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    1 Corinthians 16 - 2 Corinthians 2 - VINCENT'S STUDY - HELP - GR VIDEOS - GR YOUTUBE - TWITTER - SD1 YOUTUBE    

    1:1 {And Timothy} (kai timoqeos). Timothy is with Paul, having been sent on to Macedonia from Ephesus (#Ac 19:22). He is in no sense co-author any more than Sosthenes was in #1Co 1:1. {In all Achaia} (en holei tei acaiai). The Romans divided Greece into two provinces (Achaia and Macedonia). Macedonia included also Illyricum, Epirus, and Thessaly. Achaia was all of Greece south of this (both Attica and the Peloponnesus). The restored Corinth was made the capital of Achaia where the pro-consul resided (#Ac 18:12). He does not mention other churches in Achaia outside of the one in Corinth, but only "saints" (hagiois). Athens was in Achaia, but it is not clear that there was as yet a church there, though some converts had been won (#Ac 17:34), and there was a church in Cenchreae, the eastern port of Corinth (#Ro 16:1). Paul in #2Co 9:2 speaks of Achaia and Macedonia together. His language here would seem to cover the whole (holei, all) of Achaia in his scope and not merely the environment around Corinth.

    1:2 Identical with #1Co 1:3 which see.

    1:3 {Blessed} (eulogetos). From old verb eulogew, to speak well of, but late verbal in LXX and Philo. Used of men in #Ge 24:31, but only of God in N.T. as in #Lu 1:68 and chiefly in Paul (#2Co 11:31; Ro 1:25). Paul has no thanksgiving or prayer as in #1Co 1:4-9, but he finds his basis for gratitude in God, not in them. {The God and Father} (ho qeos kai pater). So rightly, only one article with both substantives as in #2Pe 1:1. Paul gives the deity of Jesus Christ as our Lord (kuriou), but he does not hesitate to use the language here as it occurs. See #1Pe 1:3; Eph 1:3 where the language is identical with that here. {The father of mercies} (ho pater twn oiktirmwn) and God of all comfort (kai qeos pases paraklesews). Paul adds an item to each word. He is the compassionate Father characterized by mercies (oiktirmwn, old word from oikteirw, to pity, and here in plural, emotions and acts of pity). He is the God of all comfort (paraklesews, old word from parakalew, to call to one's side, common with Paul). Paul has already used it of God who gave eternal comfort (#2Th 2:16). The English word comfort is from the Latin _confortis_ (brave together). The word used by Jesus of the Holy Spirit as the Comforter or Paraklete is this very word (#Joh 14:16; 16:7). Paul makes rich use of the verb parakalew and the substantive paraklesis in this passage (#3-7). He urges all sorrowing and troubled hearts to find strength in God.

    1:4 {In all our affliction} (epi pasei tei qliyei hemwn). qliyis is from qlibw, to press, old and common word, as tribulation is from Latin _tribulum_ (roller). See on ¯Mt 13:21 and #1Th 1:6. The English affliction is Latin _afflictio_ from _ad-fligere_, to strike on. {That we may be able to comfort} (eis to dunasqai hemas parakalein). Purpose clause with eis and the articular infinitive with the accusative of general reference, a common idiom. Paul here gives the purpose of affliction in the preacher's life, in any Christian's life, to qualify him for ministry to others. Otherwise it will be professional and perfunctory. {Wherewith} (hes). Genitive case of the relative attracted to that of the antecedent paraklesews. The case of the relative here could have been either the accusative hen with the passive verb retained as in #Mr 10:38 or the instrumental hˆi. Either is perfectly good Greek (cf. #Eph 1:6; 4:1). Personal experience of God's comfort is necessary before we can pass it on to others.

    1:5 {The sufferings of Christ} (ta paqemata tou cristou). Subjective genitive, Christ's own sufferings. {Abound unto us} (perisseuei eis hemas). Overflow unto us so that we suffer like sufferings and become fellow sufferers with Christ (#4:10f.; Ro 8:17; Php 3:10; Col 1:24). {Through Christ} (dia tou cristou). The overflow (perisseuei) of comfort comes also through Christ. Is Paul thinking of how some of the Jewish Christians in Corinth have become reconciled with him through Christ? Partnership with Christ in suffering brings partnership in glory also (#Ro 8:17; 1Pe 4:13).

    1:6 {Whether} (eite) {--or} (eite). The alternatives in Paul's experience (afflicted qlibomeqa, comforted parakaloumetha) work out for their good when they are called on to endure like sufferings "which we also suffer" (hwn kai hemeis pascomen). The relative h"n is attracted from neuter accusative plural ha to genitive case of the antecedent paqematwn (sufferings).

    1:7 {Our hope for you} (he elpis hemwn huper humwn). The old word elpis, from elpizw, to hope, has the idea of waiting with expectation and patience. So here it is "steadfast" (bebaia, stable, fast, from bainw, to plant the feet down). {Partakers} (koinwnoi). Partners as in #Lu 5:10.

    1:8 {Concerning our affliction} (huper tes qliyews hemwn). Manuscripts read also peri for in the _Koin‚_ huper (over) often has the idea of peri (around). Paul has laid down his philosophy of afflictions and now he cites a specific illustration in his own recent experience. {In Asia} (en asiai). Probably in Ephesus, but what it was we do not know whether sickness or peril. We do know that the disciples and the Asiarchs would not allow Paul to face the mob in the amphitheatre gathered by Demetrius (#Ac 20:30f.). In #Ro 16:4 Paul says that Prisca and Aquila laid down their necks for him, risked their very lives for him. It may have been a later plot to kill Paul that hastened his departure from Ephesus (#Ac 20:1). He had a trial so great that "we were weighed down exceedingly beyond our power" (kaq' huperbolen huper dunamin ebareqemen). Old verb from baros, weight, barus, weighty. First aorist passive indicative. See on ¯1Co 12:31 for kaq' huperbolen (cf. our hyperbole). It was beyond Paul's power to endure if left to himself. {Insomuch that we despaired even of life} (hwste exaporeqenai hemas kai tou zein). Usual clause of result with hwste and the infinitive. First aorist passive infinitive exaporeqenai, late compound for utter despair (perfective use of ex and at a complete loss, a privative and poros, way). There seemed no way out. {Of life} (tou zein). Ablative case of the articular infinitive, of living.

    1:9 {Yea} (alla). Confirmatory use as in #7:11, rather than adversative. {The answer of death} (to apokrima tou qanatou) this late word from apokrinomai, to reply, occurs nowhere else in N.T., but is in Josephus, Polybius, inscriptions and papyri (Deissmann, _Bible Studies_, p. 257; Moulton and Milligan's _Vocabulary_), and always in the sense of decision or judgment rendered. But Vulgate renders it by _responsum_ and that idea suits best here, unless Paul conceives God as rendering the decision of death. {We ourselves have had within ourselves} (autoi en heautois escekamen). Regular perfect of ecw, to have. And still have the vivid recollection of that experience. For this lively dramatic use of the present perfect indicative for a past experience see also esceka in #2:13 (Moulton, _Prolegomena_, p. 143f.; Robertson, _Grammar_, p. 896f.). {That we should not trust in ourselves} (hina me pepoiqotes wmen ef' heautois). A further purpose of God in affliction beyond that in verse #4. " this dreadful trial was sent to him in order to give him a precious spiritual lesson (#12:7-10)" (Robertson and Plummer). Note periphrastic perfect active subjunctive of peiqw, to persuade. {In} (epi), upon, both ourselves and God.

    1:10 {Out of so great a death} (ek telikoutou qanatou). He had considered himself as good as dead. {Delivered} (erusato) {--will deliver} (rusetai). Old verb ru", middle, ruomai, draw oneself, as out of a pit, rescue. So Paul faces death without fear. {On whom we have set our hope} (eis hon elpikamen). Perfect active indicative of elpizw. We still have that hope, emphasized by eti rusetai (he will still deliver).

    1:11 {Ye also helping together on our behalf} (sunupourgountwn kai humwn huper hemwn). Genitive absolute with present active participle of late compound verb (sun and hupourgew for hupo and ergon). Paul relied on God and felt the need of the prayer of God's people. {By means of many} (ek pollwn proswpwn). proswpon means face (pros, oy). The word is common in all Greek. The papyri use it for face, appearance, person. It occurs twelve times in II Corinthians. It certainly means face in eight of them (#3:7,13,18; 8:24; 10:1,7; 11:20). In #5:12 it means outward appearance. It may mean face or person here, #2:10; 4:6. It is more pictorial to take it here as face "that out of many upturned faces" thanks may be given (hina--eucaristeqei first aorist passive subjunctive) for the gift to us by means of many (dia pollon). It is indeed a difficult sentence to understand.

    1:12 {Glorying} (kaucesis). Act of glorying, while in verse #14 kaucema is the thing boasted of. {The testimony of our conscience} (to marturion tes suneidesews hemwn). In apposition with kaucesis. {Sincerity of God} (eilikrineiai tou qeou). Like dikaiosune qeou (#Ro 1:17; 3:21), the God-kind of righteousness. So the God-kind (genitive case) of sincerity. Late word from eilikrines. See on ¯1Co 5:8. {Not in fleshly wisdom} (ouk en sofiai sarkikei). See on ¯1Co 1:17; 2:4,13f. Paul uses sarkikos five times and it occurs only twice elsewhere in N.T. See on ¯1Co 3:3. {We behaved ourselves} (anestrafemen). Second aorist passive indicative of anastrefw, old verb, to turn back, to turn back and forth, to walk. Here the passive is used as in late Greek as if middle. {More abundantly to you-ward} (perissoterws pros humas). They had more abundant opportunity to observe how scrupulous Paul was (#Ac 18:11).

    1:13 {Than what ye read} (all' e ha anaginwskete). Note comparative conjunction e (than) after all' and that after alla (other things, same word in reality), "other than." Read in Greek (anaginwskw) is knowing again, recognizing. See on ¯Ac 8:30. {Or even acknowledge} (e kai epiginwskete). Paul is fond of such a play on words (anaginwskete, epiginwskete) or paronomasia. Does he mean "read between the lines," as we say, by the use of epi (additional knowledge)? {Unto the end} (hews telous). The report of Titus showed that the majority now at last understood Paul. He hopes that it will last (#1Co 1:8).

    1:14 {As also ye did acknowledge us in part} (kaqws kai epegnwte hemas apo merous). Gracious acknowledgment (second aorist active indicative of epignwskw) to the original Pauline party (#1Co 1:12; 3:4) that he had seemed to care so little for them. And now in his hour of victory he shows that, if he is their ground of glorying, they are his also (cf. #1Th 2:19f.; Php 2:16).

    1:15 {Confidence} (pepoiqesei). this late word (LXX Philo, Josephus) is condemned by the Atticists, but Paul uses it a half dozen times (#3:4 also). {I was minded to come} (eboulomen elqein). Imperfect, I was wishing to come, picturing his former state of mind. {Before unto you} (proteron pros humas). this was his former plan (proteron) while in Ephesus to go to Achaia directly from Ephesus. this he confesses in verse #16 "and by you to pass into Macedonia." {That ye might have a second benefit} (hina deuteran carin scete). Or second "joy" if we accept caran with Westcott and Hort. this would be a real second blessing (or joy) if they should have two visits from Paul.

    1:16 {And again} (kai palin). this would have been the second benefit or joy. But he changed his plans and did not make that trip directly to Corinth, but came on to Macedonia first (#Ac 19:21; 20:1f.; 1Co 16:2; 2Co 2:12). {To be set forward by you} (huf' humwn propemfqenai). First aorist passive infinitive of propempw. Paul uses this same verb in #Ro 15:24 for the same service by the Roman Christians on his proposed trip to Spain. The Corinthians, especially the anti-Pauline party, took advantage of Paul's change of plans to criticize him sharply for vacillation and flippancy. How easy it is to find fault with the preacher! So Paul has to explain his conduct.

    1:17 {Did I shew fickleness?} (meti ara tei elafriai?). An indignant negative answer is called for by meti. The instrumental case of elafriai is regular after ecresamen from craomai, to use. elafria is a late word for levity from the old adjective, elafros, light, agile (#2Co 10:17; Mt 11:30). Here only in N.T. {Purpose} (bouleuomai). Paul raises the question of fickleness about any of his plans. {Yea yea} (nai nai) {--nay nay} (ou ou). See a similar repetition in #Mt 5:37. It is plain in #Jas 5:12 where "the yea" is "yea" and "the nay" is "nay." That seems to be Paul's meaning here, "that the Yea may be yea and the Nay may be nay."

    1:18 {Is not yea and nay} (ouk estin nai kai ou). He is not a Yes and No man, saying Yes and meaning or acting No. Paul calls God to witness on this point.

    1:19 {Was not Yea and Nay} (ouk egeneto nai kai ou). "Did not become Yes and No." {But in him is yea} (alla nai en autwi gegonen). Rather, "But in him Yes has become yes," has proved true. So Paul appeals to the life of Christ to sustain his own veracity.

    1:20 {In him is the yea} (en autwi to nai). Supply gegonen from the preceding sentence, "In him was the Yea come true." this applies to all God's promises. {The Amen} (to amen). In public worship (#1Co 14:16).

    1:21 {Establishes} (bebaiwn). Present active participle from bebaios, firm. An apt metaphor in Corinth where confirmation of a bargain often took place (bebaiwsis) as Deissmann shows (_Bible Studies_, p. 109) and as verse #22 makes plain. {Anointed} (crisas). From criw, to anoint, old verb, to consecrate, with the Holy Spirit here as in #1Jo 2:20.

    1:22 {Sealed us} (sfragisamenos hemas). From sfragizw old verb, common in LXX and papyri for setting a seal to prevent opening (#Da 6:17), in place of signature (#1Ki 21:18). Papyri examples show a wide legal use to give validity to documents, to guarantee genuineness of articles as sealing sacks and chests, etc. (Deissmann, _Bible Studies_, p. 238; Moulton and Milligan's _Vocabulary_). {The earnest of the Spirit} (ton arrabwna tou pneumatos). A word of Semitic origin (possibly Phoenician) and spelled both arab"n and arrabwn. It is common in the papyri as earnest money in a purchase for a cow or for a wife (a dowry). In N.T. only here; #5:5; Eph 1:14. It is part payment on the total obligation and we use the very expression today, "earnest money." It is God, says Paul, who has done all this for us and God is Paul's pledge that he is sincere. He will come to Corinth in due time. this earnest of the Spirit in our hearts is the witness of the Spirit that we are God's.

    1:23 {But I call God for a witness upon my soul} (egw de martura ton qeon epikaloumai epi ten emen yucen). Solemn attestation, "calling heaven to witness is frequent in literature from Homer onwards" (Plummer). Thus God is described above (cf. #1Th 2:5,10; Ro 1:9; Ga 1:20; Php 1:8). {To spare you} (feidomenos humwn). Present middle participle (causal rather than final) of feidomai, old verb, to hold back, to spare. Ablative case humwn.

    1:24 {We have lordship over} (kurieuomen). Old verb from kurios, to be lord of or over. See #Lu 22:25. {Helpers of your joy} (sunergoi tes caras humwn). Co-workers (#1Co 3:8) in your joy. A delicate correction to present misapprehension (epanorqwsis).


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