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    6:1 {What shall we say qen?} (ti oun eroumen?). "A debater's phrase" (Morison). Yes, and an echo of the rabbinical method of question and answer, but also an expression of exultant victory of grace versus Sin. But Paul sees the possible perversion of this glorious grace. {Shall we continue in Sin?} (epimenwmen tei hamartiai?). Present active deliberative subjunctive of epimenw, old verb to tarry as in Ephesus (#1Co 16:8) with locative case. The practice of Sin as a habit (present tense) is here raised. {That grace may abound} (hinacaris pteonasˆi). Final clause with ingressive aorist subjunctive, to set free the superfluity of grace alluded to like putting money in circulation. Horrible thought (me genoito) and yet Paul faced it. There are occasionally so-called pietists who actually think that God's pardon gives them liberty to Sin without penalty (cf. the sale of indulgences that stirred Martin Luther).

    6:2 {Died to Sin} (apethanomen tˆi hamartiai). Second aorist active of apoqneskw and the dative case. When we surrendered to Christ and took him as Lord and Savior. Qualitative relative (hoitines, we the very ones who). {How} (pws). Rhetorical question.

    6:3 {Were baptized into Christ} (ebaptisqemen eis criston). First aorist passive indicative of baptizw. Better, "were baptized unto Christ or in Christ." The translation "into" makes Paul say that the union with Christ was brought to pass by means of baptism, which is not his idea, for Paul was not a sacramentarian. eis is at bottom the same word as en. Baptism is the public proclamation of one's inward spiritual relation to Christ attained before the baptism. See on ¯Ga 3:27 where it is like putting on an outward garment or uniform. {Into his death} (eis ton thanaton autou). So here "unto his death,"in relation to his death," which relation Paul proceeds to explain by the symbolism of the ordinance.

    6:4 {We were buried therefore with him by means of baptism unto death} (sunetaphˆmen oun autwi dia tou baptismatos eis ton thanaton). Second aorist passive indicative of sunqaptw, old verb to bury together with, in N.T. only here and #Col 2:12. With associative instrumental case (autwi) and "by means of baptism unto death" as in verse #3. {In newness of life} (en kainotˆti zwes). The picture in baptism points two ways, backwards to Christ's death and burial and to our death to Sin (verse #1), forwards to Christ's resurrection from the dead and to our new life pledged by the coming out of the watery grave to walk on the other side of the baptismal grave (F. B. Meyer). There is the further picture of our own resurrection from the grave. It is a tragedy that Paul's majestic picture here has been so blurred by controversy that some refuse to see it. It should be said also that a symbol is not the reality, but the picture of the reality.

    6:5 {For if we have become united with him by the likeness of his death} (ei gar sumfutoi gegonamen twi homoiwmati tou qanatou autou). Condition of the first class, assumed to be true. Sumphutoi is old verbal adjective from sumphu", to grow together. Baptism as a picture of death and burial symbolizes our likeness to Christ in his death. {We shall be also united in the likeness of his resurrection} (alla kai tˆs anastase"s esometha). The conclusion to the previous condition introduced by alla kai as often and toi homoi"mati (in the likeness) must be understood before tˆs anastase"s (of his resurrection). Baptism is a picture of the past and of the present and a prophecy of the future, the matchless preacher of the new life in Christ.

    6:6 {Our old man} (ho palaios hemwn anqrwpos). Only in Paul (here, #Col 3:9; Eph 4:22). {Was crucified with him} (sunestaur"thˆ). See on ¯Ga 2:19 for this boldly picturesque word. this took place not at baptism, but only pictured there. It took place when "we died to Sin" (verse #1). {The body of Sin} (to swma tˆs hamartias). "The body of which Sin has taken possession" (Sanday and Headlam), the body marked by Sin. {That so we should no longer be in bondage to Sin} (tou meketi douleuein hemas tei hamartiai). Purpose clause with tou and the present active infinitive of douleuw, continue serving Sin (as slaves). Adds "slavery" to living in Sin (verse #2).

    6:7 {Is justified} (dedikaiwtai). Perfect passive indicative of dikaiow, stands justified, set free from, adding this great word to death and life of verses #1,2.

    6:8 {With Christ} (sun Christ"i). As pictured by baptism, the crucifixion with Christ of verse #6.

    6:9 {Dieth no more} (ouketi apoqneskei). "Christ's particular death occurs but once" (Shedd). See #Heb 10:10. A complete refutation of the "sacrificial" character of the "mass."

    6:10 {The death that he died} (ho apeqanen). Neuter relative, cognative accusative with apeqanen. {Once} (efapax). Once and once only (#Heb 9:26f.), not pote (once upon a time). {The life that he liveth} (ho zei). Cognate accusative of the relative.

    6:11 {Reckon ye also yourselves} (kai humeis logizesqe). Direct middle imperative of logizomai and complete proof that Paul does not mean that baptism makes one dead to Sin and alive to God. That is a spiritual operation "in Christ Jesus" and only pictured by baptism. this is a plea to live up to the ideal of the baptized life.

    6:12 {Reign} (basileuet"). Present active imperative, "let not Sin continue to reign" as it did once (#5:12). {Mortal} (thnˆtoi). Verbal adjective from qneskw, subject to death. The reign of Sin is over with you. Self-indulgence is inconsistent with trust in the vicarious atonement. {That ye should obey} (eis to hupakouein). With a view to obeying.

    6:13 {Neither present} (mede paristanete). Present active imperative in prohibition of paristan", late form of paristemi, to place beside. Stop presenting your members or do not have the habit of doing so, "do not go on putting your members to Sin as weapons of unrighteousness." {Instruments} (hopla). Old word for tools of any kind for shop or war (#Joh 18:3; 2Co 6:7; 10:4; Ro 13:12). Possibly here figure of two armies arrayed against each other (#Ga 5:16-24), and see hopla dikaiosunˆs below. The two sets of hopla clash. {But present yourselves unto God} (alla parastˆsate heautous twi qewi). First aorist active imperative of paristemi, same verb, but different tense, do it now and completely. Our "members" (melˆ) should be at the call of God "as alive from the dead."

    6:14 {Shall not have dominion} (ou kurieusei). Future active indicative of kurieu", old verb from kurios, "shall not lord it over you," even if not yet wholly dead. Cf. #2Co 1:24.

    6:15 {What qen?} (ti oun?). Another turn in the argument about the excess of grace. {Shall we Sin?} (hamarteswmen?). First aorist active deliberative subjunctive of hamartanw. "Shall we commit Sin" (occasional acts of Sin as opposed to the life of Sin as raised by epimenwmen tei hamartiai in verse #1)? {Because} (hoti). The same reason as in verse #1 and taken up from the very words in verse #14. Surely, the objector says, we may take a night off now and qen and Sin a little bit "since we are under grace."

    6:16 {His servants ye are whom ye obey} (douloi este hwi hupakouete). Bondservants, slaves of the one whom ye obey, whatever one's profession may be, traitors, spies sometimes they are called. As Paul used the figure to illustrate death to Sin and resurrection to new life in Christ and not in Sin, so now he uses slavery against the idea of occasional lapses into Sin. Loyalty to Christ will not permit occasional crossing over to the other side to Satan's line.

    6:17 {Whereas ye were} (ete). Imperfect but no "whereas" in the Greek. Paul is not grateful that they were once slaves of Sin, but only that, though they once were, they turned from that state. {To that form of doctrine whereunto ye were delivered} (eis hon paredoqete tupon didaces). Incorporation of the antecedent (tupon didachˆs) into the relative clause: "to which form of doctrine ye were delivered." See on ¯5:14 for tupon. It is hardly proper to take "form" here to refer to Paul's gospel (#2:16), possibly an allusion to the symbolism of baptism which was the outward sign of the separation.

    6:18 {Ye became servants of righteousness} (edoulwqete tei dikaiosunei). First aorist passive indicative of doulow, to enslave. "Ye were made slaves to righteousness." You have simply changed masters, no longer slaves of Sin (set free from that tyrant), but ye are slaves of righteousness. There is no middle ground, no "no man's land" in this war.

    6:19 {I speak after the manner of men} (anthr"pinon legw). "I speak a human word." He begs pardon for using "slaving" in connection with righteousness. But it is a good word, especially for our times when self-assertiveness and personal liberty bulk so large in modern speech. See #3:5; Ga 3:15 where he uses kata anqrwpon. {Because of the infirmity of your flesh} (dia ten asqeneian tes sarkos humwn). Because of defective spiritual insight largely due to moral defects also. {Servants to uncleanness} (doula tˆi akatharsiai). Neuter plural form of doulos to agree with melˆ (members). Patently true in sexual sins, in drunkenness, and all fleshly sins, absolutely slaves like narcotic fiends. {So now} (houtws nun). Now that you are born again in Christ. Paul uses twice again the same verb paristemi, to present (parestˆsate, parastˆsate). {Servants to righteousness} (doula tˆi dikaiosunei). Repeats the idea of verse #18. {Unto sanctification} (eis hagiasmon). this the goal, the blessed consummation that demands and deserves the new slavery without occasional lapses or sprees (verse #15). this late word appears only in LXX, N.T., and ecclesiastical writers so far. See on #1Th 4:3; 1Co 1:30. Paul includes sanctification in his conception of the God-kind (#1:17) of righteousness (both justification, #1:18-5:21 and sanctification, chapters #6-8). It is a life process of consecration, not an instantaneous act. Paul shows that we ought to be sanctified (#6:1-7:6) and illustrates the obligation by death (#6:1-14), by slavery (#6:15-23), and by marriage (#7:1-6).

    6:20 {Free in regard of righteousness} (eleuqeroi tei dikaiosunei). Ye wore no collar of righteousness, but freely did as ye pleased. They were "free." Note dative case, personal relation, of dikaiosunei.

    6:21 {What fruit qen had ye at that time?} (tina oun karpon eicete tote?). Imperfect active, used to have. A pertinent question. Ashes in their hands now. They are ashamed now of the memory of them. The end of them is death.

    6:22 {Ye have your fruit unto sanctification} (ecete ton karpon humwn eis hagiasmon). Freedom from Sin and slavery to God bring permanent fruit that leads to sanctification. {And the end eternal life} (to de telos zwen aiwnion). Note accusative case zwen aiwnion, object of ecete (ye have), though qanatos in contrast above is nominative.

    6:23 {Wages} (oywnia). Late Greek for wages of soldier, here of Sin. See on ¯Lu 3:14; 1Co 9:7; 2Co 11:8. Sin pays its wages in full with no cut. But eternal life is God's gift (carisma), not wages. Both qanatos and zwen are {eternal} (aiwnion).


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