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    Ephesians 2 - Ephesians 4 - VINCENT'S STUDY - HELP - GR VIDEOS - GR YOUTUBE - TWITTER - SD1 YOUTUBE    

    3:1 {For this cause} (toutou carin). Use of carin (accusative of caris) as a preposition with the genitive and referring to the preceding argument about God's elective grace. It is possible that Paul started to make the prayer that comes in verses #14-21 when he repeats toutou carin. If so, he is diverted by his own words "the prisoner of Christ Jesus in behalf of you Gentiles" (ho desmios tou cristou iesou huper humwn twn eqnwn) to set forth in a rich paragraph (#1-13) God's use of him for the Gentiles.

    3:2 {If so be that ye have heard} (ei ge ekousate). Condition of first class with ei and first aorist active indicative and with the intensive particle ge that gives a delicate touch to it all. On oikonomian (stewardship, dispensation) see #1:9; 3:9; Col 1:25.

    3:3 {By revelation} (kata apokaluyin). Not essentially different from di' apokaluyews (#Gal 1:12). this was Paul's qualification for preaching "the mystery" (to musterion. See #1:9). {As I wrote afore} (kaqws proegraya). First aorist active indicative of prografw as in #Ro 15:4, not picture forth as #Ga 3:1. But when and where? Epistolary aorist for this epistle? That is possible. A previous and lost epistle as in #1Co 5:9? That also is abstractly possible. To the preceding discussion of the Gentiles? Possible and also probable. {In few words} (en oligwi). Not = pro oligou, shortly before, but as in #Ac 26:28 "in brief space or time" = suntonws (#Ac 24:4), "briefly."

    3:4 {Whereby} (pros ho). "Looking to which,"according to which." {When ye read} (anaginwskontes). this epistle will be read in public. {My understanding in the mystery of Christ} (ten sunesin mou en twi musteriwi tou cristou). My "comprehension" (sunesin, #Col 1:9; 2:2). Every sermon reveals the preacher's grasp of "the mystery of Christ." If he has no insight into Christ, he has no call to preach.

    3:5 {In other generations} (heterais geneais). Locative case of time. He had already claimed this revelation for himself (verse #3). Now he claims it for all the other apostles and prophets of God.

    3:6 {To wit}. Not in the Greek. But the infinitive (einai) clause is epexegetical and gives the content of the revelation, a common idiom in the N.T. ta eqne is in the accusative of general reference. Paul is fond of compounds with sun and here uses three of them. {Fellow-heirs} (sunkleronoma). Late and rare (Philo, inscriptions and papyri). See also #Ro 8:17. {Fellow-members of the body} (sunswma). First found here and only here save in later ecclesiastical writers. Preuschen argues that it is equivalent to sundoulos in #Col 1:7 (swma in sense of doulos). {Fellow-partakers} (sunmetoca). Another late and rare word (Josephus). Only here in N.T. In one papyrus in sense of joint possessor of a house.

    3:7 For this verse see #Col 1:25; Eph 1:19f.; 3:2.

    3:8 {Unto me who am less than the least of all saints} (emoi twi elacistoterwi pantwn hagiwn). Dative case emoi with eloqe. The peculiar form elacistoterwi (in apposition with emoi) is a comparative (-teros) formed on the superlative elacistos. this sort of thing was already done in the older Greek like escatoteros in Xenophon. It became more common in the _Koiné_. So the double comparative meizoteran in #3Jo 1:4. The case of hagiwn is ablative. this was not mock humility (#15:19), for on occasion Paul stood up for his rights as an apostle (#2Co 11:5). {The unsearchable riches of Christ} (to anexicniaston ploutos tou cristou). anexicniastos (a privative and verbal of exicniazw, to track out, ex and icnos, track) appears first in #Job 5:9; 9:10. Paul apparently got it from Job. Nowhere else in N.T. except #Ro 11:33. In later Christian writers. Paul undertook to track out the untrackable in Christ.

    3:9 {To make see} (fwtisai). First aorist active infinitive of fotizw, late verb, to turn the light on. With the eyes of the heart enlightened (#Eph 1:18) one can qen turn the light for others to see. See #Col 1:26.

    3:10 {To the intent that} (hina). Final clause. {Might be made known} (gnwrisqei). First aorist passive subjunctive of gnwrizw with hina. The mystery was made known to Paul (#3:3) and now he wants it blazoned forth to all powers (Gnostic aeons or what not). {Through the church} (dia tes ekklesias). The wonderful body of Christ described in chapter #Eph 2. {The manifold wisdom of God} (he polupoikilos sofia tou qeou). Old and rare word, much-variegated, with many colors. Only here in N.T. poikilos (variegated) is more common (#Mt 4:24).

    3:11 {According to the eternal purpose} (kata proqesin twn aiwnwn). "According to the purpose (#1:11) of the ages." God's purpose runs on through the ages. "Through the ages one eternal purpose runs."

    3:12 {In confidence} (en pepoiqesei). Late and rare word from pepoiqa. See #2Co 1:15. {Through our faith in him} (dia tes pistews autou). Clearly objective genitive autou (in him).

    3:13 {That ye faint not} (me enkakein). Object infinitive with me after aitoumai. The infinitive (present active) enkakein is a late and rare word (see already #Lu 18:1; 2Th 3:13; 2Co 4:1,16; Ga 6:9) and means to behave badly in, to give in to evil (en, kakos). Paul urges all his apostolic authority to keep the readers from giving in to evil because of his tribulations for them. {Your glory} (doxa humwn). As they could see.

    3:14 {I bow my knees} (kamptw ta gonata mou). He now prays whether he had at first intended to do so at #3:1 or not. Calvin supposes that Paul knelt as he dictated this prayer, but this is not necessary. this was a common attitude in prayer (#Lu 22:41; Ac 7:40; 20:36; 21:5), though standing is also frequent (#Mr 11:25; Lu 18:11,13).

    3:15 {Every family} (pasa patria). Old word (patra is the usual form) from pater, descent from a common ancestor as a tribe or race. Some take it here as = patrotes, fatherhood, but that is most unlikely. Paul seems to mean that all the various classes of men on earth and of angels in heaven get the name of family from God the Father of all.

    3:16 {That he would grant you} (hina dwi humin). Sub-final clause with hina and the second aorist active subjunctive of didwmi, to give. There are really five petitions in this greatest of all Paul's prayers (one already in #1:16-23), two by the infinitives after hina dwi (krataiwqenai, katoikesai), two infinitives after hina exiscusete (katalabesqai, gnwnai), and the last clause hina plerwqete. Nowhere does Paul sound such depths of spiritual emotion or rise to such heights of spiritual passion as here. The whole seems to be colored with "the riches of His glory." {That ye may be strengthened} (krataiwqenai). First aorist passive infinitive of krataiow, late and rare (LXX, N.T.) from krataios, late form from kratos (strength). See #Lu 1:80. Paul adds dunamei (with the Spirit). Instrumental case. {In the inward man} (eis ton esw anqrwpon). Same expression in #2Co 4:16 (in contrast with the outward ex", man) and in #Ro 7:22.

    3:17 {That Christ may dwell} (katoikesai ton criston). Another infinitive (first aorist active) after hina dwi. katoikew is an old verb to make one's home, to be at home. Christ (criston accusative of general reference) is asked to make his home in our hearts. this is the ideal, but a deal of fixing would have to be done in our hearts for Christ. {Being rooted and grounded in love} (en agapei errizwmenoi kai teqemeliwmenoi). But it is not certain whether en agapei should go with these participles or with the preceding infinitive katoikesai (dwell). Besides, these two perfect passive participles (from rizow, old verb, in N.T. only here and #Col 2:7, and from qemeliow, see also #Col 1:23) are in the nominative case and are to be taken with hina exiscusete and are proleptically placed before hina. Verse #18 should really begin with these participles. Paul piles up metaphors (dwelling, rooted, grounded).

    3:18 {That ye may be strong} (hina exiscusete). Sub-final clause again with hina and the first aorist active subjunctive of exiscuw, a late and rare compound (from ex, iscuw) to have full strength. Here only in N.T. {To apprehend} (katalabesqai). Second aorist middle infinitive of katalambanw, old and common verb, to lay hold of effectively (kata-), here with the mind, to grasp (#Ac 25:25). {With all the saints} (sun pasin tois hagiois). No isolated privilege. Fellowship open to all. Paul gives a rectangular (four dimension) measure of love (breadth platos, length mekos, height huyos, depth baqos, all common enough words).

    3:19 {And to know} (gnwnai te). Second aorist active infinitive with exiscusete. {Which passeth knowledge} (ten huperballousan tes gnwsews). Ablative case gnwsews after huperballousan (from huperballw). All the same Paul dares to scale this peak. {That ye may be filled with all the fulness of God} (hina plerwqete eis pan to plerwma tou qeou). Final clause again (third use of hina in the sentence) with first aorist passive subjunctive of plerow and the use of eis after it. One hesitates to comment on this sublime climax in Paul's prayer, the ultimate goal for followers of Christ in harmony with the injunction in #Mt 5:48 to be perfect (teleioi) as our heavenly Father is perfect. There is nothing that any one can add to these words. One can turn to #Ro 8:29 again for our final likeness to God in Christ.

    3:20 {That is able to do} (twi dunamenwi poiesai). Dative case of the articular participle (present middle of dunamai). Paul is fully aware of the greatness of the blessings asked for, but the Doxology ascribes to God the power to do them for us. {Above all} (huper panta). Not simply panta, but huper beyond and above all. {Exceedingly abundantly} (huperekperissou). Late and rare double compound (huper, ek, perissou) adverb (LXX, #1Th 3:10; 5:13; Eph 3:20). It suits well Paul's effort to pile Pelion on Ossa. {That we ask} (hwn aitoumeqa). Ablative of the relative pronoun attracted from the accusative ha to the case of the unexpressed antecedent toutwn. Middle voice (aitoumeqa) "we ask for ourselves." {Or think} (e nooumen). The highest aspiration is not beyond God's "power" (dunamin) to bestow.

    3:21 {In the church} (en tei ekklesiai). The general church, the body of Christ. {And in Christ Jesus} (kai en Christ"i iesou). The Head of the glorious church.


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