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    1:1 {To the Romans} (pros rwmaious). this is the title in Aleph A B C, our oldest Greek MSS. for the epistle. We do not know whether Paul gave any title at all. Later MSS. add other words up to the Textus Receptus: The epistle of Paul to the Romans. The epistle is put first in the MSS. because it is the most important of Paul's Epistles.

    {Paul} (Paulos). Roman name (Paulus). See on ¯Ac 13:9 for the origin of this name by the side of Saul. {Servant} (doulos). Bond-slave of Jesus Christ (or Christ Jesus as some MSS. give it and as is the rule in the later Epistles) for the first time in the Epistles in the opening sentence, though the phrase already in #Ga 1:10. Recurs in #Php 1:1 and desmios (bondsman) in #Phm 1:1. {Called to be an apostle} (kletos apostolos). An apostle by vocation (Denney) as in #1Co 1:1. In #Ga 1:1 kletos is not used, but the rest of the verse has the same idea. {Separated} (aph"rismenos). Perfect passive participle of aforizw for which verb see on ¯Ga 1:15. Paul is a spiritual Pharisee (etymologically), separated not to the oral tradition, but to God's gospel, a chosen vessel (#Ac 9:15). By man also (#Ac 13:2). Many of Paul's characteristic words like euaggelion have been already discussed in the previous Epistles that will call for little comment from now on.

    1:2 {He promised afore} (proepˆggeilato). First aorist middle of proepaggell" for which verb see on ¯2Co 9:5. {By} (dia). Through, by means of, intermediate agency like #Mt 1:22 which see. {In the holy scriptures} (en grafais hagiais). No article, yet definite. Perhaps the earliest use of the phrase (Sanday and Headlam). Paul definitely finds God's gospel in the Holy Scriptures.

    1:3 {Concerning his Son} (peri tou huiou autou). Just as Jesus found himself in the O.T. (#Lu 24:27,46). The deity of Christ here stated. {According to the flesh} (kata sarka). His real humanity alongside of his real deity. For the descent from David see #Mt 1:1,6,20; Lu 1:27; Joh 7:42; Ac 13:23, etc.

    1:4 {Who was declared} (tou horisqentos). Articular participle (first aorist passive) of horizw for which verb see on ¯Lu 22:22; Ac 2:23. He was the Son of God in his preincarnate state (#2Co 8:9; Php 2:6) and still so after his Incarnation (verse #3, "of the seed of David"), but it was the Resurrection of the dead (ex anastase"s nekr"n, the general resurrection implied by that of Christ) that definitely marked Jesus off as God's Son because of his claims about himself as God's Son and his prophecy that he would rise on the third day. this event (cf. #1Co 15) gave God's seal "with power" (en dunamei), "in power," declared so in power (#2Co 13:4). The Resurrection of Christ is the miracle of miracles. "The resurrection only declared him to be what he truly was" (Denney). {According to the spirit of holiness} (kata pneuma hagi"sunˆs). Not the Holy Spirit, but a description of Christ ethically as kata sarka describes him physically (Denney). Hagi"sunˆ is rare (#1Th 3:13; 2Co 7:1 in N.T.), three times in LXX, each time as the attribute of God. "The pneuma hagi"sunˆs, though not the Divine nature, is that in which the Divinity or Divine Personality Resided " (Sanday and Headlam). {Jesus Christ our Lord} (iesou cristou tou kuriou hemwn). These words gather up the total personality of Jesus (his deity and his humanity).

    1:5 {Unto obedience of faith} (eis hupakoen pistews). Subjective genitive as in #16:26, the obedience which springs from faith (the act of assent or surrender).

    1:6 {Called to be Jesus Christ's} (kletoi iesou cristou). Predicate genitive after kletoi (verbal adjective from kalew, to call), though it is possible to consider it the ablative case, "called of (or from) Jesus Christ."

    1:7 {In Rome} (en rwmei). One late uncial (G of tenth century) and a cursive omit these words here and one or two other late MSS. omit en R"mˆi in verse #15. this possibly proves the epistle was circulated as a circular to a limited extent, but the evidence is late and slight and by no means shows that this was the case in the first century. It is not comparable with the absence of en efeswi in #Eph 1:1 from Aleph and B (the two oldest and best MSS.). {Beloved of God} (agapetois qeou). Ablative case of qeou after the verbal adjective like didaktoi qeou (taught of God) in #Joh 6:45 (Robertson, _Grammar_, p. 516). {From God our Father and the Lord Jesus Christ} (apo qeou patros hemwn kai kuriou iesou cristou). "St. Paul, if not formally enunciating a doctrine of the Divinity of Christ, held a view which cannot really be distinguished from it" (Sanday and Headlam). Paul's theology is clearly seen in the terms used in verses #1-7.

    1:8 {First} (prwton men). Adverb in the accusative case, but no epeita de (in the next place) as in #Heb 7:2 or epeita as in #Jas 3:17 follows. The rush of thoughts crowds out the balanced phraseology as in #Ro 3:2; 1Co 11:18. {Through} (dia). As the mediator or medium of thanksgiving as in #7:25. {For} (peri). Concerning, about. {That} (hoti). Or because. Either declarative or causal hoti makes sense here. {Your faith} (hˆ pistis humwn). "Your Christianity" (Sanday and Headlam). {Is proclaimed} (kataggelletai). Present passive indicative of kataggellw, to announce (aggellw) up and down (kata). See also anaggellw, to bring back news (#Joh 5:15), apaggellw, to announce from one as the source (#Mt 2:8), prokataggellw, to announce far and wide beforehand (#Ac 3:18). {Throughout all the world} (en hol"i t"i kosmwi). Natural hyperbole as in #Col 1:6; Ac 17:6. But widely known because the church was in the central city of the empire.

    1:9 {I serve} (latreuw). Old verb from latron, hire, and latris, hireling, so to serve for hire, qen to serve in general gods or men, whether sacred services (#Heb 9:9; 10:2) or spiritual service as here. Cf. #Ro 12:1; Php 3:3. {Unceasingly} (adialeiptws). Late adverb for which see #1Th 1:2f.; 2:13; 5:17, only other N.T. examples. {Always} (pantote). One might think that Paul prayed for no others, but he uses both adverbs in #1Th 1:2. He seems to have had prayer lists. He never omitted the Romans.

    1:10 {If by any means now at length} (ei p"s ˆdˆ pote). A condition of the first class in the form of an indirect question (aim) or elliptical condition like #Ac 27:12 (Robertson, _Grammar_, p. 1024). Note the four particles together to express Paul's feelings of emotion that now at length somehow it may really come true. {I may be prospered} (euod"thˆsomai). First future passive indicative of euodow for which verb see on ¯1Co 16:2. {By the will of God} (en twi qelemati tou qeou). Paul's way lay "in" God's will.

    1:11 {Impart} (metad"). Second aorist active subjunctive of metadidwmi, to share with one. See on ¯Lu 3:11; 1Th 2:8. {To the end ye may be established} (eis to stericqenai humas). Final clause (common in Paul) with eis to and the first aorist passive infinitive of sterizw for which verb see on ¯Lu 22:32; 1Th 3:3,13.

    1:12 {That is} (touto de estin). "An explanatory correction" (Denney). The de should not be ignored. Instead of saying that he had a spiritual gift for them, he wishes to add that they also have one for him. {That I with you may be comforted} (sunparakleqenai en humin). "My being comforted in you (en humin) together (sun-) with you," a mutual blessing to each party (you and me).

    1:13 {Oftentimes I purposed} (pollakis proethemˆn). Second aorist middle of protiqemi, old verb to place, to propose to oneself, in N.T. only here, #3:25; Eph 1:9. See #Ac 19:21 for this purpose. {And was hindered} (kai ekwluqen). "But was hindered," adversative use of kai. {That I might have some fruit} (hina tina karpon scw). Second aorist (ingressive), active of ecw, to have, and here means "might get (ingressive aorist) some fruit."

    1:14 On {debtor} (ofeiletes) see #Ga 5:3. {Both to Greeks and to Barbarians} (hellesin te kai barbarois). The whole human race from the Greek point of view, Jews coming under barbarois. On this word see #Ac 18:2,4; 1Co 4:11; Col 3:11 (only N.T. instances). The Greeks called all others barbarians and the Jews termed all others Gentiles. Did Paul consider the Romans as Greeks? They had absorbed the Greek language and culture.

    1:15 {So as much as in me is I am ready} (houtw to kat' eme proqumon). Literally, "Thus the according to me affair is ready" (proqumos, old adjective, pro, qumos). It is an awkward idiom like to ex humwn in #12:18. The plural ta kat' eme we find in #Php 1:12; Col 4:7; Eph 6:21.

    1:16 {It is the power of God} (dunamis qeou estin). this Paul knew by much experience. He had seen the dynamite of God at work. {To the Jew first, and also to the Greek} (ioudaiwi te prwton kai helleni). Jesus had taught this (#Joh 4:22; 10:16; Lu 24:47; Ac 1:8). The Jew is first in privilege and in penalty (#Ro 2:9f.). It is not certain that prwton is genuine, but it is in #2:9f.

    1:17 {For therein} (gar en autwi). In the gospel (verse #16) of which Paul is not ashamed. {A righteousness of God} (dikaiosune qeou). Subjective genitive, "a God kind of righteousness," one that each must have and can obtain in no other way save "from faith unto faith" (ek pistews eis pistin), faith the starting point and faith the goal (Lightfoot). {Is revealed} (apokaluptetai). It is a revelation from God, this God kind of righteousness, that man unaided could never have conceived or still less attained. In these words we have Paul's statement in his own way of the theme of the epistle, the content of the gospel as Paul understands it. Every word is important: swterian (salvation), euaggelion (gospel), apokaluptetai (is revealed), dikaiosune qeou (righteousness of God), pistis (faith) and pisteuonti (believing). He grounds his position on #Hab 2:4 (quoted also in #Ga 3:11). By "righteousness" we shall see that Paul means both "justification" and "sanctification." It is important to get a clear idea of Paul's use of dikaiosune here for it controls the thought throughout the epistle. Jesus set up a higher standard of righteousness (dikaiosune) in the Sermon on the Mount than the Scribes and Pharisees taught and practised (#Mt 5:20) and proves it in various items. Here Paul claims that in the gospel, taught by Jesus and by himself there is revealed a God kind of righteousness with two ideas in it (the righteousness that God has and that he bestows). It is an old word for quality from dikaios, a righteous man, and that from dike, right or justice (called a goddess in #Ac 28:4), and that allied with deiknumi, to show, to point out. Other allied words are dikaiow, to declare or make dikaios (#Ro 3:24,26), dikai"ma, that which is deemed dikaios (sentence or ordinance as in #1:32; 2:26; 8:4), dikai"sis, the act of declaring dikaios (only twice in N.T., #4:25; 5:18). dikaiosune and dikaiow are easy to render into English, though we use justice in distinction from righteousness and sanctification for the result that comes after justification (the setting one right with God). Paul is consistent and usually clear in his use of these great words.

    1:18 {For the wrath of God is revealed} (apokaluptetai gar orge qeou). Note in Romans Paul's use of gar, now argumentative, now explanatory, now both as here. There is a parallel and antecedent revelation (see verse #17) of God's wrath corresponding to the revelation of God's righteousness, this an unwritten revelation, but plainly made known. orge is from orga", to teem, to swell. It is the temper of God towards Sin, not rage, but the wrath of reason and law (Shedd). The revelation of God's righteousness in the gospel was necessary because of the failure of men to attain it without it, for God's wrath justly rested upon all both Gentiles (#1:18-32) and Jews (#2:1-3:20). {Ungodliness} (asebeian). Irreligion, want of reverence toward God, old word (cf. #2Ti 2:16). {Unrighteousness} (adikian). Lack (a privative and dike) of right conduct toward men, injustice (#Ro 9:14; Lu 18:6). this follows naturally from irreverence. The basis of ethical conduct rests on the nature of God and our attitude toward him, otherwise the law of the jungle (cf. Nietzsche, "might makes right"). {Hold down the truth} (tˆn alˆtheian katechont"n). Truth (aleqeia, aleqes, from a privative and leqw or lanqanw, to conceal) is out in the open, but wicked men, so to speak, put it in a box and sit on the lid and "hold it down in unrighteousness." Their evil deeds conceal the open truth of God from men. Cf. #2Th 2:6f. for this use of katecw, to hinder.

    1:19 {Because} (dioti). Gives the reason (dia, hoti like our "for that") for the revelation of God's wrath. {That which may be known of God} (to gnwston tou qeou). Verbal adjective from ginwskw, either "the known" as elsewhere in N.T. (#Ac 1:19; 15:18, etc.) or "the knowable" as usual in ancient Greek, that is "the knowledge" (hˆ gnwsis) of God. See #Php 3:8. Cf. same use of the verbal chrˆston in #Ro 2:4, ametatheton in #Heb 6:17. {Manifest in them} (phaneron en autois). In their hearts and consciences. {God manifested} (ho qeos ephaner"sen). First aorist active indicative of fanerow. Not mere tautology. See #2:14-16.

    1:20 {The invisible things of him} (ta aorata autou). Another verbal adjective (a privative and horaw, to see), old word, either unseen or invisible as here and elsewhere in N.T. (#Col 1:15f., etc.). The attributes of God's nature defined here as "his everlasting power and divinity" (hˆ te aidios autou dunamis kai qeiotes). aidios is for aeidios from aei (always), old word, in N.T. only here and #Jude 1:6, common in Philo (z"ˆ aidios), elsewhere aiwnios. qeiotes is from qeios (from qeos) quality of qeos and corresponds more to Latin _divinitas_ from _divus_, divine. In #Col 2:9 Paul uses qeotes (Latin _deitas_ from _deus_) {deity}, both old words and nowhere else in the N.T. qeotes is Divine Personality, qeiotes, Divine Nature and properties (Sanday and Headlam). {Since the creation of the world} (apo ktise"s kosmou). He means by God and unto God as antecedent to and superior to the world (cf. #Col 1:15f. about Christ). {Are clearly seen} (kathoratai). Present passive indicative of kathora" (perfective use of kata-), old word, only here in N.T., with direct reference to aorata. {Being perceived} (nooumena). Present passive participle of noew, to use the nous (intellect). {That they may be without excuse} (eis to einai autous anapologˆtous). More likely, "so that they are without excuse." The use of eis to and the infinitive (with accusative of general reference) for result like hwste is reasonably clear in the N.T. (Moulton, _Prolegomena_, p. 219; Robertson, _Grammar_, p. 1003). Anapologˆtous is another verbal with an from apologeomai. Old word, in N.T. only here and #Ro 2:1 ("inexcusable" here).

    1:21 {Because that} (dioti). As in verse #19. {Knowing God} (gnontes ton qeon). Second aorist active participle of ginwskw, to know by personal experience. Definite statement that originally men had some knowledge of God. No people, however degraded, have yet been found without some yearning after a god, a seeking to find the true God and get back to him as Paul said in Athens (#Ac 17:27). {Glorified not as God} (ouch h"s qeon edoxasan). They knew more than they did. this is the reason for the condemnation of the heathen (#2:12-16), the failure to do what they know. {Their senseless heart} (hˆ asunetos autwn kardia). kardia is the most comprehensive term for all our faculties whether feeling (#Ro 9:2), will (#1Co 4:5), intellect (#Ro 10:6). It may be the home of the Holy Spirit (#Ro 5:5) or of evil desires (#1:24). See #Mr 7:21f. for list of vices that come "out of the heart." Asunetos is a verbal adjective from suniemi, to put together, and a privative, unintelligent, not able to put together the manifest evidence about God (verse #20). So darkness settled down on their hearts (eskotisthˆ, first aorist ingressive passive of skotiz", to darken).

    1:22 {Professing themselves to be wise} (faskontes einai sofoi). sofoi is predicate nominative with einai in indirect discourse agreeing with phaskontes (old verb, from femi, to say, rare in N.T.) in case and number according to regular Greek idiom (Robertson, _Grammar_, p. 1038). {Became vain} (ematai"thˆsan). Ingressive first aorist passive indicative of mataio" from mataios (empty). Empty reasonings as often today. {Became fools} (em"ranthˆsan). Ingressive first aorist passive of mwrainw, to be a fool, old word from mwros, a fool. An oxymoron or sharp saying, true and one that cuts to the bone. {For the likeness of an image} (en homoi"mati eikonos). Both words, "a likeness which consists in an image or copy" (Lightfoot). See #Php 2:7 for "likeness of menw and #Col 1:15 for "image of God." Paul shows indignant contempt for these grotesque efforts to present pictures of a deity that had been lost (Denney). Why is it that heathen images of gods in the form of men and beasts are so horrible to look upon?

    1:24 {Wherefore} (dio). Paul's inexorable logic. See it also in verse #26 with the same verb and in verse #28 kai like "and so." {God gave them up} (paredwken autous ho qeos). First aorist active indicative of paradidwmi, old and common verb to hand over (beside, para) to one's power as in #Mt 4:12. These people had already wilfully deserted God who merely left them to their own self-determination and self-destruction, part of the price of man's moral freedom. Paul refers to this stage and state of man in #Ac 17:30 by "overlooked" (huperidwn). The withdrawal of God's restraint sent men deeper down. Three times Paul uses pared"ken here (verses #24,26,28), not three stages in the giving over, but a repetition of the same withdrawal. The words sound to us like clods on the coffin as God leaves men to work their own wicked will. {That their bodies should be dishonored} (tou atimazesthai ta s"mata autwn). Contemplated result expressed by tou (genitive article) and the passive infinitive atimazesthai (from atimos, a privative and timos, dishonored) with the accusative of general reference. Christians had a new sense of dignity for the body (#1Th 4:4; 1Co 6:13). Heathenism left its stamp on the bodies of men and women.

    1:25 {Exchanged} (metellaxan). First aorist active indicative of metallass", old word for exchanging trade, only here and verse #26 in N.T. What a bargain they made, "the truth of God for (en) the (twi) lie."The price of mythology" (Bengel). {Worshipped} (esebasthˆsan). First aorist passive (used transitively) of sebazomai, old verb, used in late Greek like sebomai, to worship. {Rather than the Creator} (para ton ktisanta). Placed side by side (para, the Creator and the creature, ktisis) they preferred the creature. {Who is blessed forever. Amen} (hos estin eulogetos. Amˆn). One of Paul's doxologies which may come at any moment when he is greatly stirred, as in #9:5. eulogetos is verbal of eulogew.

    1:26 {Unto vile passions} (eis pathˆ atimias). Unto passions of dishonor. Pathos, old word from pascw, to experience, originally meant any feeling whether good or bad, but in N.T. always in bad sense as here, #1Th 4:5; Col 3:5 (only N.T. examples). {That which is against nature} (ten para fusin). The degradation of sex is what Paul here notes as one of the results of heathenism (the loss of God in the life of man). They passed by the Creator.

    1:27 {Turned} (exekauthˆsan). First aorist passive indicative, causative aorist, of ekkai", old verb, to burn out, to set on fire, to inflame with anger or lust. Here only in N.T. {Lust} (orexei). Only here in N.T. {Unseemliness} (aschˆmosunˆn). Old word from aschˆmon (deformed). In N.T. only here and #Re 16:15. {Recompense} (antimisqian). See on ¯2Co 6:13 for only other N.T. instance of this late Pauline word, there in good sense, here in bad. {Which was due} (hˆn edei). Imperfect active for obligation still on them coming down from the past. this debt will be paid in full (apolambanontes, pay back as in #Lu 6:34, and due as in #Lu 23:41). Nature will attend to that in their own bodies and souls.

    1:28 {And even as they refused} (kai kaqws ouk edokimasan). "And even as they rejected" after trial just as dokimazw is used of testing coins. They tested God at first and turned aside from him. {Knowledge} (epignwsei). Full knowledge (epi additional, gnwsis). They had a dim memory that was a caricature. {Unto a reprobate mind} (eis adokimon noun). Play on ouk edokimasan. They rejected God and God rejected their mental attitude and gave them over (verses #24,26,28). See this adjective already in #1Co 9:27; 2Co 13:5-7. Like an old abandoned building, the home of bats and snakes, left "to do those things which are not fitting" (poiein ta me kaqekonta), like the night clubs of modern cities, the dives and dens of the underworld, without God and in the darkness of unrestrained animal impulses. this was a technical term with Stoics (II Macc. 6:4).

    1:29 {Being called with} (peplerwmenous). Perfect passive participle of the common verb plerow, state of completion, "filled to the brim with" four vices in the associative instrumental case (adikiai, unrighteousness as in verse #18, ponˆriai, active wickedness as in #Mr 7:22, pleonexiai, covetousness as in #1Th 2:5; Lu 12:15, kakiai, maliciousness or inward viciousness of disposition as in #1Co 5:8). Note asyndeton, no connective in the lists in verses #29-31. Dramatic effect. The order of these words varies in the MSS. and porneiai, fornication, is not genuine here (absent in Aleph A B C). {Full of} (mestous). Paul changes from participle to adjective. Old adjective, rare in the N.T., like mestow, to fill full (only in #Ac 2:13 in N.T.), stuffed full of (with genitive). Five substantives in the genitive (phthonou, envy, as in #Ga 5:21, fonou, murder, and so a paronomasia or combination with phthonou, of like sounding words, eridos, strife, as in #2Co 12:16, kakoˆthias, malice, and here only in N.T. though old word from kakoˆthˆs and that from kakos and eqos, a tendency to put a bad construction on things, depravity of heart and malicious disposition.

    1:30 Paul changes the construction again to twelve substantives and adjectives that give vivid touches to this composite photograph of the God abandoned soul. {Whisperers} (yiquristas). Old word from yiqurizw, to speak into the ear, to speak secretly, an onomatopoetic word like psithurismos (#2Co 12:20) and only here in N.T. {Backbiters} (katalalous). Found nowhere else except in Hermas, compound like katalalew, to talk back (#Jas 4:11), and katalalia, talking back (#2Co 12:20), talkers back whether secretly or openly. {Hateful to God} (theostugeis). Old word from qeos and stuge". All the ancient examples take it in the passive sense and so probably here. So stugˆtos (#Tit 3:13). Vulgate has _deo odibiles_. {Insolent} (hubristas). Old word for agent from hubrizw, to give insult to, here alone in N.T. save #1Ti 1:13. {Haughty} (huperˆphanous). From huper and fainomai, to appear above others, arrogant in thought and conduct, "stuck up." {Boastful} (alazonas). From alˆ, wandering. Empty pretenders, swaggerers, braggarts. {Inventors of evil things} (epheuretas kak"n). Inventors of new forms of vice as Nero was. Tacitus (_Ann_. IV. ii) describes Sejanus as _facinorum omnium repertor_ and Virgil (_Aen_. ii. 163) _scelerum inventor_. {Disobedient to parents} (goneusin apeiqeis). Cf. #1Ti 1:9; 2Ti 3:2. An ancient and a modern trait.

    1:31 {Without understanding} (asunetous). Same word in verse #21. {Covenant-breakers} (asunqetous). Another paronomasia or pun. a privative and verbal sunthetos from suntiqemi, to put together. Old word, common in LXX (#Jer 3:7), men "false to their engagements" (Sanday and Headlam), who treat covenants as "a scrap of paper." {Without natural affection} (astorgous). Late word, a privative and storgˆ, love of kindred. In N.T. only here and #2Ti 3:3. {Unmerciful} (aneleˆmonas). From a privative and eleemwn, merciful. Late word, only here in N.T. Some MSS. add aspondous, implacable, from #2Ti 3:3. It is a terrible picture of the effects of Sin on the lives of men and women. The late Dr. R. H. Graves of Canton, China, said that a Chinaman who got hold of this chapter declared that Paul could not have written it, but only a modern missionary who had been to China. It is drawn to the life because Paul knew Pagan Graeco-Roman civilization.

    1:32 {The ordinance of God} (to dikai"ma tou qeou). The heathen knows that God condemns such evil practices. {But also consent with them} (alla kai suneudokousin). Late verb for hearty approval as in #Lu 11:48; Ac 8:1; 1Co 7:12. It is a tragedy of American city government that so many of the officials are proven to be hand in glove with the underworld of law-breakers.


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