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    1-3. Compare Matt. xxviii. 1; Mark xvi. 2-4.

    1. Very early in the morning (orqrou baqewv). Lit., at deep dawn, or the dawn being deep. It is not uncommon in Greek to find baquv, deep, used of time; as deep or late evening. Plutarch says of Alexander, that he supped "at deep evening;" i.e., late at night. Philo says that the Hebrews crossed the Red Sea "about deep dawn (as here), while others were yet in bed." So Socrates, in prison, asks Crito the time of day. He replies, orqrov baquv, the dawn is deep, i.e. breaking (Plato, "Crito," 43).

    4-8. Compare Matt. xxviii. 5-7; Mark xvi. 5-7.

    4. Shining (astraptousaiv). Only here and ch. xvii. 24. Akin to ajstraph, lightning. See on bright shining, ch. xi. 36; and compare ch. xvii. 24.

    11. To them (enwpion autwn). Rev., literally, in their sight.

    Idle tales (lhrov). Lit., silly talk; nonsense. Only here in New Testament. Used in medical language of the wild talk of delirium. Wyc., madness. Tynd., feigned things.

    12. Stooping down. See on looketh, Jas. i. 25. The best texts omit this verse.

    Clothes. Not garments, but the linen bandages in which the body had been rolled. So Rev., cloths.

    13. Threescore furlongs. Seven miles.

    15. Went with (suneporeueto). The use of the imperfect here is very beautiful. Jesus drew near while they were absorbed in their talk, and was already walking with them when they observed him.

    17. Ye have (antiballete). Lit., throw back and forth; exchange.

    "Discussed a doubt and tossed it to and fro" (Tennyson).

    And are sad (skuqrwpoi). Only here and Matt. vi. 16, on which see note. The best texts put the interrogation point after walk, add kai ejstaqhsan, and render, and they stood still, looking sad. So Rev. 18. Art thou only a stranger in Jerusalem (su monov paroikeiv Ierousalhm). Paroikein, to dwell as a stranger, is used in later Greek of strangers who have no rights of citizenship, and no settled home. Compare Heb. xi. 9. See on strangers, 1 Pet. i. 1; and compare sojourning, 1 Pet. i. 17. The only of the A.V. is commonly understood adverbially: "Are you nothing but a stranger?" But the emphasis of the question falls there, and the word is an adjective. Render "Dost thou alone dwell as a stranger in Jerusalem?" Are you the only one who sojourns as a stranger in Jerusalem, and who does not know, etc. So, nearly, Wyc., Thou alone art a pilgrim in Jerusalem.

    18. What things (poia). Lit., "what kind of things."

    21. Trusted (hlpizoman). More correctly, hoped. Imperfect: were hoping all the while.

    Should have redeemed. Rev., more correctly, should redeem (lutrousqai). See on 1 Pet. i. 18.

    Beside all this (sun pasin toutoiv). Lit., with all these things: his betrayal and crucifixion, etc.

    Today is the third day (trithn tauthn hJmeran agei shmeron). The best texts omit today. The phrase forms an idiom which cannot be neatly rendered. Literally it is, "He (Christ) is passing (agei) this day as the third." Rev., It is now the third day since, etc.

    22. Made us astonished (exesthsan). Literally the verb means to put out of place; and so, to drive one out of his senses. Hence the A.V. is feeble. Rev., better, amazed us.

    Early (orqrinai). Lit., early ones. Only here and Apoc. xxii. 16. Compare orqrov, dawn, ver. 1.

    23. That they had seen - which said. Cleopas, absorbed in his story, throws himself back to the time of his interview with the women. Lit., "They came saying that they have seen a vision of angels which say" (legousin).

    25. Fools and slow of heart (anohtoi kai bradeiv th kardia). This is an unfortunate translation, in the light of the ordinary, popular use of the word fool. Jesus would never have called those sorrowful disciples fools in that sense. The word is compounded of aj, not, and noew, which implies, besides seeing, perception of the mind as consequent upon sight. It is therefore equivalent to dull of perception. They had read what the prophets had spoken, but had failed to perceive its application to Christ. While this rebuke relates to the understanding, the following one, slow of heart, goes deeper, and contemplates the region of feeling and moral susceptibility. Your heart is dull and slow to respond to these testimonies of your own prophets. Compare hardness of heart, Mark xvi. 14.

    All (ejpi pasin). Rev., rightly, in all; relying upon (epi) all the utterances of the prophets.

    26. Ought not (ouci edei). The A.V. does not convey the precise meaning, which is, that, in the eternal order of things, and in fulfilment of the eternal counsel of God as expressed in the prophecies, it was essentially fitting that Christ should suffer. Rev. is clumsy but correct: beloved it not the Christ to suffer?

    27. He expounded (diermhnuen). Or interpreted: throughout (dia).

    Imperfect, he went on interpreting from passage to passage.

    28. They went (eporeuonto). Imperfect, were going. So Rev. Made as though (prosepoihsato). The verb means originally to add or attach to; hence to take to one's self what does not belong to him; and so, to pretend; though pretending as implying anything false, does not attach to this act of Jesus. He was going on, and would have gone on but for their invitation. Only here in New Testament.

    29. They constrained (parebiasanto). Contrary to (para) his apparent intention of going on. Only here and Acts xvi. 15.

    Is far spent (kekliken). Lit., has declined. Wyc., is now bowed down.

    30. And gave (epedidou). A very beautiful use of the imperfect, indicating that while he was in the act of distributing they recognized him. He blessed, and having broken, was giving it to them, when, in an instant, their eyes were opened (aorist tense).

    31. They knew (epegnwsan). Clearly recognized.

    And he vanished out of their sight (autov afantov egeneto ap autwn). Lit., he, invisible, became away from them. It is not simply, he suddenly departed from them, but he passed away from them invisibly. The ejgeneto, became, is construed with ajp' aujtwn, from them. 10

    32. Did not our heart burn - while he talked - opened. (ouci h kardia hmwn kaiomenh hn - wv elalei - dihnoigen). The A.V., as usual, pays no attention to the graphic imperfects here. They are speaking of something which was in progress: "was not our heart burning (finite verb and participle) while he was speaking, and was opening the scriptures?"

    34. Is risen (hgerqh) - appeared (wfqh). Both aorists. The Lord rose and appeared. So Wyc. See on appeared, ch. xxii. 43.

    35. They told (exhgounto). Rev., rehearsed is better, because the verb means to tell at length or relate in full.

    36. Jesus himself. The best texts omit Jesus. Render as Rev., "he himself stood."

    And saith unto them, Peace be unto you. The best texts omit.

    38. Thoughts (dialogismoi). See on Jas. ii. 4, and deceiving, James i. 22. Rev., reasonings. As if he had said, "Why do you reason about a matter which your spiritual perception ought to discern at once." Compare note on fools, ver. 25. 11

    39. Handle (yhlafhsate). Compare 1 John i. 1. The word occurs also Acts xvii. 27; Heb. xii. 18. "It never expresses the so handling an object as to exercise a moulding, modifying influence upon it, but at most a feeling of its surface; this, it may be, with the intention of learning its composition (Gen. xxvii. 12, 21, 22); while, not seldom, it signifies no more than a feeling for or after an object, without any actual coming in contact with it at all" (Trench, "Synonyms"). Compare Acts xvii. 27. Used of groping in the dark, Job v. 14; of the blind, Isa. xlix. 10; Deuteronomy xxviii. 29; Judges, xvi. 26. See on Heb. xii. 18.

    41. Meat (brwsimon). Only here in New Testament. Lit., anything eatable. Wyc., anything that shall be eaten. Rev., better, anything to eat, as the word meat has largely lost, in popular usage, its old sense of food in general.

    42. Broiled. Only here in New Testament.

    Of an honey-comb. The best texts omit.

    44. The words. The best texts insert my.

    Must (dei). See on ought not, ver. 26.

    45. Understanding (noun). Which had been closed. See on fools, ver. 25.

    46. Thus is behoved. The best texts omit. Render, as Rev., thus it is written that the Christ should suffer.

    Christ (ton Criston). Note the article, the Christ, and see on Matthew i. 1.

    47. Should be preached. See on preacher, 2 Pet. ii. 5.

    In his name. On the foundation of (epi). See on Matt. xxiv. 5.

    Remission. See on ch. iii. 3, and on forgiven, Jas. v. 15.

    Beginning from Jerusalem. Some editors place a period after nations, and join these words with the next sentence, omitting and: "beginning from Jerusalem ye are witnesses." 12

    49. I send (egw exapostellw). Rev., better, send forth, giving the force of ejx. I emphatic.

    Endued with power. The Rev. has properly substituted the simpler clothed, which, to the English reader, conveys the exact figure in the word. This metaphorical sense of clothed is found in classical Greek.

    Aristophanes has clothes with audacity; Homer, clothed with strength; Plutarch, clothes with nobility and wealth.

    51. And was carried up into heaven. Some texts omit.


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