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    2 Corinthians 10 - 2 Corinthians 12 - VINCENT'S STUDY - HELP - GR VIDEOS - GR YOUTUBE - TWITTER - SD1 YOUTUBE    

    11:1 {Would that ye could bear with me} (ofelon aneicesqe mou). _Koin‚_ way of expressing a wish about the present, ofelon (as a conjunction, really second aorist active indicative of ofeilw without augment) and the imperfect indicative instead of eiqe or ei gar (Robertson, _Grammar_, p. 1003). Cf. #Re 3:15. See #Ga 5:12 for future indicative with ofelon and #1Co 4:8 for aorist. Mou is ablative case after aneicesqe (direct middle, hold yourselves back from me). There is a touch of irony here. {Bear with me} (anecesqe mou). Either imperative middle or present middle indicative (ye do bear with me). Same form. {In a little foolishness} (mikron ti afrosunes). Accusative of general reference (mikron ti). "Some little foolishness" (from afrwn, foolish). Old word only in this chapter in N.T.

    11:2 {With a godly jealousy} (qeou zelwi). Instrumental case of zelos. With a jealousy of God. {I espoused} (hermosamen). First aorist middle indicative of harmozw, old verb to join, to fit together (from harmos, joint). Common for betrothed, though only here in N.T. The middle voice indicates Paul's interest in the matter. Paul treats the Corinthians as his bride.

    11:3 {The serpent beguiled Eve} (ho ofis exepatesen heuan). Paul's only mention of the serpent in Eden. The compound exapataw means to deceive completely. {Lest by any means} (me pws). Common conjunction after verbs of fearing. {Corrupted} (fqarei). Second aorist passive subjunctive with me pws of fqeirw, to corrupt.

    11:4 {Another Jesus} (allon iesoun). Not necessarily a different Jesus, but any other "Jesus" is a rival and so wrong. That would deny the identity. {A different spirit} (pneuma heteron). this is the obvious meaning of heteron in distinction from allon as seen in #Ac 4:12; Ga 1:6f. But this distinction in nature or kind is not always to be insisted on. {A different gospel} (euaggelion heteron). Similar use of heteron. {Ye do well to bear with him} (kalws anecesqe). Ironical turn again. "Well do you hold yourselves back from him" (the coming one, whoever he is). Some MSS. have the imperfect aneicesqe (did bear with).

    11:5 {That I am not a whit behind the very chiefest apostles} (meden husterekenai twn huperlian apostolwn). Perfect active infinitive of husterew, old verb to fall short with the ablative case. The rare compound adverb huperlian (possibly in use in the vernacular) is probably ironical also, "the super apostles" as these Judaizers set themselves up to be. "The extra-super apostles" (Farrar). Also in #12:11. He is not referring to the pillar-apostles of #Ga 2:9.

    11:6 {Rude in speech} (idiwtes twi logwi). Locative case with idiwtes for which word see on ¯Ac 4:13; 1Co 14:16,23,24. The Greeks regarded a man as idiwtes who just attended to his own affairs (ta idia) and took no part in public life. Paul admits that he is not a professional orator (cf. #10:10), but denies that he is unskilled in knowledge (all' ou tei gnwsei). {Among all men} (en pasin). He has made his mastery of the things of Christ plain among all men. He knew his subject.

    11:7 {In abasing myself} (emauton tapeinwn). Humbling myself by making tents for a living while preaching in Corinth. He is ironical still about "doing a sin" (hamartian epoiesa). {For nought} (dwrean). _Gratis_. Accusative of general reference, common adverb. It amounts to sarcasm to ask if he did a sin in preaching the gospel free of expense to them "that ye may be exalted."

    11:8 {I robbed} (esulesa). Old verb to despoil, strip arms from a slain foe, only here in N.T. He allowed other churches to do more than their share. {Taking wages} (labwn oywnion). For oywnion see on ¯1Co 9:7; Ro 6:17. He got his "rations" from other churches, not from Corinth while there.

    11:9 {I was not a burden to any man} (ou katenarkesa ouqenos). First aorist active indicative of katanarkaw. Jerome calls this word one of Paul's _cilicisms_ which he brought from Cilicia. But the word occurs in Hippocrates for growing quite stiff and may be a medical term in popular use. narkaw means to become numb, torpid, and so a burden. It is only here and #12:13f. Paul "did not benumb the Corinthians by his demand for pecuniary aid" (Vincent). {From being burdensome} (abare). Old adjective, free from weight or light (a privative and baros, weight) . See on ¯1Th 2:9 for same idea. Paul kept himself independent.

    11:10 {No man shall stop me of this glorying} (he kaucesis haute ou fragesetai eis eme). More exactly, " this glorying shall not be fenced in as regards me." Second future passive of frassw, to fence in, to stop, to block in. Old verb, only here in N.T. {In the regions of Achaia} (en tois klimasin tes acaias). klima from klinw, to incline, is _Koin‚_ word for slope slope, region (our climate). See chapter #1Co 9 for Paul's boast about preaching the gospel without cost to them.

    11:11 {God knoweth} (ho qeos oiden). Whether they do or not. He knows that God understands his motives.

    11:12 {That I may cut off occasion} (hina ekkoyw ten aformen). Purpose clause with hina and first aorist active subjunctive of ekkoptw, old verb to cut out or off (#Mt 3:10; 5:30). See #2Co 5:12 for aformen. {From them which desire an occasion} (twn qelontwn aformen). Ablative case after ekkoyw. There are always some hunting for occasions to start something against preachers. {They may be found} (heureth"sin). First aorist passive subjunctive of heuriskw, to find with final conjunction hina.

    11:13 {False apostles} (yeudapostoloi). From yeudes, false, and apostolos. Paul apparently made this word (cf. #Re 2:2). In verse #26 we have yeudadelfos, a word of like formation (#Ga 2:4). See also yeudocristoi and yeudoprofetai in #Mr 13:22. {Deceitful} (dolioi). Old word from dolos (lure, snare), only here in N.T. (cf. #Ro 16:18). {Fashioning themselves} (metascematizomenoi). Present middle (direct) participle of the old verb metascematizw for which see on #1Co 4:6. Masquerading as apostles of Christ by putting on the outward habiliments, posing as ministers of Christ ("gentlemen of the cloth," nothing but cloth). Paul plays with this verb in verses #13,14,15.

    11:14 {An angel of light} (aggelon fwtos). The prince of darkness puts on the garb of light and sets the fashion for his followers in the masquerade to deceive the saints. "Like master like man." Cf. #2:11; Ga 1:8. this terrible portrayal reveals the depth of Paul's feelings about the conduct of the Judaizing leaders in Corinth. In #Ga 2:4 he terms those in Jerusalem "false brethren."

    11:15 {As ministers of righteousness} (hws diakonoi dikaiosunes). Jesus (#Joh 10:1-21) terms these false shepherds thieves and robbers. It is a tragedy to see men in the livery of heaven serve the devil.

    11:16 {Let no man think me foolish} (me tis me doxei afrona einai). Usual construction in a negative prohibition with me and the aorist subjunctive doxei (Robertson, _Grammar_, p. 933). {But if ye do} (ei de me ge). Literally, "But if not at least (or otherwise)," that is, If you do think me foolish. {Yet as foolish} (kan hws afrona). "Even if as foolish." Paul feels compelled to boast of his career and work as an apostle of Christ after the terrible picture just drawn of the Judaizers. He feels greatly embarrassed in doing it. Some men can do it with complete composure (_sang froid_).

    11:17 {Not after the Lord} (ou kata kurion). Not after the example of the Lord. He had appealed to the example of Christ in #10:1 (the meekness and gentleness of Christ). Paul's conduct here, he admits, is not in keeping with that. But circumstances force him on.

    11:18 {After the flesh} (kata sarka). It is kata sarka not kata kurion. {I also} (kagw). But he knows that it is a bit of foolishness and not like Christ.

    11:19 {Gladly} (hedews). Irony again. Cf. kalos in #11:4 (#Mr 7:9). So as to phronimoi ontes (being wise).

    11:20 {For ye bear with a man} (anecesqe gar). " You tolerate tyranny, extortion, craftiness, arrogance, violence, and insult" (Plummer). Sarcasm that cut to the bone. Note the verb with each of the five conditional clauses (enslaves, devours, takes captive, exalteth himself, smites on the face). The climax of insult, smiting on the face.

    11:21 {By way of disparagement} (kata atimian). Intense irony. Cf. #6:8. {As though} (hws hoti). Presented as the charge of another. "They more than tolerate those who trample on them while they criticize as 'weak' one who shows them great consideration" (Plummer). After these prolonged explanations Paul "changes his tone from irony to direct and masterful assertion" (Bernard). {I am bold also} (tolmw kagw). Real courage. Cf. #10:2,12.

    11:22 {So am I} (kagw). this is his triumphant refrain with each challenge.

    11:23 {As one beside himself} (parafronwn). Present active participle of parafronew. Old verb from parafrwn (para, fren), beside one's wits. Only here in N.T. Such open boasting is out of accord with Paul's spirit and habit. {I more} (huper egw). this adverbial use of huper appears in ancient Greek (Euripides). It has no effect on egw, not "more than I," but "I more than they." He claims superiority now to these "superextra apostles." {More abundant} (perissoterws). See on ¯7:15. No verbs with these clauses, but they are clear. {In prisons} (en fulakais). Plural also in #6:5. Clement of Rome (_Cor_. V.) says that Paul was imprisoned seven times. We know of only five (Philippi, Jerusalem, Caesarea, twice in Rome), and only one before II Corinthians (Philippi). But Luke does not tell them all nor does Paul. Had he been in prison in Ephesus? So many think and it is possible as we have seen. {Above measure} (huperballontws). Old adverb from the participle huperballontwn (huperballw, to hurl beyond). Here only in N.T. {In deaths oft} (en qanatois pollakis). He had nearly lost his life, as we know, many times (#1:9f.; 4:11).

    11:24 {Five times received I forty stripes save one} (pentakis tesserakonta para mian elabon). The Acts and the Epistles are silent about these Jewish floggings (#Mt 27:36). See on ¯Lu 12:47 for omission of plegas (stripes). Thirty-nine lashes was the rule for fear of a miscount (#De 25:1-3). Cf. Josephus (_Ant_. IV. 8, 1, 21).

    11:25 {Thrice was I beaten with rods} (tris errabdisqen). Roman (Gentile) punishment. It was forbidden to Roman citizens by the _Lex Porcia_, but Paul endured it in Philippi (#Ac 16:23,37), the only one of the three named in Acts. First aorist passive of rabdizw, from rabdos, rod, _Koin‚_ word, in N.T. only here and #Ac 16:22 which see. {Once was I stoned} (hapax eliqasqen). Once for all hapax means. At Lystra (#Ac 14:5-19). On liqazw _Koin‚_ verb from liqos, see on ¯Ac 5:26. {Thrice I suffered shipwreck} (tris enauagesa). First aorist active of nauagew, from nauagos, shipwrecked (naus, ship, agnumi, to break). Old and common verb, in N.T. only here and #1Ti 1:19. We know nothing of these. The one told in #Ac 27 was much later. What a pity that we have no data for all these varied experiences of Paul. {Night and day} (nucqemeron) Rare word. Papyri give nuktemar with the same idea (night-day). {Have I been in the deep} (en twi buqwi pepoieka). Vivid dramatic perfect active indicative of poiew, "I have done a night and day in the deep." The memory of it survives like a nightmare. buqos is old word (only here in N.T.) for bottom, depth of the sea, qen the sea itself. Paul does not mean that he was a night and day under the water, not a Jonah experience, only that he was far out at sea and shipwrecked. this was one of the three shipwrecks-already named.

    11:26 {In journeyings} (hodoiporiais). Locative case of old word, only here in N.T. and #Joh 4:6, from hodoiporos, wayfarer. {In perils} (kindunois). Locative case of kindunos, old word for danger or peril. In N.T. only this verse and #Ro 8:35. The repetition here is very effective without the preposition en (in) and without conjunctions (asyndeton). They are in contrasted pairs. The rivers of Asia Minor are still subject to sudden swellings from floods in the mountains. Cicero and Pompey won fame fighting the Cilician pirates and robbers (note leistwn, not kleptwn, thieves, brigands or bandits on which see ¯Mt 26:55). The Jewish perils (ek genous, from my race) can be illustrated in #Ac 9:23,29; 13:50; 14:5; 17:5,13; 18:12; 23:12; 24:27, and they were all perils in the city also. Perils from the Gentiles (ex eqnwn) we know in Philippi (#Ac 16:20) and in Ephesus (#Ac 19:23f.). Travel in the mountains and in the wilderness was perilous in spite of the great Roman highways. {Among false brethren} (en yeudadelfois). Chapters #2Co 10; 11 throw a lurid light on this aspect of the subject.

    11:27 {In labor and travail} (kopwi kai mocqwi). Both old words for severe work, combined here as in #1Th 2:9; 2Th 3:8, "by toil and moil" (Plummer). The rest of the list is like the items in #2Co 6:4ff. {In cold} (en yucei). Old word from yucw, to cool by blowing. See #Ac 28:2. See the picture of the aged Paul later in the Roman dungeon (#2Ti 4:9-18).

    11:28 {Besides those things that are without} (cwris twn parektos). Probably, "apart from those things beside these just mentioned." Surely no man ever found glory in such a peck of troubles as Paul has here recounted. His list should shame us all today who are disposed to find fault with our lot. {That which presseth upon me daily} (he epistasis moi he kaq' hemeran). For this vivid word epistasis see #Ac 24:12, the only other place in the N.T. where it occurs. It is like the rush of a mob upon Paul. {Anxiety for all the churches} (he merimna paswn twn ekklesiwn). Objective genitive after merimna (distractions in different directions, from merizw) for which word see on ¯Mt 13:22. Paul had the shepherd heart. As apostle to the Gentiles he had founded most of these churches.

    11:29 {I burn} (puroumai). Present passive indicative of purow, old verb to inflame (from pur, fire). When a brother stumbles, Paul is set on fire with grief.

    11:30 {The things that concern my weakness} (ta tes asqeneias mou). Like the list above.

    11:31 {I am not lying} (ou yeudomai). The list seems so absurd and foolish that Paul takes solemn oath about it (cf. #1:23). For the doxology see #Ro 1:25; 9:5.

    11:32 {The governor under Aretas} (ho eqnarces hareta). How it came to pass that Damascus, ruled by the Romans after B.C. 65, came at this time to be under the rule of Aretas, fourth of the name, King of the Nabatheans (II Macc. 5:8), we do not know. There is an absence of Roman coins in Damascus from A.D. 34 to 62. It is suggested (Plummer) that Caligula, to mark his dislike for Antipas, gave Damascus to Aretas (enemy of Antipas). {Guarded} (efrourei). Imperfect active of frourew, old verb (from frouros, a guard) to guard by posting sentries. In #Ac 9:24 we read that the Jews kept watch to seize Paul, but there is no conflict as they cooperated with the guard set by Aretas at their request. {To seize} (piasai). Doric first aorist active infinitive of piezw (#Lu 6:38) for which see on ¯Ac 3:7.

    11:33 {Through a window} (dia quridos). For this late word see on ¯Ac 20:9, the only N.T. example. {Was I let down} (ecalasqen). First aorist passive of calaw, the very word used by Luke in #Ac 9:25. {In a basket} (en sarganei). Old word for rope basket whereas Luke (#Ac 9:25) has en sfuridi (the word for the feeding of the 4,000 while kofinos is the one for the 5,000). this was a humiliating experience for Paul in this oldest city of the world whither he had started as a conqueror over the despised Christians.


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