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"The first chapter has, so to speak, a liturgical, psalmodic character, being, as it were, a glowing song in praise of the transcendent riches of the grace of God in Christ, and the glory of the Christian calling" (Schaff).
On their omission or retention turns the question whether the epistle was addressed to the church at Ephesus, or was a circular epistle, addressed to Ephesus along with several other churches. For Ephesus, see on Apoc. ii. 1.
2. Grace. One of the leading words of the epistle. 166 It is used thirteen times.
3. Blessed (euloghtov). Placed first in the clause for emphasis, as always in the corresponding Hebrew in the Old Testament. The verb is commonly omitted - blessed the God. In the New Testament used of God only. The perfect participle of the verb, eujloghmenov blessed, is used of men. See on 1 Pet. i. 3. The word differs from that used in the Beatitudes, makariov. which denotes character, while this word denotes repute. Lit., well-spoken of.
God and Father of our Lord, etc. Some object to this rendering on the ground that the phrase God of Christ is unusual, occurring nowhere in Paul, except ver. 17 of this chapter. Such render, God who is also the Father, etc. But Christ of God is found Matt. xxvii. 46; and my God, John xx. 17; Apoc. iii. 12. Compare, also, 1 Cor. iii. 23; and the phrase is undoubted in ver. 17.
Hath blessed (euloghsav). Kindred with eujloghtov blessed.
Spiritual (pneumatikh). Another leading word. Spirit and spiritual occur thirteen times. Paul emphasizes in this epistle the work of the divine Spirit upon the human spirit. Not spiritual as distinguished from bodily, but proceeding from the Holy Spirit. Note the collocation of the words, blessed, blessed, blessing.
In the heavenly places (en toiv epouranioiv). Another keyword; one of the dominant thoughts of the epistle being the work of the ascended Christ. Places is supplied, the Greek meaning in the heavenlies. Some prefer to supply things, as more definitely characterizing spiritual blessing. But in the four other passages where the phrase occurs, i. 20; ii. 6; iii. 10; vi. 12, the sense is local, and ejpouraniov heavenly, is local throughout Paul's epistles. The meaning is that the spiritual blessings of God are found in heaven and are brought thence to us. Compare Philip. iii. 20.
4. Even as (kaqwv). Explaining blessed us, in ver. 3. His blessing is in conformity with the fact that He chose.
Chose (exelexato). Middle voice, for himself.
In Him. As the head and representative of our spiritual humanity.
Holy and without blame (agiouv kai amwmouv). The positive and negative aspects of christian life. See on Col. i. 22. Rev., without blemish. The reference is to moral rather than to forensic righteousness. Compare 1 Thess. iv. 7.
5. Having predestinated (proorisav). Rev. foreordained. From pro before, oJrizw to define, the latter word being from opov a boundary. Hence to define or determine beforehand.
Adoption (uioqesian). See on Rom. viii. 15. Never used of Christ. Good pleasure (eudokian). Not strictly in the sense of kindly or friendly feeling, as Luke ii. 14; Philip. i. 15, but because it pleased Him, see Luke x. 21; Matt. xi. 26. The other sense, however, is included and implied, and is expressed by in love.
6. To the praise of the glory of His grace. The ultimate aim of foreordained. Glory is an attribute of grace: that in which grace grandly and resplendently displays itself. Praise is called forth from the children of God by this divine glory which thus appears in grace. The grace is not merely favor, gift, but it reveals also the divine character. In praising God for what He does, we learn to praise Him for what He is. Glory is another of the ruling words of the epistle, falling into the same category with riches and fullness. The apostle is thrilled with a sense of the plenitude and splendor of the mystery of redemption.
Wherein He hath made us accepted (en h ecaritwsen hmav). The correct reading is h=v which, referring to grace. The meaning is not endued us with grace, nor made us worthy of love, but, as Rev., grace - which he freely bestowed. Grace is an act of God, not a state into which He brings us.
7. We have. Or are having. The freely bestowed (ver. 6) is thus illustrated by experience. The divine purpose is being accomplished in the lives of believers.
Redemption (thn apolutrwsin). See on Rom. iii. 24. Note the article: our redemption.
Through His blood. Further defining and explaining in whom.
8. Wherein He hath abounded (hv eperisseusen). Rev., correctly, which He made to abound. The verb is used both transitively and intransitively in the New Testament. The transitive use belongs mainly to later Greek. Compare, for the transitive sense, Matt. xiii. 12; 2 Corinthians iv. 15.
In all wisdom and prudence (en pash sofia kai fronhsei). For wisdom, see on Rom. xi. 33. For prudence, on Luke i. 17. The latter is an attribute or result of wisdom, concerned with its practical applications. Both words refer here to men, not to God: the wisdom and prudence with which He abundantly endows His followers. Compare Col. i. 9. All wisdom is, properly, every kind of wisdom.
9. Having made known. The participle is explanatory of which He made to abound, etc.: in that He made known.
The mystery of His will. For mystery, see on Rom. xi. 25; Colossians i. 26. Another key-word of this epistle. God's grace as manifested in redemption is a mystery in virtue of its riches and depth - as the expression of God's very nature. The mystery of the redemption in Christ, belonging to the eternal plan of God, could be known to men only through revelation - making known. Of his will; pertaining to his will. Compare ch. iii. 9.
10. That in the dispensation, etc. (eiv oikonomian). The A.V. is faulty and clumsy. EiJv does not mean in, but unto, with a view to. Dispensation has no article. The clause is directly connected with the preceding: the mystery which He purposed in Himself unto a dispensation. For oijkonomia dispensation see on Col. i. 25. Here and ch. iii. 2, of the divine regulation, disposition, economy of things.
Of the fullness of times (tou plhrwmatov twn kairwn). For fullness, see on Rom. xi. 12; John i. 16; Col. i. 19. For times, compare Gal. iv. 4, "fullness of the time (tou cronou), where the time before Christ is conceived as a unit. Here the conception is of a series of epochs. The fullness of the times is the moment when the successive ages of the gospel dispensation are completed. The meaning of the whole phrase, then, is: a dispensation characterized: by the fullness of the times: set forth when the times are full.
To sum up all things in Christ (anakefalaiwsasqai). Explanatory of the preceding phrase; showing in what the dispensation consists. For the word, see on Rom. xiii. 9. It means to bring back to and gather round the main point (kefalaion), not the head (kefalh); so that, in itself, it does not indicate Christ (the Read) as the central point of regathering, though He is so in fact. That is expressed by the following in Christ. The compounded preposition ajna signifies again, pointing back to a previous condition where no separation existed. All things. All created beings and things; not limited to intelligent beings. Compare Rom. viii. 21; 1 Corinthians xv. 28.
The connection of the whole is as follows: God made known the mystery of His will, the plan of redemption, according to His own good pleasure, in order to bring to pass an economy peculiar to that point of time when the ages of the christian dispensation should be fulfilled - an economy which should be characterized by the regathering of all things round one point, Christ.
God contemplates a regathering, a restoration to that former condition when all things were in perfect unity, and normally combined to serve God's ends. This unity was broken by the introduction of sin. Man's fall involved the unintelligent creation (Rom. viii. 20). The mystery of God's will includes the restoration of this unity in and through Christ; one kingdom on earth and in heaven - a new heaven and a new earth in which shall dwell righteousness, and "the creation shall be delivered from the bondage of corruption into the liberty of the glory of the children of God."
11. In Him. Resuming emphatically: in Christ.
We have obtained an inheritance (eklhrwqhmen). Only here in the New Testament. From klhrov a lot. Hence the verb means literally to determine, choose, or assign by lot. From the custom of assigning portions of land by lot, klhrov acquires the meaning of that which is thus assigned; the possession or portion of land. So often in the Old Testament. See Sept., Num. xxxiv. 14; Deut. iii. 18; xv. 4, etc. An heir (klhronomov) is originally one who obtains by lot. The A.V. here makes the verb active where it should be passive. The literal sense is we were designated as a heritage. So Rev., correctly, were made a heritage. Compare Deut. iv. 20, a people of inheritance (laon egklhron). Also Deut. xxxii. 8, 9.
12. That we should be. Connect with we were made a heritage.
Who first trusted (touv prohlpikotav). In apposition with we (should be). So Rev., we who had, etc., trusted, more properly hoped; and first trusted is ambiguous. We refers to Jewish Christians, and the verb describes their messianic hope before (pro) the advent of Christ. Hence Rev., correctly, we who had (have) before hoped. In Christ should be "in the Christ," as the subject of messianic expectation and not as Jesus, for whom Christ had passed into a proper name. It is equivalent to in the Messiah. See on Matt. i. 1.
13. Ye also trusted. Gentile Christians. Trusted, which is not in the Greek, is unnecessary. The pronoun ye is nominative to were sealed. In whom. Resuming the in whom at the beginning of the verse, and repeated on account of the length of the clause.
Spirit of promise. Strictly, the promise. Denoting the promise as characteristic of the Holy Spirit: the Spirit which was announced by promise. See Acts ii. 16 sqq.; Joel ii. 28; Zech. xii. 10; Isa. xxxii. 15; xliv. 3; John vii. 39; Acts i. 4-8; Gal. iii. 14.
14. Earnest. See on 2 Cor. i. 22.
Unto the redemption, etc. Construe with ye were sealed.
Of the purchased possession (thv peripoihsewv). See on peculiar, 1 Peter ii. 9. The word originally means a making to remain over and above; hence preservation; preservation for one's self; acquisition; the thing acquired, or a possession. Used here collectively for the people possessed, as the circumcision for those circumcised, Philip. iii. 3; the election for those chosen, Rom. xi. 7. Rev., God's own possession, God's own being inserted for the sake of clearness. Compare Isa. xliii. 21; Acts xx. 28; Titus ii. 14.
Unto the praise of His glory. Construe with ye were sealed: Ye were sealed unto the redemption, etc.; setting forth God's purpose as it contemplates man. Ye were sealed unto the praise of His glory; God's purpose as it respects Himself
15. Your faith (thn kaq umav pistin). The Greek phrase is nowhere else used by Paul. Lit., as Rev., the faith which is among you. Expositors endeavor to make a distinction between this and Paul's common phrase hJ pistiv uJmwn your faith, but they differ widely, and the distinction is at best doubtful.
Unto all the saints (thn eiv pantav touv agiouv). Lit., that which is toward all, etc. Love being omitted, this refers to faith: faith which displays its work and fruits toward fellow Christians. See on Philemon 5,
Father of glory (o pathr thv doxhv). The Father to whom the glory belongs. Note the article, the glory, preeminently. Compare Acts vii. 2; 1 Corinthians ii. 8. See Psalm xviii. 3, "who is worthy to be praised;" where the Hebrew is is praised. The exact phrase has no parallel in Scripture. The Spirit of wisdom and revelation. Spirit has not the article, but the reference is to the Holy Spirit. Compare Matt. xii. 28; Luke i. 15, 35, 41; Rom. i. 4; 1 Pet. i. 2. Wisdom and revelation are special forms of the Spirit's operation. He imparts general illumination (wisdom) and special revelations of divine mysteries. The combination of two words with an advance in thought from the general to the special is characteristic of Paul. Compare grace and apostleship, Rom. i. 5; gifts and calling, Rom. xi. 29; wisdom and prudence, Eph. i. 8, wisdom and knowledge, Col. ii. 3.
In the knowledge of Him (en epignwsei autou) The sphere in which they will receive God's gift of wisdom and revelation. To know God is to be wise. The condition is not merely acknowledgment, but knowledge. Epignwsiv knowledge is never ascribed to God in the New Testament. Of Him refers to God.
18. The eyes of your understanding being enlightened (pefwtismenouv touv ofqalmouv thv kardiav umwn). Rev., eyes of your heart. Lit., being enlightened as to the eyes of your heart; enlightened being joined with you (ver. 17) by a somewhat irregular construction: may give unto you being enlightened. For a similar construction see Acts xv. 22. The phrase eyes of the heart occurs nowhere else in the New Testament. Plato has eye of the soul (yuchv, "Sophist," 254). Ovid, speaking of Pythagoras, says: "With his mind he approached the gods, though far removed in heaven, and what nature denied to human sight, he drew forth with the eyes of his heart" ("Metamorphoses," xv., 62-64). Heart is not merely the seat of emotion, as in popular usage, but of thought and will. See on Rom. i. 21. The particular aspect in which its activity is viewed, perception or cognition, is determined by what follows, "that ye may know," etc.
Hope of His calling. Hope, not, as sometimes, the thing hoped for, but the sentiment or principle of hope which God's calling inspires.
The riches of the glory of His inheritance. Ellicott remarks that this is a noble accumulation of genitives, "setting forth the inheritance on the side of its glory, and the glory on the side of its riches." Glory is the essential characteristic of salvation, and this glory is richly abounding. His inheritance: which is His, and His gift.
19. Exceeding (uperballon). Compounds with uJper over, beyond, are characteristic of Paul's intensity of style, and mark the struggle of language with the immensity of the divine mysteries, and the opulence of the divine grace. See ver. 21; iii. 20; 2 Cor. iv. 17, etc.
According to the working of His mighty power (kata thn energeian tou kratouv thv iscuov autou). The A.V. frequently impairs the force of a passage by combining into a single conception two words which represent distinct ideas; translating two nouns by an adjective and a noun. Thus Philip. iii. 21, vile body, glorious body, for body of humiliation, body of glory: Rom. viii. 21, glorious liberty, for liberty of the glory: 2 Corinthians iv. 4, glorious gospel, for gospel of the glory: Col. i. 11, glorious power, for power of the glory: 1 Pet. i. 14, obedient children, for children of obedience: 2 Pet. ii. 14, cursed children, for children of cursing. So here, mighty power, for strength of might. The idea is thus diluted, and the peculiar force and distinction of the separate words is measurably lost. Rev., correctly, working of the strength of His might. For working, see on Col. i. 29. For strength and might, see on 2 Peter ii. 11; John i. 12. Strength (kratouv) is used only of God, and denotes relative and manifested power. Might (iscuov). is indwelling strength. Working (energeian) is the active, efficient manifestation of these. Hence we have here God's indwelling power, which inheres in the divine nature (strength); the relative quality or measure of this power (might); and the efficient exertion of the divine quality (working). The phrase, according to the working of the strength, etc., is to be connected with the exceeding greatness of His power. The magnitude of God's power toward believers is known in the operation of the strength of His might.
20. Which (hn). Refer to working (ver. 19).
He wrought (enhrghsen). The best texts read ejnhrghken, perfect tense, He hath wrought. The verb is kindred with working (ver. 19).
When He raised (egeirav). Or, in that He raised.
And set (kai ekaqisen). Rev., made Him to sit. The best texts read kaqisav having seated, or in that He caused him to sit.
21. Far above (uperanw). Lit., over above. See on ver. 19. Connect with made Him to sit.
Principality, power, etc. These words usually refer to angelic powers; either good, as ch. iii. 10; Col. i. 16; ii. 10; or bad, as ch. vi. 12; 1 Corinthians xv. 24; Col. ii. 15; or both, as Rom. viii. 38. See on Col. i. 16; ii. 15. Here probably good, since the passage relates to Christ's exaltation to glory rather than to His victory over evil powers. And every name that is named. And has a collective and summary force - and in a word. Every name, etc. Whatever a name can be given to. "Let any name be uttered, whatever it is, Christ is above it; is more exalted than that which the name so uttered affirms" (Meyer). Compare Philippians ii. 9. "We know that the emperor precedes all, though we cannot enumerate all the ministers of his court: so we know that Christ is placed above all, although we cannot name all" (Bengel).
Not only in this world, etc. Connect with which is named. For world (aiwni), see on John i. 9.
22. Put all things in subjection. Compare Col. i. 15-18; Psalm viii. 5-8.
The Church (th ekklhsia). See on Matt. xvi. 18.
The fullness. See on John i. 16; Rom. xi. 12; Col. i. 19. That which is filled. The Church, viewed as a receptacle. Compare ch. iii. 10. That filleth all in all (ta panta ejn pasin plhroumenou). Better, that filleth all things with all things. The expression is somewhat obscure. All things are composed of elements. Whatever things exist, God from His fullness fills with all those elements which belong to their being or welfare. The whole universe is thus filled by Him.