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    Ephesians 4 - Ephesians 6 - VINCENT'S STUDY - HELP - GR VIDEOS - GR YOUTUBE - TWITTER - SD1 YOUTUBE    

    5:1 {Imitators of God} (mimetai tou qeou). this old word from mimeomai Paul boldly uses. If we are to be like God, we must imitate him.

    5:2 {An offering and a sacrifice to God} (prosforan kai qusian twi qewi). Accusative in apposition with heauton (himself). Christ's death was an offering to God "in our behalf" (huper hemwn) not an offering to the devil (Anselm), a ransom (lutron) as Christ himself said (#Mt 20:28), Christ's own view of his atoning death. {For an odor of a sweet smell} (eis osmen euwdias). Same words in #Php 4:18 from #Le 4:31 (of the expiatory offering). Paul often presents Christ's death as a propitiation (#Ro 3:25) as in #1Jo 2:2.

    5:3 {Or covetousness} (e pleonexia). In bad company surely. Debasing like sensuality. {As becometh saints} (kaqws prepei hagiois). It is "unbecoming" for a saint to be sensual or covetous.

    5:4 {Filthiness} (aiscrotes). Old word from aiscros (base), here alone in N.T. {Foolish talking} (mwrologia). Late word from mwrologos (mwros, logos), only here in N.T. {Jesting} (eutrapelia). Old word from eutrapelos (eu, trepw, to turn) nimbleness of wit, quickness in making repartee (so in Plato and Plutarch), but in low sense as here ribaldry, scurrility, only here in N.T. All of these disapproved vices are hapax legomena in the N.T. {Which are not befitting} (ha ouk aneken). Same idiom (imperfect with word of propriety about the present) in #Col 3:18. Late MSS. read ta ouk anekonta like ta me kaqekonta in #Ro 1:28.

    5:5 {Ye know of a surety} (iste ginwskontes). The correct text has iste, not este. It is the same form for present indicative (second person plural) and imperative, probably indicative here, "ye know." But why ginwskontes added? Probably, "ye know recognizing by your own experience." {No} (pas--ou). Common idiom in the N.T. like the Hebrew= _oudeis_ (Robertson, _Grammar_, p. 732). {Covetous man} (pleonektes, pleon ecw). Old word, in N.T. only here and #1Co 5:10f.; 6:10. {Which is} (ho estin). So Aleph B. A D K L have hos (who), but ho is right. See #Col 3:14 for this use of ho (which thing is). On eidwlolatres (idolater) see #1Co 5:10f. {In the Kingdom of Christ and God} (en tei basileiai tou cristou kai qeou). Certainly the same kingdom and Paul may here mean to affirm the deity of Christ by the use of the one article with cristou kai qeou. But Sharp's rule cannot be insisted on here because qeos is often definite without the article like a proper name. Paul did teach the deity of Christ and may do it here.

    5:6 {With empty words} (kenois logois). Instrumental case. Probably Paul has in mind the same Gnostic praters as in #Col 2:4f. See #2:2.

    5:7 {Partakers with them} (sunmetocoi autwn). Late double compound, only here in N.T., joint (sun) shares with (metocoi) them (autwn). These Gnostics.

    5:8 {But now light} (nun de fws). Jesus called his disciples the light of the world (#Mt 5:14).

    5:9 {The fruit of light} (ho karpos tou fwtos). Two metaphors (fruit, light) combined. See #Ga 5:22 for "the fruit of the Spirit." The late MSS. have "spirit" here in place of "light." {Goodness} (agaqosunei). Late and rare word from agaqos. See #2Th 1:11; Ga 5:22.

    5:10 {Proving} (dokimazontes). Testing and so proving.

    5:11 {Have no fellowship with} (me sunkoinwneite). No partnership with, present imperative with me. Followed by associative instrumental case ergois (works). {Unfruitful} (akarpois). Same metaphor of verse #9 applied to darkness (skotos). {Reprove} (elegcete). Convict by turning the light on the darkness.

    5:12 {In secret} (krufei). Old adverb, only here in N.T. Sin loves the dark. {Even to speak of} (kai legein). And yet one must sometimes speak out, turn on the light, even if to do so is disgraceful (aiscron, like #1Co 11:6).

    5:13 {Are made manifest by the light} (hupo tou fwtos faneroutai). Turn on the light. Often the preacher is the only man brave enough to turn the light on the private sins of men and women or even those of a community.

    5:14 {Wherefore he saith} (dio legei). Apparently a free adaptation of #Isa 26:19; 60:1. The form anasta for anasteqi (second person singular imperative second aorist active of anistemi) occurs in #Ac 12:7. {Shall shine} (epifausei). Future active of epifauskw, a form occurring in Job (#Job 25:5; 31:26), a variation of epifwskw. The last line suggests the possibility that we have here the fragment of an early Christian hymn like #1Ti 3:16.

    5:15 {Carefully} (akribws). Aleph B 17 put akribws before pws (how) instead of p"s akribws (how exactly ye walk) as the Textus Receptus has it. On akribws (from akribˆs) see #Mt 2:8; Lu 1:3. {Unwise} (asofoi). Old adjective, only here in N.T.

    5:16 {Redeeming the time} (exagorazomenoi ton kairon). As in #Col 4:5 which see.

    5:17 {Be ye not foolish} (me ginesqe afrones). "Stop becoming foolish."

    5:18 {Be not drunken with wine} (me mequskesqe oinwi). Present passive imperative of mequskw, old verb to intoxicate. Forbidden as a habit and to stop it also if guilty. Instrumental case oinwi. {Riot} (aswtia). Old word from aswtos (adverb aswtws in #Lu 15:13), in N.T. only here, #Tit 1:6; 1Pe 4:4. {But be filled with the Spirit} (alla plerousqe en pneumati). In contrast to a state of intoxication with wine.

    5:19 {To the Lord} (twi kuriwi). The Lord Jesus. In #Col 3:16 we have twi qewi (to God) with all these varieties of praise, another proof of the deity of Christ. See #Col 3:16 for discussion.

    5:20 {In the name of our Lord Jesus Christ} (en onomati tou kuriou hemwn iesou cristou). Jesus had told the disciples to use his name in prayer (#Joh 16:23f.). {To God, even the Father} (twi qewi kai patri). Rather, "the God and Father."

    5:21 {Subjecting yourselves to one another} (hupotassomenoi allelois). Present middle participle of hupotassw, old military figure to line up under (#Col 3:18). The construction here is rather loose, coordinate with the preceding participles of praise and prayer. It is possible to start a new paragraph here and regard hupotassomenoi as an independent participle like an imperative.

    5:22 {Be in subjection}. Not in the Greek text of B and Jerome knew of no MS. with it. K L and most MSS. have hupotassesqe like #Col 3:18, while Aleph A P have hupotassesqwsan (let them be subject to). But the case of andrasin (dative) shows that the verb is understood from verse #21 if not written originally. idiois (own) is genuine here, though not in #Col 3:18. {As unto the Lord} (hws twi kuriwi). So here instead of h"s anˆken en kuriwi of #Col 3:18.

    5:23 {For the husband is the head of the wife} (hoti aner estin kefale tes gunaikos). "For a husband is head of the (his) wife." No article with aner or kefale. {As Christ also is the head of the church} (hws kai ho cristos kefale tes ekklesias). No article with kefale, "as also Christ is head of the church." this is the comparison, but with a tremendous difference which Paul hastens to add either in an appositional clause or as a separate sentence. {Himself the savior of the body} (autos swter tou swmatos). He means the church as the body of which Christ is head and Savior.

    5:24 {But} (alla). Perhaps, "nevertheless," in spite of the difference just noted. Once again the verb hupotassw has to be supplied in the principal clause before tois andrasin either as indicative (hupotassontai) or as imperative (hupotassesqwsan).

    5:25 {Even as Christ also loved the church} (kaqws kai ho cristos egapesen ten ekklesian). this is the wonderful new point not in #Col 3:19 that lifts this discussion of the husband's love for his wife to the highest plane.

    5:26 {That he might sanctify it} (hina auten hagiasei). Purpose clause with hina and the first aorist active subjunctive of hagiazw. Jesus stated this as his longing and his prayer (#Joh 17:17-19). this was the purpose of Christ's death (verse #25). {Having cleansed it} (kaqarisas). First aorist active participle of kaqarizw, to cleanse, either simultaneous action or antecedent. {By the washing of water} (twi loutrwi tou hudatos). If loutron only means bath or bathing-place ( = loutron), qen loutrwi is in the locative. If it can mean bathing or washing, it is in the instrumental case. The usual meaning from Homer to the papyri is the bath or bathing-place, though some examples seem to mean bathing or washing. Salmond doubts if there are any clear instances. The only other N.T. example of loutron is in #Tit 3:5. The reference here seems to be to the baptismal bath (immersion) of water, "in the bath of water." See #1Co 6:11 for the bringing together of apelousasqe and hegiasqete. Neither there nor here does Paul mean that the cleansing or sanctification took place in the bath save in a symbolic fashion as in #Ro 6:4-6. Some think that Paul has also a reference to the bath of the bride before marriage. Still more difficult is the phrase "with the word" (en remati). In #Joh 17:17 Jesus connected "truth" with "sanctify." That is possible here, though it may also be connected with kaqarisas (having cleansed). Some take it to mean the baptismal formula.

    5:27 {That he might present} (hina parastesei). Final clause with hina and first aorist active subjunctive of paristemi (see #Col 1:22 for parallel) as in #2Co 11:2 of presenting the bride to the bridegroom. Note both autos (himself) and heautwi (to himself). {Glorious} (endoxon). Used of splendid clothing in #Lu 7:25. {Spot} (spilos). Late word, in N.T. only here and #2Pe 2:13, but spilow, to defile in #Jas 3:6; Jude 1:23. {Wrinkle} (rutida). Old word from ru", to contract, only here in N.T. {But that it should be holy and without blemish} (all' hina ei hagia kai amwmos). Christ's goal for the church, his bride and his body, both negative purity and positive.

    5:28 {Even so ought} (houtws ofeilousin). As Christ loves the church (his body). And yet some people actually say that Paul in #1Co 7 gives a degrading view of marriage. How can one say that after reading #Eph 5:22-33 where the noblest picture of marriage ever drawn is given?

    5:29 {Nourisheth} (ektrefei). Old compound with perfective sense of ek (to nourish up to maturity and on). In N.T. only here and #6:4. {Cherisheth} (qalpei). Late and rare word, once in a marriage contract in a papyrus. In N.T. only here and #1Th 2:7. Primarily it means to warm (Latin _foveo_), qen to foster with tender care as here. {Even as Christ also} (kaqws kai ho cristos). Relative (correlative) adverb pointing back to houtws at the beginning of the sentence (verse #28) and repeating the statement in verse #25.

    5:30 {Of his flesh and of his bones} (ek tes sarkos autou kai ek twn ostewn autou). These words are in the Textus Receptus (Authorized Version) supported by D G L P cursives Syriac, etc., though wanting in Aleph A B 17 Bohairic. Certainly not genuine.

    5:31 {For this cause} (anti toutou). "Answering to this " = heneken toutou of #Ge 2:24, in the sense of anti seen in anq' hwn (#Lu 12:3). this whole verse is a practical quotation and application of the language to Paul's argument here. In #Mt 19:5 Jesus quotes #Ge 2:24. It seems absurd to make Paul mean Christ here by anqrwpos (man) as some commentators do.

    5:32 { this mystery is great} (to musterion touto mega estin). For the word "mystery" see #1:9. Clearly Paul means to say that the comparison of marriage to the union of Christ and the church is the mystery. He makes that plain by the next words. {But I speak} (egw de legw). "Now I mean." Cf. #1Co 7:29; 15:50. {In regard of Christ and of the church} (eis criston kai [eis] ten ekklesian). "With reference to Christ and the church." That is all that eis here means.

    5:33 {Nevertheless} (plen). "However," not to dwell unduly (Abbott) on the matter of Christ and the church. {Do ye also severally love} (kai humeis hoi kaq' hena hekastos agapatw). An unusual idiom. The verb agapatw (present active imperative) agrees with hekastos and so is third singular instead of agapate (second plural) like humeis. The use of hoi kaq' hena after humeis = " ye one by one " and qen hekastos takes up (individualizes) the "one" in partitive apposition and in the third person. {Let the wife see that she fear} (he gune hina fobetai). There is no verb in the Greek for "let see" (blepetw). For this use of hina with the subjunctive as a practical imperative without a principal verb (an elliptical imperative) see #Mr 5:23; Mt 20:32; 1Co 7:29; 2Co 8:7; Eph 4:29; 5:33 (Robertson, _Grammar_, p. 994). "Fear" (fobetai, present middle subjunctive) here is "reverence."


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