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Joy and crown (cara kai stefanov). Nearly the same phrase occurs 1 Thessalonians ii. 19. The Philippian converts are his chaplet of victory, showing that he has not run in vain, ch. ii. 16. For crown, see on Revelation iv. 4; 1 Pet. v. 4.
So stand fast. As I have exhorted, and have borne myself in the conflict which you saw and heard to be in me, ch. i. 30.
2. I beseech Euodias and beseech Syntyche (Euwdian parakalw kai Suntuchn parakalw). Euodias is incorrect, the name being feminine, Euodia. According to the Tex. Rec., with the long o, the name means fragrance; but the correct reading is with the short o, the meaning being prosperous journey. Syntyche means happy chance. These were prominent women in the Church, possibly deaconesses. The position of women in Macedonia was exceptional. In Greece, generally, their standing was inferior. The Athenian law prescribed that everything that a man might do by the consent or request of a woman should be null in law. In Macedonia monuments were erected to women by public bodies, and in Macedonian inscriptions records of male proper names are found formed on the mother's name instead of the father's. Macedonian women were permitted to hold property. In the account of Paul's labors in Macedonia there are notices of the addition of women of rank to the church in Thessalonica and Beroea. 182 For beseech, render exhort, and notice the repetition of that word with each name, making the exhortation individual and specific.
To be of the same mind (to auto fronein). The same expression as in ch ii. 2, see note. Compare Rom. xii. 16. The verb fronew to be minded, occurs eleven times in this epistle, and but seventeen times in the rest of the New Testament.
3. True yoke-fellow (gnhsie sunzuge). For true, see on naturally, ch. ii. 20. It is supposed by some that the word rendered yoke-fellow is a proper name, Synzygus, and that true is to be explained as rightly so called. This explanation would be favored by the play upon the name Onesimus in the Epistle to Philemon, and is not improbably correct. The name has not been found in inscriptions, as is the case with many of the names in these epistles, as, for instance, Euodia and Syntyche. Some suppose that the chief of the bishops or superintendents at Philippi is thus addressed; but, in that case, the word would probably appear elsewhere in the New Testament. Clement of Alexandria, assuming that Paul was married, thinks that he addresses his wife. Others suppose that Lydia is addressed. 183 Help (sullambanou). Lit., take hold with. Compare Luke v. 7. The verb is used of conception, Luke i. 24; arrest, Matt. xxvi. 55; Acts xii. 3; catching, as fish, Luke v. 9. Compare the compound sunantilambanomai help, Luke x. 40 (note); Rom. viii. 26.
Which labored with me (aitinev sunhqlhsan moi). The double relative explains and classifies: for they belonged to the number of those who labored. Rev., for they labored. Labored, lit., strove as athletes, as ch. i. 27. Compare Sophocles: "These girls preserve me, these my nurses, these who are men, not women, in laboring with me" ("Oedipus at Colonus," 1367-8).
Clement. Supposed by some to be Clement the Bishop of Rome. Origen identifies them, saying: "Clement to whom Paul bears Testimony in Philip. iv. 3." So also Eusebius, Epiphanius, and Jerome. Chrysostom speaks of Clement as the constant companion of Paul in all his travels. Irenaeus, on the contrary, who mentions him as the pupil of an apostle, says nothing of his connection with Paul, by name, and would not have been likely to pass over this identity in silence had he been aware of it. Clement was a member of the Roman church, and the name was a very common one. A Roman consul, Flavius Clemens, was sentenced to death by Domitian on account of atheism, which was the common pagan designation of Christianity. The Roman catacombs furnish evidence that Christianity had penetrated into the Flavian family, so that there may have been two prominent Christians in Rome of the same name. The identity of Clement of Rome with the Clement of this epistle has been very generally abandoned. The latter was probably a Philippian.
Other (twn loipwn). Rev., correctly, the rest.
Book of life. The phrase occurs seven times in Revelation. Compare Luke x. 20; Heb. xii. 23, and see on Apoc. iii. 5. The figure is founded on the register of the covenant people. Isa. iv. 3; Ezek. xiii. 9; Exod. xxxii. 32; Psalm lxix. 28; Dan. xii. 1. The phrase was also used by the Rabbins. Thus in the Targum 184 on Ezek. xiii. 9: "In the book of eternal life which has been written for the just of the house of Israel, they shall not be written." God is described as "the king, sitting upon the judgment-seat, with the books of the living and the books of the dead open before Him."
5. Rejoice. See on ch. i. 4, and 2 Cor. xiii. 11.
6. Be careful (merimnate). See on Matt. vi. 25. Rev., better, be anxious.
Requests (aithmata). Specific details of supplication.
7. Peace of God. As the antidote to anxiety, ver. 6.
Which passeth all understanding (h uperecousa panta noun). Either, which passes all power of comprehension, compare Ephesians iii. 20; or, better, which surpasses every (human) reason, in its power to relieve anxiety. Compare Matt. vi. 31, 32. For understanding, see on Rom. vii. 23.
"Love is and was my King and Lord, And will be, though as yet I keep Within his court on earth, and sleep Encompassed by his faithful guard, And hear at times a sentinel Who moves about from place to place, And whispers to the worlds of space, In the deep night, that all is well." "In Memoriam."
Gurnall. a little differently: "The peace of God is said to garrison the believer's heart and mind. He is surrounded with such blessed privileges that he is as safe as one in an impregnable castle" ("Christian in Complete Armor," p. 419).
Hearts - minds (kardiav - nohmata). For hearts, see on Romans i. 21. For minds, Rev., thoughts, on 2 Cor. iii. 14. The guardianship is over the source and the issues of thought and will. "Your hearts and their fruits" (Alford).
8. Honest (semna). Rev., honorable, reverend in margin. In classical Greek an epithet of the gods, venerable, reverend. The word occurs only here and in the pastoral epistles, 1 Tim. iii. 8, 11; Tit. ii. 2, where it is rendered grave, both in A.V. and Rev. There lies in it the idea of a dignity or majesty which is yet inviting and attractive, and which inspires reverence. Grave, as Trench observes, does not exhaust the meaning. Gravity may be ridiculous. "The word we want is one in which the sense of gravity and dignity, and of these as inviting reverence, is combined." Ellicott's venerable is perhaps as near as any word, if venerable be divested of its modern conventional sense as implying age, and confined to its original sense, worthy of reverence.
Pure (agna). See on 1 John iii. 3.
Lovely (prosfilh). Only here in the New Testament. Adapted to excite love, and to endear him who does such things.
Of good report (eufhma). Only here in the New Testament. Lit., sounding well. The kindred verb is commonly used in an active sense. Hence not well spoken of, but fairspeaking, and so winning, gracious (Rev., in margin).
Praise (epainov). Commendation corresponding to the moral value of the virtue. In the Septuagint, ajreth virtue is four times used to translate the Hebrew praise. The two ideas seem to be coordinated. Lightfoot remarks that Paul seems studiously to avoid this common heathen term for moral excellence, and his explanation is very suggestive: "Whatever value may reside in your old heathen conception of virtue, whatever consideration is due to the praise of men."
10. Your care of me hath flourished again (aneqalete to uper emou fronein). Lit., ye caused your thinking on my behalf to bloom anew. Rev., ye revived your thought for me. The verb occurs only here in the New Testament. In the Septuagint it appears as both transitive and intransitive, to flourish, or to cause to flourish. Thus Psalm xxvii. 7, where Septuagint reads for my heart greatly rejoiceth, my flesh flourished (aneqalen); Ezek. xvii. 24, have made the dry tree to flourish.
Wherein. The matter of my wants and sufferings. Implied in your care of me.
Ye were careful (efroneite). Rev., ye did take thought. Note the imperfect tense: ye were all along thoughtful.
11. Content (autarkhv). Lit., self-sufficient. Only here in the New Testament. A stoic word, expressing the favorite doctrine of the sect, that man should be sufficient to himself for all things; able, by the power of his own will, to resist the shock of circumstance. Paul is self-sufficient through the power of the new self: not he, but Christ in him. The kindred noun aujtarkeia sufficiency, occurs 2 Cor. ix. 8; 1 Tim. vi. 6.
13. I can do (iscuw). See on Luke xiv. 30.
Strengtheneth (endunamounti). More literally, infuses strength into me, as the old verb inforce.
15. When I departed from Macedonia. On his first European circuit, going by way of Athens to Corinth, where he was joined by Silvanus and Timothy, bringing a contribution from Macedonia. Acts xviii. 5; 2 Corinthians xi. 9.
16. Even in Thessalonica (kai). Better also: in addition to the contribution received at Corinth.
Odor of a sweet smell. See on 2 Cor. ii. 15, 16. Frequent in Septuagint, of the odor of sacrifices.
19. In glory. This is differently connected by expositors. Some with riches, as A.V. and Rev. Others with shall supply, but with different explanations, as, shall supply your need with glory: in a glorious way: by placing you in glory. It is better to construe with shall supply, and to explain in glory as the element and instrument of the supply. The need shall be supplied in glory and by glory; by placing you in glory where you shall be partakers of glory.