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    4:1 {To be tempted of the devil} (peirasqenai hupo tou diabolou). Matthew locates the temptation at a definite time, "qen" (tote) and place, "into the wilderness" (eis ten eremon), the same general region where John was preaching. It is not surprising that Jesus was tempted by the devil immediately after his baptism which signified the formal entrance upon the Messianic work. That is a common experience with ministers who step out into the open for Christ. The difficulty here is that Matthew says that "Jesus was led up into the wilderness by the Spirit to be tempted by the devil." Mark (#Mr 1:12) puts it more strongly that the Spirit "drives" (ekballei) Christ into the wilderness. It was a strong impulsion by the Holy Spirit that led Jesus into the wilderness to think through the full significance of the great step that he had now taken. That step opened the door for the devil and involved inevitable conflict with the slanderer (tou diabolou). Judas has this term applied to him (#Joh 6:70) as it is to men (#2Ti 3:3; Tit 2:3) and women (she devils, #1Ti 3:11) who do the work of the arch slanderer. There are those today who do not believe that a personal devil exists, but they do not offer an adequate explanation of the existence and presence of Sin in the world. Certainly Jesus did not discount or deny the reality of the devil's presence. The word "tempt" here (peirazw) and in #4:3 means originally to test, to try. That is its usual meaning in the ancient Greek and in the Septuagint. Bad sense of ekpeirazw in #4:7 as in #De 6:16. Here it comes to mean, as often in the New Testament, to solicit to Sin. The evil sense comes from its use for an evil purpose.

    4:2 {Had fasted} (nesteusas). No perfunctory ceremonial fast, but of communion with the Father in complete abstention from food as in the case of Moses during forty days and forty nights (#Ex 34:28). "The period of the fast, as in the case of Moses was spent in a spiritual ecstasy, during which the wants of the natural body were suspended" (Alford). "He afterward hungered" and so at the close of the period of forty days.

    4:3 {If thou art the Son of God} (ei huios ei tou qeou). More exactly, "If thou art Son of God," for there is no article with "Son." The devil is alluding to the words of the Father to Jesus at the baptism: " this is my Son the Beloved." He challenges this address by a condition of the first class which assumes the condition to be true and deftly calls on Jesus to exercise his power as Son of God to appease his hunger and thus prove to himself and all that he really is what the Father called him. {Become bread} (artoi gen"ntai). Literally, "that these stones (round smooth stones which possibly the devil pointed to or even picked up and held) become loaves" (each stone a loaf). It was all so simple, obvious, easy. It would satisfy the hunger of Christ and was quite within his power. {It is written} (gegraptai). Perfect passive indicative, stands written and is still in force. Each time Jesus quotes Deuteronomy to repel the subtle temptation of the devil. Here it is #De 8:3 from the Septuagint. Bread is a mere detail (Bruce) in man's dependence upon God.

    4:5 {qen the devil taketh him} (tote paralambanei auton ho diabolos). Matthew is very fond of this temporal adverb (tote). See already #2:7; 3:13; 4:1,5. Note historic present with vivid picturesqueness. Luke puts this temptation third, the geographical order. But was the person of Christ allowed to be at the disposal of the devil during these temptations? Alford so holds. {On the pinnacle of the temple} (epi to pterugion tou hierou). Literally "wing:" the English word "pinnacle" is from the Latin _pinnaculum_, a diminutive of _pinna_ (wing). "_The temple_" (tou hierou) here includes the whole temple area, not just the sanctuary (ho naos), the Holy Place and Most Holy Place. It is not clear what place is meant by "wing." It may refer to Herod's royal portico which overhung the Kedron Valley and looked down some four hundred and fifty feet, a dizzy height (Josephus, _Ant_. XV. xi. 5). this was on the south of the temple court. Hegesippus says that James the Lord's brother was later placed on the wing of the temple and thrown down therefrom.

    4:6 {Cast thyself down} (bale seauton katw). The appeal to hurl himself down into the abyss below would intensify the nervous dread that most people feel at such a height. The devil urged presumptuous reliance on God and quotes Scripture to support his view (#Ps 91:11f.). So the devil quotes the Word of God, misinterprets it, omits a clause, and tries to trip the Son of God by the Word of God. It was a skilful thrust and would also be accepted by the populace as proof that Jesus was the Messiah if they should see him sailing down as if from heaven. this would be a sign from heaven in accord with popular Messianic expectation. The promise of the angels the devil thought would reassure Jesus. They would be a spiritual parachute for Christ.

    4:7 {Thou shall not tempt} (ouk ekpeiraseis). Jesus quotes Deuteronomy again (#De 6:16) and shows that the devil has wholly misapplied God's promise of protection.

    4:8 {And showeth him} (kai deiknusin autwi). this wonderful panorama had to be partially mental and imaginative, since the devil caused to pass in review "all the kingdoms of the world and the glory of them." But this fact does not prove that all phases of the temptations were subjective without any objective presence of the devil. Both could be true. Here again we have the vivid historical present (deiknusin). The devil now has Christ upon a very high mountain whether the traditional Quarantania or not. It was from Nebo's summit that Moses caught the vision of the land of Canaan (#De 34:1-3). Luke (#Lu 4:5) says that the whole panorama was "in a moment of time" and clearly psychological and instantaneous.

    4:9 {All these things will I give thee} (tauta soi panta dwsw). The devil claims the rule of the world, not merely of Palestine or of the Roman Empire. "The kingdoms of the cosmos" (#4:8) were under his sway. this word for world brings out the orderly arrangement of the universe while hˆ oikoumene presents the inhabited earth. Jesus does not deny the grip of the devil on the world of men, but the condition (ean and aorist subjunctive, second class undetermined with likelihood of determination), was spurned by Jesus. As Matthew has it Jesus is plainly to "fall down and worship me" (peswn prokunˆsˆis moi), while Luke (#Lu 4:7) puts it, "worship before me" (enwpion emou), a less offensive demand, but one that really involved worship of the devil. The ambition of Jesus is thus appealed to at the price of recognition of the devil's primacy in the world. It was compromise that involved surrender of the Son of God to the world ruler of this darkness. "The temptation was threefold: to gain a temporal, not a spiritual, dominion; to gain it at once; and to gain it by an act of homage to the ruler of this world, which would make the self-constituted Messiah the vice-regent of the devil and not of God" (McNeile).

    4:10 {Get thee hence, Satan} (hupage, satana). The words "behind me" (opisw mou) belong to #Mt 16:23, not here. "Begone" Christ says to Satan. this temptation is the limit of diabolical suggestion and argues for the logical order in Matthew. "Satan" means the adversary and Christ so terms the devil here. The third time Jesus quotes Deuteronomy, this time #De 6:13, and repels the infamous suggestion by Scripture quotation. The words "him alone thou shalt serve" need be recalled today. Jesus will warn men against trying to serve God and mammon (#Mt 6:24). The devil as the lord of the evil world constantly tries to win men to the service of the world and God. this is his chief camouflage for destroying a preacher's power for God. The word here in #Mt 4:10 for serve is latreuseis from latris a hired servant, one who works for hire, qen render worship.

    4:11 {qen the devil leaveth him} (tote afiesin auton ho diabolos). Note the use of "qen" (tote) again and the historical present. The movement is swift. "And behold" (kai idou) as so often in Matthew carries on the life-like picture. "{Angels came} (aorist tense prosˆlthon punctiliar action) {and were ministering} (diˆkonoun, picturesque imperfect, linear action) {unto him}." The victory was won in spite of the fast of forty days and the repeated onsets of the devil who had tried every avenue of approach. The angels could cheer him in the inevitable nervous and spiritual reaction from the strain of conflict, and probably also with food as in the case of Elijah (#1Ki 19:6f.). The issues at stake were of vast import as the champions of light and darkness grappled for the mastery of men. #Lu 4:13 adds, that the devil left Jesus only "until a good opportunity" (acri kairou).

    4:12 {Now when he heard} (akousas de). The reason for Christ's return to Galilee is given here to be that John had been delivered up into prison. The Synoptic Gospels skip from the temptation of Jesus to the Galilean ministry, a whole year. But for #Joh 1:19-3:36 we should know nothing of the "year of obscurity" (Stalker). John supplies items to help fill in the picture. Christ's work in Galilee began after the close of the active ministry of the Baptist who lingered on in prison for a year or more.

    4:13 {Dwelt in Capernaum} (katwikesen eis kafarnaoum). He went first to Nazareth, his old home, but was rejected there (#Lu 4:16-31). In Capernaum (probably the modern Tell H-m) Jesus was in a large town, one of the centers of Galilean political and commercial life, a fishing mart, where many Gentiles came. Here the message of the kingdom would have a better chance than in Jerusalem with its ecclesiastical prejudices or in Nazareth with its local jealousies. So Jesus "made his home" (kat"ikˆsen) here.

    4:16 {Saw a great light} (fws eiden mega). Matthew quotes #Isa 9:1f., and applies the words about the deliverer from Assyria to the Messiah. "The same district lay in spiritual darkness and death and the new era dawned when Christ went thither" (McNeile). Light sprang up from those who were sitting in the region and shadow of death (en chorai kai skiai qanatou). Death is personified.

    4:17 {Began Jesus to preach} (erxato ho iesous kerussein). In Galilee. He had been preaching for over a year already elsewhere. His message carries on the words of the Baptist about "repentance" and the "kingdom of heaven" (#Mt 3:2) being at hand. The same word for "preaching" (kerussein) from kerux, herald, is used of Jesus as of John. Both proclaimed the good news of the kingdom. Jesus is more usually described as the Teacher, (ho didaskalos) who taught (edidasken) the people. He was both herald and teacher as every preacher should be.

    4:18 {Casting a net into the sea} (ballantas amfiblestron eis ten qalassan). The word here for net is a casting-net (compare amfiballw in #Mr 1:16, casting on both sides). The net was thrown over the shoulder and spread into a circle (amfi). In #4:20 and #4:21 another word occurs for nets (diktua), a word used for nets of any kind. The large drag-net (sagˆnˆ) appears in #Mt 13:47.

    4:19 {Fishers of men} (haleeis anqrwpwn). Andrew and Simon were fishers by trade. They had already become disciples of Jesus (#Joh 1:35-42), but now they are called upon to leave their business and to follow Jesus in his travels and work. These two brothers promptly (euqews) accepted the call and challenge of Jesus.

    4:21 {Mending their nets} (katartizontas ta diktua autwn). These two brothers, James and John, were getting their nets ready for use. The verb (katartizw) means to adjust, to articulate, to mend if needed (#Lu 6:40; Ro 9:22; Ga 6:1). So they promptly left their boat and father and followed Jesus. They had also already become disciples of Jesus. Now there are four who follow him steadily.

    4:23 {Went about in all Galilee} (periegen en holei tei galilaiai). Literally Jesus "was going around (imperfect) in all Galilee." this is the first of the three tours of Galilee made by Jesus. this time he took the four fishermen whom he had just called to personal service. The second time he took the twelve. On the third he sent the twelve on ahead by twos and followed after them. He was teaching and preaching the gospel of the kingdom in the synagogues chiefly and on the roads and in the streets where Gentiles could hear. {Healing all manner of diseases and all manner of sickness} (therapeu"n pasan noson kai pasan malakian). The occasional sickness is called malakian, the chronic or serious disease noson.

    4:24 {The report of him went forth into all Syria} (apelqen he akoe autou eis holen ten Syrian). Rumour (akoe) carries things almost like the wireless or radio. The Gentiles all over Syria to the north heard of what was going on in Galilee. The result was inevitable. Jesus had a moving hospital of patients from all over Galilee and Syria. "{Those that were sick}" (tous kak"s echontas), literally "those who had it bad," cases that the doctors could not cure. "{Holden with divers diseases and torments}" (poikilais nosois kai basanois sunecomenous). "Held together" or "compressed" is the idea of the participle. The same word is used by Jesus in #Lu 12:50 and by Paul in #Php 1:23 and of the crowd pressing on Jesus (#Lu 8:45). They brought these difficult and chronic cases (present tense of the participle here) to Jesus. Instead of "divers" say "various" (poikilais) like fever, leprosy, blindness. The adjective means literally many colored or variegated like flowers, paintings, jaundice, etc. Some had "torments" (basanois). The word originally (oriental origin) meant a touchstone, "Lydian stone" used for testing gold because pure gold rubbed on it left a peculiar mark. qen it was used for examination by torture. Sickness was often regarded as "torture." These diseases are further described "in a descending scale of violence" (McNeile) as "demoniacs, lunatics, and paralytics" as Moffatt puts it, "demoniacs, epileptics, paralytics" as Weymouth has it, (daimonizomenous kai selˆniazomenous kai paralutikous), people possessed by demons, lunatics or "moon-struck" because the epileptic seizures supposedly followed the phases of the moon (Bruce) as shown also in #Mt 17:15, paralytics (our very word). Our word "lunatic" is from the Latin _luna_ (moon) and carries the same picture as the Greek selˆniazomai from selˆnˆ (moon). These diseases are called "torments."

    4:25 {Great multitudes} (ocloi polloi). Note the plural, not just one crowd, but crowds and crowds. And from all parts of Palestine including Decapolis, the region of the Ten Greek Cities east of the Jordan. No political campaign was equal to this outpouring of the people to hear Jesus and to be healed by Jesus.


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