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  • Treasury of Scripture Knowledge -
    1 SAMUEL 17

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      1  The armies of the Israelites and Philistines being ready to
        battle,
     4  Goliath challenges a combat.
    12  David, sent by his father to visit his brethren, takes the
        challenge.
    28  Eliab chides him.
    30  He is brought to Saul;
    32  shews the reason of his confidence;
    38  and slays the giant.
    55  Saul takes notice of David.
    
    
    VERSE 1
    - gathered.
       * 1Sa 7:7; 13:5; 14:46,52 Jud 3:3
    - Shochoh.
       * Jos 15:35
    - Socoh.
       * 2Ch 11:7
    - Shoco.
       * 2Ch 28:18
    - Shocho.  Azekah.
       * Jos 10:10,11; 15:35 Jer 34:7
    - Ephes-dammim.  or, the coast of Dammim.
       * 1Ch 11:13
    - Pas-dammim.
    
    
    VERSE 2 
     - the valley.
       * :19; 21:9
    - set the battle in array.  Heb. ranged the battle.
    
    VERSE 3
    
    
    VERSE 4 
     - Goliath.
       * :23; 21:9,10 2Sa 21:19 1Ch 20:5
    - of Gath.
       * 1Sa 27:4 Jos 11:22 2Sa 21:16-22 1Ch 20:4-8
    - whose height.
       * De 3:11 1Ch 11:23 Am 2:9
    - six cubits.
      According to Bp. Cumberland's calculation, the height of
      Goliath was about eleven feet ten inches; but Parkhurst
      estimating the ordinary cubit at seventeen inches and a half,
      calculates that he was nine feet six inches high.  Few
      instances can be produced of men who can be compared with him.
      Pliny says, "The tallest man that hath been seen in our days
      was one name Gabara, who, in the days of Claudius, the late
      Emperor, was brought out of Arabia:  he was nine feet nine
      inches."  Josephus mentions a Jew, named Eleazar, whom
      Vitellius sent to Rome, who was seven cubits, or ten feet two
      inches high.  Becanus saw a man near ten feet, and a woman
      that was full ten feet.  And, to mention no more, a man of the
      name of John Middleton, born at Hale, near Warrington, in
      Lancashire, in the reign of James the First, was more than
      nine feet high.  Dr. Plott, in his history of Staffordshire,
      says, that "his hand, from the carpus to the end of the middle
      finger, was seventeen inches, his palms eight inches and a
      half broad, and his whole height was nine feet three inches;
      wanting but six inches of the height of Goliath of Gath."
    
    
    VERSE 5 
     - armed.  Heb. clothed.
       * :38
    
    
    VERSE 6 
     - target of brass.  or, gorget.
       * 1Ki 10:16 2Ch 9:15
    
    
    VERSE 7 
     - the staff.
       * 2Sa 21:19 1Ch 11:23; 20:5
    
    
    VERSE 8 
     - servants to Saul.
       * :26; 8:17 2Sa 11:11 1Ch 21:3
    
    
    VERSE 9 
     - and serve us.
       * 1Sa 11:1
    
    
    VERSE 10 
     - I defy.
       * :25,26,36,45 Nu 23:7,8 2Sa 21:21; 23:9 Ne 2:19
    - give me.
       * Job 40:9-12 Ps 9:4,5 Pr 16:18 Jer 9:23 Da 4:37
    
    
    VERSE 11 
     - dismayed.
       * De 31:8 Jos 1:9 Ps 27:1 Pr 28:1 Isa 51:12,13; 57:11
    
    
    VERSE 12 
     - David.
       * :58; 16:1,18 Ru 4:22 Mt 1:6 Lu 3:31,32
    - Ephrathite.
       * Ge 35:19 Ps 132:6 Mic 5:2 Mt 2:1,6
    - eight sons.
       * 1Sa 16:10,11 1Ch 2:13-16
    
    
    VERSE 13 
     - the names.
       * :28; 16:6-9 1Ch 2:13
    - Shammah.
       * 2Sa 13:3,32; 21:21
    - Shimeah.
    
    
    VERSE 14 
     - the youngest.
       * 1Sa 16:11 Ge 25:23
    
    
    VERSE 15 
     - returned.
       * 1Sa 16:11,19-23
    
    
    VERSE 16 
     - forty days.
       * Mt 4:2 Lu 4:2
    
    
    VERSE 17 
     - Take now.
       * Mt 7:11 Lu 11:13
    - parched corn.
       * 1Sa 25:18 Ru 2:14 2Sa 17:28
    
    
    VERSE 18 
     - carry.
       * 1Sa 16:20
    - cheeses.  Heb. cheeses of milk.
       * 2Sa 17:29 Job 10:10
    - their thousand.  Heb. a thousand.  look.
       * Ge 37:14 Ac 15:36 1Th 3:5,6
    
    
    VERSE 19 
     - the valley.
      Dr. Richardson says, that in about twenty minutes, in an
      easterly direction, form the cave of St. John, (which is about
      two hours or six miles, in a westerly direction, from
      Jerusalem,) they came to the valley of Elah; which position
      seems to agree with that of Shochoh and Azekah.  He describes
      it as "a small valley, and the place of the encampment is
      pointed out where it narrows into a broad, deep ravine; part
      of it was in crop, and part of it was under the plough, which
      was drawn by a couple of oxen.  A small stream, which had
      shrunk almost under its stony bed, passes through it from east
      to west, from which we are informed that David chose out five
      smooth stones, and hasted and ran to meet the haughty champion
      of Gath.  A well of water under the bank, with a few olive
      trees above, on the north side of the valley, are said to mark
      the spot of the shepherd's triumph over his boasting
      antagonist.  Saul and his men probably occupied the side of
      the valley which is nearest to Jerusalem, on which the ground
      is higher and more rugged than on the other side."
    
       * :19
    
    
    VERSE 20 
     - left the sheep.
       * :28 Eph 6:1,2
    - trench.  or, place of the carriage.
       * 1Sa 26:5 Lu 19:43
    - fight.  or, battle array, or place of fight.
    
    VERSE 21
    
    
    VERSE 22 
     - his carriage.  Heb. the vessels from upon him.  saluted his
      brethren.  Heb. asked his brethren of peace.
       * Ge 37:14 Jud 18:15 Mt 10:12,13 Lu 10:5,6
    
    
    VERSE 23 
     - according.
       * :4-10
    
    
    VERSE 24 
     - him.  Heb. his face.
       * 1Sa 13:6,7
    - sore.
       * :11 Le 26:36 Nu 13:33 De 32:30 Isa 7:2; 30:17
    
    
    VERSE 25 
     - the king.
       * 1Sa 18:17-27 Jos 15:16 Re 2:7,17; 3:5,12,21
    - free in Israel.
       * Ezr 7:24 Mt 17:26
    
    
    VERSE 26 
     - reproach.
       * 1Sa 11:2 Jos 7:8,9 2Ki 19:4 Ne 5:9 Ps 44:13; 74:18; 79:12 Da 9:16
       * Joe 2:19
    - uncircumcised.
       * :36; 14:6
    - defy.
       * :10 De 5:26 Jer 10:10 1Th 1:9 1Jo 5:20
    
    
    VERSE 27 
     - So shall it.
       * :25
    
    
    VERSE 28 
     - Eliab's anger.
       * 1Sa 16:13 Ge 37:4,8,11 Pr 18:19; 27:4 Ec 4:4 Mt 10:36; 27:18
       * Mr 3:21
    - with.
       * :20
    - I know.
       * 1Sa 16:7 Ps 35:11 Jude 1:10
    
    VERSE 29
        * Pr 15:1 Ac 11:2-4 1Co 2:15 1Pe 3:9
    
    
    VERSE 30 
     - manner.  Heb. word.
       * :26,27
    
    
    VERSE 31 
     - sent for him.  Heb. took him.
       * Pr 22:29
      The preceding twenty verses, from the 12th to the 31st
      inclusive, the 41st, and from the 54th to the end of this
      chapter, with the five first verses and the 9th, 10th, 11th,
      17th, 18th, and 19th, of ch. 18, are all wanting in the
      Vatican copy of the LXX.; and they are supposed by Dr.
      Kennicott, and others, to be an interpolation.  But, as Bp.
      Horsley observes, it appears, from many circumstances of the
      story, that David's combat with Goliath was many years prior
      to Saul's madness, and David's introduction to him as a
      musician.  In the first place, David was quite a youth when he
      engaged with Goliath, (ver. 33, 42:)  when introduced to Saul
      he was of full age, (ch. 18 16:18.)  Again, this combat was his
      first appearance in public life, and his first military
      exploit, (ver. 36, 38, 39:) when introduced as a musician, he
      was a man of established character, and a man of war (ch.
      18 16:18.)  Now the just conclusion is, that the last ten verses
      of ch. 16 have been misplaced; their true place being between
      the ninth and tenth verses of ch. 18.  Let them be removed
      there, and the whole apparent disorder will be removed.
    
    
    VERSE 32 
     - Let.
       * Nu 13:30; 14:9 De 20:1-3 Isa 35:4 Heb 12:12
    - thy.
       * 1Sa 14:6; 16:18 Jos 14:12 Ps 3:6; 27:1-3
    
    
    VERSE 33 
     - Thou art not.
       * Nu 13:31 De 9:2 Ps 11:1 Re 13:4
    - for thou are but.
       * :42,56
    
    
    VERSE 34 
     - and.
       * Ge 8:22
    - lamb.  or, kid.
       * Ex 12:3
    
    
    VERSE 35 
     - smote him.
       * Jud 14:5,6 2Sa 23:20 Ps 91:13 Da 6:22 Am 3:12 Ac 28:4-6
       * 2Ti 4:17,18
    
    
    VERSE 36 
     - this.
       * :26 Eze 32:19,27-32 Ro 2:28,29
    - seeing.
       * :10 Isa 10:15; 36:8-10,15,18; 37:22,23,28,29 Zec 2:8; 12:3
       * Ac 5:38,39; 9:4,5; 12:1,2,22,23
    
    
    VERSE 37 
     - The Lord.
       * 1Sa 7:12 Ps 11:1; 18:16,17; 63:7; 77:11; 138:3,7,8 2Co 1:9,10
       * 2Ti 4:17,18
    - Go.
       * 1Sa 20:13; 24:19; 26:25 2Sa 10:12 1Ch 22:11,16
    
    
    VERSE 38 
     - armed David with his armor.  Heb. clothed David with his
      clothes.
       * :5
    
    
    VERSE 39 
     - put them off.
       * Ho 1:7 Zec 4:6 2Co 10:4,5
    
    
    VERSE 40 
     - staff.
       * Jud 3:31; 7:16-20; 15:15,16; 20:16 1Co 1:27-29
    - brook.  or, valley.  bag.  Heb. vessel.
       * Mt 10:10
    
    VERSE 41
    
    
    VERSE 42 
     - disdained.
       * 1Ki 20:18 2Ki 18:23,24 Ne 4:2-4 Ps 123:3,4 2Co 11:27-29
    - a youth.
       * :33; 16:12
    
    
    VERSE 43 
     - Am.
       * 1Sa 24:14 2Sa 3:8; 9:8; 16:9 2Ki 8:13
    - cursed.
       * Ge 27:29 Nu 22:6,11,12 Jud 9:27 Pr 26:2
    
    
    VERSE 44 
     - Come to me.
       * 1Ki 20:10,11 Pr 18:12 Ec 9:11,12 Jer 9:23 Eze 28:2,9,10
       * Eze 39:17-20
    - I will give.
      Parallel instances of vaunting occur in some writers of a more
      recent date:--The conspirators against the emperor Maximinus
      having slain him, his son, and several of his best friends,
      threw out their bodies to be devoured by dogs and the fowls of
      the air.  This custom appears to have been frequently
      threatened; and, however shocking to human feelings, was often
      carried into effect.
    
    
    VERSE 45 
     - Thou comest.
       * Ps 44:6
    - in the name.
       * 2Sa 22:33-35 2Ch 32:8 Ps 3:8; 18:2; 20:5-7; 118:10,11; 124:8
       * Ps 125:1 Pr 18:10 2Co 3:5; 10:4 Php 4:13 Heb 11:33,34
    - defied.
       * :10,26,36 Isa 37:23,28
    
    
    VERSE 46 
     - will the Lord.
       * De 7:2,23; 9:2,3 Jos 10:8
    - deliver thee.  Heb. shut thee up.
       * Ps 31:8
    - take thine.
       * :51
    - carcases.
       * :44 De 28:26 Isa 56:9 Mt 24:28 Re 19:17,18
    - all the earth.
       * Ex 9:16; 15:14,15 Jos 4:24 1Ki 8:43; 18:36,37 2Ki 19:19
       * Ps 46:10 Isa 52:10 Da 2:47; 3:29; 6:26,27
    
    
    VERSE 47 
     - saveth not.
       * Ps 33:16,17; 44:6,7 Pr 21:30,31 Ho 1:7
    - the battle.
       * 1Sa 14:6 2Ch 20:15-17 Ps 46:11 Isa 9:7 Zec 4:6 Ro 8:31,37
    
    
    VERSE 48 
     - David hasted.
       * Ps 27:1 Pr 28:1
    
    
    VERSE 49 
     - smote.
       * 1Ki 22:34 2Ki 9:24 1Co 1:27,28
    
    
    VERSE 50 
     - So David prevailed.
      The tradition of the combat between David and Goliath, in
      which the latter was killed, is preserved among the Arabs; for
      he is mentioned in the Koran, where he is called Galut or
      Jalut.  The Arabs also call the dynasty of the Philistine
      kings, who reigned in Palestine when the Hebrews came there,
      Galutiah, or Jalutiah.  Achmed Al Fassi says, "Those kings
      were as well known by the name of Jalaut, as the ancient kings
      of Egypt by that of Pharaoh.  David killed the Jalaut who
      reigned in his time, and entirely rooted out the Philistines,
      the rest of whom fled into Africa, and from them descended the
      Brebers or Berbers, who inhabit the coast of Barbary."  It is
      remarkable that the Berbers themselves should acknowledge
      their descent from the Philistines.  "The name Goliath, which
      they pronounce Sghi...lud, is very common among the Brebers, and
      the history of the champion of the Philistines is very well
      known to the Moors.  When children quarrel, and the bigger one
      challenges the smaller to fight the latter answers, 'Who will
      fight with you?  {Enta men ulid Sgi...lud.}  You are of the race
      of Golaith.'  The Jews who dwell among them, on the mountains,
      all call them Philistines."
    
       * 1Sa 21:9; 23:21 Jud 3:31; 15:15
    - but there was.
       * :39; 13:22
    
    
    VERSE 51 
     - his sword.
       * 1Sa 21:9 2Sa 23:21 Es 7:10 Ps 7:15,16 Heb 2:14
    - cut off.
       * :46
    - fled.
       * Heb 11:34
    
    
    VERSE 52 
     - the men of Israel.
       * 1Sa 14:21,22 Jud 7:23 2Sa 23:10
    - valley.
       * Jos 15:33-36,45,46
    
    
    VERSE 53 
     - they spoiled.
       * 2Ki 7:7-16 Jer 4:20; 30:16
    
    
    VERSE 54 
     - took the head.
       * 1Sa 21:9 Ex 16:33 Jos 4:7,8
    
    
    VERSE 55 
     - whose son.
       * :58; 16:21,22
    
    VERSE 56
    
    
    VERSE 57 
     - the head.
       * :54
    
    
    VERSE 58 
     - Whose son.
      To account for the apparent inconsistency of Saul not knowing
      David, see the Note at the end of ver. 31.
    
    - I am the son.
       * :12; 16:18,19
    
    
    
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