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    Abbadie, James, D.D.: a native of Nay, in Bearn, where he was born in 1654. An able preacher and writer; first settled in Berlin, which he left to accompany the Duke of Schomberg into England. He was for some time minister of the Church of the Savoy, London, and afterwards became Dean of Killaloe, in Ireland. He died in London, 1727. For notice see p. 252.

    A’ Lasco : see p. 116.

    Allix, Peter : an able preacher and controversialist. Born at Alencon, 1641; died in London, 1717. He was one of the ministers of the great church at Charenton, near Paris. At the Revocation he took refuge in England, where he was appointed canon and treasurer to the Cathedral of Salisbury. For notice see p. 253.

    Amand , or Amyand : a Huguenot refugee of this name settled in London in the beginning of last century. His son Claude was principal surgeon to George II.; and the two sons of the latter were Claudius, Under Secretary of State, and George (created a baronet in 1764), who sat in Parliament for Barnstaple. The second baronet assumed the name of Cornewall. His daughter married Sir Gilbert Frankland Lewis, Bart., and was the mother of the late Sir Cornewall Lewis, Bart., M.P. William Henry Haggard of Bradesham, Norfolk, married Miss Frances Amyand, who belonged to a younger branch of the family, in right of whom the present Mr. Haggard now possesses Amyand House, Twickenham.

    Andre : the name of a French refugee family settled in Southampton, to whom the celebrated and unfortunate Major Andre belonged,—though the latter was brought up at Lichfield.

    Arnaud : a Huguenot family of noble descent. In Monstrelet’s continuation of Froissart’s Chronicles, translated by Thomas Jones, an ancestor of the Arnauds is described in a note (i. 348) as “Guillem-Arnaud, baron of Barbazan in Bigorre, first Chamberlain to Charles VII., afterwards Governor of Champagne and the Lionnais,” etc. The king gave him the title of Chevalier sans reproche, and permitted him to take the fleur-de-lys for his arms. He was killed at Belleville in 1432, and buried with the highest honours.” Shakespeare, in his play of Henry V., alludes to him as a “devil,” i.e. to the English army to which he was opposed. A descendant of his was the Marquis de Pompone (Simon Arnaud), Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs to Louis XIV. In the sixteenth century a branch of the family became Huguenot, and emigrated to England. The ancestor of the English Arnauds was, when quite a child, smuggled out of France in a hamper, and brought across the English Channel in an open boat. Elias Arnaud, his son, subsequently became a thriving merchant at Portsmouth, and was appointed deputy-lieutenant for the county of Hants. His son Elias Bruce Arnaud was also a deputy-lieutenant, and a very active magistrate. In 1804, when England was threatened with invasion by the French, he raised a regiment of infantry at Portsmouth, and commanded it as colonel. His second son, John, was a lieutenant in the 11th Regiment at Toulouse, where (according to Sir Win. Napier, in his History of the Peninsular War, vi. 169) two British regiments, the 11th and 91st, came up and turned the tide of battle, which, until then, had gone in favour of the French. He died a few years ago, a major-general, K.H. His eldest son Elias, for many years collector of customs at Liverpool, was the father of Henry Bruce Arnaud, now a member of the English bar. The present representative of the second or junior branch of the Arnauds, is John Macaulay Arnaud, related, through his maternal grandfather John Macaulay, formerly of Ardincaple in Dumbartonshire, to the late Lord Macaulay, and through the ancient family of the Oliphants of Gask in Perthshire, to several noblemen and persons of distinction, including the celebrated Lady Nairne. The Arnauds are also related to Sir George Bowyer, Sir Maziere Brady, ex-Lord Chancellor of Ireland, and the late Sir Lucius Curtis, admiral of the fleet.

    Arnauld, John : James Fontaine, in his Autobiography, frequently makes mention of his cousin, John Arnauld, settled in London.

    Aubertin : This family originally belonged to Metz, in Lorraine. The original emigrant fled from France at the Revocation, leading his grandchild, a little boy, by the hand. They arrived at Neuchatel, in Switzerland; other members of the family joined them; and they settled there for a time. But the great-grandson of the original emigrant, not finding a small place like Neuchatel to his taste, left it about a century ago, and naturalized himself in England. His son, the late Rev. Peter Auberton, vicar of Chepstead, Surrey, died in 1861, in his 86th year, leaving a numerous family. The Rev. Edmund Auberton, of Chalon-sur-Marne, a famous Protestant divine, author of the famous work on the Eucharist, which so much disturbed Rome at the time of its publication, was a collateral ancestor of the same family.

    Aufrere, George, M.P.: descended from a Huguenot refugee; sat for Stamford in Parliament from 1761 to 1768.

    Auriol, Peter : a refugee from Lower Languedoc, who rose to eminence as a London merchant. The Archbishop of York, the Hon. and Most Rev. R. N. Drummond, married his daughter and heiress, Henrietta, and afterwards succeeded to the peerage of Strathallan. The refugee’s daughter thus became Countess of Strathallan. The present head of the family is the Earl of Kinnoul, who continues to bear the name of Auriol. The Rev. Edward Auriol is rector of St. Dunstan’s-in-the-West, London.

    Bacquencourt : See Des Voeux.

    Barbon : A French Huguenot family of this name lived at Wandsworth. The name was changed to Barbone, or Barebone. In Mount Nod, the French burying-ground at Wandsworth, is a tombstone bearing this inscription: “Sarai, daughter of Praise Barbone, was buried 13th April, 1635.” Praise-God Barebone, the leather-seller in Fetter Lane, belonged to this family.

    Baron, Peter : Professor in the University of Cambridge about 1575. He was originally from Etampes, and fled to England after the massacre of Saint Bartholomew. He died in London, leaving behind him an only son, Samuel, who practised medicine at Lyme-Regis in Norfolk.

    Barry : a Protestant family of Pont-Gibau, near Rochelle, several members of which settled in Ireland. Peter Barre married Miss Raboteau, also a refugee. He was an alderman of Dublin, and carried on a large business as a linendraper. His son Isaac, educated at Trinity College, Dublin, entered the army, in which he rose to high rank. He was adjutant-general of the British forces under Wolfe at Quebec. He afterwards entered Parliament, where he distinguished himself by his eloquence and his opposition to the American Stamp Act. In 1776 Colonel Barre was made Vice-Treasurer of Ireland and Privy Councillor. He subsequently held the offices of Treasurer of the Navy and Paymaster of the Forces, in both of which he displayed eminent integrity and ability. He died in 1802. See also pp. 173, 331.

    Basnage : Few families in France have produced so many persons of literary distinction and moral worth, as the Basnages. Nicholas Basnage was driven by the persecutions which followed the massacre of St. Bartholomew, to take refuge in England, where he for some time officiated as pastor of the French Walloon Church at Norwich. He afterwards returned to France. His son Benjamin succeeded his father as minister of Charenton, and was head of the Protestant assembly held at Rochelle, in 1622. He was sent over to England on a mission, to solicit aid from James I. for the Protestants. He was the author of several able works, and during his lifetime was regarded as one of the chief luminaries of the Protestant Church. Antoine, son of Benjamin, was minister of Bayeux, and was long imprisoned because of his faith, in the prison of Havre de Grace. After the Revocation, he escaped to Zutphen, in Holland, where he was minister of a French congregation, and died in 1681. Samuel Basnage, son of Antoine, was a minister, like his father, and, like him, escaped, to Zutphen, succeeding him in his charge. He was the author of numerous works, greatly prized in their time. Henri Basnage was one of the most able and eloquent advocates in the Parliament of Rouen. His learning was great, and his integrity unsullied. But his eldest son, Jacques Basnage, was the most eminent member of the family. He was a man of immense learning. At the early age of 23, he was appointed minister of the great Protestant church at Grand Queville, near Rouen, capable of accommodating 10,500 persons. When that church was demolished, and the persecution waxed very hot, he took refuge at the Hague. While there he was often employed in delicate state affairs, which he skilfully conducted; and Voltaire said of him, that he was better fitted to be a minister of state than of a parish. He published eleven learned historical works in his lifetime, some of which passed through many editions. His younger brother, Henri, was also an esteemed author. Like Jacques, he took refuge in Holland, and died there.

    Batz : the name of a Huguenot family, the head of which was seigneur of Monan, near Nerac, in Guyenne. Three of the sons of Joseph de Batz, seigneur of Guay, escaped from France into Holland, and entered the service of the Prince of Orange, whom they accompanied in his expedition to England. Two of them, captains of infantry, were killed at the Boyne.

    Baudouin : This family is descended from Jacques Baudouin, whose tombstone, in Mount Nod burying-ground at Wandsworth, relates all that we know of him: “James Baudouin, Esq., born at Nismes, in France; but in the year 1685, fled from France to avoid Tyranny and Persecution, and enjoyed a Protestant Liberty of Conscience, which he sought, and happily found, and was gratefully sensible of, in the Communion of the Church of England. He constantly answered this pious Resolution in his life, and went to enjoy the blessed Fruits of it, by his death on the 2nd day of Feb., 1738-9, aged 91.”

    Bayley, Sir John , Bart.: the late distinguished Judge of the Court of Queen’s Bench, (1808-30), afterwards a Baron of the Court of Exchequer and Privy Councillor, was fourth in descent from Philippe de Bailleul, a French Protestant refugee, who settled in the neigh-bourhood of Thorney Abbey about the year 1656. It is believed that the family originally came from the neighbourhood of Lille, where there are still many of the same name; and that they joined the Walloon colony, which in the first place settled at Sandtort in Yorkshire, but migrated from thence to Thorney Abbey during the wars of the Commonwealth. The above Philippe de Bailleul, or his son Daniel, purchased a small estate at Willow Hall, near Peterborough, which still belongs to the family. These two married daughters of Protestant refugees; but Daniel’s son, Isaac Bayley, married Orme Bigland, a member of the ancient family of Bigland of Bigland; and their second son, John Bayley, married Sarah Kennet, granddaughter and heir of White Kennet, Bishop of Peterborough, by whom he became father of Sir John Bayley, and grandfather of the late Judge Bayley, of the Westminster County Court. The original name of De Bailleul has undergone many transmutations,— passing through Balieu, Balieul, Bayly, Bailly, and ultimately arriving at Bayley.

    Beaufort, Daniel Augustus De : a controversial writer. Be was pastor of the church of New Patente in 1728; of the Artillery in 1728; and of the Savoy, and probably Spring Gardens, in 1741. He afterwards went to Ireland, where he held the living of Navan, and was appointed Dean of Tuam. Admiral Sir Francis Beaufort, Hydrographer Royal, belonged to the family, as also does Lady Strangford and the rector of Lymm, Cheshire.

    Beauvoir, De : the name of one of the most ancient families in Languedoc, several branches of which were Protestant. Francis, eldest son of Scipio du Roure, took refuge in England at the Revocation, and obtained a company in a cavalry regiment. His two sons also followed the career of arms with distinction. Alexander, the eldest, was colonel of the 4th Foot, Governor of Plymouth, Lieutenant-General, Commander-in-Chief in Scotland, etc. He especially distinguished himself at the battle of Dettingen. He went into France for the benefit of his health, and died at Bareges, where he had gone for the benefit of the waters. The French Government having refused his body Christian burial, in consequence of his being the son of a Protestant refugee, the body was embalmed and sent to England to be buried. The second son, Scipio, was also the colonel of an English Infantry regiment, and was killed at the battle of Fontenoy.—Another family of the same name is sprung from Richard de Beauvoir, Esq., of the island of Guernsey, who purchased the manor of Balmes, in the parish of Hackney, and thus gave its name to De Beauvoir Town.

    Belcastel De Montvaillant, Pierre : a refugee officer from Languedoc, who entered the service of William of Orange. After the death of La Caillemotte at the Boyne, he was made colonel of the regiment. Belcastel took a prominent part in the Irish campaigns of 1690-91. He was eventually raised to the rank of major-general in the Dutch army. He was killed at the battle of Villa Viciosa, Spain, in 1710.

    Benezet, Antoine : one of the earliest and most zealous advocates of negro emancipation. He was born in London in 1713, of an honest refugee couple from Saint-Quentin, and bred to the trade of a cooper. He accompanied his parents to America, and settled at Philadelphia. There he became a Quaker, and devoted himself with great zeal to the question of emancipation of the blacks,—for whose children he established and supported schools in Philadelphia. He died there in 1784.

    Benoit,N.: a refugee silk-weaver settled in Spiralfields. He was the author of several controversial works, more particularly relating to baptism; Benoit being of the Baptist persuasion.

    Beranger : a branch of the Huguenot family of this name settled in Ireland and another in Holland, but both dwindled in numbers until, in 1750, they became reduced to two—one the only surviving son of the Dutch refugee, and the other the only surviving daughter of the Irish refugee. The Dutchman, Gabriel Beranger, came over to Dublin aud married his Irish cousin. She died without issue, and the widower next married a Mademoiselle Mestayer, also of French descent.—Beranger was a very clever, observant man. He was employed by an antiquarian society in Dublin, under Burton, Conyngham, and Vallancy, to travel through Ireland in company with the celebrated Italian architect, Signor Bigari, and describe and draw the various antiquities of Ireland. A considerable collection of his drawings and MSS. recently came into the possession of the late Sir W. R. Wilde, who contributed an illustrative memoir of Beranger to the Kilkenny Journal of Archaeology. He died in St. Stephen’s Green, Dublin, in 1817, and was interred in the French burying-ground there.

    Bertheau, Rev. Charles : refugee pastor in London: a native of Montpellier. He was expelled from Paris, where he was one of the ministers of the great Protestant church of Charenton, at the Revocation. He became minister of the Walloon church in Threadneedle Street, which office he filled for forty-four years. Several volumes of his sermons have been published.

    Berniere, Jean Antoine DE: a refugee officer who served under the Earl of Galway in Spain. He lost a hand at the battle of Almanza. His son was captain in the 30th Foot; his grandson (Henry Abraham Crommelin de Berniere), was a major-general in the British army; and his great-grandson, married to the sister of the late Archbishop of Canterbury, rose to the same rank.

    Bion, Jean Francois : a native of Dijon, Roman Catholic curate of Ursy, afterwards appointed chaplain to the galley Superbe at Toulon, which contained a large number of galley-slaves condemned for their faith. Touched by their sufferings, as well as by the patience and courage with which they bore them, Bion embraced Protestantism, exclaiming, “Their blood preaches to me!” He left France for Geneva in 1704, and afterwards took refuge in London, where he was appointed rector of a school, and officiated as minister to the French church at Chelsea. He subsequently proceeded to Holland, where he exercised the functions of chaplain to an English church. He was the author of several works,—the best known being his Relation des Tourmens que l’ on fait souffrir aux Protestans qui sont sur les Galeres de France, published at London in 1708.

    Blanc, Anthony : pastor of the French church of La Nouvelle Patente in 1692. Theodore and Jean Blanc were two other French refugee pastors in London about the same time, the latter being pastor of L’Artillerie. The Blancs were from Saintonge and Poitou.

    Blaquiere, De: a noble family of Limousin, of whom John de Blaquiere, a zealous Huguenot, took refuge in England in 1685. He married Mary Elizabeth de Varennes, the daughter of a refugee, by whom he had issue. One of his sons became eminent as a London merchant; another settled at Lisburn, where his sister married John Crommelin, son of Louis. The fifth son, John, entered the army, and became lieutenant-colonel of the 17th Light Dragoons. He held various public offices: was Secretary of Legation at Paris; secretary to the Lord-Lieutenant of ireland; was made a baronet in 1784; and raised to the peerage in 1800 as Lord de Blaquiere of Ardkill in Ireland.

    Blondel, Moses : a learned refugee scholar in London about 1621, author of a work on the Apocryphal writings.

    Blondel, James Augustus : a distinguished refugee physician in London, as well as an able scholar. The author of several learned and scientific treatises. He died in 1734.

    Blosset : a Nivernais Protestant family, the head of which was the Sieur de Fleury. Several Blossets fled into Holland and England at the Revocation. Colonel Blosset, of “Blosset’s Foot,” who settled in Ireland, was the owner of a good estate in the county of Dublin. Serjeant Blosset, afterwards Lord Chief-Justice of Bengal, belonged to the family. For his connection with Mr. Grote, see p. 322.

    Boohart, Francois : Haag says that amongst the Protestant refugees in Scotland, Francis Bochart has been mentioned, who, in conjunction with Claude Paulin, established in 1730 the manufacture of cambric at Edinburgh.

    Bodt or Bott, John De : a refugee French officer: appointed captain of artillery and engineers in the British service in 1690. He distinguished himself by the operations conducted by him at the siege of Namur—to which William III. mainly attributed the capture of the place. Bodt afterwards entered the service of the King of Prussia, who made him brigadier and chief engineer. He was also eminent as an architect, and designed some of the principal public buildings in Berlin.

    Boesmer De La Touche : pastor of the French congregation at Winchelsea in 1700-6. His son, of the same name, was a surgeon in London in 1764.

    Boevey, Andrew : a Protestant refugee from Courtray, in Flanders He fled into England during the persecutions carried on in the reign of Philip II., and settled in London in 1572. He was a successful merchant; and at his death, he left legacies to the Dutch congregations in London, Norwich, and Haarlem. His successors became landed proprietors and intermarried with the aristocracy; Sir Thomas Hyde Crawley Boevey, Bart., Flaxley Abbey, being the present head of the family.

    Boileau De Castelnau : an ancient Languedoc family, many of whose members embraced Protestantism and remained faithful to it. Jacques Boileau, fifth Baron, counsellor of Nismes, born 1657, died in prison in France, after a confinement of ten years and six months, for his adherence to the Protestant religion. His son Charles took refuge in England, served in the English army as captain of infantry, and died at Dublin. His son Simeon, born at Southampton, was succeeded by Solomon Boileau, who had sons, from the eldest of whom, Simeon Peter, the present Major- General Boileau is descended; Sir John Boileau, Bart., being descended from John Peter, the fifth son. See also p. 329.

    Boileau : see Bouherau.

    Boisbelau De La Chapelle , usually known as Armand de la Chapelle. He left France at the Revocation. He was destined for the ministry from an early age. At eighteen he was sent into Ireland to preach to the French congregations, and after two years, at the age of twenty, he was appointed pastor of the French church at Wandsworth. He subsequently officiated as minister of the Artillery church, and of the French church at the Hague. He was a voluminous writer.

    Bonhomme : a Protestant draper from Paris, who settled at Ipswich, and instructed the artizans there in the manufacture of sail-cloth, which shortly became a considerable branch of British industry.

    Bonnell, Thomas : a gentleman of good family near Ypres, in Flanders, who took refuge in England from the Duke of Alva’s persecutions, and settled at Norwich, of which he became mayor. His son was Daniel Bonnell, merchant, of London, father of Samuel Bonnell, who served his apprenticeship with Sir William Courteen (a Flemish refugee), and established himself as a merchant at Leghorn. He returned to England, and at the Restoration was appointed accountant-general for Ireland. He died at Dublin, and was succeeded in the office by his son, a man eminent for his piety, and whose life has been fully written by Archdeacon Hamilton, of Armagh.

    Bosanquet, David : a Huguenot refugee, naturalised in England in 1687. His grandson, Samuel, was a director of the Bank of England. Mary, the sister of the latter, was the celebrated wife of the Rev. Mr. Fletcher, vicar of Madeley, Other members occupied illustrious positions in society. One, William, founded the well-known bank in London. Sir John B.

    Bosanquet, the celebrated judge, also belonged to the family, which is now represented by Samuel Richard Bosanquet, of Dingestow Court, Monmouth.

    Bosquet, Andrew : a refugee from Languedoc, who escaped into England after suffering fourteen years’ slavery in the French King’s galleys. He was the originator of the Westminster French Charity School, founded in 1747, for the education of children of poor French refugees.

    Bostaquet, Dumont De : for notice see pp. 202-28.

    Boufard , see Garric.

    Bouherau, Elias, M.D., D.D.: son of one of the Protestant pastors of La Rochelle, from which port he escaped at the Revocation, carrying with him the records of the Consistory, of which his father was president. Hesettledin Dublin, where he was appointed librarian to the Marsh Library (now known as St. Patrick’s Library), and deposited the abovementioned papers in a strong box. He afterwards officiated as secretary to the Earl of Galway. When the Earl left Ireland, Dr. Bouherau became pastor of one of the French congregations in Dublin; but, having been officially ordained, he afterwards officiated as chantor of St. Patrick’s Cathedral One of his sons, John, entered the church; another was “Townmajor of Dublin.” The latter altered his name to Borough; and from him the present Sir E. R. Borough, of Baseldon Park, Berkshire,is lineally descended. Within the last few years the original box, containing the records of the church of La Rochelle previous to the Revocation, brought over by Dr. Bouherau in 1685, was opened, and a paper found in it in the doctor’s handwriting, directing that, in the event of the Protestant Consistory at La Rochelle ever becoming reconstituted and reclaiming the papers, they were to be given up. A communication was accordingly forwarded to the Consistory of La Rochelle, offering to restore the papers; and they were duly forwarded to Pastor Delmas, the president, who has since published, with their assistance, a history of the Protestant church of La Rochelle.

    Bourdillon, Jacob : an able an eloquent pastor of several French churches in London. For notice, see pp. 285-7.

    Bourgeois, Burgess : an ancient Protestant family of Picardy (seigneurs of Gainache and d’Oye, and of de la Fosse), a member of which, Valery or Valerien de Bourgeois, came over to England with one of the first bodies of immigrants, and settled with the earliest congregation at Canterbury. Births, deaths, and marriages of members of the family appear in the registers of the Huguenot church there, from the year 1592 downwards. In that year Rolin Bourgeois “de Gainache en Picardie,” son of the original refugee, married Marie Gambler; and successive intermarriages took place with members of the De Moncy, Le Cornue, La Motte, and Fournier families, down to the middle of last century, when the Huguenot identity became almost uurecognisable, and Bourgeois was changed to Burgess. The tradition, however, continued to exist in the family, that they were of Huguenot extraction; and since the publication of the first edition of this book, Lieutenant Burgess, late of the 46th Regiment, has, with the assistance of the Heralds’ College of France and the Canterbury Registers, clearly traced the pedigree of his family back to the seigneurs of Gainache.

    Bouveries, Laurence DES: refugee from Sainghen, near Lille, in 1568. He settled first at Sandwich, and afterwards at Canterbury, where he began; he business of a silk weaver. Edward, the grandson of Laurence, established himself in London as a Levant merchant; and from that time the family greatly prospered. William was made a baronet in 1711; and Jacob was created a peer, under the title of Viscount Folkestone, in 1747. His son Philip assumed the name of Pusey on his marriage in 1798. The Rev. Dr. Pusey, of Oxford, is one of the sons by this marriage. For further notice see p. 320.

    Boyer, Abel : a refugee from Castres, where he was born in 1664. He died, pen in hand, at Chelsea, in 1729. He was the author of the well-known French and English Dictionary, as well as of several historical works.

    Brevin, Cosme : a Huguenot pastor, who took refuge in Guernsey, after the St. Bartholomew massacre. He was made minister of the island of Sark. His grandson, Daniel Brevin, D.D., was prebendary of Durham and Dean of Lincoln; and the author of several important religious works.

    Briot, Nicolas : one of the first coin-engravers of his age, supposed to have been the inventor of the coining-press. He was a native of Lorraine, a gentleman born, and possessed of the genius of a true artist. He was Graver of the Mint to Louis XIII., king of France; but being a Protestant, and thereby placed under serious disabilities, he fled from his native country and took refuge in England, where he introduced his coining-press, and was appointed chief engraver to the Mint by Charles I. in the year 1626. His first published work was a fine medal of the King, exhibited in Evelyn, with the artist’s name and the date 1628. In 1632 we find Briot engaged coining money upon the regular establishment, by means of his press, instead of by hammering, as was the previous practice. In 1633, he was sent down to Scotland to prepare and coin the coronation pieces of Charles I. On the death of Sir John Foulis, Master of the Mint in Scotland, Briot was appointed to the office in 1635, and superintended the coinage for several years. Sir John Falconer, brother of Sir Alexander Falconer, one of the Senators of the College of Justice (created Lord Halkerton in 1647), having married Esther Briot, daughter of Nicolas Briot, in 1637, was from that year conjoined with him in the office, which he held until the outbreak of the civil war. The coronation-medal of Charles I., executed by Briot, and struck at Edinburgh on the 18th June, 1633, was the first piece struck in Britain with a legend on the edge, and, it is supposed, was the only gold one ever coined in Scotland. Three only of these fine medals are known to exist, one of which is in the British Museum. Briot was recalled to England by the King; and, at the time of the rebellion, he took possession of the punches, roller instruments, and coining apparatus at the Tower, by order of his Majesty, and had them removed, trussed up in saddles, at the hazard of his life, for the purpose of continuing the coining operations in the cause of the King. The tradition in the family—which survives in the Falconers, his descendants—is, that he died of grief on the death of Charles I. In the Museum at Oxford are two small carvings on wood— representing Christ on the Cross, and the Nativity—with the cypher N.B. on each, which are understood to have been the work of this accomplished artist.

    Brissac, B. DE: a refugee pastor from Chatellerault, who fled from France at the Revocation. We find one of his descendants, Captain George Brissac, a director of the French Hospital in London in 1773. Haag says that one of the female Brissacs became famous at Berlin for her sausages, and especially for her black puddings, which continue to be known there as “boudins francais.”

    Brocas : a noble family, holding numerous lordships in the south of France, mostly in the neighbourhood of Bordeaux. The Very Reverend Theophihs Brocas, D.D., was a scion of the family. He escaped from France at the Revocation, and, having taken holy orders, he was appointed by the Crown to the deanery of Killala and vicarage of St. Anne’s, Dublin. He was a highly distinguished divine, and for his valuable services in promoting the arts and manufactures of Ireland, he was presented with the freedom of the city of Dublin in a gold box, accompanied by a suitable address. He died in 1766, and was interred in St. Anne’s churchyard, Dublin. He was succeeded in the deanery by his only son and heir, the Rev. John Brocas, D.D., rector of Monkstown, and chaplain of the military chapel at Rings-end. He died in 1806, and left issue, the Rev. Theophilus Brocas, rector of Strabane, in the diocese of Derry, and an only sister, Georgiana, who married, in 1804, Robert Lindesay, Esq., captain of the Louth Militia. The Rev. Theophilus Brocas dying without issue, this noble family has become extinct in the male line, but survives, through the female line, in the person of Walter Lindesay, Esq., of Glenview, County Wicklow, J.P., who is its present representative.

    Bros : see De Brosses.

    Brunet : a numerous Protestant family in Saintonge. N. Brunet, a privateer of La Rochelle, was in 1662 condemned to suffer corporal punishment, and to pay a fine of 1000 livres, unless within a given time he produced before the magistrates thirty-six young Protestants whom he had carried over to America. Of course the refugee youths were never produced. At the Revocation the Brunets of Rochelle nearly all emigrated to London. We find frequent baptisms of children of the name recorded in the registers of the churches of Le Quarre and La Nouvelle Patente, as well as marriages at the same place, and at Wheeler Street Chapel and La Patente in Soho.

    Bucer, Martin : a refugee from Alsace; one of the early reformers, an eloquent preacher as well as a vigorous and learned writer. He accepted the invitation of Archbishop Cranmer to settle in England, where he assisted in revising the English liturgy, excluding what savoured of popery, but not going so far as Calvin. He was appointed professor of theology at Cambridge, where he was presented with a doctor’s diploma. But the climate of England not agreeing with him, Bucer returned to Strasburg, where he died, 1551.

    Buchlein , otherwise called Fagius : a contemporary of Martin Bucer, and, like him, a refugee at Cambridge University, where he held the professorship of Hebrew. While in that office, which he held for only a few years, he fell ill of fever, of which he died, but not without a suspicion of having been poisoned.

    Burgess ; see Bourgeois.

    Bussiere,Paul : a celebrated anatomist, F.R.S., and corresponding member of various scientific societies. He lived for a time in London, but eventually settled at Copenhagen, where he achieved a high reputation. We find one Paul Buissiere governor of the French Hospital in London in 1729, and Jean Buissiere in 1776.

    Caillemotte, La : younger son of the old Marquis de Ruvigny; he commanded a Huguenot regiment at the battle of the Boyne, where he was killed. See Massue, and notices, pp. 222, 225.

    Cambon : a refugee French officer, who commanded one of the Huguenot regiments raised in London in 1689. He fought at the Boyne and at Athlone, and died in 1693.

    Cappel, Louis : characterized as “the father of sacred criticism.” He was born at Saint Eljer in 1585; at twenty he was selected by the Duke de Bouillon as tutor for his son. Four years later the church at Bordeaux furnished him with the means of visiting the principal academies of England, Holland, and Germany. He passed two years at Oxford, during which he principally occupied himself with the study of the Semitic languages. He subsequently occupied the chair of theology in the university of Saumur until his death, which occurred in 1658. Bishop Hall designated Louis Cappel “the grand oracle of the Hebraists.” Louis’ son James was appointed professor of Hebrew in the same university at the early age of nineteen. At the Revocation he took refuge in England, and became professor of Latin in the Nonconformist College, Hoxton Square, London. For notice see p. 257.

    Carbonel, John : son of Thomas Carbonel, merchant of Caen; John was one of the secretaries of Louis XIV. He fled to England at the Revocation. His brother William became an eminent merchant in London.

    Carle, Peter : a native of Valleraugue in the Cevennes, born 1666; died in London 1730. He fled from France at the Revocation, passing by Geneva through Switzerland into Holland, and finally into England. He entered the corps of engineers in the army of William, and fought at the Boyne. He afterwards accompanied the army through all its campaigns in the Low Countries. He rose to be fourth engineer in the British service, and retired upon a pension in 1693. He afterwards served under Lord Galway in Spain, after which the king of Portugal made him lieutenant-general and engineer-in-chief. In 1720 he returned to England, and devoted the rest of his life to the improvement of agriculture, on which subject he wrote and published many useful works.

    Carre : a Protestant family of Poitou, of which several members emigrated to England and others to North America. A. M. Carre officiated as reader in the French church at Hammersmith; and another of the same name was minister of La Patente, London. We also find one Francis Carre a member of the consistory of New York in 1772.

    Cartaud, or Cartault, Matthew : a Protestant minister who fled from France at the time of the Bartholomew massacre, and officiated as pastor of the little church of fugitives at Rye, afterwards returning to Dieppe; and again (on the revival of the persecution) finally settling and dying in England. One of his sons was minister of La Nouvelle Patente, London, in 1696.

    Casaubon Isaac : son of a French refugee from Bourdeaux settled at Geneva, where he was born in 1559. His father returned to Paris on the temporary cessation of the persecution, became minister of a congregation at Crest, and proceeded with the education of his son Isaac, who gave signs of extraordinary abilities. At nine years of age he spoke Latin with fluency. At the massacre of Saint Bartholomew the family fled into concealment; and it was while hiding in a cavern that Isaac received from his father his first lesson in Greek. At nineteen he was sent to the academy of Geneva, where he studied jurisprudence under Pacius, theology under De Beza, and Oriental languages under Chevalier; but no branch of learning attracted him more than Greek, and he was, at the age of twenty-four, appointed professor of that language at Geneva. His large family induced him to return to France, and accept the professorship of civil laws in the university of Montpellier; and there he settled for a time. On the revival of persecution in France after the assassination of Henry IV., Casaubon emigrated to England. He was well received by James I., who gave him a pension, and appointed him prebendary of Westminster. He died at London in 1614, leaving behind him twenty sons and daughters, and a large number of works written during his lifetime, chiefly on classical and religious subjects. His son Florence Stephen Casaubon, D.D., having accompanied his father into England, was entered a student at Christ Church, Oxford, in 1614, where he greatly distinguished himself. In he took the degree of M.A. He was appointed rector of Ickham, and afterwards prebendary of Canterbury. He was the author of many learned works. He died at Canterbury in 1671.

    Caux, De : many refugees of this name fled from Normandy into England. Several of them came over from Dieppe and settled in Norwich, their names frequently occurring in the registers of the French church there, in conjunction with those of Martineau, Columbine, Le Monnier, De la Haye, etc. Solomon de Caus, the engineer, whose name is connected with the first invention of the steam-engine, spent several years as a refugee in England; after which he proceeded to Germany in 1613, and ultimately died in France, whither he returned in his old age. For notice, see p. 243.

    Cavalier, John : the Cevennol leader, afterwards brigadier-general in the British army, and lieutenant-governor of Jersey. For notice, see p. 234.

    Cazenove : The family of De Cazenove de Pradines, at Marmande, in Guienne, were well-known Huguenots at the time of the Revocation. Several members of the family took refuge in England. One of its present representatives, Philip Cazenove, is well knows as a large-hearted benefactor in every good undertaking.

    Chabot, James : The head of this family in England, was sent over from France, when about seven years of age, concealed in a hamper or basket. This was during the persecutions which followed the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes. It is supposed that his parents sent him over to England to prevent him being taken from them and brought up as a Roman Catholic. They doubtless intended to follow him, but were unable to make their escape. Nothing is known of them, excepting that they were nobles, and possessed of large estates. For this reason, they may have been murdered. Or, the father may have been sent to the galleys, and the mother immured in a convent for life. But as regards the child who had escaped to England, he was brought up in the household of the Duke of Bolton. On the death of his patron, and after arriving at man’s estate, he married, and settled at High Wycombe, Bucks,—being described, in the registers of his two sons, as “of the Borough of Chepping Wycombe. ” His eldest son, James, carried on the business of a Calendarer and Tabby Waterer in Moorfields, London,—whose third son, Philip, the grandfather of Philip James, settled in Spitalfields as a silk dyer,—the firm continuing for three generations. Philip James Chabot, M.A., F.R.A.S., was for about twenty years Secretary of the Old Mathematical Society of Crispin Street (a society mainly supported by the descendants of French refugees), until its incorporation with the Royal Astronomical Society in 1845. He was then made, in common with the other remaining members, a fellow of the latter society. M. Chabot was for many years a director of the French Hospital. It was mainly owing to his exertions that the Conditioning of Silk, as practised in all continental cities, was established in London. His first cousin, James Chabot, Esq., of Manchester, eldest son of the late James Chabot, Esq., of Malta, is now the head of the family.

    Chaigneau, Louis, John , and Stephen : refugees from St. Sairenne, in the Charente, where the family held considerable landed estates. They settled in Dublin, and prospered. One of the sons of Louis sat for Gowran in the Irish Parliament; another held a benefice in the Church. John had two sons—Colonel William Chaigneau, and John, Treasurer of the Ordnance. The great-grandson of Stephen was called to the Irish bar in 1793. He eventually purchased the estate of Benown, in county Westmeath.

    Chamberlayn, Peter, M.D.: a physician of Paris, who fled into England at the massacre of St. Bartholomew. He was admitted a member of the College of Physicians, and obtained an extensive practice in London, where he died.

    Chamier : an eminent Protestant family, originally belonging to Avignon. Daniel Chamier, who was killed in 1621 in the defence of Mentauban, then besieged by Louis XIII., was one of the ablest theologians of his time, and a leading man of his party. He drew up for Henry IV. the celebrated Edict of Nantes. Several of his descendants settled in England. One was minister of the French church in Glass-House Street, London, and afterwards of the Artillery church. His eldest son, also called Daniel, emigrated to Maryland, US., where he settled in 1753. A younger son, Anthony, a director of the French Hospital, sat for Tam-worth in Parliament in 1772. See also Des Champs.

    Champagne, Robillard De a noble family in Saintonge. Several of the members took refuge in England and Ireland. The children of Josias de Robillard, chevalier of Champagne, under charge of their mother, escaped from La Rochelle concealed in empty wine casks, and arrived safe at Plymouth. Their father went into Holland and took service with the Prince of Orange. He afterwards died at Belfast, on his way to join his regiment in Ireland. Madame de Champagne settled at Portarlington with her family One of Champagne’s sons, Josias, was an ensign in La Melonniere’s regiment of French infantry, and fought at the Boyne. He afterwards became major of the 14th Foot. Several of his descendants have served with distinction in the army, the church, and the civil service; while the daughters of the family have intermarried with various titled families in England and Ireland.

    Champion : see Crespigny.

    Chardevenne : a Protestant family belonging to Casteljaloux. The first eminent person of the name was Antoine, doctor of medicine, who afterwards became a famous preacher and pastor, first at Caumont, and afterwards at Marennes. At the Revocation, the members of his family became dispersed. Some of them went to North America; in 1724 we find Pierre (son of the pastor above named) a member of the French church at New York; while others fled to England, and established themselves at Hungerford.

    Charlot, Charlotti : Three brothers of this name emigrated from Picardy, after the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes, and settled in Edinburgh, where they established the manufacture of cambric muslin. They built a factory and dwelling-house at the head of Leith Walk. The place on which it was built (for it has long since been pulled down) is now known as Picardy Place. Another brother of the same family was murdered in France because of his religion.

    Charlot, Charles , better known under the name of d’Argenteuil, was a Roman Catholic cure converted to Protestantism, who took refuge in England, and officiated as pastor in several of the London churches. In 1699 he was minister of the Tabernacle, with Pierre Rival and Caesar Pegorier for colleagues. He published several works through Ducheroin, the refugee publisher.

    Charpentier , of Ruffec, in Angoumois: a martyr to the brutality of the dragoons of Louis XIV. To force him to sign his abjuration, they made him drink from twenty-five to thirty glasses of water; but this means failing, they next dropped into his eyes the hot tallow of a lighted candle. He died in great torture, 1685. His son John took refuge in England, and was minister of the Malthouse Church, Canterbury, in 1710.

    Chastelet, Hippolyte : a monk of La Trappe, who left that monastery in 1672, and took refuge in England, where he acquired great fame as a Protestant preacher, under the name of Lusancy. He officiated for a time as pastor of the church of the Savoy, and was afterwards appointed to the charge of the French church at Harwich. Lusancy wrote and published a life of Marshal Schomberg, together with other works, principally poetry.

    Chatelain, Simon : a famous Protestant manufacturer of gold and silver lace in Paris. His lace procured for him the toleration of his religion. He was even allowed to be buried without disgrace, though eighty of his descendants paid fines for openly attending his funeral. After his death, his son Zach-arie was harassed with a view to his forced apostasy; but at length, in 1685, he fled to Holland in disguise. For this he was hanged in effigy, and his house at Villiers-Le-Bel was razed to the ground. His son, also named Zacharie, was thrown into the Bastile, in 1686, and on being set at liberty, removed to Holland, where he introduced the manufacture of gold and silver lace. His eldest son, Henry, studied for the ministry, and removed to England in 1709, when he was ordained by the Bishop of London. He was pastor of the Church of St. Martin Orgas (St. Martin’s Lane), for ten years, after which he returned to Holland. His sermons were published in six volumes.

    Chenevix : a distinguished Lorraine family, which became dispersed at the Revocation. The Beville branch of the family settled in Brandenburg, and the Eply branch in England. Two brothers belonging to the latter, Paul and Philip Chenevix, were both Protestants; the former—a gentleman illustrious for his learning and piety—was councillor of the king in the court of Metz; the latter was pastor of the church of Limay, near Nantes. It happened that in 1686, the year alter the Revocation, the eider brother fell dangerously ill, when the curate of the parish, forcing himself into his presence, importuned him to confess. The councillor replied that he declined to confess to any but God, who alone could forgive sin. The Archbishop next visited him, urging him to communicate before he died, at the same time informing him of the penalty (refusal of Christian burial) decreed by the King against such as died without receiving the sacrament. He refused, declaring that he would never communicate after the popish manner. At his death, shortly after, orders were given that his body should be removed by the executioner; and his corpse was accordingly seized, dragged away on a hurdle, and cast upon a dunghill. About four hundred of his friends proceeded thither by night to fetch the body away. They wrapped it in linen; four men bore it aloft on their shoulders, and they buried it in a garden. While the corpse was being let down into the grave, the mourning assembly sang the 79th psalm. The Rev. Philip Chenevix, brother of the above, fled into England at the Revocation, and the family afterwards settled in Ireland. The refugee’s son entered the King’s Guards, of which he became colonel; and his grandson rose to eminent dignity in the church—being made Bishop of Killaloe in 1745, and afterwards of Waterford and Lismore. The present Archbishop of Dublin, Richard Chenevix Trench, is his great-grandson by the mother’s side, being also descended, by the father’s side, from another Huguenot family, the Trenches or De la Tranches, of whom the Earl of Clancarry is the head. The first La Tranche emigrated from France and settled in England at the massacre of St. Bartholomew. Another member of the family, Richard,was a distinguished chemist, member of the Royal Society in 1801, and author of many able works on science, including an Essay on National Character.

    Cherois : see De la Cherois.

    Cheron, Louis : a painter and engraver who took refuge in England at the Revocation, and died in London in 1723.

    Chevalier, Antoine-Rodolphe : a zealous Huguenot, born at Montchamps in 1507. When a youth he was compelled to fly into England for life. He completed his studies at Oxford, and being recommended to the Duke of Somerset, he was selected by him to teach the Princess (afterwards Queen) Elizabeth the French language. Chevalier subsequently held the professorship of Hebrew at Cambridge, but resigned it in 1570 to return to France. He was again compelled to fly by the renewed persecutions at the time of the Bartholomew massacre, and died in exile at Guernsey in 1572. He was a voluminous writer on classical subjects. During his short residence abroad, he left his son Samuel at Geneva, for the purpose of being educated for the church, under Theodore de Beza. On the revival of the persecutions in France, Samuel took refuge in England, was appointed minister of the French church in London in 1591, and afterwards of the Walloon church at Canterbury in 1595. Mr. Chevalier Cobbold, M.P., belongs to this family.

    Claude, Jean-Jacques : a young man of remarkable talents, grandson of the celebrated French preacher at the Hague. He was appointed pastor of the Walloon church in Threadneedle Street in 1710, but died of small-pox a few years later, aged only twenty-eight.

    Coetlogen : a Breton family who emigrated to England at the Revocation. The village of Coelogon is some ten miles from Loudeac, and the chateau, where the family lived, is now in ruins. The estate passed into other hands. The son of the first emigrant—the Chevalier Dennis de Coetlogen,—published a Dictionary of the Arts and Sciences (London, 1745), and many other works. He was a physician, Knight of St. Lazare, etc. His son was Rector of Godstone, in Surrey, celebrated alike as an author and a preacher. The present representative of the family is the Rev. Charles de Coetlogon, British Chaplain at Aix-la-Chapelle.

    Colignon, Abraham De : minister of Mens. At the Revocation he and several of his sons took refuge in Hesse, while Paul became minister of the Dutch church in Austin Friars, London. His son Charles was professor of anatomy and medicine at Cambridge, and was known as the author of several able works on these subjects.

    Collot De Liescury : a refugee officer from Noyon, who escaped from France through Switzerland into Holland at the Revocation, and joined the army of William of Orange. He was major in Schomberg’s regiment at the Boyne. His eldest son David was a captain of dragoons; another, Simeon, was colonel of an English regiment; both of their sons were captains of foot. Their descendants still survive in Ireland.

    Colomes, Jerome : the great pastor and preacher of Rochelle, belonged to a Bearnese family. His grandson, Paul, the celebrated author, came over to England in 1681, and was first appointed reader in the French church of the Savoy. Sancroft, Archbishop of Canterbury, afterwards made him his librarian. Paul Colomies was the author of numerous learned works, the titles of nineteen of which are given by Haag in La France Protestante. He died in London, 1692.

    Conant, John : son of a Protestant refugee, probably from Normandy, who settled in Devonshire. John was born at Yeatenton in 1608. He studied at Oxford, and in 1633 obtained a fellowship of Exeter College, which he resigned in 1647 because of declining to sign the Covenant. Two years later, he accepted the rectorship of the same college; and though he declined pledging his fidelity to the Commonwealth, Cromwell confirmed the appointment. In 1654 he was elected professor of theology, and in 1657 vice-chancellor of the University. He was one of the Commissioners for the Review of the Liturgy in 1661. In 1676 he was appointed Archdeacon of Norwich, and in 1681 prebendary of Worcester. He died in 1693. Sir Nathaniel, Conant, who was chief magistrate of London early in the present century, was Dr. Conant’s great-grandson. Sir Nathaniel’s grandson, Edward Conant, Esq., of Lyndon, Rutlandshire, is the present representative of the family. There is a good memoir of Dr. Conant in Aikin’s Biography.

    Condamine : see La Condamine.

    Constant : a Protestant family of Artois. At the Revocation, several of them fled into Switzerland, and others into Holland, where they took service under the Prince of Orange. Samuel, known as Baron de Constant, served as adjutant-general under Lord Albemarle in 1704; and afterwards fought under Marlborough in all the great battles of the period. His son David-Louis, an officer in the same service, was wounded at Fontenoy. Benjamin Constant, the celebrated French author, belonged to this family.

    CONTE: see Morell.

    Corcellis, Nicholas : son of Zeager Corcellis of Ruselier, in Flanders, who took refuge in England from the persecutions of the Duke of Alva. Nicholas became a prosperous London merchant. James was a physician in London, 1664.

    Cornaud De La Croze : a learned refugee, author of The Works of the Learned, The History of Learning, and numerous other works.

    Cosne, Pierre De : a refugee gentleman from La Beauce, Orleans, who settled at Southampton. His son Ruvigny de Cosne entered the Coldstream Guards, and rose to be lieutenant-colonel in the British army. He was afterwards secretary to the French embassy, and ambassador at the Spanish court.

    Cosne-Chaverney, De : another branch of the same family. Captain de Cosne-Chaverney came over with the Prince of Orange in command of a company of gentlemen volunteers. He was lieutenant-colonel of Belcastel’s regiment at the taking of Athlone in 1691.

    Cosse ; an old French family of Brissac, who settled in England at the Revocation. A granddaughter of the refugee married Captain Dickinson, R.N., whose son was the great paper manufacturer. The writer of an obituary notice of the late Mr. John Dickinson, in the Times, says: “It is probable that, as has been the case in many other instances, it was by this infusion of French blood that much of the inventive faculty to which Mr. Dickinson owed his subsequent success was due. He was associated in his patent with Henry Fourdrinir, the grandson of another French refugee.”

    Cottereau, N.; a celebrated Protestant horticulturist, who fled into England at the Revocation, and was appointed one of the gardeners of William III. Havinggone into France to look after a manufactory of pipes which he had established at Rouen, he was detected encouraging the Protestants there to stand fast in the faith. He had also the imprudence to write something about Madame de Maintenon in a letter, which was construed into a libel. He was thereupon seized and thrown into the Bastile, where he lay for many years, during several of which he was insane. The converters offered him liberty if he would abjure his religion. At last he abjured; but he was not released. “It was deemed just, as well as necessary, that Cottereau should remain in the Bastile and be forgotten there.” He accordingly remained there a prisoner for eighteen years, until he died.

    Coulan, Anthony : a refugee pastor from the Cevennes. He was for some time minister of the Glass-house Street French church in London. He died in 1694.

    Cour : see De la Cour.

    Courayer : see Le Courrayer.

    Courtauld : a family from the neighbourhood of Saintonge. The first settler in England was Augustin, who came over at Revocation. Shortly after his arrival, he married Anne Bardine, daughter of another French refugee, and began the trade of a gold and silver smith in Cornhill. His son Samuel (who married Miss Ogler, also of Huguenot descent) carried on the same business; and his son, the grandson of Augustin, having been bred to the silk trade, was the founder of the modern manufacturing house of Courtauld. He was the first to introduce silk throwing into the county of Essex. He built throwing-mills at Pebmarsh and Braintree, the latter of which is now one of the largest establishments in England for the manufacture of silk crape. The present head of the Courtauld firm— Samuel Courtauld, Esq., of Gosfield Hall, Essex—is widely known as the staunch friend of civil and religious liberty.

    Courteen, William : the son of a tailor at Menin in Flanders, who took refuge in England from the persecutions of the Duke of Alva. He established himself in business, with his son Peter Bondeau, in Abchurch Lane, and is said to have owed his prosperity to the manufacture of French hoods. His son became Sir William Courteen, a leading merchant of the city of London. His descendants married with the Bridgewater and other noble families.

    Cousin, Jean : a refugee pastor from Caen; he was one of the first ministers of the Walloon church in London, about the year 1562. He returned to France, but again fled back to England after the massacre of St. Bartholomew, and died in London. A correspondent at Melrose, in Scotland, bearing the same name, informs us that the tradition exists in his family, settled in Fife, that they were originally driven out of France by religious persecution-which is by no means improbable, as the name is peculiarly French. It is also believed that Cousin, the engraver, belonged to the same family.

    Cramahe : a noble family of La Rochelle. The three brothers, Cramahe, De L’Isle, and Des Roches, made arrangements to escape into England at the Revocation. The first two succeeded, and settled in this country. Des Roches was less fortunate; he was detected under the disguise in which he was about to fly; he was flogged, maltreated, stripped of all the money he had, put into chains, and cast into a dungeon. After being transferred from one prison to another, undergoing many cruelties, and being found an obstinate heretic, he was, after twenty-seven months’ imprisonment, banished the kingdom.

    Cramer : a refugee Protestant family of Strasburg, some of whom settled in Geneva, where Gabriel Cramer, a celebrated physician, became Dean of the College of Medicine in 1677. Jean-Louis Cramer held the rank of captain in the English army, and served with distinction in the Spanish campaign. When the French army occupied Geneva at the Revolution, Jean-Antoine, brother of the preceding, came over to England and settled. His second son, Jean-Antoine, was a professor at Oxford and Dean of Carlisle. He was the author of several geographical works. Another member of this family was Gabriel Cramer, of Geneva, the celebrated mathematician.

    Cregut : a refugee pastor from Montelimar, who officiated as minister of the French church in Wheeler Street, and afterwards in that of La Nouvelle Patente, London.

    Crespigny, Claude Champion De : a landed proprietor in Normandy, who fled from France into England with his family, at the Revocation. He was related by marriage to the Pierpoints, who hospitably received the fugitives. Two of his sons entered the army; Gabriel was an officer in the Guards, and Thomas captain in Hotham’s Dragoons. The grandson of the latter had two sons: Philip Champion de Crespigny, M.P. for Aidborough, 1803; and Sir Claude Champion de Crespigny, created Baronet in 1805.

    Crommelin , Louis: royal superintendent of the linen-manufacture in Ireland, to which office he was appointed by William III. For notice of him, see p. 296. A correspondent (A. V. Kirwan, Esq.), says: “I knew well a descendant of the Crommelins, Nicolas de la Cherois Crommelin, a gentleman of good landed estate. Like all the descendants of the Huguenots whom I have known, he bore a pensive, not to say melancholy, cast of countenance. The same sense of sadness may be observed in the expression of the Jews in Poland.”

    Croze : see Cornand de la Croze.

    Crusoe, John : a refugee from Hownescoat in Flanders, who settled in Norwich. His son Timothy became a prosperous merchant in London, and founded the present Norfolk family of the Crusos.

    Daillon, James De : a member of the illustrious family of Du Lude. He entered the English Church, and held a benefice in Buckinghamshire towards the end of the 17th century; but having declared in favour of James II., he was deposed from his office in 1693, and died in London in 1726. His brother Benjamin was also a refugee in England, and held the office of minister in the church of La Patente, which he contributed to found.

    D’albiac : this family is said to derive its name from Albi, the capital of the country of the Albigenses, which was destroyed in the religious crusade against that people in the thirteenth century. The D’Albiacs fled from thence to Nismes, where they suffered heavily for their religion, especially after the Revocation. Two youthful D’Albiacs were sent to England, having been smuggled out of the country in hampers. They both prospered and founded families. We find the names of their descendants occurring amongst the directors of the French Hospital. The late Lieutenant-General Sir J. C. Dalbiac, M.P., was lineally descended from one of the sons, and his only daughter became Duchess of Roxburghe by her marriage with the Duke in 1836.

    Dalechamp, Caleb : a refugee from Sedan, who entered the English Church, and became rector of Ferriby in Lincolnshire.

    Dampier : the navigator, is said to have belonged to an old Huguenot family settled in Somersetshire. There is a glover of the same name in Yeovil, who claims to be of like French descent.

    Dansays, Francis : a French refugee at Rye in Sussex. William was a jurat of that town; he died in 1787. The family is now represented by the Stonhams.

    D’altera : The ancestors of this family possessed large estates near Nismes, in Languedoc. They emigrated to England early in the sixteenth century, and afterwards took refuge in the county of Cork, Ireland. The only surviving member of the family is a Surgeon-Major in the British army.

    D’aranda : originally a Spanish family, supposed to have been driven out of Flanders by the persecutions of the Duke of Alva. In 1617, Elie D’Aranda was minister of the Walloon church at Southampton; in 1619, “moderateur de colloques” at Norwich. He was grandfather of Paul D’Aranda, Amsterdam, sometimes called “the merchant prince,” and, by the female line, to the Rev. William Coxe, archdeacon of Wilts and canon of Salisbury, author of the “Life of Sir R. Walpole,” “House of Austria,” etc. The male branch of the D’Aranda family is now extinct.

    Dargent Or Dargen : a refugee family from Sancerre, some of the members of which settled in England and Ireland at the Revocation. Two of them served as officers in William III.’s Guards. Two brothers were directors of the French Hospital—John in 1756, and James in 1762.— Dargan, the late railway contractor in Ireland, is supposed to have belonged to this family.

    D’ Argenteuil : see Charlot.

    David : a Protestant family of Rochelle, many members of which fled from France, some into England, and others to the United States of America. One, John David, was a director of the French Hospital in London in 1750.

    Daude, Peter : a member of one of the best families of Maruejols in the Gevaudan. He came to England in 1680, and became atutorin the Trevor family; afterwards he accepted a clerkship in the Exchequer, which he held for twenty-eight years. He was a very learned, but an exceedingly diffident and eccentric man. His nephew, also named Peter, was a minister of one of the French churches in London.

    De Brosses : One of the descendants of the distinguished refugee of this name officiated as secretary of the Bank of England under the name of Bros. His son is a barrister on the Oxford circuit.

    De Foe : Charles Philarete, in Notes and Queries, for March 7th, 1868, says: “The real patronymic of Daniel De Foe appears to have been De Foy, or De Foix, which belongs to an old Huguenot family of Provence. His progenitors were refugees who adopted the false orthography of De Foe in order to avoid having the name pronounced in the English fashion, which would have lent to the syllable oi a sound analogous to that of hoist, moist, etc.”

    De Jean, Louis : descended from a Fench refugee, was colonel of the 6th Dragoon Guards, and eventually lieutenant-general.

    De La Cherois, Samuel : scion of a noble Huguenot family of the Gatinais, whose two sons, Nicolas and Bourjouval, officers in the French army, being Protestants, left France at the Revocation, and took service under the Prince of Orange. They were afterwards joined by their elder brother Daniel, and their two sisters, Judith and Louisa, who had succeeded in escaping from France in disguise. The two first-named brothers entered the service of William III., and both distinguished themselves at the battle of the Boyne. The second was killed at the siege of Dungannon; but Nicolas served the King through all his wars, and afterwards under Marlborough, rising to the rank of lieutenant-colonel. Having married Marie Crommelin, a sister of Louis Crommelin, he left a family whose descendants still survive in the north of Ireland. The eldest of the three brothers, Daniel, held the office of governor of Pondicherry in the East Indies, to which he was nominated by King William; and in that capacity he realized a considerable fortune. His only daughter married for her second husband Count Montgomery, of Mount Alexander. Judith, one of the girls who had fled from France in disguise, lived to the age of 113, and died at Mount Alexander in the full possession of her faculties.

    De La Cour : an illustrious Huguenot family, many members of which filled places of high trust under the French kings, as indicated by the billets on their coat of arms. The first of the family that emigrated on account of religion, was a distinguished officer of the French army, who settled in the neighbourhood of Port-arlington, from whence his descendants afterward removed to the county of Cork. The motto of the branch of the family settled in Ireland, Au Ciel de la Cour, was adopted on their leaving France, intimating that they had left a high position at Court for the sake of the religion which they professed.

    De Laine, Peter : a French refugee, who fled into England before the Revocation, and obtained letters of denisation dated 1681. He was appointed French tutor to the children of the Duke of York, afterwards James II. We are informed by a correspondent, that J. T. Delane, editor of the Times, is collaterally descended from this refugee.

    De La Mothe : see Mothe.

    Delamotte, Joseph : born at Tournay, of Roman Catholic parents, about the middle of the sixteenth century, while the Low Countries were under the dominion of Spain. He was apprenticed to a silkman, who was a Protestant, and becoming informed as to the truth of the new views, he embraced Protestantism. When the persecution began under the Duke of Alva, young Delametre went to Geneva, studied for the ministry, was ordained, and returned to Tournay, where he privily officiated as minister to the flock there, at the same time working with his old master as a silkman. But his profession and calling having been discovered, he was forced to fly across the frontier into France. The following account is contained in a MS. in the possession of his family:—“An information having been given against him to the Inquisition, they sent their officers in the night to apprehend him; they knocked at the door and told his master (who answered them) that they wanted his man. He, judging who they were, called Joseph, and he immediately got on his clothes and made his escape over the garden wall, with his Bible, and travelled away directly into France, to St. Male. They, believing him to be gone the nearest way to the sea-coast, pursued toward Ostend, and missed him. From St. Male he got over to Guernsey (then in the possession of Queen Elizabeth), and from thence to Southampton, where, his money being all gone, he applied himself to the members of the French church there, making his condition known to them. Their minister being just dead, they desired that he would preach to them the next Sabbath day, which accordingly he did, and they chose him for their minister.” He married and had a large family, most of whose descendants also have had large families, so that the Southampton Delamottes now form a very numerous body. Some members of the family have been distinguished as mer chants and manufacturers, and others as clergymen.

    Delaune : a refugee family from Normandy, who took refuge in England as early as 1599, when a Delaune officiated as minister of the Walloon Church in London. Another, in 1618, held the office of minister of the Walloon church at Norwich. Thomas Delaune was a considerable writer on religious and controversial subjects.

    De Laval, Vicomte : possessor of large estates in Picardy, who, after heavy persecution, fled at the Revocation, and took refuge in Ireland, settling at Portarlington. His son was an officer in the British army; and descendants of the family are still to be met with in Ireland.

    De Lavalade : this family possessed large estates in Languedoc. Several members of them succeeded in escaping into Holland, and afterwards proceeded to Ireland, settling in Lisburn. M. De Lavalade was forty years pastor of the French church there.

    Delemar, Be La Mer, Delmer : a Protestant refugee family at Canterbury, whose names are of frequent occurrence in the register of that church. Their descendants are numerous, and enjoy good positions in society.

    Delme, Philip : minister of the Walloon congregation, Canterbury, whose son Peter settled in London as a merchant, and whose grandson, Sir Peter, ancestor of the present family of Delme Radcliffe, was Lord Mayor of London in 1723.

    Demoivre, Abraham, F.R.S.: notice, p. 231.

    Desaguliers, Dr .: notice p. 247.

    Des Champs John : a native of Bergerac, belonging to an ancient family established in Perigord. At the Revocation he took refuge, first in Geneva, and then in Prussia. Of his sons, one became minister of the church at Berlin; while another came over to England and became minister of the church of the Savoy, in which office he died in 1767. The son of the latter, John Ezekiel, entered the civil service of the East India Company, and became member of Council of the Presidency of Madras. He ultimately took the name of Chamier, having been left sole heir to Anthony Chamier, the descendant of another refugee. By his marriage with Georgiana Grace, daughter of Admiral Burnaby, he had a numerous family. One of his sons is Captain Frederick Chamier, the novelist and nautical annalist.

    Des Maisaux, Peter : a native of Auvergne, born 1666; the son of a Protestant minister, who took refuge in England. Little is known of Des Maisaux’s personal history, beyond that he was a member of the Royal Society, a friend of St. Evremond, and a voluminous author. He died in 1745.

    Des Ormeaux , also named Colin Des Ormeaux : of a Rochelle family. At the Revocation several members of it settled at Norwich. One Catherine Colin was married to Thomas le Chevalier in 1727. Gabriel Colin was minister of Thorpe-le-Soken from 1707 to 1714. A member of the family, Jacques Louis des Ormeaux, was elected a director of the French Hospital in 1798.

    De Regis : the head of this family emigrated to England at the Revocation. In his will, De Regis stated that he was “entitled by primogeniture to an abbey, and to paternal and maternal estates in Dauphiny.” His son, the Rev. Balthazar Regis, was educated at Trinity College, Dublin; was D.D. of Cambridge, 1721; Canon of Windsor, 1751; Chaplain to the King; Rector of Adisham, Kent; and died 1757.

    Desbols : a farmer of Autun, in Burgundy, born in 1646. He married Lazarin Paulet, by whom he had Lazarus, born 1670, Martin, and a daughter. At his death, in 1679, the property was taken in charge by his wife’s father, who induced his daughter to put the children into the Convent of St. Lazare, Autun, under protection of the abbess. Lazarus assisted as singing boy in the chapel, and in the work of the convent; but finding it irksome, he left for Paris, and became apprenticed to a joiner. While in this service, he became acquainted with some Protestants, and adopted their faith. The monks, observing that he no longer attended confession and mass, reproached him for his conduct. Finding it unsafe to remain in Paris, he set out for Amsterdam. He remained there for seven years, after which, in 1699, he passed over into England, and settled himself in Crompton Street, Soho, where he pursued the trade of a joiner and cabinet-maker. In 1701 he married Margaret Loizel, a Protestant refugee front St. Quentin, in Brittany, by whom he had a family, and his descendants still survive.

    De Schirac : a Huguenot family from Bergeral, in Guienne. The first refugee had the greatest difficulty in escaping from France, after the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes. He was compelled to comply with the outward ceremony of abjuring his faith. Then he arranged to send his family out of the country. The ship in which his wife embarked was burnt, and the report reached him that none on board had escaped but a few sailors. The two eldest daughters, who could not escape with their mother, were sent on board another vessel. One of them, when the ship was searched, was obliged to conceal herself in a coil of ropes. At length, after visiting numerous seaports, and finding that he was unable to escape by sea, De Schirac and his son managed to cross the Swiss frontier accompanied by a party of recruits. After remaining at Zurich for a few days, he and his son set out for England. M. De Schirac eventually became minister of the French church at Bristol. The late Professor Rigaud drew out an abstract of his history, which concludes with the following words: “He died in his pulpit at Bristol; he had a lap-dog with him at the time, which could not be driven from his corpse. His daughter married M. Triboudet Demainbray, himself a refugee from France in consequence of the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes,—and their granddaughter was my mother.”

    D’ espagne, Jean : a Huguenot pastor, who fled from Dauphiny, shortly after the assassination of Henry IV. He was one of the most able divines of the refugee churches in England. He died in 1659.

    D’ Espard: Philip D’ Espard escaped to England from the massacre of St. Bartholomew, abandoning his title and estate rather than abjure Protestantism. He was sent to Ireland on civil service by Queen Elizabeth. His grandson, William, was colonel of engineers in the army of William III., and in 1715 his eldest son represented the borough of Thomastown, and afterwards the County Kilkenny, in the Irish House of Commons. Many members of the family have served in the church and the army: two were generals, one governor of Newfoundland, three were High-Sheriffs of Queen’s County, and several were magistrates there and elsewhere. The name has been written “Dispard” without the apostrophe for about years. There are still numerous D’Espards in the south of France. Several of them reside on the banks of the Loire near Tours.

    Des Voeux, Vinchon : second son of De Bacquencourt, president of the parliament of Rouen. He took refuge in Dublin, where he became minister of the French church. In conjunction with the Rev. Peter Droz, he commenced, about 1742, the publication of the first literary journal which appeared in Ireland. He afterwards removed to Portarlington. The present head of the family is Sir C. Des Voeux, Bart.

    Devaynes, William, M. P.: descended from a Huguenot refugee. He was a director of the East India Company, a director of the French Hospital, and was elected for Barnstaple in 1774.

    De Veille Hans : a refugee who entered the English Church, and was made library keeper at Lambeth by Archbishop Tillotson. His son Thomas entered the English army as a private, and was sent with his regiment to Portugal. There he rose by merit to the command of a troop of dragoons. On his return to London, he was appointed a London justice—an office then paid by fees; and his conduct in the riots of 1735 was so much approved, that he received the honour of knighthood. He was also colonel of the Westminster militia.

    D’ Olier : see Olier.

    Dibon: Henry De Dibon , a Huguenot landed proprietor in the Isle of France, was arrested in 1685 by order of Louis XIV., and thrown into prison and tortured. He contrived to escape into Holland, where he entered the service of William III. His granddaughter Margaret became the wife of the Rev. Dr. Traviss, vicar of Snape, in Yorkshire, whose eldest daughter, Anne, married, in 1772, the Rev. Thomas Faber, vicar of Calverley, and was the mother of the late George Stanley Faber, prebendary of Salisbury, whose family still possess the much-prized Bible with which the orginal refugee fled out of France. The Fabers are themselves supposed to be of Huguenot descent by the male side, as is indicated by their name. The families of Buck of Townhall and Denham Park, Cooke of Swinton, and Atkinson of Bradford, are descended by intermarriages from the Dibon family. See notice, p. 167.

    Dobree : the ancestor of this family fled to the island of Guernsey during the massacre of St. Bartholomew. From him descended Peter Dobree, merchant of London, father of the Rev. William Dobree, rector of St. Saviour, Guernsey; and the Rev. Peter Paul Dobree Regius Professor of Greek at the University of Cambridge. Dobree Bonamy, the well-known author and political economist, belongs to this family.

    Dollond, John : for notice, p. 337.

    Dombrain, D’embrun, D’ambrain : a Protestant Huguenot family of high extraction, the head of which, Jacques d’Embrun, fled from the town of Embrun, near Gap, in the Hautes-Alpes, in 1572. Escaping to Rouen, his family, with six others, De Cafour, Le Gyt, De Lasaux, Beaufort, Le Pine, and La Grande, crossed the Channel in an open boat on the 19th August, 1572, and settled at Canterbury. The head of the family is Sir James D’ombrain, Kt., Bt., R.N., now resident in Ireland. His son, the Rev. Henry Honywood D’ombrain, is vicar of West-well, Kent, and his grandson, the Rev. Jeanes D’ombrain, is rector of St. Benedict’s, Norwich.—Some yearn since there was an eminent surgeon of the same name settled in Edinburgh.

    Drelincourt, Peter : son of Charles Drelincourt, one of the ablest preachers and writers among the French Protestants. He was educated at Geneva, and afterwards came to England, where he entered the English Church, and eventually became dean of Armagh.

    Du Bedat : the head of this family was the Marquis Du Bedat. One of his descendants is secretary to the Bank of Ireland.

    Du Bols or Du Bouays : a Protestant family of Brittany, of whom many members came over to England and settled at an early period at Thorney, Canterbury, Norwich, and London. Others of the name came from French Flanders.

    Dubois, Francois : fled from the massacre of St. Bartholomew into England. He settled at Shrewsbury, where he founded a ribbon manufactory. Mr. Agnew says that his descendants removed to Wolverhampton, where they purchased coal-mines, and built extensive iron forges. In the fourth generation, the Dubois changed their name to Wood. William Wood, born in 1671, was the manufacturer of “Wood’s halfpence,” the circulation of which caused such a fureur in Ireland. William Wood’s fourth son was Charles Wood,—the discoverer of platinum. He built the Lowmill Iron Works, near Whitehaven, and the Cyfarthon Works, near Merthyr-Tydvil. Mrs Mary Howitt (wife of William Howitt) is the granddaughter of Charles Wood.

    Dubouchet : an illustrious Huguenot family of Potton, several of whose members took refuge in England. One of them, Pierre, officiated as minister of the French church at Plymouth between 1733 and 1737.

    Du Boulay : a family descended from the Marquis d’Argencon de Boulay, a Huguenot refugee in Holland in 1658. His grandson was minister of the French church in Threadneedle Street, London. The family is now represented by Du Boulay, of Donhead Hall, Wiltshire. Mr. Agnew says: “This family is at present largely represented in the church, and is established in the Southern Counties. It exemplifies the manner in which the French colony clung together,—though perhaps it is only a coincidence,—that by the marriage of the widow of the Rev. J. T. H. Du Boulay, of Heddington, with the Rev. G. J. Majendie, son of the Bishop of Bangor, the Rev. Henry William Majendie, at present the representative of the Majendies, is half-brother to the present head of the Du Boulays.”

    Dubourdieu : a noble Protestant family of Bearn. Isaac was for some time minister of the Savoy church, London. His son, John Armand, after having been minister at Montpellier, took refuge in England, and also became one of the ministers of the church in the Savoy. His grandson was the last pastor of the French church at Lisburn, and afterwards rector of Annahilt, in Ireland. For notice of the Dubourdieus, see p. 258.

    Du Buisson Francis : a doctor of the Sorbonne. Becoming converted to Protestantism, he fled into England at the time of the massacre of St. Bartholomew, and became minister of the French church at Rye. Another emigrant of the same name was Pierre Grostete du Butsson. His grandson bought an estate in South Wales, which one of the branches of the family still occupies.

    Ducane : see Du Quesne.

    Du Carel, Andrew-Coltee : a refugee who accompanied his parents from Caen into England, at the revival of religious persecution in France in 1724. He studied at Eton and Oxford. In 1757 he was appointed archbishop’s librarian at Lambeth, and in the following year he was sent to Canterbury, where he held an important appointment in the record office. He was a man of great antiquarian learning, and published numerous works on classical antiquities.

    Du Cros, John : a refugee from Dauphiny. In 1711 his son John was minister of the Savoy.

    Du Jon : a noble family of Berri, several members of which took refuge in England. Francis, son of a refugee at Leyden, where he studied,was appointed librarian to the Earl of Arundel, and held the office for thirty years. He was one of the first to devote himself to the study of Anglo- Saxon literature, and published several works on the subject.

    Du Moulin : an ancient and noble family of the Isle of France, that has furnished dignitaries to the Roman Church as well as produced many eminent Protestant writers. Charles du Moulin, the eminent French jurisconsult, declared himself as Protestant in 1542. Pierre du Moulin belonged to another branch of the family. He was only four years old at the massacre of Bartholomew, and was saved by an old servant of his father, who picked him up from amongst the dead and dying. In his youth he studied at Sedan and afterwards at Oxford and Leyden. At the latter university he was appointed professor of philosophy when only in his twenty-fourth year. Grotius was among his pupils. Seven years later, he was “called” by the great Protestant church at Charenton near Paris, and accepted the invitation to be their minister. Be officiated there for twentyfour years, during which he often incurred great peril, having had his house twice pillaged by the populace. At the outbreak of the persecution in the reign of Louis XIII. he accepted the invitation of James I. to settle in England, where he was received with much honour. The King appointed him prebendary of Canterbury, and the university of Cambridge conferred upon him the degree of D.D. He afterwards returned to Paris, to assist in the conferences of the Protestant church, and died at Sedan at the age of ninety. His two sons, Peter and Louis, both settled in England. The former was preacher to the university of Oxford in the time of the Commonwealth. In 1660 Charles II. appointed him one of his chaplains, as well as prebendary of Canterbury. Louis, on the other hand, who had officiated as Camden professor of history at Oxford during the Commonwealth, was turned out of his office on the Restoration, and retired to Westminster, where he continued for the rest of his life an extreme Presbyterian. Both brothers were voluminous authors.

    Duncan : a Scotch family naturalised in France at the beginning of the seventeenth century. Mark Duncan was Protestant Professor of philosophy and Greek at Saumur. One of his sons, Sainte-Helene, took refuge in London, where he died in 1697. Another descendant of the family, Daniel, was celebrated as a chemist and physician, and wrote several able works on his favourite subjects. His son Daniel was the last pastor of the French church at Bideford, where he died in 1761. He was also celebrated as a writer on religious subjects.

    Durin, Paul : an eminent paper-manufacturer who established himself in England after the Revocation, and carried on a large paper-mill with great success.

    Du Plessis, Jacques ; chaplain to the French Hospital in 1750. Another of the name, Francis, was minister of La Nouvelle Patente and Wheeler Street chapels, London—of the latter in 1720.

    Du Port : a Protestant family of Potton, several members of which took refuge in England. One of them, James, was pastor of the French Walloon church in London in 1590. His son, of the same name, filled the office of professor of Greek at the University of Cambridge with great distinction. In 1660 he was appointed dean of Peterbor0ugh and chaplain to the King. He was the author of several learned works: he died in 1679.

    Dupuy : a Protestant family of Languedoc. At the Revocation, the brothers Philip and David entered the army of William of Orange. They were both officers in his guards, and were both killed at the Boyne. Another brother, Samuel, was also an officer in the British army, and served with distinction in the Low Countries.

    Du Quesne, Abraham : second son of the celebrated admiral, lieutenant in the French navy, settled in England after the Revocation, and died there. His son Thomas Roger was prebendary of Ely, and vicar of East Tuddenham, Norfolk. Another branch of the family of Du Quesne or Du Cane, settled in England in the sixteenth century. One of their descendants was an alderman of London. From this branch the Du Canes of Essex are descended. Charles Du Cane, M.P., of Braxted Park, is the representative of the family.

    Durand, Francois Guillaume : a native of Montpellier, born 1649. On arriving at maturity he became an ordained minister of the French Protestant Church; and was appointed to a cure at Genuillac, in Lower Languedoc. In 1680 he married the Demoisell de Brueyx de Fontcouverte, daughter of the Baron of that name, residing in the diocese of Usez.

    Durand lived at Genuillac for two or three years, until the persecutions began, and then he was compelled to fly from France, leaving behind him his son Francis. He fled into Westphalia, where he lived for a year, and then proceeded to Schaffhausen in Switzerland. He afterwards settled at Copet, near Geneva. There we find him acting as captain in the service of William III. of England. That monarch was then raising Huguenot regiments abroad, to enable him to carry on his contest with James II. in Ireland. Durand succeeded in raising in the Canton of Vaux the 2nd and 3rd Batallions of the Regiment of Loches, and the Dragoon Regiment of Baltasar. The ministers of Geneva, however, having given it as their opinion that the duties of Captain and Minister were incompatible, he resigned the former office, and remained Chaplain of the Regiment of Baltasar. He served with the English army in Savoy, under the Duke of Schomberg, after which he journeyed northward to Nimuegen, in Holland, where he was appointed minister of the Walloon church. His son Francis there joined him; the old refugee died at the advanced age of eighty-four. Francis Durand de Fontcouverte, after the flight of his father, had been apprehended and educated by the Jesuits of Montpellier, and was accordingly brought up a Roman Catholic. He afterwards left France, joined his father at Nimuegen, and was permitted to practise at the bar in Holland. He had doubtless returned to the faith of his fathers, for we find him bringing up his son as a minister of the Reformed Church. His son, Francis William Isaiah Durand, proceeded to Norwich in England, with his Huguenot wife, where he was appointed minister of the Dutch church in 1743. In 1751 he was ordained Deacon and Priest by Benjamin, Bishop of Winchester. Four days after his reordination, he was inducted into the United Parishes of St. Sampson and the Yale in the Island of Guernsey. Some time after, he was made minister of the French church held in the Crypt, Canterbury,—still retaining his Guernsey livings. He died at Canterbury in 1789. One of his sons was Dean of Guernsey. His descendants have filled various public offices of importance. Charles James Durand, Captain of the Bengal Staff Corps, has favoured us with the above particulars.

    Durand : a noble family of Dauphiny. Several ministers of the name officiated in French churches in England—one at Bristol and others in London.

    Durant : several members of this Huguenot family sat in Parliament. Thomas sat for St. Ives in 1768, and George for Evesham.

    Duras, Baron : see Durfort.

    Durfey, Thomas : born at Exeter about the middle of the seventeenth century. He was the son of a French refugee from Rochelle, and is well known as a song writer and dramatic author.

    Durfort De Duras : an ancient Protestant family of Guienne. Louis, Marquis of Blanquefort, came over to England in the reign of Charles II, and was well received by that monarch, who created him Baron de Duras and employed him as ambassador-extraordinary at Paris. James II. created him, though a Protestant, Earl of Faversham, and gave him the command of the army which he sent against the Duke of Monmouth. He died in 1709. The French church which he founded at Faversham did not long survive him.

    Dugcure, Francis : scion of an ancient family in Languedoc. His two sons were officers in the English army. Scipio was lieutenant-colonel of the 12th Foot, and was killed at Fontenoy. Alexander was colonel of the 4th Foot, and rose to be lieutenant-general.

    Dury, Paul : an eminent officer of engineers, who entered the service of William III., from which he passed into that of the Elector of Hesse. Two of his sons served with distinction in the English army; the elder, of the regiment of La Melonniere, was killed at the Boyne.

    Du Soul, Moses : a refugee from Tours, known in England as a translator and philologist, about the beginning of the eighteenth century.

    Dutens, Louis: a refugee from Tours, historicgrapher to the king of England, member of the Royal Society and of the French Academy of Inscriptions. Having entered the English Church, he was presented with the living of Elsdon in Northumberland. He was the author of many wellknown works; amongst others, of the learned treatise entitled Origine des Decouvertes attribuees aux Modernes.

    Duval : many refugees from Rouen of this name settled in England, and several were ministers of French churches in London. Several have been governors of the French Hospital.

    Du Veil : three brothers of this name, Jews by birth, were won over by the Roman Catholic Church. Daniel Du Veil, the eldest, was baptised under Royal sponsorship at the palace of Compiegne. After further study the three brothers became Protestants; two took refuge in England, the third in Holland. Charles Marie Du Veil came to England about the year 1677. He was ordained a minister of the Church of England; but, having abjured the theory of infant baptism, he eventually became a Baptist minister. He published several works on religions subjects.

    Emeris : a refugee family of this name fled out of France at the massacre of St. Bartholomew, and purchased a small property in Norfolk, which descended from father to son, and is still in the possession of the family,—at present represented by W. R. Emeris, Esq., of Louth, Lincolnshire.

    Evremond, Charles De St. Denys, Seigneur, Ste. Evremond : a refugee gentleman of wit and bravery, who served with distinction under Turenne and Conde. His satiric humour lost him the friendship of his patrons, and provoked the enmity of Louis XIV., who ordered his arrest. Having received timely notice, Evre-mend fled first into Germany and Holland, and afterwards into England, where he became a great favourite with Charles II., who gave him a pension. In 1678, an order in Council was passed directing returns to be made of foreigners then in England, and amongst them appears the following, doubtless that of our French seigneur:—“Nov. 23, 1678. Ste Eyremend chasse de France il y a long temps, est renu d’abord en Angleterre, de la il est alle en Flandre, de Flandre en Allemagne, d’Allemagne en Hollande, de Hollande il est revenu en Angleterre, ou il est presentemente, ne pourant retourner en son pats; il n’a qu’un valet nomme Gaspard Girrard, Flammand de nation. Je suis loge dans St. Albans Street au coin.—Sr. Evremond.”—[State Papers, Domestic, various, No. 694.] Ste. Evremond was not a Protestant, nor would he be a Catholic. Indeed, he seems to have been indifferent to religion. His letters are among the most brilliant specimens of that style of composition in which the French so much excel; but his other works are almost forgotten. Des Maiseaux, another refugee, published them in three vols. quarto, in 1705; afterwards translating the whole into English.

    Eynard : a refugee family of Dauphiny. Anthony entered the British army, and served with distinction, dying in 1739. His brother Simon began business in London, and acquired a considerable fortune by his industry. A sister, Louise, married the refugee Gideon Ageron, who also settled in England.

    Faber : see Dibon .

    Fargues, Jacques De : a wealthy apothecary belonging to one of the best families of Montpellier. In 1569 his house was pillaged by the populace, while he himself was condemned to death because of his religion, and hanged. His family fled into England, where their descendants still exist.

    Faussille, Rene De La : belonged to an ancient Angevine family, and was captain of the Royal Regiment of La Ferte previous to the Revocation. He left the French king’s service, and first emigrated to Switzerland, from whence he proceeded to Holland and entered the service of the Prince of Orange. He became captain of grenadiers in the regiment of Caillemotte- Ruvigny, and fought with it at the battle of the Boyne, where he received six severe wounds, which disabled him for life. King William, who personally witnessed his bravery in the battle, rewarded him by appointing him governor of the port, town, and county of Sligo, and conferring on him a pension of 10s. a day. He left behind him a family of two sons and three daughters. Both sons became officers in the army; one saw much service in Flanders, was brigade-major at Fontenoy and Dettingen, and subsequently became major-general and colonel of the 66th Regiment. He was present at the capture of Havannah, and died on board ship on the voyage home. The general left only one daughter; his brother, a captain in the army, died unmarried. The general’s daughter married a member of the Torriano family, and had two sons, one a captain in the Artillery, the other a lieutenant in the 71st Regiment; the Torrianos in England being also descended from another victim of religious persecution, who fled from Milan and settled in London in 1620.

    Fleury, Louis : Protestant pastor of Tours, who fled into England in 1683. His son, Philip Amuret, went over to Ireland as a Protestant minister, and settled there. His son, grandson of the refugee, became vicar-choral of Lismore; and the great-grandson of the refugee, George Lewis Fleury, became archdeacon of Waterford. See p. 333.

    Fonblanque : The original name of this refugee family was Grenier, of the estate of Fonblanque, in the department of Tarn et Garonne. The Greniers, says a writer in Notes and Queries [4th S. 4 247], “appear to have been of considerable antiquity; noble, though not titled, and enjoyed the privilege of glass-making as Gentilshommes Verriers,—a monopoly granted by St. Louis on his return from the Crusades, as an indemnification for the loss of their patrimony in that service. Part of the family, having embraced the Reformed faith, were in consequence exposed to neglect and persecution, and the elder branch was extinguished by the death of the three brothers Grenier, who were decapitated on the accusation of harbouring the Protestant minister Rochette in their house and favouring his escape. All the principal family documents of importance were destroyed during the dragonnades of Louis XIV. and XV.” The late Albany Fonblanque was for many years editor of the Examiner. His brother J. S. Fonblanque was one of the commissioners of Bankruptcy.

    Fonnereau : three members of this family, descended from a Huguenot refugee—Zachary Philip, Thomas, and Martin—sat in Parliament successively for Aldborough in 1768, 1773, and 1774.

    Fontaine, De La Fontaine : many members of this family settled in England.—James Fontaine, son of James de la Fontaine, pastor of Vaux and Royan, married for his first wife an Englishwoman, a Miss Thompson, in 1628, and had by her five children;—of whom Judith, married to a M. Sinermot, was left a widow with four children. After being herself shut up in a convent, and compelled to make abjuration of her religion, she succeeded in escaping with her daughters to London, where they maintained themselves by needlework.—James, pastor of Archiac, in Saintonge, died and left a widow, who, after being confined in a dungeon for three years because of her faith, succeeded in reaching London with her three sons, one of whom became a Protestant minister in Germany.- Elizabeth, married to M. Santreau, pastor of Saujon, in Saintonge, who first emigrated to Ireland, and left it for America with his family, but their vessel being wrecked, they were all drowned within sight of Boston.— Peter, pastor of Vaux, who, after imprisonment for six months, escaped to England, and settled in London, where he became minister of the Pest House chapel. One of Peter’s daughters married John Arnauld, a London merchant.—James Fontaine married for his second wife Marie Chaillon, in 1641, by whom he had two sons and three daughters;—of whom Mary married Peter Forestier, a zealous pastor, who took refuge in London, and whose son was a celebrated chronometer maker; Ann, who married Leon Testard Sieur des Meslars, and escaped to Plymouth with her husband, but died shortly after reaching England; James (see narrative at p. 301); and Peter, who, under the influence of his wife, abjured his religion, became a Roman Catholic, and remained in France. James Fontaine, so celebrated for his exploits at Bearhaven, died in Dublin, but nearly all his family subsequently emigrated to Virginia, and settled there. His eldest daughter, Mary Anne, married Matthew Maury, of Castel Mauron, Gascony, who for a time settled in Dublin, but afterwards left for America; and from this branch the Maurys of Virginia are descended. The only one who remained in this country was Moses, who pursued the calling of an engraver, in London, in which he acquired considerable reputation. A lady in Australia writes to us as follows: “My great-greatgrandfather Fontaine, or De la Fontaine, was at one time Lord of the Manor of Nismes. He was greatly persecuted for his faith. For a long time he preached to the people in the mountain gorges of the Cevennes. He ultimately escaped from France with his betrothed and his sister. After reaching London, one of his sons was employed in the Bank of England.”

    Forestier , or Forester : there were several refugees of this name in England. Peter Forester was minister of the French church, La Nouvelle Patente, 1708. Paul was minister of the French church at Canterbury; and another was minister of that at Dartmouth. Alexander was a director of the French Hospital in 1735; and James was a captain in the British army.

    Foret, Marquis De La: a major-general in the British army, who served in the Irish campaign of 1699.

    Fourdrinier, Henry : the inventor of the paper-making machine. He was descended[ from one of the numerous industrial families of the north of France, who fled into Holland at the Revocation. From Holland, Fourdrinier’s father passed into England about the middle of the eighteenth century, and established a paper-manufactory. The first idea of the papermaking machine belonged to France, but Fourdrinier fully developed it and embodied it in a working plan. He laboured at his invention for seven years, during which he was assisted by his brother Sealy and John Gamble. It was perfected in 1809. Several of the Fourdrinier family are buried in the French burying-ground at Wandsworth.

    Gabriel, Gabrielle : a Huguenot family of this name settled in London after the Revocation of the Edict. Sir Thomas Gabriel, a recent Lord Mayor, is descended from them.

    Gagnier, John : a celebrated Orientalist scholar, who, becoming converted to Protestantism, fled from France into England. The Bishop of Worcester appointed him his chaplain. In 1715 he was appointed professor of Oriental languages at Oxford. His son took the degree of M.A., and was appointed rector of Stranton in the diocese of Durham.

    Galway, Earl OF: see p. 227.

    Gambler : a French refugee family settled at Canterbury, the name very frequently occurring in the registers of the French church there. James Gambler, born 1692, became distinguished as a barrister: he was a director of the French Hospital in 1729. He had two sons, James and John. The former rose to be a vice-admiral, the second became governor of the Bahama Islands, where his son James, afterwards Lord Gambier, was born, 1756. He early entered the royal navy, and rose successively to the ranks of post-captain, vice-admiral, and admiral. He was created a peer for his services in 1807. His elder brother, Samuel, was a commissioner of the navy; and other members of the family held high rank in the same service.

    Garencieres, Theophilus De : a doctor of medicine, native of Caen, who came over to England as physician to the French ambassador, and embraced Protestantism. He was the author of several medical works.

    Garencieres, The Rev. Dudley : probably the son of the preceding. A minor canon of Chester, he was made rector of Handley, Cheshire, in 1684, also rector of Waverton, Cheshire, in 1696. According to Ormerod, in his History of Cheshire, the Rev. Mr. Garencieres was the only minor canon who was promoted to a prebendal stall in Chester Cathedral. His son Theophilus was educated on the foundation of the King’s School, Chester; he went from thence to Oxford, and was afterwards rector of a church in Yorkshire.

    Garret, Mark : afterwards called Gerrard, the portrait-painter, a refugee from Bruges in Flanders, from whence he was driven into England by the religious persecutions in the Low Countries. He was king’s painter in 1618.

    Garric, Garrick, Garrigue : an ancient family possessing estates near Castres, south of Bourdeaux, of which Pierre Bouffard, Sieur de la Garrigue, was the head. Two of the scions of this family, Pierre and David, being Protestants, fled at the Revocation, the former to Holland, and the latter to England, both adopting, according to the usual custom, the name of the family estate. David fled from Bourdeaux and travelled by Saintonge, Poitou, and Brittany, to St. Male, from whence he sailed for Guernsey, and afterwards reached London in October, 1685. He left his wife and his infant son, Peter (then only five months old), behind him, his wife arriving in London about two months after him, having come by sea in a little Guernsey vessel of only 14 tolls, and her son about eighteen months later, accompanied by his nurse. This boy, on arriving at manhood, entered the army, was lieutenant of Dragoons, afterwards captain of the Old Buffs; and it was while recruiting at Hereford, in 1716, that his son David, afterwards the celebrated actor, was born, in the Angel Inn there. While abroad on foreign service, the captain’s family resided at Lichfield, to which his wife belonged—Arabella Clough, daughter of one of the vicars of the cathedral. On arriving at manhood, Peter, the captain’s eldest son, and his brother David, began the business of wine-merchants in London; but the latter, not taking kindly to a business life, and probably conscious of the power within him, eventually left the wine trade and took to the stage, on which he displayed such extraordinary genius. See also notice at p. 174.

    Gastigny : founder of the French Hospital in London. See p. 288.

    Gaussen : there were several branches of this distinguished Protestant family in France. Haag mentions those of Saumur, Burgundy, Guienne, and Languedoc. David Gaussen, who took refuge in Ireland in 1685, belonged to Lunel in Languedoc. His descendants still flourish at Antrim, Belfast, and Dublin. The Gaussens who settled in England, were also from Languedoc. About the period of the Revocation, John Gaussen, son of Pierre (noble), emigrated from Lunel to Geneva, where he married Marie Bosanquet (also an emigre family still existing in England), by whom he had six children; of these Francis emigrated to London, where he died, unmarried, in 1744; and Peter, who married in London a Mademoiselle Molet, died at Geneva without issue. Paul Gaussen emigrated from France after the Revocation, and died at Geneva in 1774. He married Catherine Salat, widow of Jacques de Beaumont (noble), and had issue, Jean Pierre and four other sons. Jean Pierre joined his two uncles in London, and became governor of the Bank of England, which he administered for many years. He married, in 1775, Anna Maria Bosanquet, daughter of Samuel Bosanquet, Esq., of Forest House, in Essex; and died in 1778, leaving five children. The eldest, Samuel Robert Gaussen, of Brookman’s Park, Herts, married Eliza Bosanquet, daughter of James Bosanquet, Esq. He was High- Sheriff of Herts, M.P. for Warwick, and a lieutenant-colonel of the militia. He died in 1812, leaving issue, of whom Peter, a captain in the Coldstream Guards, died of fever contracted in the Walcheren expedition; Eliza married Mr. Whatman, of Vinters, near Maidstone; and Harriet married Colonel Best. Samuel Robert, the second son, who succeeded to the family estate in Hefts, was also High-Sheriff of the county; he died in 1818, and left issue, Robert William Gaussen, Esq., of Brookman’s Park, the present representative of the family, who was High-Sheriff in 1841. The same year he married Elizabeth, daughter of James Casamayor, Esq., by whom he has two sons—Robert George, and Casamayor William, the former of whom is captain in the Grenadier Guards. A Roman Catholic branch of the Gaussens, who remained in France, still holds large property in the neighbourhood of Montpellier; and many members of the family have distinguished themselves in the French military and diplomatic services. Other members of the Protestant branch are still resident in Geneva; the famous Pasteur Gaussen, the friend of Merle d’Aubigne, being one of them. It may be mentioned, as a singular illustration of how the Huguenot refugee families kept together, that the Gaussens, while neighbours of the Bosan-quet family in France, twice intermarried with them there, and have, since the families settled in England, intermarried with them no less than four times.

    Gautier,N: a physician of Niort, who took refuge in England at the Revocation. He was the author of several religious books.

    Geneste, Louis : the owner of a large estate in Guienne, which he forfeited by adhering to the Protestant religion. He first fled into Holland and took service under the Prince of Orange, whom he accompanied into England and Ireland, and fought in the battle of the Boyne in the regiment of Lord Lifford. After the pacification of Ireland, Geneste settled at Lisburn, and left behind him two sons and a daughter, among whose descendants may be mentioned Hugh Stowell, and Geneste, well known in the Christian world.

    Georges, Paul : two refugees of this name were ministers of the French church at Canterbury. One of them, from Chartres, was minister in 1630. The other, a native of Picardy, died in 1689, after a ministry of 42 years.

    Gerevaise, Louis: a large hosiery merchant at Paris, elder of the Protestant church there. At the Revocation of the Edict, though seventy years of age, he was incarcerated in the Abbey of Gannat, from which he was transferred to that of Saint Magloire, then to the Oratory, and after that to the convent of Lagny and the castle of Angouleme. All methods of converting him having failed, he was finally banished from France in 1688, when he took refuge in London with his brother and his son, who had succeeded in escaping before him.

    Gibert, Etienne : one of the last refugees from France for conscience’ sake. He laboured for some time as a pastor of the “Church in the Desert;” but the Bishop of Saintes having planned his capture, he fled into Switzerland. Afterwards, in 1763, we find him attending a secret synod in France, as deputy of Saintonge; but at length, in 1771, he fled into England. He was minister of the French church of La Patente, in London, in 1776, and afterwards of the Chapel Royal of St. James. He was finally presented with the rectory of St. Andrew’s in the island of Guernsey, where he died in 1817.

    Gosset : a Huguenot family, originally from Normandy; they first settled in Jersey. Some of the younger branches passed over into England, where the first of the name that distinguished himself was Isaac, born 1683, celebrated for his skill in the fine arts; amongst others, for his exquisite modelling of portraits in wax. He was buried in St. Marylebone churchyard, 1744. His grandson, Dr. Gosset, D.D., was a famous classical scholar and book collector, died 1812; he was father of the Rev. Isaac Gosset, for many years vicar of Windsor and Datchet, and chaplain to four successive sovereigns. Among the members of the elder branch of the family may be mentioned Matthew, for many years Vicomte of Jersey, who died 1842; Major - General Sir William Gosset, C.B., R.C.A., who held the office of Under-Secretary of State for Ireland; was for some time M.P. for Truro; and for several years sergeant-at-arms to the House of Commons: he died in 1848. Admiral Henry Gosset is now the eldest survivor of the senior branch of the family.

    Gost, John: the son of Daniel Gost, a French Protestant refugee, settled in Dublin about 1684. His son John was born in that city about 1715, and graduated in the University there. Having taken priest’s orders, he was selected to perform the duty of pastor to the French Protestant congregation at Portarlington; he was honoured with the degree of D.D., and appointed to the archdeaconry of Glendalough and rectory of Arklow. Besides sermons and other writings, Dr. Gost published a History of Greece.

    Goulard, James, Marquis Of Vervans a Huguenot refugee in England, who died there in 1700. The marchioness, his wife, was apprehended when about to set out to join her husband. She was shut up in the convent of the Ursulines at Angouleme, from which she was successively transferred to the Abbey of Puyberlan, in Poitou, to the Abbey of the Trinity at Poitiers, and finally to Port-Royal. Her courage at length succumbed, and she conformed, thereby obtaining possession of the estates of her husband.

    Goyer, Peter : a refugee manufacturer from Picardy, who settled at Lisburn in Ireland. His son was English master in the Belfast academy. For notice see p. 299.

    Graverol, John : born at Nismes, 1647, of a famous Protestant family. He early entered the ministry, and became pastor of a church at Lyons. He fled from France at the Revocation, and took refuge in London. He was pastor of the French churches in Swallow Street and the Quarre. Gra-verol was aveluminous author.

    Grostete, Claude : a refugee pastor in London, minister of the French church in the Savoy.

    Grote or De Groot : for notice, see p. 322.

    Gualy : a Protestant family of Rouergue. Peter, son of the Sieur de la Gineste, fled into England at the Revocation, with his wife and three children—Paul, Francis, and Margaret. Paul entered the English army, and died a major-general. Francis also entered the army, and eventually settled at Dublin, where his descendants still live.

    Guerin : a French refugee family long settled at Rye, now represented by the Crofts.

    Guide, Philip : a French physician of Paris, native of Chalons-sur-Saone, who took refuge in London at the Revocation. He was the author of several medical works.

    Guill, George : a refugee from the neighbourhood of Tours. He abandoned an estate and property in France of the value of 12,000 pounds. He left the following notice inscribed on his family Bible: “On Thursday, Oct. 11,1685, we set out from Tours, and came to Paris on the 15th of the same month. On the 17th came out the King of France’s declaration to drive out the Protestants, who had notice in Paris, in four days,—which, falling on the 21st, was just the day whereon our places in the waggon for Calais were retained; and the day before, I was warned, by letters from Tours, that upon false accusations I was sought by the Intendant and other magistrates; and that they had written to the Chancellor of France to send after me and arrest me. But it pleased God that, immediately after his signing and sealing the declaration, he fell sick and died, while we were on our journey.” Guill arrived safely in London. His daughter afterwards married the Rev. Daniel Williams, D.D., the founder of the Williams Library; and a great friend of the banished Huguenots.

    Guillemard, John : a refugee in London from Champ-deniers, where he had been minister. His descendants have been directors of the French Hospital at different times.

    Guillot : several members of this family were officers in the navy of Louis XIV. They emigrated to Holland at the Revocation, and were presented by the Prince of Orange with commissions in his navy. Their descendants settled at Lisburn in Ireland. Others of the same name—Guillot and Gillett—of like French extraction, settled in England, where their descendants are still to be found at Birmingham (everybody knows the “Gillott pens”) and Sheffield, as well as at Glastonbury, Exeter, and Banbury.

    Guyon De Geis, William De : son of the Sieur de Pampelona, a Protestant, who fled into Holland at the Revocation. He took service under William of Orange, and saw much service in the campaigns in Piedmont and Germany, where he lost an arm. William III. gave him a retiring pension. He settled at Portarlington, and died there in 1740. Several of his descendants have been officers in the English army. The last Count Guyon entered the Austrian service, and distinguished himself in the Hungarian rebellion of 1848.

    Haestricht : a Flemish refugee, who fled into England during the persecutions of the Duke of Alva in the Low Countries. He became a wellknown manufacturer at Bow; and afterwards assumed the English name of James. The Flemings were given a site in Austin Friars, on which to build a Dutch church; and adjoining the church the James family still continue to hold their house property on a nominal ground rent from the Trustees. The property has been in their possession since 1656.

    Hamon : an ancient Normandy family. There were Hamons in Baccaville and Rouen who claimed descent from the great Hamon Dentatus, Earl of Corbell, in that historic province. To this illustrious family belonged Hector Hamon, one of the first ministers of a Huguenot congregation that settled in England. He is described as minister verbi Dei to the little flock of refugees that worshipped nearly three hundred years ago in the crypt of Canterbury cathedral. The two brothers Hamon who settled at Portarlington in Ireland about the middle of the following century were descended from him. There are Hamons still in Ireland, though the name has in some cases been changed to Hammond.

    Harenc : a refugee family from the south of France. Benjamin was a director of the French Hospital in 1765. He bought the estate of Footscray, Kent; his son married the daughter of Joseph Berries, Esq., and was a prominent county magistrate. The family is at present represented by C. S. Harenc, Esq., barrister, on the Home Circuit.

    Hazard or Hasaert, Peter : a refugee in England from the persecutions in the Low Countries under the Duke of Parma. Returning on a visit to his native land, he was seized and burnt alive in 1568. His descendants still survive in England and Ireland under the name of Hassard.

    Henzell : a foreign Protestant who settled at Newcastle-on-Tyne, about the time of the massacre of St. Bartholomew. He was joined by two other refugees, named Tysack and Tittory; and the three established glassworks which long continued to flourish. To preserve their nationality, the members of the three families intermarried with each other; and so much were they isolated from the other inhabitants of the district, that they were generally known as “the Pilgrims,” or “the Strangers.” In course of time, two of the families, the Tysacks and Tittorys, became extinct; but the Henzells remained in possession of the glassworks until the commencement of the present century, when the owner died, and the works passed into other hands. Mr. Alderson, Town Hall, Manchester, married the granddaughter of the last owner of the works, of the name of Henzell; but there are other members of the family still living in different parts of the country.

    Herault, Louis : a refugee pastor from Normandy, who obtained a benefice in the English Church in the reign of Charles I. But he was found so zealous a Royalist that he was forced to fly again into France, from which, however, he returned at the Restoration, and obtained a canonry at Canterbury, which he enjoyed until his death.

    Hervart, Philibert, Baron De Husningue : a refugee of high character and station. In 1690 William III. appointed him his ambassador at Geneva. He afterwards settled at Southampton. He became governor of the French Hospital in 1720, to which he gave a sum of 4000 pounds, dying in the following year.

    Heurteleu, Charles Abel : native of Rennes, who came into England before the Revocation. The name has since been changed to Heurtley. The present representative of the Family, Dr. Heurtley, Margaret Professor of Divinity, and Canon of Christ Church, Oxford, informs us that, among other family records, he possesses a passport to his great-grandfather, described as “Le Sieur du Creux, controlleur de la Maison de Monsieur le Prince.” It is dated July, 1613, and is signed by Marshal Turenne, the father of the more eminent person who bore the name. Dr. Heurtley does not know at what time his great-grandfather came into England. He had a daughter who returned to France, and who must have been born between 1684 and 1690. His son, probably by a second marriage, was born in England in 1707. He was baptized at Les Grecs, the French church in Soho. He was an officer in the English army, and served against the Pretender in 1745-6.

    Hippolite, Ste .: see Montolieu.

    Houblon, Peter : a refugee from Flanders because of his religion, who settled in England about the year 1568. His son John became an eminent merchant in London, his grandson James being the “father” of the Royal Exchange. Two sons of the latter, Sir James and Sir John, were aldermen of London. While the former represented the city in Parliament in 1698, the latter served it as Lord Mayor in 1695. Sir John was the first governor of the Bank of England; he was also a commissioner of the Admiralty. Another brother, Abraham, was also a director and governor of the bank. His son, Sir Richard, left an only daughter, who married Henry Temple, created Lord Palmerston, 1722, from whom the late Lord Palmerston was lineally descended.

    Hudel or Udel : a pastor of “Les Grecs” French church, London, the eldest son of a zealous Huguenot. He was confined in prison for a quarter of a century, and was only released at the death of Louis XIV.

    Hugessen, James: a refugee from Dunkirk, who settled at Dover. The family is now represented by E. Knatchbull-Hugessen, M.P. For notice, see p. 320.

    Jansen, Theodore ,youngest son of the Baron de Heez. The latter was a victim to the cruelty of the Duke of Alva in the Netherlands, and suffered death at the hands of the public executioner. Theodore took refuge in France, from whence the family fled into England. His grandson, also named Theodore, was knighted by William III., and created a baronet by Queen Anne. The family were highly distinguished as merchants and bankers in London. Three of Sir Theodore’s sons were baronets, two were members of Parliament, and one, Sir Stephen Theodore, was Lord Mayor of London in 1755.

    Jeune, Le Jeune : George Le Jeune emigrated from France about the time of the massacre of St. Bartholomew, and settled in Jersey, where the family long continued to flourish, intermarrying with the families of St. Croix, De Carteret, Le Fevre, La Chappelain, etc. The Le Jeunes belonged originally to La Marche, from which they afterwards removed to Montpellier, the headquarters of the Huguenot party in the south of France. They became sieurs of Chambson, one of them subsequently officiating as judge-royal of Villeneuve. In the sketch of the family pedigree which we have seen,George Jeune was settled in the parish of St. Brelade, Jersey, in 1570, in which year he married Marie Hubert. One of the last and most distinguished members of the family was the late Dr. Francois Jeune, Dean of Jersey 1838, and Bishop of Peter-borough 1864. His father was the owner of a small estate in Jersey, long in the possession of the family.

    Jortin, Rene : a refugee from Brittany. For notice, see p. 332.

    Justel, Henry : a great Protestant scholar, formerly secretary to Louis XIV., but a fugitive at the Revocation. On his arrival in England in 1684, the king appointed him royal librarian. He was the author of numerous works.

    Kerk, David : a celebrated sea-captain, born in Dieppe, who took refuge in England about 1620 because of his religion, and entered the English naval service. When Charles I. declared war against France, in 1620, Kerk was put in command of a squadron of six ships, and sent out to Quebec, then a French fortress, to besiege and if possible reduce it. Kerk appeared before the fortress in July 1628, but with his weak squadron he failed to make any impression on it. He learnt, however, that the garrison were in great straits for want of provisions, and that a French fleet was on its way from France for their relief. He then dropped down the St. Lawrence, to lie in wait for the French squadron; and on its making its appearance, he suddenly attacked, surprised, and captured the relieving ships. Again ascending the river, he summoned the garrison, now reduced to the last extremity; and though Governor Champlain held out for a few weeks longer, he was at length compelled to surrender. Kerk was then appointed Governor of Quebec, and he held the office until the conclusion of a peace with France, when it was restored to its former owners.

    Labat, Labatt : a branch of this very ancient Normandy family, related to the Sabatiers and Chateauneufs, has been long settled in Ireland. The first Labat came over with William III., in whose army he was an officer. He was afterwards at the siege of Dorry, on board the “Mount-joy,” which burst the boom across the harbour mouth, and led to the raising of the siege. He eventually settled in King’s County. The representative of the family is the Rev. Edward Labat, M.A., Rector of Kilcar, County Donegal.

    Labilliere : the ancestor of the family, Peter de Labilliere, fled from France at the Revocation. He was naturalized along with Peter Bagneol, Daniel Loucoult, and others. He was described in his letters of naturalization as “Peter de Labilliere, son of Charles de Labilliere and Francois his wife, born in Languedoc, in France.” Be belonged to a noble family. From Hozier’s Armorial General ou Regestres de la Noblesse de France, it appears that the De la Cours are lineally descended from Bernard de la Cour Damoiseau, born early in the fifteenth century. The fourth in descent from him was the “Noble Fulcrand de la Cour, Seigneur de Labilliere.” In his will he declared that he belonged to the Reformed Faith. From his time until the Revocation the family continued Protestant; but, on the perpetration of that great injustice, the Labillieres fled, but De la Cour de Montcamp and De la Cour de Viala abjured Protestantism and remained in France. The French general who fell defending Quebec belonged to the former branch. The “Noble Pierre de la Cour, Seigneur de la Gardoile,” who was sponsor to Peter and Paul de Labilliere, died in London on the 3rd of October, 1705. Peter de Labilliere was married in London to Margue Francoise Reynaud. He and Paul became officers in the British army. The present representative of the family is a member of the English bar.

    Labouchere : an ancient distinguished Bearnese Protestant family, whose original name was Barrier. In 1621, Jean-Guyon Barrier, notary-royal, married Catherine de la Broue, and from this union sprang Francis,seigneur of Labouchere, practitioner of law at Stranniac, in the department of Commingues. His son Peter, who was a merchant at Orthez, being a Protestant, sent his son and daughter, Matthew and Susan, to London to be educated by their relative, Dr. Majendie, pastor of the French church in at. Martin’s Lane, who was also from Orthez. The children did not return to France. Matthew went to Holland, where he married and settled. He had several sons, of whom Peter-Caesar established the branch of the family which ultimately settled in England; while Samuel-Peter continued the descent in Holland. The former was born at the Hague in 1772. After undergoing some preliminary training in the office of his uncle Peter at Nantes, he entered the great commercial house of Hope at Amsterdam, in which he became a partner at the age of twenty-two, together with Mr. Alexander Baring, whose sister he married. On the invasion of Holland by Pichegru, in 1793, the head-quarters of the house of Hope were removed to London, where Mr. Labouchere settled in 1799, and superintended the business for many years, conducting many large financial operations. Strange to say, he possessed the confidence in a large degree of Napoleon Bonaparte, who employed him privately in 1810, to sound the British Government as to the conditions on which they would agree to a general peace. Mr. Labouchere retired from business in 1822. His eldest son, Henry, who took honours at Oxford, sat in the House of Commons for many years, was President of the Board of Trade and Secretary for Ireland, and has since been raised to the peerage under the title of Baron Taunton. His second son, who married a Miss Dupre, also descended from a Huguenot family, and was for a long time one of the principal partners in the London banking house of Williams, Deacon, Labouchere, and Co. Labrune : see Riou.

    La Condamine : an ancient and noble family belonging to the neighbourhood of Nismes. Andre, the eldest, was a Protestant, and held to his religion; Charles Antoine abjured, and obtained possession of the family estate. Andre fled with his family, travelling by night only,—his two youngest children swung in baskets across a horse or mule. They succeeded in reaching the port of St. Malo, and crossed to Guernsey. The boy who escaped in the basket founded a family of British subjects. His son John became King’s Comptroller of Guernsey, and colonel of the Guernsey militia; and his descendants still survive in England and Scotland.

    Lalo : of the house of De Lalo in Dauphiny, a brigadier in the British army, killed at the battle of Malplaquet.

    La Melonniere, Isaac De Monceau, Sieur De : a lieutenant-colonel in the French army, who fled from France at the Revocation, and joined the army of the Prince of Orange. He raised the regiment, called after him, “Lameloniere’s Foot.” He served throughout the campaigns in Ireland and Flanders, and was raised to the rank of major-general. Several of his descendants have been distinguished officers in the British army.

    La Motte, Francis : a refugee from Ypres in Flanders, who settled at Colchester as a manufacturer of bays and sayes. His son John became an eminent and wealthy merchant of London, of which he was an alderman.

    L’ angle , De : for notice, see p. 256.

    Langlois : Benjamin Langlois, Under Secretary of State for the Home Department, who died in 1802, was youngest son of Pierre Langlois, by Julie de la Melonniere, sister of Lieutenant-colonel de la Melonniere, mentioned above. The family was from Montpellier, but originally from Normandy, and was naturalised in England in 1702. Pierre Langlois left four sons, three of whom died unmarried. Of these Peter Langlois rose to great distinction in the Austrian service, and died in 1788, Governor of Trieste, a Feld Zuegmeister, and high in the favour of the Emperor Joseph II. He left an only daughter, who married Anthony Lefroy of Leghorn. See Lefroy.

    LA Pierre : a Huguenot family of Lyons. Marc-Conrad was a magistrate, and councillor to the Parliament of Grenoble—a man highly esteemed for his learning and integrity. He left France at the Revocation, and settled in England. One of his sons was minister of Spring Gardens French church in 1724; and Pierre de la Pierre was a director of the French Hospital in 1740.

    La Pilloniere : a Jesuit converted to Protestantism, who took refuge in England about 1716. He was the author of several works relating to his conversion, and also on English history.

    La Primaudaye : a noble Protestant family of Anjou. Several of them took refuge in England. In 1740 Pierre de la Primaudaye was a governor of the French Hospital, and others of the same name afterwards held that office.

    La Rive : a refugee settled in Ireland, who escaped with his wife, by pretending to be sellers of oranges, and going about with a donkey and panniers. On reaching Holland the Prince of Orange gave him a commission in his troops, and he acquitted himself bravely in the Irish campaigns. He afterwards became agent to Sir C. Wandersforde at Castle Corner, where he died, and his tombstone is to be seen in the churchyard of that place.

    La Roche : a refugee from Bordeaux, originally named Crothaire, whose son became M.P. for Bodmin in 1727. His grandson, Sir James Laroche, Bart., also sat for the same borough in 1768.

    Larochefoucauld, Frederick Charles De , Count de Roye: an able officer of Louis XIV., field-marshal under Turenne, who served in the great campaigns between 1672 and 1683. He left France at the Revocation, first entering the Danish service, in which he held the post of grand-marshal. He afterwards settled in England. He died at Bath in 1690. His son Frederick William was a colonel of one of the six French regiments sent to Portugal under Schomberg. He was promoted to the rank of major-general, and was raised to the peerage (for life)under the title of Earl of Lifford in Ireland.

    Larochefoucauld, Francis De : son of the Baron de Montendre. He escaped from the abbey of the Canons of Saint Victor, where he had been shut up for “conversion,” and fled to England. He entered the English army, served in Ireland, where he was master-general of artillery, and rose to the rank of field-marshal.

    La Roche-Guilham, Melle De : a voluminous writer of romances of the Scuderi school. He was a Protestant, and first took refuge in Holland, and afterwards settled in England about 1697, though his works were still published abroad, mostly in Amsterdam.

    Larpent, John De : a refugee from Caen in Normandy, who fled into England at the Revocation. His son and grandson were employed in the Foreign Office. The two sons of the latter were F. S. Larpent, judge advocate-general in Spain under the Duke of Wellington, and Sir George Gerard De Hochepied Larpent, Bart.

    La Tombe, Thomas : a Protestant refugee from Turcoigne, in the Low Countries, who settled at Norwich about 1558. His son, of the same name, was a thriving merchant in London in 1634.

    La Touche : a noble Protestant family of the Blesois, between Blois and Orleans, where they possessed considerable estates. The eldest son of the family,Paul de la Touche, having conformed, retained possession of the estates, and also obtained those of his uncle, Digues de la Brosse, who had refused to conform, and fled to Amsterdam, where he settled. Paul’s young brother, David, also remained staunch to the Protestant faith, and fled to join his uncle, taking with him a Bible which is still preserved in the family. Shortly after reaching Amsterdam, his uncle obtained for him a commission in Caillemotte’s Dragoons, with which he afterwards served in the Irish campaigns; his gallant conduct at the Boyne securing his promotion. At the close of the war, the regiment was disbanded in Dublin, where many of the officers settled, amongst others, Digues de la Touche. “Having a little money,” says his biographer, “he and another Huguenot established a silk, poplin, and cambric manufactory, articles which were produced in high perfection, and soon acquired celebrity. For the sale of them, a shop was opened in the High Street. Many of his countrymen had to visit the provinces with the view of ascertaining eligible places of settlement. The refugees usually left with him what money and other valuables they had, · beyond what was required for travelling expenses, that it might be in safe custody till their return. Thus a considerable amount of property came into his hands.” To employ the money at profitable interest, advances were made on good security, or remittances were sent to London for the purpose; hence the origin of the Latouche Bank. At his death, his eldest son, David, succeeded to the Bank, and his younger son, James, to the poplin trade, both of which prospered. Both brothers founded families, from which have come the Latouches of Bellevue, Marlay, Harristown, and Sans-Souci. Many members of the family have held high offices, sat in Parliament, and intermarried with the landed aristocracy.—N. Latouche, a refugee in London, but unconnected with the above, was the author of an excellent French grammar.

    La Tranche, Frederic De : a Huguenot gentleman, who took refuge in England shortly after the massacre of St. Bartholomew. He first settled in Northumberland, from whence his descendants removed to Ireland, and founded the Trench family, the head of which is the Earl of Clancarty. Many high dignitaries of the church, and officers in the army and civil service, have belonged to this family. The present Archbishop of Dublin is a Trench as well as a Chenevix (which see), being thus doubly a Huguenot by his descent. The Power-Keatings are a branch of the Trench family. The Earl of Ashtoun is the head of another branch.

    La Tremouille, Charlotte De : wife of James Stanley, Earl of Derby. The Countess was a Protestant—the daughter of Claude de la Tremouille and his wife, the Princess of Orange. Sir Walter Scott incorrectly makes the Countess to have been a Roman Catholic.

    La Trobe, Jean : a Huguenot refugee from the south of France shortly after the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes. He came to Ireland by way of Holland, and settled in Waterford about the year 1690. He was of a noble family (originally of Villemur, near Montauban in Languedoc), which had early become attached to the doctrines of the Reformation, and had shared in all the vicissitudes of the party both before and after the accession of Henri IV. Jean La Trobe died in Dublin at an advanced age. Among his descendants are names which have Since been of note in literature, science, and art, both in England and in the United States of America. The grandson of Jean la Trobe, Benjamin la Trobe, married into a Protestant refugee family, who had emigrated from the Palatinate after its devastation by Louis XIV., and had taken refuge in the British plantations in Pennsylvania. The name, originally Von Blume, was changed to Antes, which it still bears; and there is no doubt but that it is from this family that the very marked engineering talent which has distinguished many of the descendants of Benjamin La Trobe, both in England and America, is derived. The name of La Trobe has been more particularly and honourably associated, for the last hundred years, with Protestant missionary work among the heathen in the British dependencies, in consequence of the connection of the elder branch of the family with the church of the United Brethren or Moravians.

    Laval, Etienne-Abel : author of a History of the Reformation and of the Reformed Churches of France, and minister of the French church in Castle Street, London, about the year 1730.

    La Vallade : pastor of the French church at Lisburn, in Ireland, during forty years. He left an only daughter, who married, in 1737, George Russell, Esq., of Lisburn, whose descendants survive.

    Layard : an ancient Albigensian family, whose original name was Raymond “de Layarde” (near Montpellier), being merely their nom de terre, as in so many similar cases. Pierre Raymond de Layarde, born 1666, left France about the period of the Revocation. He attended William III. into England as major in General Verey’s Regiment of Foot. The family settled first at Canterbury, of which Pierre de Layarde was mayor; and we find in the church register there the baptism of his son Gaspard, in 1725. Another son, Daniel-Peter, was a celebrated doctor, and held the appointment of physician to the Dowager Princess of Wales. He was the author of numerous works on medicine; amongst others, of a treatise on the cattle distemper, which originally appeared in the Philosophical Transactions, and has since been frequently reprinted. The doctor had three sons— Charles-Peter, afterwards prebendary of Worcester and dean of Bristol; Anthony-Louis and John-Thomas, who both entered the army, and rose, the one to the rank of general, and the other to that of lieutenant-general. Austin Layard, lately M.P., so well known for his exploration of the ruins of Nineveh, and Colonel F. P. Layard, are grandsons of the above dean of Bristol. Two cousins are in the church. The head of the family is Brownlow Villiers Layard, Esq., of Riversdale, near Dublin.

    Le Bas, Peter : a Protestant refugee naturalised in 1687, from whom descended the late eminent divine, the Rev. Charles Webb Le Bas, LL.B., president of the East India College at Haileybury.

    Le Courrayer, Pierre-Francois : a canon of St. Genevieve at Paris, afterwards canon of Oxford. He was a very learned man and a voluminous author. Having maintained, as a Roman Catholic, the validity of ordination by the bishops of the Anglican Church because of their unbroken succession from the apostles, he was denounced by his own Church as a heretic, and excommunicated. In 1728 Le Courrayer took refuge in England, and was cordially welcomed by Wake, then Archbishop of Canterbury. The university of Oxford conferred upon him the degree of D.D. Although he officiated as canon of Oxford, he avowed to the last that he had not changed his religion; and that it was the Roman Catholic Church and not he that was in fault, in having departed from the doctrines and practices of the early church. Le Courrayer died in London in 1776.

    Le Fanu : a Norman Protestant family. Etienne Le Fanu, of Caen, having, in 1657, married a lady who professed the Roman Catholic religion, her relatives claimed to have her children brought up in the same faith. Le Fanu nevertheless had three of them baptized by Protestant ministers. The fourth was seized and baptized by the Roman Catholic vicar. At the mother’s death, the maternal uncle of the children claimed to bring them up, and to set aside their father, because of his being a Protestant; and the magistrates of Caen ordered Le Fanu to give up the children accordingly. He appealed to the parliament of Rouen in 1671, and they confirmed the decision of the magistrates. Le Fanu refused to give up his children, and was consequently cast into prison, where he lay for three years. He afterwards succeeded in making his escape into England, and eventually settled in Ireland, where his descendants still survive.

    Le Fever : many refugees of this name settled in England. The Lefevres of Anjou were celebrated as chemists and physicians. Nicholas, physician to Louis XIV. and demonstrator of chemistry, at the Jardin des Plantes, was invited over to England by Charles II., and made physician and chemist to the king in 1660. Sebastian Lefevre, M.D., of Anjou (one of whose sons, Pierre, suffered death for his religion), was admitted licentiate of the London College of Physicians in 1684. Another family of the same name, from Normandy, settled in Spiralfields, where they long carried on the silk manufacture. From this line, the present Lord Eversley is descended. For notice, see p. 326.

    Lefroy : Antoine Leffroy, a native of Cambray, took refuge in England from the persecutions in the Low Countries about the year 1587, and settled at Canterbury, where his descendants followed the business of silkdyeing, until the death of Thomas Leffroy in1723. The family appears to have been originally from Picardy, where the name Leffroy is still to be found. The sole descendant of this Antoine established himself in business. Anthony Lefroy settled at Leghorn in 1728, and died there in 1779. He was a great antiquarian, and possessed one of the most extensive collections of coins ever made by a private person, numbering over pieces, many of them of the utmost rarity: vide Catalogus numismaticus Musei Lefroyani. He left two sons, Lieutenant-Colonel Anthony Lefroy, of Limerick, father of the Right Hon. Thomas Lefroy, ex-Chief Justice of the Court of Queen’s Bench, Ireland, and from whom is the Irish branch; and the Rev. I. P. G. Lefroy, Rector of Ashe, Hants, from whom is the English branch of the family of this name. The present Brigadier-General, J. H. Lefroy, R.A., F.R.S., has compiled a private monograph “relating to the family of Leffroy.”

    Le Goulan : a pupil of Vauban, and a refugee at the Revocation; general of artillery in the army of William III. He served with distinction in Ireland, Germany, and Italy, and died abroad.

    Le Keux : the celebrated architectural engraver, was descended from a Huguenot refugee, his father being a manufacturer of pewter in London. His master Basire was also a Huguenot, whom Le Keux greatly excelled in his breadth and boldness of style. His son inherited much of his father’s genius.

    Le Moine, Abraham : Son of a refugee from Caen. He was chaplain to the Duke of Portland, rector of Eversley, Wilts, and the author of numerous works. He died in 1760.

    L’Escury: see Collot.

    Lestang : a Protestant family of Poitou, one of whom acted as aide-decamp to the Prince of Orange on his invasion of England. Another, Louis de Lestang, settled at Canterbury with his family.

    Le Sueur: the refugee sculptor who executed the fine bronze equestrian statue of Charles I. at Charing Cross. Another work of his, still preserved, is the bronze statue of the Earl of Pembroke in the picture-gallery at Oxford. The statue of Charles was sold by Parliament for old metal, when it was purchased by Jean Rivet, supposed to be another refugee, and preserved by him until after the Restoration.—A refugee named Le Sueur was minister of the French church at Canterbury.

    Letablere or De Líestablere : an ancient family, of large landed possessions in France, several members of which emigrated at the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes, and settled in England and Ireland. Of these, Rene de la Douespe, lord of the manor of Letablere, in the parishes of Saint Germain and Mouchamps, near Fontenai, in Lower Poitou, left France in 1685, at the age of 22, “on the dragoons coming to his mother’s,” as expressed in the records of the family. He arrived in Holland the same year, when he entered the military service of the Prince of Orange. He was an officer in Du Cambon’s Foot at the battle of the Boyne, and afterwards in Lifford’s Horse. It appears from a manuscript account in the possession of his descendants, that Rene received remittances at various times (amounting to 5570 livres) from his relatives in France, who succeeded to the estates which he had renounced for the sake of his religion. In 1723, when about 60 years old, he returned to the scenes of his youth, and visited his numerous relations in Poitou. On that occasion the heirs of those who had succeeded to his ancestral possessions presented him with 4000 livres. Returning to Dublin, he settled, and died there in 1729, at the age of 66. His son, Dr Daniel Letablere, Dean of Tuam, to whose memory a monument has been erected in St. Patrick’s Cathedral, was a divine eminent for his piety and learning. He was a great promoter of the Dublin silk-manufacture, and was presented by the Mason’s Guild with the Freedom in a silver snuff-box, still in the possession of the family. The dean’s youngest daughter, Esther Charlotte Letablere, the eventual heiress of the family, married Edward Litton, Esq., an officer in H.M. 37th Foot, who served with distinction in the first American war, and was wounded at Bunker’s Hill. Of this marriage there are three surviving sons—Daniel Litton, Esq., of Dublin; Edward Litton, Esq., of Altmore, County tyrone, a Master in Chancery, for some time leader of the bar in Ireland, formerly M.P. for Coleraine; and John Litton, Esq., J.P., of Ardavilling, County Cork.

    Le Thieullier, John : a Protestant refugee from Valenciennes. His grandson was a celebrated London merchant, who was knighted in 1687.

    Le Vassor, Michael : a refugee from Orleans, who entered the English Church, and held a benefice in the county of Northampton, where he died. He was the author of several works,—amongst others of a History of Louis XIII., which gave great offence to Louis XIV.

    Ligonier : a Protestant family of Castres. Jean Louis was a celebrated general in the English service; he was created Lord Ligonier and Baron Inniskillin. During his life he was engaged in nineteen pitched battles and twenty-three sieges, without ever having received a wound. One of his brothers, Antoine, was a major in the English army; and another, who was raised to the rank of brigadier, was mortally wounded at the battle of Falkirk. For further notice of Lord Ligonier, see p. 240.

    Logier, Jean-Bernard : a refugee musician, inventor of the method of musical notation which bears his name. He settled as a teacher of music at Dublin, where he died.

    Lombart, Pierre : a celebrated French Engraver, who took refuge in England in the reign of Charles I., and remained there until the early period of the Restoration. During that time he produced a large number of highly esteemed engravings. He died at Paris, and was inferred in the Protestant cemetery at Charenton a few years before the Revocation.

    Luard, Robert Abraham : a Huguenot refugee from Caen, who settled in London. His son, Peter Abraham, became a great Hamburg merchant. George Augustus Luard, Esq., of Blyborough Hall, is the present head of the family, to which Major Luard, of the Mote, Tunbridge, also belongs.

    Lusancy : see Chastelet.

    Maittaire, Michael : a celebrated philologist, linguist, and bibliographer,—one of the masters of Westminster School at the beginning of the eighteenth century. He was an able writer, principally on classical and religious subjects. Haag gives a list of sixteen of his works.

    Majendie : Several refugees from Beam of this name fled into England at the Revocation. One of them became pastor of the French church at Exeter. His son, Jean-Jacques Majendie, D.D., was pastor of the French church in St. Martin’s Lane, and afterwards of the Savoy. The son of this last became Bishop of Bangor, and afterwards of Chester. The present head of the family is—Majendie, Esq., of Hedingham Castle.

    Mangin : several refugees of this name from Metz settled in Ireland. Paul became established at Lisburn, where he married Madelaine, the daughter of Louis Crommelin.

    Marcet : a refugee family from Meaux, originally settled at Geneva, from whence Alexander came over to London about the end of last century, and settled as a physician. He was one of the founders of the Medico- Chirurgical Society, Physician to Guy’s Hospital, and the author of many valuable works on medicine and chemistry. Mrs. Marcet was also the author of some excellent popular works on political economy and natural history.

    Marie, Jean : minister of the Protestant church at Lion-sur-Mer, who took refuge in England after the massacre of St. Bartholomew, and became pastor of the French church at Norwich. His son Nathaniel was minister of a French church in London.

    Marion, Elie : a refugee from the Cevennes. He joined his friend Cavalier in England. Francis Marion, the celebrated general in the American War of Independence, is said to have been one of his descendants.

    Martineau, Gaston : a surgeon of Dieppe, who fled into England at the Revocation, and settled at Norwich. His son David was also a skilful surgeon. Many of their descendants still exist, and some of them are highly distinguished in modem English literature.

    Maseres, Francis : a celebrated judge and mathematician. At the Revocation, the grandfather of Maseres escaped into Holland, took service in the army of William of Orange, and camo over to England in the regiment of Schomberg, in which he served as a lieutenant. He was afterwards employed in Portugal, where he rose to the rank of colonel. His son studied medicine at Cambridge, took his degree of doctor and practised in London. Francis Maseres, the grandson of the refugee, also studied at Cambridge; and after distinguishing himself in mathematics, he embraced the profession of the law. Besides his eminence as a judge, he was an able and industrious author. Haag gives the titles of fifteen books published by him on different subjects. His Historiae Anglicanae Selecta Monumenta is a mine of antiquarian learning.

    Massue, Henri De , Marquis de Ruvigny: for notice of, see p. 219; and his son Henry, Earl of Galway, pp. 227-33, 265, 311.

    Mathy, Matthew : a celebrated physician and author. After a residence in Holland, he settled in England about the middle of last century. He was admitted a fellow of the Royal Society, of which he was appointed secretary in 1758. He was afterwards appointed librarian of the British Museum, in which office he was succeeded by his son.

    Maturin, Gabriel : a refugee pastor who escaped from France after having been shut up in the Bastile for twenty-six years. He settled in Ireland, where he arrived a cripple. His son Peter became dean of Killala, and his grandson dean of St. Patrick’s, Dublin. From him descended the Rev. C.

    Maturin, senior Fellow, Trinity College, Dublin, rector of Fanet; the Rev. C. R. Maturin, an eloquent preacher, author of Bertram; and Gabriel Maturin, Esq., Washington.

    Mauduit, Isaac : descended From a Norman refugee settled at Exeter as a merchant. Isaac was a dissenting minister at Bermondsey. He was the father of Jasper Mauduit, Esq, of Hackney.

    Maury, Matthew : a refugee gentleman from Castle Mauron in Gascony, who settled in Lenten for a time. His son James was ordained a minister there. The family afterwards emigrated to Virginia, U.S., where their descendants survive. Captain Maury, LL.D., belonged to the family.

    Mayerne, Theodore De : a celebrated physician, belonging to a Lyons family, originally From Piedmont. He studied medicine at Heidelberg and Montpellier, where he took his degree of M.D. in 1595. He opened a medical school at Paris, in which he delivered lectures, and obtained an extensive practice. Henry IV. appointed him his first physician. After the assassination of the King, Marie de Medicis endeavoured to convert Mayerne from Protestantism; but he was firm, and consequently lost the patronage of the court. James I. invited him over to England, and appointed him his first physician. The universities of Oxford and Cambridge conferred honorary degrees upon him, and he obtained a large practice in London. After the execution of Charles I. he retired into private life, and died at Chelsea in 1655.

    Mazieres, De : a Protestant family of Aunis, north of Saintonge, several members of which fled from France at the Revocation. Peter was a lieutenant in the French army, and afterwards joined the army of William of Orange. He settled at Youghal, in Ireland, where he died in 1746. Other members of the family settled at Cork, where they left numerous descendants.

    Mercier, Jean Le : born at Usez in Languedoc. A famous Hebrew scholar. He married one of the Morell family. His descendants survive in England.

    Mercier, Philip : a portrait-painter, born at Berlin, of French refugee origin. He afterwards settled in London, where he died in 1760. He was patronised by Frederick Prince of Wales. Many of his pertraits were engraved by Simon, Faber, Avril, and Heudelot (refugee engravers in London), as well as by English artists.

    Mesnard, Jean : one of the pastors of the Protestant church of Charenton at Paris, from which he fled into Holland at the Revocation. His brother Philip, pastor of the Church of Saintes, was fined 10,000 livres and condemned to perpetual banishment; his church was demolished and a cross set up on its site. Mesnard was invited to Copenhagen by the queen, Charlotte Amelia, and appointed pastor of the French church there. He afterwards came over to England, and became minister of the Chapel- Royal of St. James in 1700. He was appointed a director of the French hospital in 1718; and died in 1727.

    Mettayer, John : minister of the Patente in Soho; afterwards minister of the French church at Thorpe-le-Soken, where he died in 1707.

    Meusnier, Philip : a refugee painter of architectural subjects, who studied under Nicholas de Larquilliere, another refugee artist.

    Misson, Maximilien ; one of the Protestant judges in the “Chamber of the Edict,” at the Parliament of Paris. At the Revocation he fled into England, and was selected by the Duke of Ormond as tutor to his grandson. Misson travelled with him through Europe, and afterwards published several books of travels.

    Missy, Caesar De : son of a refugee merchant from Saintonge established at Berlin, who studied for the ministry, and came over to England in 1731, where he was appointed minister of the French church of the Savoy, in London, and afterwards of St. James’s. He was the author of many able works.

    Moivre, Abraham : see De Moivre.

    Molenier, Stephen : a refugee pastor from the isle of Jourdain, who fled into England and became minister of the French church at Stone-house, Plymouth.

    Monceau, Isaac De : see La Melonniere.

    Montendre, De : see La-rochefoucauld.

    Montoleu, De Saint Hippolite : Of this noble family, David came to England with the army of William III., under whom he also served in Flanders. He was made a colonel and afterwards a brigadier-general. His descendants still survive in several noble and gentle families.

    Morell, Daniel ; born in a village in Champagne about the period of the Revocation; he lost his parents,supposed to have been murdered, at an early age. He was brought up from his infancy by a Protestant nurse, Madame Cont, whose son—Morell’s foster-brother—fled with him into Holland, under the guidance of a party of refugee Protestants of distinction. When Daniel Morell and Stephen Conte grew up to manhood, they entered the army of William III., and fought under him through the Irish campaigns. The foster-brothers settled in life, married, and saw themselves united again in their old age, in the persons of their children. Young Daniel Morell married the daughter of Conte, and the issue was Stephen Morell, who entered the navy, served under Hawke and Boscawen, and died at Maldon, in Essex, at an advanced age, leaving behind him three sons, all of whom became eminent as dissenting ministers. The eldest son, Stephen, was minister of an Independent congregation at Little Baddon, Essex; the second, Dr. John, was minister of a Unitarian congregation at Brighton; and the youngest son, Thomas, was for twenty years theological tutor of the Independent Academical Institution known as Coward College. Dr. Morell, author of The. History of Philosophy, and other well-known works, belongs to this family. See further incidental notice at p.167.

    Mothe, Claude De La : refugee minister of the church in the Savoy. For notice of, see p. 258.

    Motteuax, Peter Anthony : poet and translator; a refugee from Rouen, who fled into England and settled in London in 1660. He first translated and published Don Quixote and Rabelais into English, which were received with great favour. He also published several volumes of poetry and a tragedy, “Beauty in Distress.” Notwithstanding his success as an English author, he abandoned literature for commerce, and made a considerable fortune by a series of happy speculations. He died in 1717.

    Nadauld : a Huguenot family who settled at Ashford-in-the-Water, in Derbyshire, shortly after the Revocation The grandson of the original refugee was the Rev. Thomas, Nadauld, for upwards of fifty years incumbent of Belper and Turnditch. One of the members of the family was a celebrated watchmaker and silversmith. Another was a sculptor, who was employed by the Duke of Devonshire to execute some of the most important works at Chatsworth Palace. Others were clergymen, surgeons, and officers in the British army.

    Nicholas, Abel : descended from an ancient family in Brittany. He left France at the Revocation, and settled at East Looe in Cornwall. His eldest son, Paul, was twice mayor of the town, and left descendants. Nicholas was major in a dragoon regiment, and John, captain in the Royal Marines, afterwards mayor of East Looe. Other descendants of the family have been officers in the army and navy.

    Noodt, Nooth : an ancient family of North Brabant, frequently mentioned in Dutch history under the name of Van der Noodt. One of them, a colonel, distinguished himself greatly at the siege of Ostend. One branch of the family remained Roman Catholics, and their descendants still exist in Belgium; another became Protestant, and emigrated into England in the 17th century. In 1712 we find James Nooth vicar-choral of Wells Cathedral. He married Miss Winchcombe, cousin of Lady Bolingbroke, and his son, Colonel Nooth, marrying Miss Anne Assheron Yates, heiress of the Vavasours of Spaldington, Co. York, he assumed the name of Vavasour, now represented by Sir H. M. Vavasour, Bart.—Another member of the same family informs us that his branch came into Cumberland in the time of Henry I., and that they migrated into Pembrokeshire, where they were settled for centuries, at Easthook Hall, near Haverford West.—One of the Van der Noodts was high in office at Brussels. He was Burgomaster of the city, and his arms are carved on the Hotel de Ville. He was a great benefactor of the city.

    Olier, Díolier : an ancient, powerful, and noble family in the south of France, whose names are of constant occurrence in French history. Bertrand Olier was Capitoul of Toulouse as early as 1364. Members of the family held high offices under the French kings; intermarrying with the Colberts, Malherbes, Beauregards, and other illustrious lines. Edouard Olier, secretary to the king and councillor of parliament, was made Marquis of Nointel in 1656. His eldest son, Charles Edouard, was French Ambassador at Constantinople in1673. The second son, Paul, was a chevalier of Malta; and it was intended that Pierre Olier (of Collegnes near Montauban), the third son, should enter the same order, but having embraced the doctrines of the Reformation, he was precluded from doing so. He married, 1665, Genevieve Genoud de Guiberville, by whom he had issue, Isaac Olier; he fled from France at the Revocation and entered the service of William, Prince of Orange, who afterwards, in acknowledgment of his valuable services, bestowed upon him a grant of land. In the year 1686, he was made a free burgess of the city of Amsterdam. He eventually settled in Dublin, with the freedom of which he was also presented in 1697. He now assumed the name of D’Olier. His grandson, Jeremiah, was high-sheriff in the year 1788,—one of the principal streets in the city being named after him, D’Olier Street. He was one of the founders of the Bank of Ireland, of which he was a governor, as was also his relative, the late Isaac M. D’Olier of Collegnes, Co. Dublin. A second branch of the Olier family in France held the Marquisate of Verneuil, and numbered many illustrious names.—The late Rev. Sydney Smith’s mother was Maria Olier, daughter of a Huguenot refugee from Languedoc, but it is not known that she belonged to the above family.

    Onwhyn : see Unwin Ouvry, James: a refugee from the neighbourhood of Dieppe about the period of the Revocation. His family became settled in Spitalfields, and, were owners of freeholds there in the early part of last century. Frederic Ouvry, treasurer of the Society of Antiquaries, belongs to the family; also Francisca I. Ouvry, author of Henri de Rohan, or the Huguenot Refugee, and other works.

    Paget, Valerain : a refugee from France after the massacre of St. Bartholomew, who settled in Leicestershire and founded a flourishing family, the head of which is Thomas Paget, Esq., of Humberstown. Charles, lately M.P. for Nottingham, belongs to the family.

    Pain, Elie : a merchant in Paris, who fled from France at the Revocation and settled in London, where he greatly prospered. Numerous French Protestants of the same name fled into England, where their descendants still survive under the names of Pain, Paine, or Payne. At Deal and Sandwich, at Rye, and in the southern counties, the Paines are numerous. One of the ministers of the French church at Bristol was a M. Pain. Louis Pain was a well-known author, and William was an architect in London.

    Palairet, Elie : descended from a refugee family settled at Rotterdam, from whence he passed over into England. He became minister of the French church at Greenwich. and afterwards of St. John’s Church, London. He was the author of numerous able philological works. Another of the name, John, born at Montauban, 1697, emigrated to England, and became French master to the royal family; he was also the author of numerous works.

    Papillon, David : a refugee from Avranches, where he was imprisoned for three years because of his religion. Le Sieur Papillon took refuge in England in 1685, but several members of the family had settled here before the Revocation. In 1695, Philip Papillon represented the city of London m Parliament, and other members of the family have since represented London, Dover, Romney, and Colchester. The present head of the family is David Papillon, Esq., of Crowhurst, Sussex.

    Papin, Denis : for notice, see p. 244.

    Parmentier, Jacques : a refugee portrait and historical painter. He was employed, with several other refugee artists, in the decoration of Montague House (now the British Museum), after which he worked at the decoration of the palace of King William at Loo, in Holland. Returning to England, he obtained commissions to paint altar-pictures for Holy Trinity Church, Hull, and St. Peter’s, Leeds; as well as pictures for Worksop Manor, and Painter’s Hall, London. He died in 1730.

    Passavant, Jean-Ulric : a refugee from Strasburg, where he was born in 1678. Settling in England, he purchased the manufactory of Gobelin tapestry for some time established at Fulham, and removed it to Exeter, where it long continued to flourish.

    Paul, Lewis : inventor of spinning by rollers, son of a French refugee who settled in England, and practised as a physician shortly after the Revocation.

    Pechel, Samuel De : lord of La Buissonade, near Montauban. He was subjected to cruel persecution at the period of the Revocation, having been thrown into prison, where he was kept for eighteen months. His wife, near her confinement, fled from her home with four children;and the house was given up to pillage by the dragoons. De Pechel, after long imprisonment, was at length transported to the island of St. Domingo, from which he contrived to escape. He arrived in England, and there found his wife, bereft of her children. They had all been taken from her and sent to convents to be educated as Roman Catholics. These daughters afterwards succeeded to the family estates, which their descendants still hold. The Pechel family, however, greatly prospered in England. Several of them have been directors of the French Hospital. Samuel Pechell was a Master in Chancery, and Lieutenant-Colonel Paul Pechell, of Pagglesham, Essex, was created a baronet in 1797. Two other descendants of the family have been rear-admirals and occupied seats in the House of Commons. The present head of the family is Sir G. S. Brooke Pechell, Bart.

    Pegorier, Caesar : a native of Roujan, in Languedoc, minister of the church of Senitot, in Normandy, until the Revocation, when he fled into England. He was for some time minister of the Artillery Church, Spitalfields, and afterwards of the Tabernacle.

    Pelessier, Abel : a refugee Huguenot officer who settled at Portarlington. His two sons were clergymen, an d other members of the family have been officers in the army.

    Perrin, Count : a Huguenot refugee from Nouere, where he had large possessions. He originally settled at Lisburn, in Ireland, from which he afterwards removed to Waterford, and founded the family to which Justice Perrin of the Irish Bench belonged.

    Perronet : a French refugee pastor settled at Chateaux d’Oex, in the Canton of Berne, Switzerland, whose son David came into England about the year 1680, settled in London, and married a Miss Philothea Arthur. Their son Vincent, born in 1693, was educated for the church. He graduated at Oxford at twenty-four, took orders, and was curate of Sandwich, in Kent, for nine years. He was afterwards presented to the vicarage of Shoreham, which he served for more than half a century, dying in 1785. The Rev. Vincent Perronet was one of the few regular clergy who openly joined John Wesley. From him, by the mother’s side, was descended the late General Perronet Thompson, author of the Cornlaw Catechism and numerous other works. Perronet, the celebrated French engineer, was cousin of the David Perronet who first settled in England.

    Petit, Le Sieur : an officer in the Red Dragoons of the Prince of Orange on his expedition to England. Many descendant of the family have served in the British army, and held offices in church and state.

    Petitot, Jean : an excellent painter in enamel, patronised by Charles I., who knighted him, and gave him apartments at Whitehall to live in. At the King’s death, Petitot returned to France to practise his art. Being a Protestant, he was thrown into jail, and kept there until he consented to abjure, when he was set at liberty. But he took the first opportunity of flying to Geneva, where he died. Of his numerous sons, Francis, who followed his father’s art of painting in enamel, settled in London. His descendants for the most part removed to Ireland, where the family still exists.

    Philipponneau : a Protestant family belonging to Normandy, several members of which took refuge in Holland, where they entered the Dutch service. They afterwards accompanied William III. into England. Francis, Sieur de la Motte, was raised to the rank of colonel in the English army; John, Sieur de Boispre, was a lieutenant-colonel; and Gabriel, Sieur de Belet, was captain in Ruvigny’s dragoons.

    Philipot, Elisee : a refugee from Bordeaux who settled at Norwich in 1672, and there established a soap-manufactory which proved eminently successful. Towards the close of his life he filled with honour the office of high-sheriff of the county of Norfolk.

    Pierrepont, Antoine and Etienne : descended from a noble Norman family, who took refuge in England after the Revocation. Several of their descendants emigrated to New England (U.S.); and from one of them came John Pierpont, the celebrated American poet, born at Newhaven in 1785.

    Philip Fresnau, Jefferson’s secretary, was another of the American poets of Huguenot descent.

    Pilot, Josue : a refugee of this name settled in Ireland, several of whose descendants occupied high positions. Josue, the original refugee, possessed lands in Poitou, which he lost by his flight for conscience’ sake. He commanded an independent company at the siege of Derry. By intermarriages his descendants are connected with the families of Hamon, Champagne, Bouherau (Burrowes), Des Voeux, etc. His son, Dr. Pilot, was doctor of Battereau’s Regiment of Foot, and served through the Duke of Cumberland’s northern campaign of 1745-6.

    Pineton, Rev. James, De Chambrun : for notice of, see p. 254.

    Plache : the first refugee of this name is said to have escaped from France concealed in a tub. Pierre Antoine Planche one of his grandsons, was an East India merchant in London. Another grandson, Paul, married Marie Anne Fournier, and had five sons. One of these, Andrew, was the first maker of porcelain in Derby. From him is descended the present James Robinson Planche, the distinguished antiquarian and author. He is now Somerset Herald, with the title of Rouge Croix. See his “Recollections and Reflections,” published in 1872.

    Plimsoll : several refugees of this name fled from Brittany at the Revocation, and took refuge in the southern counties of England. One of the families settled at Bristol. It is from this branch that Mr. Plimsoll, M.P., the friend of the merchant seamen, is descended. There are still many Plimsolls in Brittany.

    Portal : an ancient noble Protestant family of Toulouse. For notice of refugees of the name in England, see p. 273.

    Prelleur, Peter : a musi- cal composer, born in London of a French refugee family. He began life as a writing-master in Spitalfields, after which he applied himself exclusively to music. He composed a number of pieces for the theatre in Goodman’s Fields, in which David Carrick, or Garrigue, the son of another French refugee, made his first appearance as an actor.

    Prelleur also held the office of organist of the church of St. Albans, and afterwards of Christ Church, Middlesex.

    Primrose, Gilbert : of Scotch origin, who settled in France in 1601, as minister of the Protestant church of Mirambeau, and afterwards of Bourdeaux. In 1623, Louis XIII. ordered his banishment from France, when he proceeded to London and became minister of the French church in Threadneedle Street; after which we find him appointed chaplain to the king, then canon of Windsor, and eventually bishop of Ely. His, two sons, David and. James: were remarkable men in their time—the one as a theologian, the other as a physician. Both were authors of numerous works Provost : a refugee family who settled at Thorney Abbey about 1652. One of this name was a large occupier of land in “French Drove,” so called because farmed principally by French colonists; and the farm to this day continues to be occupied by one of his descendants. the uncle of our informant.

    Pryme, Matthew De La : refugee from Ypres in Flanders, during the persecutions of the Duke of Alva. He settled, with many others of his countrymen, in the Level of Hatfield Chace, after the same had been drained by Vermuyden His son was the Rev. Abrahare de la Pryme. George Plume: Esq., late M.P., and professor of political economy at Cambridge, was lineally descended from the above.

    Puget : a Huguenot refugee. who settled in London, and founded the banking house of Puget, Bainbridge, and Co., St. Paul’s Churchyard, whose establishment was formerly the medium of monetary transactions between the British Government and Ireland. They had a large connection with the commercial class of French settlers; and their books were kept in French down to the beginning of the present century. Mr. Digges La Touche, one of the bankers of Dublin, married Miss Grace Puget. Admiral Puget also belonged to the family.

    Puissar, Louis James , Marquis of: was appointed colonel of the 24th regiment in 1695, and afterwards served in Flanders.

    Pusey : see Bouveries.

    Raboteau, John Charles : a refugee from Pont-Gibaud, near Rochelle, who settled in Dublin, and prospered as a wine-merchant. For notice of his nieces, the Misses Raboteau, see p. 172.

    Radnor, Earl Of : see Bouveries.

    Rapin De Thoyras, Paul : for notice of, see p. 238.

    Ravenel, Samuel De : son of a Protestant gentleman of Picardy who came into England before the Revocation. He afterwards married the niece of Marlborough. Hozier supposes that Edward Ravenel, director of the French Hospital in 1740, was his son.

    Rebow : a refugee of this name, from Flanders, settled at Colchester, from whom Sir Isaac Rebow, knighted by King William (whom he entertained), was descended. Several members of the family have since represented the town in Parliament.

    Regis : see De Regis.

    Renouard : a distinguished Huguenot family from San-cerre, near Orleans. At the Revocation the members fled into Holland and England. David Renouard became a well-known merchant at Amsterdam. His son entered the army of William III., and was colonel of the 1st Royal Dragoons. He was a brave and distinguished officer. His son Peter was captain in the 10th Dragoons; also a man of considerable military reputation. Colonel Renonard married Miss St. Pierre, daughter of Colonel St. Pierre, also of a refugee family, a distinguished soldier, colonel of the 1st Dragoons. The late Rev. Mr. Renouard, rector of Swanscombe, Kent, was also a descendant of the original refugee.

    Reynet , or De Reynet : a refugee family who held landed estates in the Vivarais, from whence they emigrated at the Revocation, and settled at Waterford. Henri de Reynet had a family of five or six sons, two only of whom remained in Ireland. The youngest returned to France, and, having professed the Roman Catholic religion, he was put in possession of the family estate, which his descendants in the female line still hold. Another of the sons became a distinguished traveller. The freedom of the city of Waterford was conferred in perpetuity on the descendants of Henri de Reynet. The Rev. Henry Reynet, D.D., and General Sir James Henry Reynet, K.C.B., K.C.H., belonged to the family, whose descendants survive.

    Rigaud : the late distinguished Professor of Astronomy at Oxford, Stephen Peter Rigand, F.R.S., was descended from a Huguenot gentleman, Monsieur Rigaud, whose wife was a daughter of M. La Brue a celebrated military engineer under Henri IV. His maternal grandfather, D. S. Demainbray, was at the head of the Kew Observatory, as King’s Observer, in which office he was succeeded by Professor Rigaud’s father. Major-General Rigaud is the head of the family.

    Riou, Rieux : an ancient family, whose estates at Vernoux, in Languedoc, were forfeited at the Revocation. Estienne Riou, who was born after his father’s death, left France with his uncle Matthieu Labrune, when only eleven years old, and took refuge with him at Berne in Switzerland. Labrune there established himself as a merchant. In his nineteenth year Estienne joined the English army in Piedmont under the Duke of Schomberg,—entering the Huguenot regiment of Lord Galway as a cadet, and serving at the siege of Cassale. His uncle being anxious for his return to Berne, Estienne left the regiment after about two years’ service. In 1698, the uncle and nephew left Berne and came to London, accompanied by Pastor Bermondsey, formerly pastor of Vernoux. Matthieu Labrune brought with him a capital of 8000 pounds, and taking his nephew into partnership, they began business as merchants in 1700, in which they were very successful. Estienne, when in his fortieth year, married Magdalen, daughter of Christopher Baudoin, a refugee gentleman from Tourraine, and left issue. His son Stephen entered the army, served as a captain of horse, and afterwards accompanied Sir R. K. Porter in his embassy to Constantinople. His sons were distinguished, officers. The eldest, Philip, served in the Royal Artillery, and died senior colonel at Woolwich in 1817. The second, Edward, entered the navy at twelve years old, and in 1776 was appointed to the “Discovery,” which accompanied the “Resolution” (Captain Cook) round the world. He also subsequently served in the the “Resolution” itself. After twenty-seven years of very distinguished and honourable service, Captain Riou—“ the gallant good Riou”—was killed while commanding the “Amazon” frigate at the battle of Copenhagen, April 2nd, 1801. The only surviving daughter of Stephen Riou married Colonel Lyde Browne, of the 21st Fusileers, who was assassinated at Dublin on the night of the 23rd July, 1803, when hastening to the assistance of Lord Kilwarden, who was killed on the same night. Colonel Browne’s only daughter married G. Benson, Esq., of Lutwyche Hall, Salop.

    Rival, Peter : pastor of several of the French churches in London, and lastly of that of the Savoy. He was a copious author and a vehement controversialist. He died about 1728.

    Rive : see La Rive.

    Robethon , the Right Hon. John: a French refugee in London. His brother remained in Paris, and was attorney-general of the Mint in 1722. William III. made John Robethon his private secretary. He was afterwards made secretary to the Embassies, and privy councillor. In 1721 he was elected governor of the French Hospital. He died in the following year.

    Roche, Lores : a refugee manufacturer who settled in Lisburn at the same time that Louis Crommelin established himself there. He became an extensive merchant, and his descendants are now among the first inhabitants of Belfast.

    Rocheblave, Henry De : pastor in succession of the French churches of Greenwich, Swallow Street, Hungerford, the Quarre, St. James’s, and, last of all, of Dublin, where he died in 1709.

    Romaine : a Huguenot refugee who settled at Hartlepool as a corndealer; father of the celebrated Rev. W. Romaine, author of the Triumph of Faith. One of his sisters married one of the Callenders of Manchester. The late M.P. for Manchester was called after him—W. Romaine Callender. The Rev. W. Romaine had two sons. One, Captain Romaine, died in India. The other was the Rev. Dr. Romaine, of Reading: his two daughters married clergymen—the eldest, the Rev. J. B. Storey, of Great Tey, Essex, the youngest the Rev. Romaine Govett, for 49 years vicar of Staines, Middlesex, and a great blessing to the place. One of the sons of the latter is now vicar of All Saint’s, Newmarket; his brother, W. Govett Romaine, was late secretary to the Admiralty.

    Romilly : for notice of this family see p. 327.

    Rou, Roux, Le Rou , etc.: there were many refugees of this name, some of whom were long settled at Canterbury. There was another but more aristocratic refugee Rou, Sieur de la Butte, some members of whose family emigrated to the United States, while others settled in England. In the early part of last century, a lineal descendant of the Sieur de la Butte, named Louis Rou, officiated as minister of the French church at New York. Several of his daughters married and came to England, where their descendants survive.

    Roubilliac, Louis-Francis : the sculptor; born at Lyons about 1595. Haag says he was probably the son of a “new convert,” and that he only returned to the religion of his fathers. His works in England are well known. He was buried in the French church of St. Martin’s-le-Grand in 1762.

    Roubillard : see Campage.

    Roumieu : a Huguenot refugee in England, descended from Romieu, the Albigensian hero. The present representative of the family is Robert Lewis Roumieu, the celebrated architect.

    Rouquet, James : son of a French Protestant condemned to the galleys for life. The young man reached London, and was educated at Merchant Taylors’ school. He entered the church, but became a follower of Wesley, and superintended Wesley’s school at Kingswood. He eventually accepted the curacy of St. Werburgh, Bristol, where he laboured with great zeal in reclaiming outcasts, and died in 1776.

    Rouquet , N.: a painter in enamel, belonging to a French refugee family of Geneva, who spent the greater part of his life in England. He was an artist, and wrote an account of The State of Art in England, which was published at Paris in 1755.

    Rousseau, James : an excellent landscape-painter, mostly in fresco, son of a joiner at Paris, where he was born in 1630. He studied art in Italy, and on his return to France his reputation became great. He was employed in decorating the palaces at Versailles and Marley, and other important works. In 1662 he was admitted a member of the Royal Academy of Painting, and was afterwards elected a member of the council. But in 1681, when the persecution of the Protestants set in with increased severity, Rousseau was excluded from the Academy because of his being a Huguenot. At the same time, eight other Protestant artists were expelled. At the Revocation of the Edict, Rousseau first took refuge in Switzerland, from whence he proceeded to Holland, and afterwards to England, where he settled. The Duke of Montague employed him to execute the decorations of his town-house, on the site of the present British Museum. It is also said that he superintended the erection of the buildings. He executed other fresco-paintings on the walls of Hampton Court, where they are still to be seen. He died in London in 1693.

    Rousseau, Samuel : an Orientalist scholar, the son of a French refugee settled in London. He was an extensive contributor to the Gentleman’s Magazine on classical subjects, as well as the author of several works on the Persian and Hindostanee languages.

    Roussell, Isaac : a French Protestant refugee from Quilleboeu, in Normandy, who fled into England in 1699. He settled in London, and became a silk-mauufacturer in Spitalfields. The present representative of the family is John Beuzeville Byles, Esq., of Henley-on Thames.

    Roye, De : see Larochefoucauld.

    Ruvigny , Marquis of: see Massue.

    Saravia : a family of Spanish Protestants, who fled from the Low Countries in the time of the Duke of Alva’s persecution. Dr. Hadrian Saravia, one of the translators of the Bible into English, was for some time master of the Free Grammar School at Southampton; and, taking orders in the church, he was afterwards appointed a prebendary of Canterbury.

    Saurin, Jacques : for notice of, as well as other members of the family, see pp. 253, 331.

    Savary : the family of Tanzia was originally of considerable importance in the province of Perigord, in the south-west of France. In the latter part of the sixteenth century a younger brother, holding the lands of Savary, becoming Protestant, was under the necessity of fleeing from France and taking refuge at Antwerp. His elder brother transmitted to him money for the maintenance of his family. The lineal descendant of this Tanzia de Savary entered the service of William of Orange, and came over with him to England, where he afterwards held the rank of colonel of horse. William made him a grant of land; he also owned property at Greenwich, on part of which the French church was built. Several tombstones erected to members of the family are still to be found in the churchyard of St. Alphage at Greenwich. There are still descendants of the Savary family in England, bearing the name. One of them informs us that “there are many interesting anecdotes and legends in the family:—of a buried Bible, afterwards recovered, and patched on every leaf; of a beautiful cloak made by a refugee, and given to my great-great-grandfather as a token of gratitude for help given by him in time of need; besides many others.” The lands of the family in Perigord were afterwards held by Savary, created by Napoleon I. Duc de Ruvigo.

    Say : a French Protestant family of Languedoc, of whom several members settled in England. One of them, Samuel Say, who died in 1743, was a dissenting minister in London; anothor, Francis-Samuel, was minister of the French church in Wheeler Street. Thomas Say emigrated to America and joined the Quakers; and his son was the well-known natural historian of the United States. Jean Baptiste Say, the celebrated writer on political economy, belonged to the same family.

    Schomberg , Dukes of: for notices of Frederick Armand, 1st duke, see pp. 200, 221; Charles, 2nd duke, p. 299; Menard, 3rd duke, pp. 225, 231.

    Simon : a family of artists originally from Normandy, who belonged to the Protestant church of Charenton, near Paris. John, a refugee in London, acquired great reputation as an engraver. He was employed by Sir Godfrey Kneller to engrave the portraits painted by him, a long list of which, as well as of his other works, is given by Haag. Simon died at London in 1755.

    St. Pierre : see Renouard.

    Tahorudin, Gabriel : a Protestant refugee from the province of Anjou, who came to England on the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes, leaving behind considerable landed property, which was confiscated. He was naturalised in 1687, and, settling in London, became a wealthy merchant. He died 29th November, 1730, and is still represented by his descendants, one of whom is an eminent London solicitor.

    Tanzia : see Savary.

    Tascher ; several refugees of this name were ministers of French churches in London at the beginning of the eighteenth century. Pierre de Tascher was a director of the French Hospital in 1727.

    Terrot : the De Terrots belonged to the petite noblesse, and held property in the neighbourhood of La Rochelle. They were Protestants, and fled into England at the Revocation. Many members of the family have held high offices in the army and the church. Among the former were Captain Charles Terrot (first commission dated 1716); Captain Samuel Terrot, R.A.; Captain Elias Terrot (killed in India); Captain C. E. Terrot, 63rd Regiment; and Colonel Elias Terrot (Indian service). And among the churchmen of the family may be mentioned the Rev. W. Terrot; vicar of Grindon, Durham; the Rev. C. P. Terrot, vicar of Wispington; and the Hon. and Rev. Dr. Charles Terrot, Bishop of Edinburgh. The Rev. William Terrot, above mentioned, was chaplain to the Royal Naval Asylum at Greenwich, and died more than thirty years since. When once asked to sign a petition in favour of Roman Catholic Emancipation, he declined, with the remark that “the Roman Catholics had kicked his family out of France, and he had no wished to be kicked back again.”

    Textard, Leon, Sieur Des Meslars ; a refugee who feigned to abjure under the terror of the dragonnades, and at length fled to England with his wife, a sister of James Fontaine, whom no terrors could shake. They settled in London, together with other members of the family.

    Textas ; two ministers of this name, related to the family of Chamier, took refuge in England after the Revocation.

    Teulon Or Tholon : an ancient family of Nismes, descended from Marc Tholon, Sieur de Guiral. Peter and Anthony fled from France at the time of the Revocation, and settled at Greenwich. Peter went into Ireland, and founded the Cork branch of the family. In the last generation there were three brothers—George, Charles, and Peter—who each attained the rank of lieutenant-colonel. Charles served with the 28th Regiment in the Peninsula and at Waterloo, where he was captain, and brought the regiment out of action. The present representatives are G. B. Teulon, Esq., of Bandon; Thomas, a major in the army; and Charles Peter, a barrister.—Anthony Teulon, of Greenwich, married Marie de la Roche, and left descendants. Among the present representatives of this branch may be named Seymour Teulon, Esq., of Limpsfield, Surrey, and Samuel Saunders and William Milford Teulon, the eminent architects. The Wagners of Sussex are also descended from Anthony Teulon, through the female line.—Another branch is settled in Scotland, represented by John Hall Teulon, son of Melchior Seymour Teulon, resident at Greenock, and Captain James Teulon.—Pierre Emile Teulon of Nismes, president of the council under the government of Louis Phillipe, belonged to a branch of the family remaining in France.

    Thelusson : originally a Protestant family of Lyons, which took refuge in Geneva. Peter Thelusson, son of John (an illustrious citizen of the Republic) settled in London in 1750, and acquired a large fortune by trade. He sat in Parliament—some time for Malmesbury. His son, Peter-Isaac, was created Baron Rendlesham.

    Thorius, Raphael : a physician and celebrated Latin poet, born in France, but a refugee in England because of his religion. He died in 1625, leaving behind him a son, John, who studied medicine at Oxford and became fellow of the College of Physicians of Dublin in 1627. He was the author of several medical works.

    Tradescant : the distinguished naturalist of this name belonged to a Protestant refugee family, originally from Flanders.

    Trench : see La Tranche andChenevix.

    Turquand, Peter : a Protestant refugee from Chatelherault, near Poitiers, who settled in London, where his descendants still flourish.

    Tyron, Peter : a wealthy refugee from Flanders, driven out by the persecutions of the Duke of Alva. He succeeded in bringing with him to England as large a sum as 60,000 pounds. The family made many alliances with English families of importance. Samuel, son of the original refugee, of Layer Marney in Essex, was made a baronet in 1621. The baronetcy expired in 1724.

    Tyssen, Francis : a refugee from Ghent in Flanders. His son of the same name became a thriving merchant in London. The family is at present represented by W. G. Tyssen Amhurst of Foulden in Norfolk, lord of the manor of Hackney.

    Unwin, Onwhyn : several refugees of this name came from the Low Countries in the time of the persecutions of the Duke of Alva; and there are three branches of them now settled in England,—one, the most numerous, in Essex and the eastern counties, another in Leicestershire, and the third in the neighbourhood of Sheffield. One of their descendants, settled in Yorkshire, thus writes; “They were from the first engaged in textile manufactures, and some members of the family still keep up that connection. I am not aware that any of the Unwins have risen to high eminence as public men; but there have never been wanting to the family men and women who have maintained its good name and standing, and who have been widely known and looked up to in those parts of the country where they have lived. The members of this family with whom the poet Cowper was on such intimate terms, and who brought so much comfort into his life, will be remembered by all English readers.”

    Vallancey : the predecessors of this noble family emigrated into England at the Revocation. They were originally known as De Vallencey, or L’Estampes de Vallencey. General Vallencey was an eminent military engineer, who served England ably during the late continental war.

    Vallentin : the De Vallentins of Eschepy, in Normandy, were among the refugees who settled in London after the Revocation. One of their descendants, James Vallentin, was recently Sheriff of London and Middlesex.

    Vanacker, John : a refugee from Lille in Flanders, who became a merchant in London. His grandson Nicolas, a Turkey merchant, was created a baronet in 1700.

    Vanbrugh : the original name of the family was Vandenbergh. They were from Antwerp, from whence they fled during the persecutions of the Duke of Alva. They first took refuge in Holland, and afterwards passed into England in the reign of Elizabeth. Some members of the family settled in Chester (of which the Rev. G. Vanburgh,rector of Aughton, Lancashire, was the last descendant bearing the name), and others in London. Sir John Vanburgh, the architect and dramatist, descended from the latter branch. His father, William Vandenbergh, was a merchant in Laurence-Pountney Lane, City.

    Vanderputt, Henry : born in Antwerp; he fled to England from the religious persecution in the Low Countries in 1568, and became a London merchant. His great-grandson Peter, also a London merchant, was sheriff of London in 1684, and created a baronet in 1723.

    Vanlore, Peter : a Protestant refugee from Utrecht. He became a celebrated London merchant, and was created a baronet in 1628.

    Varennes, John De : a French refugee, whose descendants remain in England. Ezekiel G. Varennes was recently a surgeon in Essex.

    Verneuil, John : a native of Bourdeaux, from which city he fled, on account of his religion, to England. He was a learned man, and was appointed sub-librarian at Oxford, where he died in 1647.

    Vicose, Guy De , Baron de la Court: a Protestant noble, who suffered frightful cruelties during the dragonhades. He took refuge in London, where we find him a director of the French Hospital in 1718, and governor in 1722.

    Victoria, Queen : for notice of her Huguenot descent, see p. 324.

    Vignoles : a noble Protestant family in Languedoc. Charles de Vignoles, fourth son of Jacques de Vignoles, seigneur de Prades, near Nismes, fled with his wife into Holland at the Revocation. He afterwards accompanied the Prince of Orange into England, fought in the Irish campaigns, and settled at Portarlington. Many members of the family have distinguished themselves in the army, the church, and the civil service. Dr. Vignoles, dean of Ossory, and Charles Vignoles. F.R.S., the eminent engineer, were presentatives of the family.

    Vilettes, Sebastian De : a country gentleman, lord of Montledier, near Castres. Like his ancestors, he was a Protestant, and suffered serious persecutions at the Revocation. The family fled from France, and took refuge in foreign lands; some in England, and others in Germany. The names of the De Vilettes frequently occur in the list of directors of the French Hospital. Amongst others, we observe those of Lieut.-General Henry Clinton de Vilettes in 1777, and of Major William de Vilettes in 1779.

    Villette, C. L. De : a minister of the French church in Dublin, and the author of numerous religious works.

    Waldo : Mr. Agnew gives particulars of this family. A person of this name fled from the Low Countries during the Duke of Alva’s persecutions, and settled near London. His son Robert founded a family at Deptford. Edward Waldo, in 1677, received the honour of knighthood from Charles II. There have been numerous clergymen, authors, knights, and members of Parliament, in this family. The late Colonel Sibthorp bore their name and arms.

    Wittenrong, Jacob ; a Protestant refugee from Ghent, in Flanders, who practised in London as a notary. His son became a brewer in London, and greatly prospered. He was knighted by Charles I. in 1640, and created a baronet, of Stantonbury, county Bucks, in 1662.

    Yver, John: a refugee pastor, who officiated as minister in several of the churches of the Refuge in London. He afterwards went to Holland, where he died.


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