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1 SAMUEL 23
1 David, enquiring of the Lord by Abiathar, rescues Keilah.
7 God shewing him the coming of Saul, and the treachery of
the Keilites, he escapes from Keilah.
14 In Ziph Jonathan comes and comforts him.
19 The Ziphites discover him to Saul.
25 At Maon he is rescued from Saul by the invasion of the
29 He dwells at En-gedi.
Keilah was a city of Judah, situated, according to Eusebius,
eight miles from Eleutheropolis, towards Hebron. Sozomen says
that the prophet Habakkuk's tomb was shewn there.
* Jos 15:44 Ne 3:17,18
- rob the.
* Le 26:16 De 28:33,51 Jud 6:4,11 Mic 6:15
In what way David made this enquiry we are not told; but it
was probably by means of Abiathar; and therefore it would
seem, that with Houbigant, we should read the sixth verse
immediately after the first.--This adventure was truly noble
and patriotic. Had not David loved his country, and been
above all motives of private and personal revenge, he would
have rejoiced in this invasion of Judea, as producing a strong
diversion in his favor, and embroiling his inveterate enemy.
In most cases, a man with David's wrongs would have joined
with the enemies of his country, and avenged himself on the
author of his calamities; but he thinks of nothing but
succoring Keilah, and using his power and influence in behalf
of his brethren.
* :4,6,9-12; 30:8 Nu 27:21 Jos 9:14 Jud 1:1 2Sa 5:19,23
* 1Ch 14:10 Ps 32:8 Pr 3:5,6 Jer 10:23
* :15,23,26 Ps 11:1 Jer 12:5
- yet again.
* 1Sa 28:6 Jud 6:39
- for I will.
* Jos 8:7 Jud 7:7 2Sa 5:19 2Ki 3:18
- when Abiathar.
* 1Sa 22:20
- an ephod.
* 1Sa 14:3,18,36,37 Ex 28:30,31
- A.M. 2943. B.C. 1061. An. Ex. Is. 430. God hath.
* :14; 24:4-6; 26:8,9 Ps 71:10,11
- he is shut.
* Ex 14:3; 15:9 Jud 16:2,3 Job 20:5 Lu 19:43,44
* Jer 11:18,19 Ac 9:24; 14:6; 23:16-18
* :6; 14:18; 30:7 Nu 27:21 Jer 33:3
- destroy the city.
* :8; 22:19 Ge 18:24 Es 3:6 Pr 28:15 Ro 3:15,16
- And the Lord.
* Ps 50:15 Jer 33:3 Mt 7:7,8
- deliver. Heb. shut up.
* Ps 31:8
- They will.
* :7 Ps 62:1; 118:8 Ec 9:14,15 Isa 29:15 Heb 4:13
- six hundred.
* 1Sa 22:2; 25:13; 30:9,10
- a mountain.
* Ps 11:1-3
- the wilderness.
Ziph is mentioned in Joshua with Carmel and Maon, near which
it seems to have been situated; and as we have mention of
Carmel and Maon in the history of David, as adjoining to Ziph,
it cannot be doubted that by the Ziph, in the wilderness of
which David now lay, and where was the hill of Hachilah, is to
be understood Ziph near Carmel and Maon.
* Jos 15:24,55
* 1Sa 27:1 Ps 54:3,4 Pr 1:16; 4:16
- but God.
* :7 Ps 32:7; 37:32,33; 54:3,4 Pr 21:30 Jer 36:26 Ro 8:31
* 2Ti 3:11; 4:17,18
- life. Heb. nephesh, soul.
* Ge 44:30
* De 3:28 Ne 2:18 Job 4:3,4; 16:5 Pr 27:9,17 Ec 4:9-12
* Isa 35:3,4 Eze 13:22 Lu 22:32,43 Eph 6:10 2Ti 2:1
* Heb 12:12,13
- Fear not.
* Isa 41:10,14 Heb 13:6
- shall not.
* Job 5:11-15 Ps 27:1-3; 46:1,2; 91:1,2 Pr 14:26 Isa 54:17
- thou shalt be.
* Lu 12:32
- I shall be.
* Pr 19:21 Ac 28:16 Ro 15:24
- that also Saul.
* 1Sa 20:31; 24:20 Ac 5:39
* 1Sa 18:3; 20:12-17,42 2Sa 9:1; 21:7
- the Ziphites.
* 1Sa 22:7,8; 26:1 Ps 54:1 *title
* Ps 54:3,4 Pr 29:12
Calmet states, that Hachilah was a mountain about ten miles
south of Jericho, where Jonathan Maccabaeus built the castle of
Massada, west of the Dead Sea, and not far from En-gedi.
* 1Sa 26:1,3
- on the south. Heb. on the right hand. Jeshimon. or, the
Eusebius places Jeshimon ten miles south of Jericho, near the
Dead Sea; which agrees extremely well with the position of
Hachilah, as stated by Calmet.
- all the desire.
* De 18:6 2Sa 3:21 Ps 112:10 Pr 11:23
- our part.
* 1Ki 21:11-14 2Ki 10:5-7 Ps 54:3 Pr 29:26
* 1Sa 22:8 Jud 17:2 Ps 10:3 Isa 66:5 Mic 3:11
- haunt is. Heb. foot shall be.
* Job 5:13
- take knowledge.
* Mr 14:1,10,11 Joh 18:2,3
- I will search.
* 2Sa 17:11-13 1Ki 18:10 Pr 1:16 Ro 3:15,16
- the thousands.
* Nu 10:36 Mic 5:2
- the wilderness.
Maon, from which the adjoining mountainous district derived
its name, was city in the most southern parts of the tribe of
Judah, and a neighboring town to Carmel. Hence Nabal (ch.
2 25:2) is described as a man of Maon, whose possessions were in
Carmel; and though he might dwell generally in Maon, yet he is
styled Nabal the Carmelite, from the place where his estate
lay. Calmet supposes it to be the city Mino‹s, which Eusebius
places in the vicinity of Gaza; and the Moenoemi Castrum,
which the Theodosian code places near Beersheba.
* 1Sa 25:2 Jos 15:55
- the south.
- into a rock. or, from the rock.
* :28 Jud 15:8
- David made haste.
* 1Sa 19:12; 20:38 2Sa 15:14; 17:21,22 Ps 31:22
* 2Ch 20:12 Ps 17:9,11; 22:12,16; 118:11-13; 140:1-9 2Co 1:8
* Re 20:9
- there came.
* Ge 22:14 De 32:36 2Ki 19:9 Ps 116:3
- the Philistines.
* 2Ki 19:9 Re 12:16
- invaded. Heb. spread themselves upon.
* 1Ch 14:13
- Sela-hammahlekoth. that is, the rock of divisions.
Because, says the Targum, "the heart of the king was divided
to go hither and thither." Here Saul was obliged to separate
himself from David, in order to go and oppose the invading
Philistines; which deliverance of David was of such a nature
as made the Divine interposition fully visible.
- strong holds.
The district around En-gedi, near the western coast of the
Dead Sea, is reported by travellers to be a mountainous
territory, filled with caverns; and consequently, proper for
David in his present circumstances. Dr. Lightfoot thinks this
was the wilderness of Judah, in which David was when he penned
the 63rd Psalm, which breathes as much pious and devout
affection as almost any of his Psalms; for in all places and
in all conditions he still kept up his communion with God.--If
Christians knew their privileges better, and acted up thereto,
there would be less murmuring at the dark dispensations of
* 1Sa 24:1 Ge 14:7 Jos 15:62 2Ch 20:2 So 1:14 Eze 47:10
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