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    1:1 {According to the faith of God's elect} (kata pistin eklektwn qeou). Here kata expresses the aim of Paul's apostleship, not the standard by which he was chosen as in #Php 3:14; a classic idiom, repeated here with epignwsin, eusebeian, epitagen, "with a view to" in each case. For "God's elect" see #Ro 8:33; Col 3:12. {The knowledge} (epignwsin). "Full knowledge," one of Paul's favorite words. For the phrase see #1Ti 2:4. {Which is according to godliness} (tˆs kat' eusebeian). "The (truth) with a view to godliness." The combination of faith and full knowledge of the truth is to bring godliness on the basis of the hope of life eternal.

    1:2 {God who cannot lie} (ho apseudˆs qeos). "The non-lying God." Old adjective (a privative and yeudes), here only in N.T. See #2Ti 2:13. In Polycarp's last prayer. {Promised} (epeggeilato). First aorist middle indicative of epaggellw. Antithesis in ephaner"sen de (manifested) in verse #3 (first aorist active indicative of fanerow). Same contrast in #Ro 16:25; Col 1:26. {Before times eternal} (pro chron"n aiwn"n). Not to God's purpose before time began (#Eph 1:4; 2Ti 1:9), but to definite promises (#Ro 9:4) made in time (Lock). "Long ages ago." See #Ro 16:25.

    1:3 {In his own seasons} (kairois idiois). Locative case. See #1Ti 2:6; 6:15. {In the message} (en kˆrugmati). See #1Co 1:21; 2:4 for this word, the human proclamation (preaching) of God's word. {Wherewith I was intrusted} (ho episteuqen). Accusative relative ho retained with the first aorist passive indicative of pisteuw as in #1Ti 1:11. See #1Ti 2:7. {Of God our Savior} (tou swteros hemwn qeou). In verse #4 he applies the words "tou swteros hemwn" to Christ. In #2:13 he applies both qeou and swteros to Christ.

    1:4 {My true child} (gnesiwi tekn"i). See #1Ti 1:2 for this adjective with Timothy. Titus is not mentioned in Acts, possibly because he is Luke's brother. But one can get a clear picture of him by turning to #2Co 2:13; 7:6-15; 8:6-24; 12:16-18; Ga 2:1-3; Tit 1:4f.; 3:12; 2Ti 4:10. He had succeeded in Corinth where Timothy had failed. Paul had left him in Crete as superintendent of the work there. Now he writes him from Nicopolis (#Tit 3:12). {After a common faith} (kata koinen pistin). Here kata does mean standard, not aim, but it is a faith (pistin) common to a Gentile (a Greek) like Titus as well as to a Jew like Paul and so common to all races and classes (#Jude 1:3). koinos does not here have the notion of unclean as in #Ac 10:14; 11:8.

    1:5 {For this cause} (toutou carin). In N.T. only here and #Eph 3:1,14. Paul may be supplementing oral instruction as in Timothy's case and may even be replying to a letter from Titus (Zahn). {Left I thee in Crete} (apeleipon se en kretei). this is the imperfect active of apoleipw, though MSS. give the aorist active also (apelipon) and some read kateleipon or katelipon. Both are common verbs, though Paul uses kataleipw only in #1Th 3:1 except two quotations (#Ro 11:4; Eph 5:31) and apoleipw only here and #2Ti 4:13,20. Perhaps apoleipw suggests a more temporary stay than kataleipw. Paul had apparently stopped in Crete on his return from Spain about A.D. 65. {That thou shouldest set in order} (hina epidiorth"sˆi). Late and rare double compound (inscriptions, here only in N.T.), first aorist middle subjunctive (final clause with hina) of epidiorqow, to set straight (ortho") thoroughly (dia) in addition (epi), a clean job of it. {The things that were wanting} (ta leiponta). "The things that remain." See #3:13; Lu 18:22. Either things left undone or things that survive. In both senses the new pastor faces problems after the tornado has passed. Parry takes it "of present defects" in Cretan character. {And appoint} (kai katastˆsˆis). Final clause still and first aorist active subjunctive of kaqistemi, the word used in #Ac 6:13 about the deacons. The word does not preclude the choice by the churches (in every city, kata polin, distributive use of kata). this is a chief point in the epidorth"sis (White). {Elders} (presbuterous). See #1Ti 3:2; 4:17. {As I gave thee charge} (h"s eg" soi dietaxamˆn). First aorist (constative) middle imperative of diatassw, clear reference to previous personal details given to Titus on previous occasions.

    1:6 {Blameless} (anegkletos). In a condition of first class. Used in #1Ti 3:10 of deacons which see. {That believe} (pista). Added to what is in #1Ti 3:4. "Believing children." {Not accused of riot} (me en kategoriai aswtias). See #1Ti 5:19 for katˆgoria and #Eph 5:18 for as"tia. "Not in accusation of profligacy." {Unruly} (anupotakta). See #1Ti 1:9. Public disorder, out of doors. See also verse #10.

    1:7 {The bishop} (ton episkopon). Same office as "elder" in #1:5. "Elder is the title, oversight is the function" (B. Weiss). {As God's steward} (h"s qeou oikonomon). See #1Co 4:1f. for Paul's idea of the bishop (elder) as God's steward (cf. #1Co 9:17; Col 1:25; Eph 3:2; 1Ti 1:4). {Not self-willed} (me auqade). Old word (from autos, hedomai), self-pleasing, arrogant. In N.T. only here and #2Pe 2:10. {Not soon angry} (orgilon). Old adjective from orge (anger). Here only in N.T. Vulgate, _iracundum_. For "brawler" and "striker" see #1Ti 3:2. {Not greedy of filthy lucre} (aischrokerdˆ). "Not greedy of shameful gain." Used of deacons in #1Ti 3:8, aphilarguron used of elders in #1Ti 3:3.

    1:8 {A lover of good} (philagathon). Late double compound (filos, agaqos). See Wisdom 7:22. Here only in N.T. Just (dikaion), holy (hosion) not in #1Ti 3. {Temperate} (egkrate). Old and common adjective (en, kratos, strength), having power over, controlling, here only in N.T. Picture of self-control.

    1:9 {Holding to} (antechomenon). Present middle participle of antecw, old verb, to hold back, in middle to hold oneself face to face with, to cling to, as in #1Th 5:14. {The faithful word} (tou pistou logou). See #1Ti 1:15; 6:3; Ro 16:17. Some would see a reference here to Christ as the Personal logos. {That he may be able} (hina dunatos ei). Final clause with present active subjunctive. Paul several times uses dunatos eimi in the sense of dunamai, with infinitive as here (#Ro 4:21; 11:23; 2Ti 1:12). {The gainsayers} (tous antilegontas). Present active participle of antilegw, old word, to answer back, as in #Ro 10:21. "The talkers back."

    1:10 {Vain talkers} (mataiologoi). Late and rare compound, empty talkers, in Vett. Val. and here. See #1Ti 1:6 for mataiologia. {Deceivers} (phrenapatai). Late and rare compound, in papyri, eccl. writers, here alone in N.T. "Mind-deceivers." See #Ga 6:3 for phrenapatain. {Specially they of the circumcision} (malista hoi ek tes peritomes). Same phrase in #Ac 11:2; Ga 2:12; Col 4:11. Jews are mentioned in Crete in #Ac 2:11. Apparently Jewish Christians of the Pharisaic type tinged with Gnosticism.

    1:11 {Whose mouths must be stopped} (hous dei epistomizein). Literally, "whom it is necessary to silence by stopping the mouth." Present active infinitive epistomizein, old and common verb (epi, stoma, mouth), here only in N.T. To stop the mouth either with bridle or muzzle or gag. {Overthrow} (anatrepousin). Old and common verb, to turn up, to overturn. In N.T. only here and #2Ti 2:18. In papyri to upset a family by perversion of one member. {Things which they ought not} (ha me dei). Note subjective negative me with indefinite relative and indicative mode. {For filthy lucre's sake} (aiscrou kerdous carin). The Cretans are given a bad reputation for itinerating prophets for profit by Polybius, Livy, Plutarch. Paul's warnings in #1Ti 3:3,8; 6:5 reveal it as "a besetting temptation of the professional teacher" (Parry). See verse #7 above. Disgraceful gain, made in shameful ways.

    1:12 {A prophet of their own} (idios autwn profetes). "Their own prophet." Self-styled "prophet" (or poet), and so accepted by the Cretans and by Cicero and Apuleius, that is Epimenides who was born in Crete at Cnossos. It is a hexameter line and Callimachus quoted the first part of it in a Hymn to Zeus. It is said that Epimenides suggested to the Athenians the erection of statues to "unknown gods" (#Ac 17:23). {Liars} (yeustai). See #1Ti 1:10 for the word. The Cretans had a bad reputation on this line, partly due to their claim to having the tomb of Zeus. {Evil beasts} (kaka qeria). "Wicked wild beasts." Lock asks if the Minotaur was partly responsible. {Idle gluttons} (gasteres argai). "Idle bellies." Blunt and forceful. See #Php 3:19 "whose god is the belly" (hˆ koilia). Both words give the picture of the sensual gormandizer.

    1:13 {Testimony} (marturia). Of the poet Epimenides. Paul endorses it from his recent knowledge. {Sharply} (apotomws). Old adverb from apotomos (from apotemn", to cut off), in N.T. only here and #2Co 13:10, "curtly,"abruptly." It is necessary to appear rude sometimes for safety, if the house is on fire and life is in danger. {That they may be sound} (hina hugiain"Sin). Final clause with hina and present active subjunctive of hugiainw, for which verb see on ¯1Ti 1:10.

    1:14 See #1Ti 1:4 for prosecw and muthois, only here we have _Jewish_ (Ioudaikois) added. Perhaps a reference to the oral traditions condemned by Christ in #Mr 7:2-8. See also #Col 2:22, apparently Pharisaic type of Gnostics. {Who turn away from the truth} (apostrefomenwn). Present middle (direct) participle of apostrefw, "men turning themselves away from the truth" (accusative according to regular idiom). "The truth" (#1Ti 4:3) is the gospel (#Eph 4:21).

    1:15 {To them that are defiled} (tois memiammenois). Perfect passive articular participle of miainw, old verb, to dye with another color, to stain, in N.T. only here, #Jude 1:8; Heb 12:15. See memiantai (perf. pass. indic.) in this verse. molunw (#1Co 8:7) is to smear. {Unbelieving} (apistois). As in #1Co 7:12f.; 1Ti 5:8. The principle or proverb just quoted appears also in #1Co 6:12; 10:23; Ro 14:20. For the defilement of mind (nous) and conscience (suneidesis) in both Gentile and Jew by Sin, see #Ro 1:18-2:29.

    1:16 {They profess} (homologousin). Present active indicative of homologew, common verb (homou, legw) as in #Ro 10:10f. eidenai (know) is second perfect active infinitive of oida in indirect assertion. {By their works} (tois ergois). Instrumental case. {They deny} (arnountai). Present middle of arneomai, old verb, common in the Gospels and the Pastoral Epistles (#1Ti 5:8; Tit 2:12; 2Ti 2:12). {Abominable} (bdeluktoi). Verbal adjective from bdelussomai. Only in LXX and here. {Disobedient} (apeitheis). See #Ro 1:30. {Reprobate} (adokimoi). See on ¯1Co 9:27; Ro 1:28.


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