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    FT382 “I would advise Luther to go to Emser’s school a little longer, even as he did sixteen years ago at Erfurt, and first heard from my lips John Reuchlin’s comedy ‘Sergius.’ Indeed, he has thoroughly mastered that monk’s knavery.” — Emser’s Quadruplica; Enders, Luther und Emser, 2, 179.

    FT383 Ad Aegocerotem Emseranum, Weimar Ed., 2, 655 ff.

    FT384 A venatione Aegocerotis assertio. See Weimar Ed., 2, 657.

    FT385 Ioannis Eckii pro Hieronymo Emser contra male sanam Luteri venationem responsio. Oecolampadius took up the cudgels in answer.

    See Weimar Ed., 2, 655; 7, 259.

    FT386 Vol. 2.

    FT387 Printed in full by Enders, L. u. E., 1, 1 ff.

    FT388 Enders, L. u. E., 2, 5.

    FT389 Berlin Ed., 4, 93.

    FT390 DeWette, Luthers Briefwechsel, 6, 492.

    FT391 Briefwechsel, 3, 79; L. u. E., 2, 3.

    FT392 Weimer Ed., 7, 267.

    FT393 See Ficker, Anfange reformatorischer Bibelauslegung, 1 Bd, Luthers Vorlesung uver den Romerbrief, 1515-16: 1. Die Glosse; 2. Die Scholien, Leipzig, 1908. Ficker’s discovery has been described for the American reader by Dr. M. Reu, Thirty-five Years of Luther Research, pp. 14 f., 50.

    FT394 An English translation which is readily accessible can be found in Schaff’s Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers, vol. 5, 83 ff.

    FT395 A pun on Emser’s title as licentiate of the canon law. Luther grants him freedom in the canon law, but declares the Scriptures a closed book for him. “Licensed in the sacred canons, forbidden in the sacred Scripture.”

    FT396 A Latin treatise in the form of a letter to Dr. Zack at Prague. See Introduction.

    FT397 Ad Aegocerotem Emseranum, M. Lutheri additio (Weimar Ed., 2, 655).

    FT398 He gave it the title, Defence against Luther’s Chase. See Introduction.

    FT399 Luther erred in ascribing this book to Emser. See Introduction.

    FT400 The papal bull Exsurge Domine, signed by Pope Leo on June 15, 1520, which declared that if Luther did not recant within sixty days after its publication in Germany, he was to be held a “stiff-necked, notorious damned heretic,” and prohibited him and his followers from publishing books.

    FT401 See Introduction.

    FT402 This I know to be true, that when I strive with filth, Victorious or vanquished, always I’ll be defiled.

    FT403 The will of the Lord be done. Amen.

    REPLY TO THE ANSWER OF THE LEIPZIG GOAT FT404 Haugold von Einsiedel. See Introduction.

    FT405 See Introduction.

    FT406 Emser, speaking of the book he is about to publish — the answer to Luther’s address to the German nobility — had said: “I will show our brethren of the laity what kind of bird you are.” To the Wittenberg Bull,ENDERS, 2, 3.

    FT407 See the following paragraph. The game in question was the Leipzig disputation.

    FT408 John Eck was Luther’s adversary in the Leipzig disputation.

    FT409 In some places Luther’s books had been burned, in accordance with the injunction of the papal bull.

    FT410 See Introduction.

    FT411 Cf. Job 40:15. A favorite expression of Luther’s for the Romanists.

    FT412 “Eck” means corner.

    FT413 In this edition, Vol. 2.

    FT414 With the bull of excommunication Luther burned the Canon Law in which this teaching occurs, and other of the “pope’s books,” December 10, 1520. He immediately published his reasons for the act: “Why the Books of the Pope and of his Disciples were burned by Dr. Martin Luther.” (See Weimar Ed., 7, 161 ff.)

    FT415 Emser distinctly disclaims this authorship in his book To the Wittenberg Bu1l, and feels complimented that Luther thought he could write “so noble and able a book.” Luther was in error in ascribing it to Emser. See Introduction.

    FT416 Brei im Mau1. A favorite expression of Luther’s to indicate mumbling, i.e., equivocation. See Dietz, Worterbuch zu Luthers Schriften, 1, 343.

    FT417 Feind in the Weimar Ed.; in the others, Freund.

    FT418 The Council which was called to reform the church, but which condemned Hus, with the result that he was burned at the stake, 1415.

    FT419 Emser’s Answer to the Unchristian Book of the Augustinian Martin Luther addressed to the German Nobility. It had not yet appeared, but Luther had seen the first pages. See Introduction.

    FT420 The concluding sentence in Emser’s Rep1y to the Wittenberg Bu1l reads: I advise you, out of Christian love and faithfulness, to desist from this folly.... If you recant, we two shall yet become good cousins and I will help you attack the abuses... Enders, 2, 8.

    FT421 Ars Poetica, 21 f. “A flagon begins to be fashioned: Why, as the wheel revolves, does a pitcher come forth?” FT422 Not an impossible case. Mathesius tells of the jests that were perpetrated in the pulpit at Easter to relieve the Lenten sadness (Sermons on the History of Luther, Nurnberg, 1570, p. 64 (Sermon 7).

    For a remarkable series of such subjects, among them “A Blue Duck,” see Murner’s Schelmenzunft (ed. Spanier. Halle, 1912).

    FT423 Emser had written: Though I have not ears like an ass, yet since Aristotle, Thomas, Bonaventura, popes, cardinals and bishops, dead and alive, must be your asses, I would rather remain in the ass-stable (in which, too, Christ was born) than be in your crows’ nest. To the Wittenberg Bull, Enders, L. u. E., 2. 3.

    FT424 A venatione Aegocerotis assertio. See Introduction, also ENDERS, 1, 5; Weimar Ed., 2, 655 ff.

    FT425 See Introduction.

    FT426 Cf. Vol. 2.

    FT427 Emser had written: “I affirm by my faith as a priest as I would under oath that envy or hatred of your person has had no place in my heart and has not now, and in this I appeal to the great judgment of God, who shall pass sentence upon you and me.” To the Wittenberg Bull, Enders, 2, 5.

    FT428 Emser had found favor with the humanists by his Latin poems. In his letter to Zask, the first thrust in this battle, he appended verses admonishing all parties to peace. His poetical gift was not extraordinary. See Kawerau, Hieronymus Emser, 19, 31.

    FT429 Emser’s answer to Luther’s Address to the German Nobility. It had not yet appeared, but Luther had seen its first pages. Emser had written: “What has ever been produced in Germany that is worse, more harmful or more poisonous than Luther’s teaching, books and writings, which in a short time have brought about such contention, disorder, and violence that there is not a country, a city, a village, or a house but in it there are factions and one is opposing the other,” Enders, 2, 7.

    FT430 Emser: “If the first sheet throws you into such a frenzy and you show so soon how you feel the goat’s butting, what will the twenty that follow do to you?” To the Wittenberg Bull, Enders, 2, 3.

    FT431 Cf. Vol. 2.

    FT432 Francis Fabarella, archbishop of Florence, cardinal after 1411; died in Constance in 1417.

    FT433 Cajetan, who conducted negotiations on behalf of the pope with Luther in Augsburg in 1518.

    FT434 See Emser’s words in note.

    FT435 Emser: “Many years ago the prophecy was made that in our day a German monk would fall into great error .... It is to be feared that he (Luther) is not far from being the one, perhaps he is the very one of whom the prophecy speaks.” Emser’s Answer to the Unchristian Book of the Augustinian Martin Luther Addressed to the German Nobility, ENDERS, 1, 6.

    III. DR. MARTIN LUTHER’S ANSWER FT436 Luther’s reply to Emser’s warning on his title page: Beware, the Goat will butt you. See Introduction.

    FT437 Hannibal’s oath “never to be a friend to the Romans.” Livy, Hist. xxi, I. Polybius, Hist. iii, II. Nepos, Hannibal 2.

    FT438 Plato’s Apology, 21, C., “And I swear to you Athenians, by the dog I swear.”

    FT439 See Ephesians 2:2.

    FT Scheide — Schneide are the words Emser uses. “If Luther will fight with the scabbard and prove his cause solely by the letter or literal sense, one must strike him with the naked sword and use the blade, that is to say, the right understanding of Scripture as the Christian teachers have explained it.” Emser’s Answer to Luther’s Address to the German Nobility. ENDERS, Luther und Emser, i, 10.

    FT441 Vol. 2.

    FT442 Vol. 2.

    FT443 Vol. 2.

    FT444 Vol. 2.

    FT445 In Homer’s Iliad.

    FT446 See Vol. 2.

    FT447 Vol. 2.

    FT448 The quotation is from the Vulgate.

    FT449 The fable is found in Phaedrus; the proverb, in Horace FT450 Vol. 2.

    FT451 Kirchisch.

    FT452 Vol.1.

    FT453 The antecedent by the consequent, and to beg the question.

    FT454 Luther insisted that Thomas Rhadinus, who had attacked Luther in a Latin treatise, and Emser were one and the same person in spite of Emser’s emphatic denial. See Introduction, p. 278.

    FT455 A few months before, on December 10, 1520, Luther had done this very thing. This and the subsequent references to the subject may have been called forth by Emser’s pious words in his Answer to Luther’s Open Letter to the Christian Nobility: “Help me and pray for me, ye beloved holy fathers in heaven, whose merit, example, holiness, and miraculous works Luther despises and denies, yea whose books, Christian laws, and ordinances he dares publicly to burn in defiance of God’s honor and law.” ENDERS, Luther und Emser, i, 3.

    FT456 Every (high) priest taken from among men, etc.

    FT457 e.g., in The Papacy at Rome, Vol 1.; Open Letter to the Christian Nobility, Vol. 2.

    FT460 The canopy erected over the juggler’s booth at a fair was called “a heaven.”

    FT461 To prove the proposition to be proved by the same proposition, and to beg the question.

    FT462 Compare Luther’s use of this fable in “The Papacy at Rome,” Vol. 1.

    FT463 At the famous disputation in 1519, where Luther first publicly expressed what he here again affirms.

    FT464 Which he did a few weeks later in his Latin treatise against Ambrosius Catharinus. (Weimar Ed., vii, 705 ff.)

    FT465 See Vol. FT466 Johannes Duns Scotus, one of the most famous scholastics. He died in 1308.

    FT467 Cf. Genesis 3:7.

    FT468 Emser had said: “Luther departs from his mother, the holy Christian church, which, in accordance with God’s will, command, and revelation has had the custom from the beginning of the church until this very day, to canonize and exalt the saints, and we have many proofs in Scripture that it is the will and command of God, namely, <19F001> Psalm 150: ‘Ye shall praise God in his saints,’” etc. ENDERS, Luther und Emser, i, 115.

    FT469 John 21:25.

    FT470 e.g., Vol. 2.

    FT471 See Vol. 2.

    FT472 Migne Ed., xlii, 519 ff.

    FT473 Emser’s words were: “He would not be a physician, but a knave and a murderer, who, when called upon to help a sick man, would first of all cut off his head, after which all the medicine would do the rest of the body no good. See, my dear Germans, Luther acts just that way and his very first aim is to cut off the head of Christendom.” ENDERS, L. u.

    E., i, 18.

    FT474 Open Letter to the Christian Nobility. See Vol. 2.

    FT475 Particularly in The Papacy at Rome. See Vol. 1.

    FT476 Emser’s accusation: “Luther has heretofore, in his other books, exhorted the common people most diligently to wash their hands in the blood of the priests.” ENDERS, L. u. E., i, 16.

    FT477 To burn Luther like Hus.

    FT478 Prierias. See Vol. 1.

    FT479 A term in rhetoric meaning a contrasting of one thought with another.

    FT480 “To burn heretics is opposing the will of the Holy Spirit,” Luther’s Grund und Ursach aller Artikel, etc. Weimar Ed., vii, 439.

    FT481 See Vol. 2.

    FT482 See Vol. 2.

    FT483 See Vol 2.

    FT484 Leviticus 2:6,7 says: “Ye shall not eat of the hare, because he cheweth the cud, but divideth not the hoof; and of the swine, though he divide the hoof, and be clovenfooted, yet he cheweth not the cud.”

    FT485 Holy, just, good, given by a good God.

    FT486 See Augustine, De unitate ecclesiae, 5, 8. (Migne Ed., 43, 396.).

    FT487 Vol. 1.

    FT488 De spiritu et litera, ad Marcellinum, A.D. 412. (Migne Ed., 44, ff.)

    FT489 Vol. 1.

    FT490 See his preceding writings against Emser.

    FT491 For you are stupidity itself in these things.

    FT492 Manuals of Confession. Cf. Vol. 1., Vol. 2.

    FT493 Most holy one; vicar of God; head of the Church.

    FT494 Luther quotes the Vulgate, which here makes a proper noun of the Hebrew word. His German Bible likewise followed the Vulgate. The King James Version translates: “God of forces,” with the curious marginal reading, “God of munitions.” The Revised Version reads: “God of fortresses,” which is also found in one of Luther’s comments on this passage. But Luther repeatedly called Maozim the god of the mass. So in a letter concerning secret masses, 1534: “He calls the idol ‘Mausim,’ using the very letters of the word ‘mass.’ He evidently would have liked to call it ‘mass’ outright, had he not been constrained to use words of concealment. But he paints the idol in such a way that we can readily see he means the abominable mass.” Erl. Ed., 31, 390; also 41, 302.

    FT495 Luther is, in reality, quoting from another treatise of Augustine against the Donatists — the schismatics in Africa, who made the validity of the sacraments dependent upon the character of the ministrant — namely, Contra Epistolam Parmeniani. Tichonius, apparently a layman, but well versed in Scripture, revolted from the extreme views of Donatism, and in 372 wrote a book against Parmenian and the stricter Donatists, without abandoning the party.

    Augustine praises his Scriptural argument, but denounces him for his inconsistency in continuing his allegiance, See Smith and Wace, Dict. of Christian Biography, 4, 192 ff., 1025 f.

    FT496 Erzstultus, doubtless suggested by Aristotle’s name.

    FT497 See Vol. 2.

    FT498 Emser’s words: “Luther wants to fight with the scabbard and prove his cause only by the letter and the literal sense of Scripture. The cause rests not only on the Scripture or on the Gospel, but also on the established custom of Christendom, the writings of the holy fathers and the conclusions of reason.” Enders, Luther und Emser, 1, 19, 13.

    FT499 Aristotle. See above.

    FT500 The chamber of the heart [namely, of the pope]. See Vol. 2, 148, note.

    FT501 Emser’s words: “Help me, Thou true and living Son of God, holy Lord Jesus Christ, against this ravening wolf who would lead astray thy sheep, which Thou hast purchased and redeemed with Thy rosecolored blood.” Luther und Emser, 1, 15.

    FT502 Weimar Ed., Vol.

    FT503 A.D. 346-420.

    FT504 Vol. 1.

    FT505 Eisenfresser, literally an iron-eater, i.e., a man who performs wonderful feats with his mouth.

    FT506 A common logical term in the Middle Ages. It was used generally to distinguish the accident and the particular from the substance and the universal. In other words, a propositio de inesse would be a judgment which dealt with the accidental or particular. PRANTL, GeschichtederLogik, 1, 685; 2, 189.

    FT507 This term was one largely debated by the logicians of the Middle Ages. There are six modal determinations, of which the mode of necessity is one. In the teaching on the modality of judgments the adverbs are considered as adjectives of the verbs. The mode of necessity therefore would be a proposition in which necessity would be stressed in the adverbial determination. PRANTL Geschichte der Logik, 3, 14, 44.

    FT508 Turn a fact into a law.

    FT509 doing.

    FT510 obligation.

    FT511 Aristotle.

    FT512 Secundum quid et simpliciter. This is the logical fallacy now known as converse accident. Its full Latin form is, a dicto secundum quid, ad dictum simpliciter. “This is the fallacy of reasoning from that which may be true under certain conditions or limitations — to that which, however, is not true when these conditions or limitations are removed.”

    Hibben, Logic, Deductive and Inductive, 161.

    FT513 See Vol. 1.

    FT514 Just as the rustic betrays himself by his display, but is not honored thereby.

    FT515 prohibit FT516 marry FT517 doctrines FT518 devils FT519 abstain FT520 food FT521 God FT522 create.

    FT523 Wicked vows must not be kept. Canon Law, c. 2, C. 22.

    FT524 Emser: “This saying of St. Paul does not belong here where Luther has dragged it in by the hair, but it concerns the heretics Jovinian, Faustus and others, who condemned marriage altogether, and whose heresy was sufficiently exposed and refuted by Augustine and Jerome.” ENDERS, L. und E., 1, 80 f.

    FT525 Jovinian, formerly a monk but later called the Epicurus of the Christians, was condemned as a heretic by synods in Rome and Milan about 390. He maintained that a virgin is no better as such than a wife in the sight of God. Jerome’s answer was so vigorous on the other side of the question that some of his friends wanted to suppress his answer.

    See Smith and Wace, Dict., 3, 465 f.

    FT526 Faustus, erstwhile instructor of Augustine, condemned to exile in 386.

    Augustine wrote a treatise against him many years later. Ibid., 2, 472.

    FT527 Tatian, a Christian apologist of the second century, was accused by Irenaeus and others of having taught that marriage was fornication.

    Smith and Wace, 4, 803. See also Luther’s own references to the Tatians in other places, e.g., Erl. Ed., 28, 327; 33, 122.

    FT528 A letter was ascribed to bishop Ulrich of Augsburg, who died in and was canonized in 993, which took a decided stand against the prohibition of marriage to the clergy by the pope. (See Realencyk., 20, 213; Weimar Ed., 7, 677.) Emser’s “clever rejection” reads: “I do not believe that St. Ulrich wrote the letter which was recently published in his name and which, they say, was discovered in Holland, for these reasons: First, because of his holy and chaste life; secondly, because the style and composition is rather that of our day than of the time of St.

    Ulrich; thirdly, because it would doubtless have been discovered long ago in his chapter-house at Augsburg, rather than in Holland,” etc.

    Enders, L. u. E., 1, 85 f.

    FT529 See Vol. 1.

    FT530 The venerable Bede, who lived from 674 to 735, one of the most eminent of English church fathers.

    FT531 The former a very good wine, the latter a very poor beer. See Vol. 1, 362 and 387.

    FT532 Jerome Walther of Nuremberg, later the burgomaster of Leipzig. He place a monument at Emser’s grave in Dresden. See Realencyk.

    FT533 Of Prague.

    FT534 In 1415.

    FT535 In 1454.

    FT536 Ch. 21, verse 26, of the apocryphal book Ecclesiasticus, which the Roman Catholic Church still regards a part of the O.T. Luther’s Bible places it with the other apocrypha between the O. and N. T., “as useful and good to read.”

    FT537 A Treatise on Good Works, Vol. 1, 184ff.

    FT538 Weimar Ed., 1, 398 ff.

    FT539 An Open Letter to the Christian Nobility, Vol. 2, 61 ff.

    FT540 Sneezewort (hellebore, veratrum), a herb whose “black roots are a powerful cathartic, but violently narcotic and acrid” (Standard Dict.), was thought to produce a clearing of the brain and thus to be an antidote to lunacy. Luther thinks Emser’s case too far gone for this remedy, however, and advocates the help of the saint, one of the fourteen defenders against evil, whose special occupation was the curing of lunatics. See Weimar Ed., 7, 680, note.

    FT541 Murner’s first treatise against Luther was entitled: “A Christian and brotherly admonition addressed to the highly learned Doctor Martin Luther of the Augustinian order at Wittenberg, to recant some statements about the New Testament of the holy mass and again unite with common Christendom” Enders, L. u. E., 2, 7.

    FT542 The regular logical form of argument, consisting of three propositions, of which the first two are called the premises and the last the conclusion.

    FT543 Murner had written three books against Luther in one year. See Introduction, p. 280.

    FT544 In The Papacy at Rome, Vol. 1, 349 ff.

    FT545 Luther’s oft-used expression to designate the common people.

    FT546 An order founded by St. Bruno in 1086. Its rules are very severe.

    FT547 Founded by St. Benedict (of Nursia) in the sixth century. Its rules are less rigorous than the Carthusian.

    FT548 The Greek word for “rock” in Matthew 16:18.

    FT549 Michael Stiefel, writing against Murner, said, however: “Luther did not really know you when he wrote that you did not lie as much as Emser.” W. Kawerau, Thomas Murner und die deutsche Reformation, 103. See also Weimar Ed., 7, 688.

    TO THE KNIGHTS OF THE TEUTONIC ORDER FT550 Encycl. Britannica, 11th ed., xxvi, 677.

    FT551 Encycl. Britannica, xxvi, 677.

    FT552 Third son of Frederick of Hohenzollern, prince of Ansbach and Bayreuth; he must not be confused with Albert, the elector and archbishop of Mainz, the younger son of John Cicero, elector of Brandenburg, who is also known as Albert of Brandenburg, and to whom Luther addressed the letter prefixed to the Ninety-five Theses.

    See Vol. I, p. 25. For a time Luther hoped that Albert of Mainz, encouraged by the example of the other Albert, would also marry. See Enders Briefwecksel, 5:186 f.

    FT553 See Vol. 2.

    FT554 Realencyk., i,p. 312.

    FT555 Weimar Ed., xii, p. 230.

    FT556 In the dedicatory letter prefixed to Luther’s Commentary on Deuteronomy, Erl. Ed., opera latina, 13:8.

    FT557 In VoL IV.

    FT558 Weimar Ed., xii, p. 229 f.

    FT559 See the Treatise on Monastic Vows, Vol. IV, and the development of Luther’s views concerning celibacy traced in the introduction to that treatise.

    FT560 Geysterey.

    FT561 The world.

    FT562 Compare A. V., margin, “as before him.”

    FT563 Luther refers to the praises of monasticism, which imply that a wife is a hindrance to a man if he would live a spiritual life.

    FT564 The exact reference has not been traced. Chemnitz, Examen, Pars iii, Loc. ii, Cap. iii, writes, “What Jerome writes, that men must abstain from marriage in order that they may pray worthily, that is, as the second Synod of Carthage says, in order that they may obtain simply what they ask of God, is blasphemy.”

    FT565 R.V. reads, “Neither shall he regard the gods of his fathers, nor the desire of women, nor regard any god.” Luther translates “er wird weder Frauenliebe, noch einiges Gottes achten.” Douay, after the Vulgate, “and he shall follow the lust of women, and he shall not regard any gods,” which seems to go back to the Septuagint. Luther must have had the Hebrew in mind, although there is no special reason for translating “married women.”

    FT566 A characteristic alliteration, “frech und frysch schreyen und schreyben.”

    FT567 Der Meyste.

    FT568 Der Creaturn nicht, die ynn unsgeschsffen ist.

    FT569 So Johann Fabri, in a book published at Rome, August 13, 1522, “Against some new teachings of Martin Luther which are altogether foreign to the Christian religion,” a reply to which, prepared by Justus Jonas and accompanied by a letter from Luther to Jonas, appeared in 1523. See Weimar Ed., xii, 236 and 81 ff.

    FT570 Correct the Holy Ghost.

    FT571 The very same argument, applied to the use of the two kinds in the Lord’s Supper, occurs in the Formula missae, 1523.

    FT572 Here as elsewhere Luther’s interest centers in the conscience, not in the legal aspect of marriage. He supposes the case of a man whom the authorities forbid to marry, but who cannot be strong enough to live as a chaste celibate, and asks whether God will not be merciful to such a man if under the twofold compulsion he sins. But the case seems impossible to him, because such a man, understanding God’s Word, will marry in secret, or, if his secret marriage is discovered, will endure the persecution that may come upon him for it. But even the living with a harlot who is the man’s own, and not a public character, is a form of secret marriage, without the honor of marriage in the eyes of men. It is perhaps difficult to distinguish between a secret marriage and the keeping of a harlot, from the standpoint of the public. The difference lies altogether in the consciences of the man and the woman. The older church applied the term “concubine” “to those who were as legally wives as it was possible to make them.” “The connection was a recognized and almost a legal one, following the traditions of the Roman law, by which it was legitimate and permanent, so long as the parties respectively remained unmarried.” H.C. Lea History of Sacerdotal Celibacy, 3d ed., i, 230 f.

    FT573 A reference to George of Polentz, bishop of Samland, who in a sermon preached on Christmas Day, 1523, acknowledged his adherence to the evangelical teaching, and on May 30, 1525, turned over his episcopal authority to Albrecht. Compare Kirchengeschichtliche Studien, Leipzig, 1888, p. 154 ff. On January 2, 1524, Duke George already reported of him, “It is also said that the bishop of Samland . . . is in some measure almost an adherent of the Lutheran heresy.” Tschackert, Urkundenbuch, Bd. i, p. 45; Weimar Ed., xii, p. 240, note.

    FT574 Compare Luther’s Exposition of the Seventh Chapter of St. Paul to the Corinthians, 1523, Weimar Ed., xii, 136f.

    FT575 Luther here follows the Vulgate, which is translated in Douay, “His heart shall be as hard as a stone, and as firm as a smith’s anvil.”

    FT576 In the treatise Ursache und Antwort, dass Jungfrauen Kloster gottlich verlassen mogen, 1523, Luther explains, “Once upon a time I heard a learned man say, ‘My mother made a vow that I should become a bishop; how shall I keep it?’” Berlin Ed., iv, 57.

    FT577 Weimar Ed. quotes from a letter of Ulscenius to Capito dated July 20, 1522, “Martin and Melanchthon want adulterers and blasphemers to be beaten with rods of iron, but not thieves.” Kolde, Analecta Lutherana, 37 f


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