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1. Put them in mind (upomimnhske exousiaiv). See on 2 Timothy ii. 14, and on uJpomnhsin reminding, 2 Tim. i. 5.
Principalities and powers (arcaiv exousiaiv). Omit and. Principalities which are authorities. Arch beginning = that which begins: the leader, principality. See on Col. i. 16; Jude 6; Acts x. 11. Only here in Pastorals. Exousia right, authority. See on Mark ii. 10; John i. 12; Col. i. 16. Only here in Pastorals. For the combination principalities and powers, see on Luke 20. 20.
To obey magistrates (peiqarcein). Comp. Acts v. 29, 32; xxvii. 21. See on Acts v. 29. The idea of magistrates is contained in the word itself; but it is quite proper to render as Rev. to be obedient. Rare in LXX.
2. No brawlers (amacouv). Better as Res., sot to be contentious. See on 1 Timothy iii. 3. Past o .
Malice (kakia). Only here in Pastorals. See on James. i. 21. In N.T. kakia is a special form of vice, not viciousness in general, as Cicero, Tusc. iv. 15, who explains by "vitiositas, a viciousness which includes all vices." Calvin, on Eph. iv. 32, defines as " a viciousness of mind opposed to humanity and fairness, and commonly styled malignity." The homily ascribed to Clement of Rome, describes kakia as the forerunner (proodoiporon) of our sins (x). Malice is a correct translation.
Love (filanqrwpia). Love is too vague. It is love toward men; comp. verse 2. Only here and Acts xxviii. 2: filanqrwpwv kindly, Acts xxvii. 3 (note). While it cannot be asserted that the heretical characteristics noted in the Pastoral Epistles point collectively to any specific form of error, it is true, nevertheless, that certain characteristics of the economy of grace are emphasized, which are directly opposed to Gnostic ideas. Thus the exhortation that supplications be made for all men, supported by the statement that God wills that all men should be saved and come to the knowledge of the truth (1 Tim. ii. 1, 4), is in the teeth of the Gnostic distinction between men of spirit and men of matter, and of the Gnostic principle that the knowledge (epignwsiv) of truth was only for a limited, intellectual class. To the same effect is the frequent recurrence of all, for all, in connection with the saving and enlightening gifts of God (1 Timothy ii. 6; iv. 10; vi. 13; Tit. ii. 11). So here: not only has the saving grace of God appeared unto all (chapter. ii. 11), but it has revealed itself as kindness and love to man as man.
5. Not by works of righteousness which we have done (ouk ex ergwn twn en dikaiosunh a epoihsamen). Lit. not by works, those namely in righteousness, which we did. The thought is entirely Pauline. Ex ergwn strictly, out of, in consequence of works. En dikaiosunh in the sphere of righteousness; as legally righteous men. Comp. Eph. ii. 9. We did emphatic. Comp. Rom. x. 5; Gal. iii. 10, 12; v. 3.
By the washing of regeneration (dia loutrou palingenesiav).
Loutron only here and Eph. v. 26. It does not mean the act of bathing, but the bath, the laver. Palingenesia only here and Matthew xix. . 28, where it is used of the final restoration of all things. The phrase laver of regeneration distinctly refers to baptism, in connection with which and through which as a medium regeneration is conceived as taking place. Comp. Rom. vi. 3-5. It is true that nothing is said of faith; but baptism implies faith on the part of its recipient. It has no regenerating effect apart from faith; and the renewing of the Holy Spirit is not bestowed if faith be wanting.
Renewing (anakainwsewv). Only here and Rom. xii. 2. Comp. 2 Corinthians v. 7. Paul has ajnakainoun to renew, 2 Cor. iv. 16; Col. iii. 10: ajnakainwsiv renewing, Rom. xii. 2. Anakainizein to renew, only Heb. vi. 6. The connection of the genitive is disputed. Some make it dependent on loutrou bath, so that the bath of baptism is conceived as implying regeneration and renewing of the Holy Spirit. Others construe with renewing only, ajnakainwsewv being dependent on dia; through the laver of regeneration and (through) the renewing, etc. The former seems the more probable. The phrase renewing of the Holy Spirit only here. In N.T. the Spirit or the Holy Spirit is joined in the genitive with the following words: comfort, joy, power, love, demonstration, manifestation, earnest, ministration, fellowship, promise, fruit, unity, sword, sanctification.
6. Shed (execeen). Or poured forth. Only here in Pastorals. Most frequent in Revelation. The pouring out of the Spirit is an 0. T. metaphor. See Joel iii. 1, 2, cit. in Acts ii. 17,18; Zechariah. xii. 10. In Paul the verb occurs but once, of shedding blood, Rom. iii. 15, cit.
7. Being justified (dikaiwqentev). In Pastorals only here and 1 Timothy iii. 16 (note). See Intro. vi. Justification is conceived as taking place before the outpouring of the Spirit.
By his grace (th ekeinou cariti). By the grace of Jesus Christ. See Acts xv. 11; 2 Cor. viii. 9; xiii. 14; Rom. v. 6; Gal. i. 6. We should be made heirs (klhronomoi genhqwmen). Klhronomov heir only here in Pastorals. A favorite idea of Paul. See Rom. iv. 13; viii. 17; Gal. iii. 29. Heirship of eternal life is the result of justification. So, clearly, Rom. verse It is attested and confirmed by the Holy Spirit. 2 Corinthians v. 5; Eph. i. 14.
According to the hope of eternal life (kat elpida zwhv aiwniou). Const. of eternal life with heirs, and rend. heirs of eternal life according to hope. Comp. Rom. iv. 18; v. 2; viii. 24; Gal. v. 5; Col. i. 5, 27; Tit. i. 2; 1 Pet. i. 3; 1 John iii. 2,8.
8. Affirm constantly (diabebaiousqai). Past o . See on 1 Tim. i. 7. Constantly, not continually, but uniformly and consistently. So Book of Common Prayer, "Collect for Saint John Baptist's Day," "and after his example constantly speak the truth." Rend. affirm steadfastly.
Might be careful (frontizwsin). N.T.o . Quite often in LXX. Frequent in Class. To think or consider; hence to take careful thought, ponder, be anxious about.
To maintain (proistasqai). Mostly in Pastorals, and usually in the sense of ruling, as Rom. xii. 8; 1 Thess. v. 12; 1 Tim. iii. 4, 5. The sense here is to be forward in. 156 Profitable (wfelima). Past o . o LXX. Comp. 1 Tim. iv. 8; 2 Timothy iii. 16.
Strivings about the law (macav nomikav). The phrase N.T.o . Comp. 1 Timothy i. 7. Nomikov mostly in Luke. Everywhere except here a lawyer, with the article or tiv.
Unprofitable (anwfeleiv). Only here and Heb. vii. 18.
Vain (mataioi). Only here in Pastorals. Twice in Paul, 1 Corinthians iii. 20, cit.; xv. 17 (note). Very frequent in LXX. The sense is aimless or resultless, as mataiov eujch a prayer which cannot obtain fulfilment. The questions, genealogies, etc., lead to no attainment or advancement in godliness. Comp. mataiologia jangling, 1 Tim. i. 6: mataiologoi vain talkers, verse x. mataiothv vanity, Rom. viii. 20; Eph. iv. 17: ejmataiwqhsan were made vain, Rom. i. 21: mathn in vain, Matthew xv. 9.
11. Is subverted (exestraptai). N.T.o . More than turned away from the right path: rather, turned inside out. Comp. LXX, Deut. xxxii. 20. Sinneth (amartanei). See on 1 John i. 9; Matt. i. 21, and trespasses, Matt. vi. 14.
Condemned of himself (autokatakritov). Better as Rev., self-condemned. N.T.o . o LXX, o Class.
12. Nicopolis. There were several cities of this name, one in Cilicia, one in Thrace, and one in Epirus. It is uncertain which one is meant here. To winter (paraceimasai). Comp. Acts xxvii. 12; xxviii. 11; 1 Corinthians xvi. 6. The noun paraceimasia wintering, Acts xxvii. 12.
12. Ours (hmeteroi). Our brethren in Crete.
For necessary uses (eiv tav anagkaiav creiav). The phrase N.T.o . With reference to whatever occasion may demand them.
Unfruitful (akarpoi). Only here in Pastorals. In Paul, 1 Corinthians xiv. 14; Eph. verse 11. Not only in supplying the needs, but in cultivating Christian graces in themselves by acts of Christian service.
15. Them that love us in the faith (touv filountav hmav en pistei). Better, in faith. The phrase N.T.o . Filein to love, only here in Pastorals, and in Paul, only 1 Cor. xvi. 22. See on ajgaph love, Gal. verse
22. Const. in faith with that love us.