sometimes flaying slain enemies, drinking their blood, and using their skulls for drinking-cups. When a king dies, one of his concubines is strangled and buried with him, and, at the close of a year, fifty of his attendants are strangled, disemboweled, mounted on dead horses, and left in a circle round his tomb.203 The Scythians passed through Palestine on their road to Egypt, B.C. 600, and a trace of their invasion is supposed to have existed in the name Scythopolis, by which Beth Shean 204 was known in Christ's time. Ezekiel apparently refers to them (xxxviii., 39.) under the name Gog, which reappears in Revelation. See on Apoc. xx. 8. 205 Bowels of mercies (splagcna oiktirmou). See on 1 Pet. iii. 8; 2 Corinthians i. 3. Rev., a heart of compassion.
Kindness (crhstothta). See on Rom. iii. 12.
Meekness (prauthta). See on Matt. v. 5.
Long-suffering (makroqumian). See on Jas. v. 7.
13. One another - one another (allhlwn - eautoiv). Lit., one another - yourselves. For a similar variation of the pronoun see Eph. iv. 32; 1 Pet. iv. 8-10. The latter pronoun emphasizes the fact that they are all members of Christ's body - everyone members one of another - so that, in forgiving each other they forgive themselves. Quarrel (momfhn). Only here in the New Testament. Cause of blame. Rev., complaint. The A.V. uses quarrel in its earlier sense of cause of complaint. So Shakespeare:
"The lady Beatrice hath a quarrel to you." "Much Ado," ii., 1.
"Against whom comest thou, and what's thy quarrel?" "Richard II.," i., 3, 33.
Charity. See on 1 Cor. xiii. 1.
Bond of perfectness (sundesmov thv teleiothtov). Love embraces and knits together all the virtues. Teleiothv perfectness is a collective idea, a result of combination, to which bond is appropriate. Compare Plato: "But two things cannot be held together without a third; they must have some bond of union. And the fairest bond is that which most completely fuses and is fused into the things which are bound" ("Timaeus," 31).
Rule (brabeuetw). Lit., be umpire. Only here in the New Testament. See on ch. ii. 18. The previous references to occasions for meekness, long-suffering, forbearance, forgiveness, etc., indicate a conflict of passions and motives in the heart. Christ is the one who adjusts all these, so that the metaphorical sense is appropriate, as in ch. ii. 18.
16. The word of Christ. The only occurrence of the phrase. The word spoken by Christ.
Richly. See on Rom. ii. 4, and compare ch. i. 27.
In all wisdom. Some connect with the preceding words, others with the following - in all wisdom, teaching, etc. The latter seems preferable, especially in view of ch. i. 28, where the phrase occurs teaching and admonishing in all wisdom; because the adverb richly forms an emphatic qualification of dwell in, and so appropriately terminates the clause; and because the whole passage is thus more symmetrical. "Dwell in has its single adverb richly, and is supported and expanded by two coordinate participial clauses, each of which has its spiritual manner or element of action (in all wisdom, in grace) more exactly defined" (Ellicott).
One another (eautouv). Yourselves. See on ver. 13.
Psalms. See the parallel passage, Eph. v. 19. A psalm was originally a song accompanied by a stringed instrument. See on 1 Cor. xiv. 15. The idea of accompaniment passed away in usage, and the psalm, in New-Testament phraseology, is an Old-Testament psalm, or a composition having that character. A hymn is a song of praise, and a song (wdh ode) is the general term for a song of any kind. Hymns would probably be distinctively Christian. It is supposed by some that Paul embodies fragments of hymns in his epistles, as 1 Corinthians 13; Eph. v. 14; 1 Tim. iii. 16; 2 Tim. ii. 11-14. Jas. i. 17, and Apoc. i. 5, 6; xv. 3, are also supposed to be of this character. In both instances of his use of wjdh song, Paul adds the term spiritual. The term may, as Trench suggests, denote sacred poems which are neither psalms nor hymns, as Herbert's "Temple," or Keble's "Christian Year." 206 This is the more likely, as the use of these different compositions is not restricted to singing nor to public worship. They are to be used in mutual christian teaching and admonition.
With grace (en th cariti). Lit., the grace. The article limits the meaning to the grace of God. With grace begins the second participial clause.
17. In the name. See on Matt. xxviii. 19.
Giving thanks. Notice the emphasis on the duty of thanksgiving placed at the close of the exhortations. See ch. i. 12; ii. 7; iii. 15; iv. 2.
Is fit (anhken). See on Philemon 8. The imperfect tense, was fitting, or became fitting, points to the time of their entrance upon the christian life. Not necessarily presupposing that the duty remained unperformed.
Lightfoot illustrates by ought, the past tense of owed, and says, "the past tense perhaps implies an essential a priori obligation."
In the Lord. Connect with is fitting, and compare well-pleasing in the Lord, ver. 20.
19. Be not bitter (mh pikrainesqe). Lit., be not embittered. Used only here by Paul. Elsewhere only in Revelation. The compounds parapikrainw to exasperate, and parapikrasmov provocation, occur only in Heb. iii. 16; iii. 8, 15. Compare Eph. iv. 31.
20. This is well pleasing. Expanded in Eph. vi. 2, 3. Unto the Lord should be in the Lord.
21. Provoke to anger (ereqizete). Only here and 2 Cor. ix. 2, where it is used of stirring up to good works. To anger is added by A.V. Be discouraged (ajqumwsin). Only here in the New Testament. Lose heart, or become dispirited.
22. Masters (kurioiv). See on Lord, 2 Pet. ii. 1, and Matt. xxi. 3. Kuriov Lord and despothv master came to be used interchangeably in the New Testament, though originally the latter involved such authority as is implied in our use of despot, or in the relation of a master to a slave. The Greeks applied despothv only to the gods.
With eye-service (en ofqalmodouleiaiv). Only here and Ephesians vi. 6. The word seems to have been coined by Paul.
Compare Plato: "And this art he will not attain without a great deal of trouble, which a good man ought to undergo, not for the sake of speaking and acting before men, but in order that he may be able to say what is acceptable to God, and always to act acceptably to Him as far as in him lies. For there is a saying of wiser men than ourselves, that a man of sense should not try to please his fellow-servants (at least this should not be his first object), but his good and noble masters" "Phaedrus," 273).
Singleness (aplothti). See on Rom. xii. 8. Without duplicity or doubleness.
Fearing the Lord (ton Kurion). The one Master contrasted with the masters (kurioiv) according to the flesh. The parallel in Eph. vi. 5, has as unto Christ.
23. Ye do - do it (poihte - ergazesqe). Rev., correctly, ye do - work; the latter being the stronger term as opposed to idleness. See on Jas. ii. 9. An idle man may do. Compare ejrgasia diligence, Luke xii. 58. Heartily (ek yuchv). Lit., from the soul. With a personal interest. Note that the apostle uses both heart (kardiav, ver. 22) and soul (yuchv); and in Eph. vi. 7, adds met' eujnoiav with good disposition (A.V., good will). See on Rom. xi. 3; vii. 23; i. 21. Compare sumyucoi of one accord, Philip. ii. 2; ijsoyucon like-minded, Philip. ii. 20; mia yuch with one mind, Philip. i. 27.
24. Of the inheritance. Which consists or is in the inheritance. Compare the similar construction, ch i. 12. See Matt. xxi. 35-38, where the doulov bond-servant and the klhronomov heir are contrasted; and Rom. viii. 15-17; Gal. iv. 1-7.
For ye serve (gar douleuete). Omit for. Some take the verb as imperative, serve ye; but the indicative is better as explaining from the Lord.
25. He that doeth wrong (o adikwn). Compare Philemon 18. The reference is primarily to the slave; but the following clause extends it to the master. If the slave do wrong, he shall be punished; but the master who does wrong will not be excused, for there is no respect of persons. Tychicus, who carried this letter to Colossae, carried at the same time the letter to Philemon, and escorted Onesimns to his master.
Shall receive (komisetai). See on 1 Pet. i. 8. Compare Eph. vi. 8. Respect of persons. See on Jas. ii. 1. In the Old Testament it has, more commonly, a good sense, of kindly reception, favorable regard. In the New Testament always a bad sense, which came to it through the meaning of mask which attached to proswpon face.