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  • Treasury of Scripture Knowledge -
    1 SAMUEL 14

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      1  Jonathan goes and miraculously smites the Philistine's
        garrison.
    15  A divine terror makes them beat themselves.
    17  Saul, not staying the priest's answer, sets on them.
    21  The captivated Hebrews, and the hidden Israelites, join
        against them.
    24  Saul's unadvised adjuration hinders the victory.
    31  He restrains the people from eating blood.
    35  He builds an altar.
    37  Jonathan, taken by lot, is save by the people.
    47  Saul's victories, strength, and family.
    
    
    VERSE 1
    - A.M. 2917.  B.C. 1087.  An. Ex. Is. 404.  it came to pass
      upon a day.  or, there was a day.  Jonathan.
       * :39-45; 13:2,22; 18:1-4 2Sa 1:4,5,25,26
    - he told not.
       * 1Sa 25:19 Jud 6:27; 14:6 Mic 7:5
    
    
    VERSE 2 
     - in the uttermost.
       * 1Sa 13:15,16 Isa 10:28,29
    - a pomegranate.
      The word {rimmon,} in Arabic {romman,} whence the Portuguese
      {romaa,} denotes the pomegranate, both tree and fruit; called
      by naturalists {malus punica} or {malo-granatum.}  It is,
      according to the Linnean system, a genus of the {icosandria
      monogynia} class of plants; and is a low tree, growing very
      common in Palestine, and other parts of the East.  It has
      several small angular boughs, very thick and bushy, covered
      with a reddish bark, and some of them armed with sharp thorns.
      They are garnished with small, narrow, spear-shaped leaves,
      like those of the myrtle, but not so sharp, of a green color,
      inclining to red.  Its blossoms are large, beautiful, of an
      elegant red color, inclining to purple, composed of several
      stalks resembling a rose, in the hollow of the cup:  this cup
      is oblong, hard, purple, having a figure somewhat like that of
      a bell.  It is chiefly valued for its fruit, which is
      exceedingly beautiful, of the form and size of a large apple,
      with a reddish rind, and red within; being full of small
      kernels, with red grains, replenished with a generous liquor,
      of which, Sir John Chardin informs us, they still make
      considerable quantities of wine in the East, particularly in
      Persia.  But as the pomegranate tree, from its low growth, is
      but little adapted for pitching a tent under, it is probable
      that Rimmon here is the name of the rock mentioned in Jud
      45 20:45.
    
    
    VERSE 3 
     - Ahiah.
       * 1Sa 22:9-12,20
    - called Ahimelech.  I-chabod's.
       * 1Sa 4:21
    - wearing.
       * 1Sa 2:28 Ex 28:26-32
    
    
    VERSE 4 
     - the passages.
       * 1Sa 13:23
    
    
    VERSE 5 
     - forefront.  Heb. tooth.
       * :4
    - Bozez.  i.e., shining.  Seneh.  i.e., a bush or tooth.
    
    
    VERSE 6 
     - Come.
      This action of Jonathan's was totally contrary to the laws of
      war; no military operation should be undertaken without the
      knowledge and command of the general.  But it is highly
      probable, that this gallant man was led to undertake the
      hazardous enterprise by an immediate divine impulse; and by
      the same influence was kept from informing the soldiers, and
      even from consulting his father, who might have opposed his
      design.
    
    - uncircumcised.
       * 1Sa 17:26,36 Ge 17:7-11 Jud 15:18 2Sa 1:20 Jer 9:23,26
       * Eph 2:11,12 Php 3:3
    - it may be.
       * 2Sa 16:12 2Ki 19:4 Am 5:15 Zep 2:3
    - for there is no restraint.
      Where there is a promise of defense and support, the weakest,
      in the face of the strongest enemy, may rely upon it with the
      utmost confidence.
    
       * De 32:30 Jud 7:4-7 2Ch 14:11 Ps 115:1-3 Zec 4:6 Mt 19:26
       * Ro 8:31
    
    
    VERSE 7 
     - Do all.
       * 1Sa 10:7 2Sa 7:3 Ps 46:7 Zec 8:23
    
    
    VERSE 8 
     - we will pass.
       * Jud 7:9-14
    
    
    VERSE 9 
     - they.
       * Ge 24:13,14 Jud 6:36-40
    - Tarry.  Heb. Be still.
    
    
    VERSE 10 
     - this shall be a sign.
       * 1Sa 10:7 Ge 24:14 Jud 7:11 Isa 7:11-14
    
    
    VERSE 11 
     - out of the holes.
       * :22; 13:6 Jud 6:2
    
    
    VERSE 12 
     - Come up to us.
      Meaning, that they would cause them to repent of their
      audacity.  This was the favorable sign which Jonathan had
      requested.
    
       * :10; 17:43,44 2Sa 2:14-17 2Ki 14:8
    - Come up after me.
       * Ge 24:26,27,42,48 Jud 4:14; 7:15 2Sa 5:24
    
    
    VERSE 13 
     - climbed up.
       * Ps 18:29 Heb 11:34
    - fell.
       * Le 26:7,8 De 28:7; 32:30 Jos 23:10 Ro 8:31
    
    
    VERSE 14 
     - an half acre of land.  or, half a furrow of an acre of land.
      The original is obscure and variously understood; but it is
      probably a proverbial expression for a small space.
    
       * :14
    
    
    VERSE 15 
     - there was trembling.
       * Jos 2:9 Jud 7:21 2Ki 7:6,7 Job 18:11 Ps 14:5
    - the spoilers.
       * 1Sa 13:17,23
    - the earth quaked.
       * Ex 19:18 Mt 24:6; 27:50,51
    - very great trembling.  Heb. trembling of God.
       * Ge 35:5 Le 26:36,37 2Sa 5:24 Da 5:6
      God will in some way or other direct the steps of those who
      acknowledge him in all their ways, and seek unto him for
      direction with full purpose of heart.  Sometimes we find most
      comfort in that which is least our own doing, and into which
      we have been led by the unexpected, but well observed, turns
      of Providence.
    
    
    VERSE 16 
     - melted away.
       * Ps 58:7; 68:2
    - beating down.
       * :20 Jud 7:22 2Ch 20:22-25 Isa 19:2
    
    VERSE 17
    
    
    VERSE 18 
     - Bring hither.
      The Septuagint reads [                                      .]
      "Bring hither the ephod; for he bore the ephod on that day
      before Israel:"  which Houbigant and others think is the true
      reading.  Finding that his son Jonathan and his armor-bearer
      were absent, Saul wished to consult the high-priest; but the
      tumult increasing, he says to him, "Withdraw thine hand:"
      i.e., desist form consulting the ephod on the present
      occasion, and immediately hastened to make the best use he
      could of this astonishing victory.
    
       * 1Sa 4:3-5; 30:8 Nu 27:21 Jud 20:18,23,27,28 2Sa 11:11; 15:24-26
    - For the ark.
       * 1Sa 5:2; 7:1
    
    
    VERSE 19 
     - noise.  or, tumult.  Withdraw.
       * :24; 13:11 Jos 9:14 Ps 106:13 Isa 28:16
    
    
    VERSE 20 
     - assembled themselves.  Heb. were cried together.  every
      man's.
       * :16 Jud 7:22 2Ch 20:23 Isa 9:19-21; 19:2
    
    
    VERSE 21 
     - the Hebrews.
      Probably such as they held in bondage, or who were their
      servants.  Instead of (h„ivrim,} "the Hebrews," the LXX.
      evidently read {haƒvdim,} for they have [             ,] "the
      slaves;" but this reading is not countenanced by any other
      version, nor by any MS.
    
       * 1Sa 29:4 Jud 7:23
    
    
    VERSE 22 
     - hid themselves.
       * 1Sa 13:6; 31:7
    - the battle.
      The LXX. and Vulgate add here, [                            ,]
      {Et erant cum Saul, quasi decem millia virorum.}  "And [all
      the people who were, LXX.] there were with Saul about ten
      thousand men;" but this is supported by no other authority.
    
    
    VERSE 23 
     - the Lord.
       * Ex 14:30 Jud 2:18 2Ki 14:27 Ps 44:6-8 Ho 1:7
    - Beth-aven.
       * 1Sa 13:5
    
    
    VERSE 24 
     - Cursed.
       * :27-30 Le 27:29 Nu 21:2 De 27:15-26 Jos 6:17-19,26 Jud 11:30
       * Jud 11:31; 21:1-5 Pr 11:9 Ro 10:2 1Co 16:22
    - I may be.
       * Jud 5:2; 1:28 Ps 18:47
    
    
    VERSE 25 
     - all they.
       * De 9:28 Mt 3:5
    - honey.
      This was wild honey, which to this day abounds in Judea; and
      bursting from the comb, runs down the hollow trees, rocks,
      etc.
    
       * Ex 3:8 Nu 13:27 Mt 3:4
    
    
    VERSE 26 
     - the people.
       * Ec 9:2
    
    
    VERSE 27 
     - his eyes.
       * :29; 30:12 Pr 25:26
    
    
    VERSE 28 
     - Cursed.  See on ver.
       * :24,43
    - faint.  or, weary.
    
    
    VERSE 29 
     - My father.
       * 1Ki 18:18
    - see.
      It is well known, that hunger and fatigue produce faintness
      and dim the sight; and on taking a little food, this affection
      is immediately removed.
    
    
    VERSE 30 
     - had there.
       * Ec 9:18
    
    
    VERSE 31 
     - from Michmash.
      The distance, Calmet states to be three or four leagues.
    
    - Aijalon.
       * Jos 10:12; 19:42
    
    
    VERSE 32 
     - flew.
       * 1Sa 15:19
    - the people.
      The people having abstained from food the whole of the day,
      and being now faint through hunger and fatigue, they flew upon
      the cattle, and not taking time to bleed them properly, they
      eagerly devoured the flesh with the blood, directly contrary
      to the law--another bad effect of Saul's rash adjuration.
    
    - did eat.
       * Ge 9:4 Le 3:17; 7:26,27; 17:10-14; 19:26 De 12:16,23,24
       * Eze 33:25 Ac 15:20,29
    
    
    VERSE 33 
     - transgressed.  or, dealt treacherously.
       * Mt 7:5 Ro 2:1
    
    
    VERSE 34 
     - with him.  Heb. in his hand.
       * :34
    
    
    VERSE 35 
     - built.
      It is probable that Saul converted the great stone, on which
      the cattle had been slaughtered, into an altar, on which
      sacrifices were offered, before the people attempted to
      proceed any further.  This we are told was the first he had
      built.  Samuel, as a prophet and priest, had hitherto erected
      the altars, but Saul seems to have thought he had sufficient
      authority to erect one himself, without the prophet, as he had
      once offered sacrifice without him.
    
       * 1Sa 7:9,17 Jud 21:4 Ho 8:14 2Ti 3:5
    - the same, etc.  Heb. that altar he began to build unto the
      Lord.
    
    
    VERSE 36 
     - Let us go.
       * Jos 10:9-14,19 Jer 6:5
    - let us not leave.
       * 1Sa 11:11 Jos 11:14
    - Then said the priest.
      It is evident that Ahiah, who had before been interrupted by
      Saul's impatience, doubted of the propriety of pursuing the
      Philistines that night, and properly counselled them to
      enquire of the Lord.
    
       * Nu 27:21 Ps 73:28 Isa 48:1,2; 58:2 Mal 2:7 Jas 8 4:8
    
    
    VERSE 37 
     - Shall I go.
       * 1Sa 23:4,9-12; 30:7,8 Jud 1:1; 20:18,28 2Sa 5:19,23 1Ki 22:5,15
    - he answered.
       * 1Sa 28:6 Eze 14:3-5; 20:3
    
    
    VERSE 38 
     - Draw ye near.
       * 1Sa 10:19,20 Jos 7:14-26
    - chief.  Heb. corners.
       * Nu 24:17 Jud 20:2 2Sa 18:3 Ps 47:9 Zec 10:4 Mt 21:42 Eph 2:20
    
    VERSE 39
        * :24,44; 19:6; 20:31; 22:16; 28:10 2Sa 12:5 Ec 9:2
    
    
    VERSE 40 
     - Do what seemeth.
       * :7,36 2Sa 15:15
    
    
    VERSE 41 
     - Therefore.
      Both the Septuagint and Vulgate add much to this verse:  [
                                                                 .]
      {Et dixit Saul ad Dominum Deum Israel; Domine Deus Israel da
      indicium:  quid est quod non responderis servo tuo hodie?  Si
      in me, aut in Jonatha filio meo est iniquitas haec, da
      ostensionem:  aut si haec iniquitas est in populo tuo, da
      sanctitatem, etc.}  "And Saul said [to the Lord God of Israel,
      Vulg.] Lord God of Israel [give a sign, Vulg.]  Why is it that
      thou has not answered thy servant to-day?  If the iniquity be
      in me, or in my son Jonathan, [O Lord God of Israel, LXX.]
      make it manifest; and if thou say thus, give to thy people
      Israel, give mercy," etc., [but Vulg.  Or, if this iniquity be
      in thy people, give sanctification," etc.]
    
    - Give a perfect lot.  or, Shew the innocent.
       * Pr 16:33 Ac 1:24
    - And Saul.
       * 1Sa 10:20,21 Jos 7:16-18 Jon 1:7
    - escaped.  Heb. went forth.
    
    VERSE 42
    
    
    VERSE 43 
     - Tell me.
       * Jos 7:19 Jon 1:7-10
    - I did but.
       * :27
    
    
    VERSE 44 
     - God.
       * 1Sa 25:22 Ru 1:17 2Sa 3:9; 19:13
    - thou shalt.  See on ver.
       * :39 Ge 38:24 2Sa 12:5,31 Pr 25:16
    
    
    VERSE 45 
     - who hath.
       * :23; 19:5 Ne 9:27
    - there shall not.
      The people judged rightly, that the guilt was contracted by
      Saul, and not by Jonathan; and therefore they rescued him from
      the hands of his rash and severe father.
    
       * 2Sa 14:11 1Ki 1:52 Mt 10:30 Lu 21:18 Ac 27:34
    - he hath.
       * 2Ch 19:11 Isa 13:3 Ac 14:27; 15:12; 21:19 Ro 15:18 1Co 3:9
       * 2Co 6:1 Php 2:12,13 Re 17:14; 19:14
    - the people.
       * Isa 29:20,21
    
    VERSE 46
    
    
    VERSE 47 
     - Saul.
       * 1Sa 13:1
    - fought.
       * 2Ki 14:27
    - Ammon.
       * 1Sa 11:11; 12:2
    - Zobah.
       * 2Sa 10:6 1Ki 11:23
    
    
    VERSE 48 
     - gathered an host.  or, wrought mightily.  smote.
       * 1Sa 15:3-7 Ex 17:14 De 25:19
    
    
    VERSE 49 
     - Jonathan.
       * 1Sa 31:2 1Ch 8:33; 9:39
    - name of the first-born.
       * 1Sa 18:7-21; 25:44 2Sa 3:13-16; 6:20-23
    
    
    VERSE 50 
     - the name of the captain.
       * 1Sa 17:55 2Sa 2:8; 3:27
    - Abner.  Heb. Abiner.
    
    
    VERSE 51 
     - Kish.
       * 1Sa 9:1,21
    
    
    VERSE 52 
     - when Saul.
       * 1Sa 8:1,11
    
    
    
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