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    4:1 {I charge thee} (diamarturomai). Rather, "I testify." See #1Th 4:6. See #1Ti 5:21 for this verb and appeal to God and Christ. {Who shall judge} (tou mellontos krinein). "The one going or about to judge" (regular idiom with mellw). The quick and the dead (zwntas kai nekrous). "Living and dead." See #1Th 4:16f. {And by his appearing} (kai ten epifaneian). Accusative of conjuration (verbs of swearing), after diamarturomai as is basileian (by his kingdom). See #1Th 5:27. For epifaneian, see #1:10; Tit 2:13; 1Ti 6:14; 2Th 2:8.

    4:2 {Preach the word} (keruxon ton logon). First aorist active imperative of kerussw. For "the word" used absolutely, see #1Th 1:6; Ga 6:6. {Be instant in season, out of season} (episteqi eukairws akairws). Second aorist (ingressive) active imperative of efistemi (intransitive use), "take a stand,"stand upon it or up to it,"carry on,"stick to it." The Vulgate has "_insta_." The two adverbs are like a proverb or a play (pun) on the word kairos. There are all sorts of seasons (kairoi), some difficult (calepoi, #3:1), some easy (eukairei, #1Co 16:12). {Reprove} (elegxon). First aorist active imperative of elegcw. "Bring to proof." #Eph 5:11. {Rebuke} (epitimeson). First aorist active imperative of epitimaw, to give honor (or blame) to, to chide. Common in the Gospels (#Lu 17:3). {Exhort} (parakaleson). First aorist active imperative of parakalew, common Pauline word.

    4:3 {A time when} (kairos hote). One of the akairws (out of season) times. {Will not endure} (ouk anexontai). Future middle (direct) of anecw. "Will not hold themselves back from" (Col. #3:13). Having itching ears (kneqomenoi ten akoen). Present middle (causative) participle of kneqw, late and rare form of the Attic knaw, to scratch, to tickle, here only in N.T. "Getting the ears (the hearing, tłn akołn) tickled." The Vulgate has prurientes. Cf. the Athenians (#Ac 17:21). Clement of Alexandria tells of speakers tickling (kneqontes) the ears of those who want to be tickled. this is the temptation of the merely "popular" preacher, to furnish the latest tickle.

    4:4 {Will turn away their ears} (ten akoen apostreyousin). Future active of old verb apostrefw. See #1Co 12:17 for this use of akoe. The people stopped their ears and rushed at Stephen in #Ac 7:57. {Will turn aside} (ektrapesontai). Second future passive of ektrepw. They prefer "myths" to "the truth" as some today turn away to "humanism,"bolshevism,"new thought" or any other fad that will give a new momentary thrill to their itching ears and morbid minds.

    4:5 {But be thou sober} (su de nefe). Present active imperative of nefw, for which see #1Th 5:6,8. "Be sober in thy head." {Suffer hardship} (kakopaqeson). See #2:9. {Do the work of an evangelist} (ergon poieson euaggelistou). See #1Co 1:17; Eph 4:11 for euaggelistes, gospelizer. {Fulfil} (pleroforeson). First aorist active imperative of pleroforew, for which see #Col 4:12. In #Col 4:17 Paul uses plerow to Archippus about his ministry as he here employs pleroforew. Both verbs mean to fill full.

    4:6 {I am already being offered} (ede spendomai). Present (progressive) passive indicative of spendw, old verb, to pour out a libation or drink offering. In N.T. only here and #Php 2:17. "What was qen a possibility is now a certainty" (Parry). The sacrifice of Paul's life-blood has begun. {Of my departure} (tes analusews mou). Our very word "analysis." Old word from analuw, to loosen up or back, to unloose. Only here in N.T., though analusai for death is used by Paul in #Php 1:23 which see for the metaphor. {Is come} (efesteken). Perfect active indicative of efistemi (intransitive use). See #1Th 5:3; Lu 21:34. The hour has struck. The time has come.

    4:7 {I have fought the good fight} (ton kalon agwna egwnismai). Perfect middle indicative of agwnizomai, a favorite figure with Paul (#1Co 9:25; Col 1:29), with the cognate accusative agwna (#Php 1:27,30, etc.). The "fight" is the athletic contest of his struggle for Christ. {I have finished the course} (ton dromon teteleka). Perfect active indicative of tele". He had used this metaphor also of himself to the elders at Ephesus (#Ac 20:24). qen the "course" was ahead of him. Now it is behind him. {I have kept the faith} (ten pistin tetereka). Perfect active indicative again of terew. Paul has not deserted. He has kept faith with Christ. For this phrase, see #Re 14:12. Deissmann (_Light, etc._, p. 309) gives inscriptions in Ephesus of a man who says: "I have kept faith" (ten pistin eteresa) and another of a man of whom it is said: "He fought three fights, and twice was crowned."

    4:8 {Henceforth} (loipon). Accusative case, "for the rest." {There is laid up for me} (apokeitai moi). Present passive of apokeimai, old verb, to be laid away. See #Col 1:5 for the hope laid away. Paul's "crown of righteousness" (ho tes dikaiosunes stefanos, genitive of apposition, the crown that consists in righteousness and is also the reward for righteousness, the victor's crown as in #1Co 9:25 which see) "is laid away" for him. {At that day} (en ekeinei tei hemerai). That great and blessed day (#1:12,18). {The righteous judge} (ho dikaios krites). "The just judge," the umpire who makes no mistakes who judges us all (#2Co 5:10). {Shall give me} (apodwsei moi). Future active of apodidwmi. "Will give back" as in #Ro 2:6 and in full. {But also to all them that have loved his appearing} (alla pasin tois egapekosin ten epifaneian autou). Dative case of the perfect active participle of agapaw, to love, who have loved and still love his second coming. epifaneia here can as in #1:10 be interpreted of Christ's Incarnation.

    4:9 {Shortly} (tacews). In verse #21 he more definitely says "before winter." Apparently the trial might drag on through its various stages.

    4:10 {Forsook me} (me egkateleipen). Imperfect (MSS. also have aorist, egkatelipen) active of the old double compound verb egkataleipw, for which see #Ro 9:29. Clearly in contrast to verse #9 and in the sense of #1Ti 6:17, wilful desertion. Only mentioned elsewhere in #Col 4:14. {Crescens} (kreskes). No other mention of him. {Titus to Dalmatia} (titos eis dalmatian). Titus had been asked to rejoin Paul in Nicopolis where he was to winter, probably the winter previous to this one (#Tit 3:12). He came and has been with Paul.

    4:11 {Only Luke is with me} (loukas estin monos met' emou). Luke is with Paul now in Rome as during the first Roman imprisonment (#Phm 1:24; Col 4:14). {Take Mark} (markon analabwn). Second aorist active participle of analambanw, old verb, to pick up, as in #Eph 6:13,16. "Pick up Mark." {He is useful to me} (estin moi eucrestos). See #2:21 for eucrestos. Paul had long ago changed his opinion of Mark (#Col 4:10) because Mark had changed his conduct and had made good in his ministry. Now Paul longs to have the man that he once scornfully rejected (#Ac 15:37ff.).

    4:12 {Tychicus I sent to Ephesus} (tucikon apesteila eis efeson). Perhaps Paul had sent him on before he came to Rome. He may have been still on the way to Ephesus.

    4:13 {The cloke} (ten felonen). More common form feilone. By metaqesis for fainole, Latin _paenula_, though which language transliterated the word into the other is not known. The meaning is also uncertain, though probably "cloke" as there are so many papyri examples in that sense (Moulton and Milligan, _Vocabulary_). Milligan (N.T. _Documents_, p. 20) had previously urged "book wrap" as probable but he changed his mind and rightly so. {With Carpus} (para karpwi). "Beside Carpus," at his house. Not mentioned elsewhere. Probably a visit to Troas after Paul's return from Crete. {The books} (ta biblia). Probably papyrus rolls. One can only guess what rolls the old preacher longs to have with him, probably copies of Old Testament books, possibly copies of his own letters, and other books used and loved. The old preacher can be happy with his books. {Especially the parchments} (malista tas membranas). Latin _membrana_. The dressed skins were first made at Pergamum and so termed "parchments." These in particular would likely be copies of Old Testament books, parchment being more expensive than papyrus, possibly even copies of Christ's sayings (#Lu 1:1-4). We recall that in #Ac 26:24 Festus referred to Paul's learning (ta grammata). He would not waste his time in prison.

    4:14 {Alexander the coppersmith} (alexandros ho calkeus). Old word, only here in N.T., for metal-worker (copper, iron, gold, etc.). Possibly the one in #1:20, but not the one in #Ac 19:33f. unless he afterwards became a Christian. {Did me much evil} (moi kaka enedeixato). Evidently he had some personal dislike towards Paul and possibly also he was a Gnostic. {Will render} (apodwsei). Future active of the same verb used in verse #8, but with a very different atmosphere.

    4:15 {Be thou ware also} (kai su fulassou). Present middle (direct) imperative of fulassw, "from whom keep thyself away." {Withstood} (anteste). Second aorist active indicative of anqistemi, "stood against my words." See #3:8; Ga 2:11.

    4:16 {At my first defence} (en tei prwtei apologiai). Original sense of "apology" as in #Php 1:7,16. Either the first stage in this trial or the previous trial and acquittal at the end of the first Roman imprisonment. Probably the first view is correct, though really there is no way to decide. {No one took my part} (oudeis moi paregeneto). "No one came by my side" (second aorist middle indicative of paraginomai). See #1Co 16:3. {But all forsook me} (alla pantes me egkateleipon). Same verb and tense used of Demas above (verse #10), "But all were forsaking me" (one by one) or, if aorist egkatelipon, "all at once left me." {May it not be laid to their account} (me autois logisqeie). First aorist passive optative in future wish with negative me. Common Pauline verb logizomai (#1Co 13:5; Ro 4:3,5).

    4:17 {But the Lord stood by me} (ho de kurios moi pareste). Second aorist active of paristemi (intransitive use), "took his stand by my side." See #Ro 16:2. Clearly Jesus appeared to Paul now at this crisis and climax as he had done so many times before. {Strengthened me} (enedunamwsen me). "Poured power into me." See #Php 4:13. {That through me the message might be fully proclaimed} (hina di' emou to kerugma pleroforeqei). Final clause with hina and first aorist passive subjunctive of pleroforew (see verse #5). Either to the rulers in Rome now or, if the first imprisonment, by his release and going to Spain. {And that all the Gentiles might hear} (kai akouswsin panta ta eqne). Continuation of the purpose with the aorist active subjunctive of akouw. {I was delivered out of the mouth of the lion} (erusqen ek stomatos leontos). First aorist passive indicative of ruomai (#1Th 1:10). A proverb, but not certain what the application is whether to Nero or to Satan (#1Th 2:18) or to the lion in the arena where Paul could not be sent because a Roman citizen.

    4:18 {Will deliver me} (rusetai me). Future middle. Recall the Lord's Prayer. Paul is not afraid of death. He will find his triumph in death (#Php 1:21f.). {Unto his heavenly kingdom} (eis ten basileian autou ten epouranion). The future life of glory as in #1Co 15:24,50. He will save (swsei, effective future) me there finally and free from all evil. {To whom be the glory} (hwi he doxa). No verb in the Greek. Paul's final doxology, his Swan Song, to Christ as in #Ro 9:5; 16:27.

    4:19 {Prisca and Aquila} (priscan kai akulan). Paul's friends now back in Ephesus, no longer in Rome (#Rom 16:3). See #1:16 for the house of Onesiphorus.

    4:20 {Erastus} (erastos). See #Ac 19:22; Ro 16:23. {Trophimus} (trofimon). A native of Ephesus and with Paul in Jerusalem (#Ac 20:4; 21:29). {At Miletus sick} (en miletwi asqenounta). Present active participle of asqenew, to be weak. Probably on Paul's return from Crete.

    4:21 {Before winter} (pro ceimwnos). Pathetic item if Paul was now in the Mamertine Dungeon in Rome with winter coming on and without his cloak for which he asked. How long he had been in prison this time we do not know. He may even have spent the previous winter or part of it here. Eubulus, Pudens, Linus, Claudia are all unknown otherwise. Irenaeus does speak of Linus. {The Lord be with thy Spirit} (ho kurios meta tou pneumatos sou). Let us hope that Timothy and Mark reached Paul before winter, before the end came, with the cloak and with the books. Our hero, we may be sure, met the end nobly. He is already more than conqueror in Christ who is by his side and who will welcome him to heaven and give him his crown. Luke, Timothy, Mark will do all that mortal hands can do to cheer the heart of Paul with human comfort. He already had the comfort of Christ in full measure.


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