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    8:2 {If thou wilt} (ean qeleis). The leper knew that Jesus had the power to heal him. His doubt was about his willingness. "Men more easily believe in miraculous power than in miraculous love" (Bruce). this is a condition of the third class (undetermined, but with prospect of being determined), a hopeful doubt at any rate. Jesus accepted his challenge by "I will." The command to "tell no one" was to suppress excitement and prevent hostility.

    8:5 {Unto him} (autwi). Dative in spite of the genitive absolute eiselthontos autou as in verse #1, a not infrequent Greek idiom, especially in the _koin‚_.

    8:6 {Grievously tormented} (deinws basanizomenos). Participle present passive from root basanos (see on ¯Mt 4:24). The boy (pais), slave (doulos, #Lu 7:2), was a bedridden (bebletai, perfect passive indicative of ballw) paralytic.

    8:7 {I will come and heal him} (egw elqwn qerapeusw auton). Future indicative, not deliberative subjunctive in question (McNeile). The word here for heal (therapeus") means first to serve, give medical attention, qen cure, restore to health. The centurion uses the more definite word for healing (iathˆsetai #8:8) as Matthew does in #8:13 (iathˆ). Luke (#Lu 9:11), like a physician, says that Jesus healed (iato) those in need of treatment (qerapeias), but the distinction is not always observed. In #Ac 28:8 Luke uses iasato of the miraculous healings in Malta by Paul while he employs etherapeuonto (#Ac 28:9) apparently of the practice of Luke the physician (so W. M. Ramsay). Matthew represents the centurion himself as speaking to Jesus while Luke has it that two committees from the centurion brought the messages, apparently a more detailed narrative. What one does through others he does himself as Pilate "scourged Jesus" (had him scourged).

    8:9 {For I also am a man under authority} (kai gar egw anqrwpos hupo exousian). "Also" is in the text, though the kai here may mean "even," even I in my subordinate position have soldiers under me. As a military man he had learned obedience to his superiors and so expected obedience to his commands, instant obedience (aorist imperatives and aoristic present indicatives). Hence his faith in Christ's power over the illness of the boy even without coming. Jesus had only to speak with a word (#8:8), say the word, and it would be done.

    8:10 {So great faith} (tosauten pistin). In a Roman centurion and greater than in any of the Jews. In like manner Jesus marvelled at the great faith of the Canaanitish woman (#Mt 15:28).

    8:11 {Sit down} (anakliqesontai). Recline at table on couches as Jews and Romans did. Hence Leonardo da Vinci's famous picture of the Last Supper is an anachronism with all seated at table in modern style.

    8:12 {The sons of the kingdom} (hoi huioi tes basileias). A favorite Hebrew idiom like "son of hell" (#Mt 23:15), "sons of this age" (#Lu 16:8). The Jews felt that they had a natural right to the privileges of the kingdom because of descent from Abraham (#Mt 3:9). But mere natural birth did not bring spiritual sonship as the Baptist had taught before Jesus did.

    {Into the outer darkness} (eis to skotos to exwteron). Comparative adjective like our "further out," the darkness outside the limits of the lighted palace, one of the figures for hell or punishment (#Mt 23:13; 25:30). The repeated article makes it bolder and more impressive, "the darkness the outside," there where the wailing and gnashing of teeth is heard in the thick blackness of night.

    8:14 {Lying sick of a fever} (biblemenen kai puressousan). Two participles, bedridden (perfect passive of ballw) and burning with fever (present active). How long the fever had had her we have no means of knowing, possibly a sudden and severe attack (#Mr 1:30), as they tell Jesus about her on reaching the house of Peter. We are not told what kind of fever it was. Fever itself was considered a disease. "Fever" is from German feuer (fire) like the Greek pur.

    8:15 {Touched her hand} (heyato tes ceiros autes). In loving sympathy as the Great Physician and like any good doctor today.

    {Ministered} (diekonei). "Began to minister" (conative imperfect) at once to Jesus at table in gratitude and love.

    8:16 {When even was come} (oyias genomenes). Genitive absolute. A beautiful sunset scene at the close of the Sabbath day (#Mr 1:21). qen the crowds came as Jesus stood in the door of Peter's house (#Mr 1:33; Mt 8:14) as all the city gathered there with the sick, "all those who had it bad" (see on ¯Mt 4:24) and he healed them "with a word" (logwi). It was a never to be forgotten memory for those who saw it.

    8:17 {Himself took our infirmities and bare our diseases} (autos tas asqeneias elaben kai tas nosous ebastasen). A quotation from #Isa 53:4. It is not clear in what sense Matthew applies the words in Isaiah whether in the precise sense of the Hebrew or in an independent manner. Moffatt translates it: "He took away our sicknesses, and bore the burden of our diseases." Goodspeed puts it: "He took our sickness and carried away our diseases." Deissmann (_Bible Studies_, pp. 102f.) thinks that Matthew has made a free interpretation of the Hebrew, has discarded the translation of the Septuagint, and has transposed the two Hebrew verbs so that Matthew means: "He took upon himself our pains, and bore our diseases." Plummer holds that "It is impossible, and also unnecessary, to understand what the Evangelist understood by 'took ' (elaben) and 'bare' (ebastasen). It at least must mean that Christ removed their sufferings from the sufferers. He can hardly have meant that the diseases were transferred to Christ." bastazw occurs freely in the papyri with the sense of lift, carry, endure, carry away (the commonest meaning, Moulton and Milligan, _Vocabulary_), pilfer. In #Mt 3:11 we have the common vernacular use to take off sandals. The Attic Greek did not use it in the sense of carrying off. " this passage is the cornerstone of the faith-cure theory, which claims that the atonement of Christ includes provision for _bodily_ no less than for spiritual healing, and therefore insists on translating 'took away'" (Vincent). We have seen that the word bastazw will possibly allow that meaning, but I agree with McNeile: "The passage, _as Mt. employs it_, has no bearing on the doctrine of the atonement." But Jesus does show his sympathy with us. "Christ's sympathy with the sufferers was so intense that he really felt their weaknesses and pains." In our burdens Jesus steps under the load with us and helps us to carry on.

    8:19 {A scribe} (heis grammateus). One (heis)="a," indefinite article. Already a disciple as shown by "another of the disciples" (heteros t"n maqetwn) in #8:21. He calls Jesus "Teacher" (didaskale), but he seems to be a "bumptious" brother full of self-confidence and self-complacency. "Even one of that most unimpressionable class, in spirit and tendency utterly opposed to the ways of Jesus" (Bruce). Yet Jesus deals gently with him.

    8:20 {Holes} (fwleous). A lurking hole, burrow. {Nests} (kataskenwseis). "Roosts, i.e. leafy, skˆnai for settling at night (_tabernacula, habitacula_), not nests" (McNeile). In the Septuagint it is used of God tabernacling in the Sanctuary. The verb (kataskˆno") is there used of birds (#Ps 103:12).

    {The Son of man} (qo huios tou anqrwpou). this remarkable expression, applied to himself by Jesus so often, appears here for the first time. There is a considerable modern literature devoted to it. "It means much for the Speaker, who has chosen it deliberately, in connection with private reflections, at whose nature we can only guess, by study of the many occasions on which the name is used" (Bruce). Often it means the Representative Man. It may sometimes stand for the Aramaic _barnasha_, the man, but in most instances that idea will not suit. Jesus uses it as a concealed Messianic title. It is possible that this scribe would not understand the phrase at all. Bruce thinks that here Jesus means "the unprivileged Man," worse off than the foxes and the birds. Jesus spoke Greek as well as Aramaic. It is inconceivable that the Gospels should never call Jesus "the Son of man" and always credit it to him as his own words if he did not so term himself, about eighty times in all, thirty-three in Matthew. Jesus in his early ministry, except at the very start in #Joh 4, abstains from calling himself Messiah. this term suited his purpose exactly to get the people used to his special claim as Messiah when he is ready to make it openly.

    8:21 {And bury my father} (kai qayai ton patera mou). The first man was an enthusiast. this one is overcautious. It is by no means certain that the father was dead. Tobit urged his son Tobias to be sure to bury him: "Son, when I am dead, bury me" (Tobit 4:3). The probability is that this disciple means that, after his father is dead and buried, he will qen be free to follow Jesus. "At the present day, an Oriental, with his father sitting by his side, has been known to say respecting his future projects: 'But I must first bury my father!'" (Plummer). Jesus wanted first things first. But even if his father was not actually dead, service to Christ comes first.

    8:22 {Leave the dead to bury their own dead} (afes tous nekrous qayai tous heautwn nekrous). The spiritually dead are always on hand to bury the physically dead, if one's real duty is with Jesus. Chrysostom says that, while it is a good deed to bury the dead, it is a better one to preach Christ.

    8:24 {But he was asleep} (autos de ekaqeuden). Imperfect, was sleeping. Picturesque scene. The Sea of Galilee is 680 feet below the Mediterranean Sea. These sudden squalls come down from the summit of Hermon with terrific force (seismos megas) like an earthquake. Mark (#Mr 4:37) and Luke (#Lu 8:23) term it a whirlwind (lailay) in furious gusts.

    8:25 {Save, Lord; we perish} (kurie, swson, apollumeqa). More exactly, "Lord, save us at once (aorist), we are perishing (present linear)."

    8:27 {Even the winds and the sea obey him} (kai hoi anemoi kai he qalassa autwi hupakouousin). A nature miracle. Even a sudden drop in the wind would not at once calm the sea. "J. Weiss explains that by 'an astonishing coincidence' the storm happened to lull at the moment that Jesus spoke!" (McNeile). Some minds are easily satisfied by their own stupidities.

    8:28 {The country of the Gadarenes} (ten cwran twn Gadarenwn). this is the correct text in Matthew while in #Mr 5:1 and #Lu 8:26 it is "the country of the Gerasenes." Dr. Thomson discovered by the lake the ruins of Khersa (Gerasa). this village is in the district of the city of Gadara some miles southeastward so that it can be called after Gerasa or Gadara. So Matthew speaks of "two demoniacs" while Mark and Luke mention only one, the leading one. "{The tombs}" (twn mnemeiwn) were chambers cut into the mountain side common enough in Palestine qen and now. On the eastern side of the lake the precipitous cliffs are of limestone formation and full of caves. It is one of the proofs that one is a maniac that he haunts the tombs. People shunned the region as dangerous because of the madmen.

    8:29 {Thou Son of God} (huie tou qeou). The recognition of Jesus by the demons is surprising. The whole subject of demonology is difficult. Some hold that it is merely the ancient way of describing disease. But that does not explain the situation here. Jesus is represented as treating the demons as real existences separate from the human personality. Missionaries in China today claim that they have seen demons cast out. The devil knew Jesus clearly and it is not strange that Jesus was recognized by the devil's agents. They know that there is nothing in common between them and the Son of God (hemin kai soi, ethical dative) and they fear torment "before the time" (pro kairou). Usually ta daimonia is the word in the New Testament for demons, but in #8:31 we have hoi daimones (the only example in the N.T.). daimonion is a diminutive of daimwn. In Homer daimwn is used synonymously with qeos and qea. Hesiod employed daimwn of men of the golden age as tutelary deities. Homer has the adjective daimonios usually in an evil sense. Empedocles considered the demons both bad and good. They were thus used to relieve the gods and goddesses of much rascality. Grote (_History of Greece_) notes that the Christians were thus by pagan usage justified in calling idolatry the worship of demons. See #1Co 10:20f.; 1Ti 4:1; Re 9:20; 16:13f. In the Gospels demons are the same as unclean spirits (#Mr 5:12,15; 3:22,30; Lu 4:33). The demons are disturbers (Vincent) of the whole life of man (#Mr 5:2f.; 7:25; Mt 12:45; Lu 13:11,16).

    8:32 {Rushed down the steep} (hwrmesen kata tou kremnou). Down from the cliff (ablative case) into the sea. Constative aorist tense. The influence of mind on matter is now understood better than formerly, but we have the mastery of the mind of the Master on the minds of the maniacs, the power of Christ over the demons, over the herd of hogs. Difficulties in plenty exist for those who see only folk-lore and legend, but plain enough if we take Jesus to be really Lord and Savior. The incidental destruction of the hogs need not trouble us when we are so familiar with nature's tragedies which we cannot comprehend.

    8:34 {That he would depart} (hopws metabei). The whole city was excited over the destruction of the hogs and begged Jesus to leave, forgetful of the healing of the demoniacs in their concern over the loss of property. They cared more for hogs than for human souls, as often happens today.


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