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    18:1 {To the end that} (pros to dein). {With a view to the being necessary}, pros and the articular infinitive. The impersonal verb dei here is in the infinitive and has another infinitive loosely connected with it proseucesqai, to pray. {Not to faint} (me enkakein). Literally, not to give in to evil (en, kakew, from kakos, bad or evil), to turn coward, lose heart, behave badly. A late verb used several times in the N.T. (#2Co 4:1,16, etc.).

    18:2 Regarded not (me entrepomenos). Present middle participle of entrepw, old verb, to turn one on himself, to shame one, to reverence one. this was a "hard-boiled" judge who knew no one as his superior. See on ¯Mt 21:37.

    18:3 {Came oft} (erceto). Imperfect tense denotes repetitions, no adverb for "oft" in the Greek. {Avenge me of} (ekdikeson me apo). A late verb for doing justice, protecting one from another (note both ek and apo, here). Deissmann (_Light from the Ancient East_, pp. 420ff.) quotes a stele of the second century B.C. with a prayer for vengeance for a Jewish girl that had been murdered which has this very verb ekdikew.

    18:4 {He would not} (ouk eqelen). Imperfect tense of continued refusal. {Though} (ei kai). Concerning sentence, not kai ei (even if).

    18:5 {Yet} (ge). Delicate intensive particle of deep feeling as here. {Because this widow troubleth me} (dia to parecein moi kopon ten ceran tauten). Literally, because of the furnishing me trouble as to this widow (accusative of general reference with the articular infinitive). {Lest she wear me out} (hina me hupwpiazei me). Some take it that the judge is actually afraid that the widow may come and assault him, literally beat him under the eye. That idea would be best expressed here by the aorist tense.

    18:6 {The unrighteous judge} (ho krites tes adikias). The judge of unrighteousness (marked by unrighteousness), as in #16:8 we have "the steward of unrighteousness," the same idiom.

    18:7 {And he is longsuffering} (makroqumei). this present active indicative comes in awkwardly after the aorist subjunctive poiesei after ou me, but this part of the question is positive. Probably kai here means "and yet" as so often (#Joh 9:30; 16:32, etc.). God delays taking vengeance on behalf of his people, not through indifference, but through patient forbearance.

    18:8 {However} (plen). It is not clear whether this sentence is also a question or a positive statement. There is no way to decide. Either will make sense though not quite the same sense. The use of ara before heuresei seems to indicate a question expecting a negative answer as in #Ac 8:30; Ro 14:19. But here ara comes in the middle of the sentence instead of near the beginning, an unusual position for either inferential ara or interrogative ara. On the whole the interrogative ara is probably correct, meaning to question if the Son will find a persistence of faith like that of the widow.

    18:9 {Set all others at naught} (exouqenountas tous loipous). A late verb exouqenew, like oudenew, from ouqen (ouden), to consider or treat as nothing. In LXX and chiefly in Luke and Paul in the N.T.

    18:10 {Stood} (staqeis). First aorist passive participle of histemi. Struck an attitude ostentatiously where he could be seen. Standing was the common Jewish posture in prayer (#Mt 6:5; Mr 11:25). {Prayed thus} (tauta proseuceto). Imperfect middle, was praying these things (given following). {With himself} (pros heauton). A soliloquy with his own soul, a complacent recital of his own virtues for his own self-satisfaction, not fellowship with God, though he addresses God. {I thank thee} (eucaristw soi). But his gratitude to God is for his own virtues, not for God's mercies to him. One of the rabbis offers a prayer like this of gratitude that he was in a class by himself because he was a Jew and not a Gentile, because he was a Pharisee and not of the _am-haaretz_ or common people, because he was a man and not a woman. {Extortioners} (harpages). An old word, harpax from same root as harpazw, to plunder. An adjective of only one gender, used of robbers and plunderers, grafters, like the publicans (#Lu 3:13), whether wolves (#Mt 7:15) or men (#1Co 5:19f.). The Pharisee cites the crimes of which he is not guilty. {Or even} (e kai). As the climax of iniquity (Bruce), he points to " this publican." Zaccheus will admit robbery (#Lu 19:8). {God} (ho qeos). Nominative form with the article as common with the vocative use of qeos (so verse #13; Joh 20:28).

    18:12 {Twice in the week} (dis tou sabbatou). One fast a year was required by the law (#Le 16:29; Nu 29:7). The Pharisees added others, twice a week between passover and pentecost, and between tabernacles and dedication of the temple. {I get} (ktwmai). Present middle indicative, not perfect middle kektemai (I possess). He gave a tithe of his income, not of his property.

    18:13 {Standing afar off} (makroqen hestws). Second perfect active participle of histemi, intransitive like staqeis above. But no ostentation as with the Pharisee in verse #11. At a distance from the Pharisee, not from the sanctuary. {Would not lift} (ouk eqelen oude eparai). Negatives (double) imperfect of {qelw}, was not willing even to lift up, refused to lift (eparai, first aorist active infinitive of the liquid compound verb, ep-air"). Smote (etupte). Imperfect active of tuptw, old verb, kept on smiting or beating. Worshippers usually lifted up their closed eyes to God. {Be merciful} (hilasqeti). First aorist passive imperative of hilaskomai, an old verb, found also in LXX and inscriptions (exhilaskomai, Deissmann, _Bible Studies_, p. 224). {A sinner} (twi hamartwlwi). The sinner, not a sinner. It is curious how modern scholars ignore this Greek article. The main point in the contrast lies in this article. The Pharisee thought of others as sinners. The publican thinks of himself alone as the sinner, not of others at all.

    18:14 { this man} (houtos). this despised publican referred to contemptuously in verse #11 as " this " (houtos) publican. {Rather than the other} (par' ekeinon). In comparison with (placed beside) that one. A neat Greek idiom after the perfect passive participle dedikaiomenos. {For} (hoti). this moral maxim Christ had already used in #14:11. Plummer pertinently asks: "Why is it assumed that Jesus did not repeat his sayings?"

    18:15 {They brought} (proseferon). Imperfect active, they were bringing. So #Mr 10:13. {Their babes} (ta brefe). Old word for {infants}. Here #Mr 10:13; Mt 19:13 have paidia (little children). Note "also" (kai) in Luke, not in Mark and Matthew. {That he should touch them} (hina autwn haptetai). Present middle subjunctive (linear action, repeatedly touch or one after the other), where #Mr 10:13 has aorist middle subjunctive (hayetai). {Rebuked} (epetimwn). Imperfect indicative active. Either inchoative began to rebuke, or continued, kept on rebuking. Matthew and Mark have the aorist epetimesan.

    18:16 {Called} (prosekalesato). Indirect middle aorist indicative, called the children with their parents to himself and qen rebuked the disciples for their rebuke of the parents. The language of Jesus is precisely that of #Mr 10:14 which see, and nearly that of #Mt 19:14 which see also. The plea of Jesus that children be allowed to come to him is one that many parents need to heed. It is a tragedy to think of parents "forbidding" their children or of preachers doing the same or of both being stumbling-blocks to children.

    18:17 {As a little child} (hws paidion). Jesus makes the child the model for those who seek entrance into the kingdom of God, not the adult the model for the child. He does not say that the child is already in the kingdom without coming to him. Jesus has made the child's world by understanding the child and opening the door for him.

    18:18 {Ruler} (arcwn). Not in #Mr 10:17; Mt 19:16. {What shall I do to inherit?} (ti poiesas kleronomesw;). "By doing what shall I inherit?" Aorist active participle and future active indicative. Precisely the same question is asked by the lawyer in #Lu 10:25. this young man probably thought that by some one act he could obtain eternal life. He was ready to make a large expenditure for it. {Good} (agaqon). See on ¯Mr 10:17; Mt 19:16 for discussion of this adjective for absolute goodness. Plummer observes that no Jewish rabbi was called "good" in direct address. The question of Jesus will show whether it was merely fulsome flattery on the part of the young man or whether he really put Jesus on a par with God. He must at any rate define his attitude towards Christ.

    18:22 {One thing thou lackest yet} (eti hen soi leipei). Literally, one thing still fails thee or is wanting to thee. An old verb with the dative of personal interest. #Mr 10:21 has here husterei se, which see. It was an amazing compliment for one who was aiming at perfection (#Mt 19:21). The youth evidently had great charm and was sincere in his claims. {Distribute} (diados). Second aorist active imperative of diadidwmi (give to various ones, dia-). Here Mark and Matthew simply have dos (give). The rest the same in all three Gospels.

    18:23 {Became} (egeneqe). First aorist passive indicative of ginomai. Like his countenance fell (stugnasas), in #Mr 10:22. {Exceedingly sorrowful} (perilupos). Old adjective (peri, lupe) with perfective use of peri. {Very rich} (plousios sfodra). Rich exceedingly. Today, a multimillionaire.

    18:24 {Shall they enter} (eisporeuontai). Present middle indicative, futuristic present.

    18:25 {Through a needle's eye} (dia trematos belones). Both words are old. trema means a perforation or hole or eye and in the N.T. only here and #Mt 19:24. belone means originally the point of a spear and qen a surgeon's needle. Here only in the N.T. #Mr 10:25; Mt 19:24 have rhafidos for needle. this is probably a current proverb for the impossible. The Talmud twice speaks of an elephant passing through the eye of a needle as being impossible.

    18:26 {qen who} (kai tis). Literally, {and who}. The kai calls attention to what has just been said. Wealth was assumed to be mark of divine favor, not a hindrance to salvation.

    18:27 {The impossible with men possible with God} (ta adunata para anqrwpois dunata para twi qewi). Paradoxical, but true. Take your stand "beside" (para) God and the impossible becomes possible. Clearly qen Jesus meant the humanly impossible by the parabolic proverb about the camel going through the needle's eye. God can break the grip of gold on a man's life, but even Jesus failed with this young ruler.

    18:28 {Our own} (ta idia). Our own things (home, business, etc.). Right here is where so many fail. Peter speaks here not in a spirit of boastfulness, but rather with his reactions from their consternation at what has happened and at the words of Jesus (Plummer).

    18:30 {Shall not receive} (ouci me labei). Very strong double negative with aorist active subjunctive of lambanw. {Manifold more} (pollaplasiona). Late Greek word, here alone in the N.T. save #Mt 19:29 where Westcott and Hort have it though many MSS. there read hekatonplasiona (a hundredfold) as in #Mr 10:30.

    18:31 {Took unto him} (paralabwn). Second aorist active participle of paralambanw. Taking along with himself. So #Mr 10:32. #Mt 20:17 adds kat' idian (apart). Jesus is making a special point of explaining his death to the Twelve. {We go up} (anabainomen). Present active indicative, we are going up. {Unto the Son of man} (twi huiwi tou anqrwpou). Dative case of personal interest. The position is amphibolous and the construction makes sense either with "shall be accomplished" (telesqesetai) or "that are written" (ta gegrammena), probably the former. Compare these minute details of the prophecy here (verses #32f.) with the words in #Mr 10:33f.; Mt 20:18f., which see.

    18:33 {The third day} (tei hemerai tei tritei). The day the third. In #Mt 20:19 it is "the third day" while in #Mr 10:34 "after three days" occurs in the same sense, which see.

    18:34 {And they perceived not} (kai ouk eginwskon). Imperfect active. They kept on not perceiving. Twice already Luke has said this in the same sentence. {They understood none of these things} (ouden toutwn sunekan). First aorist active indicative, a summary statement. { this saying was hid from them} (en to rhema touto kekrummenon ap' autwn). Past perfect passive indicative (periphrastic), state of completion. It was a puzzling experience. No wonder that Luke tries three times to explain the continued failure of the apostles to understand Jesus. The words of Christ about his death ran counter to all their hopes and beliefs.

    18:35 {Unto Jericho} (eis iereicw). See on ¯Mt 20:29; Mr 10:46, for discussion of the two Jerichos in Mark and Matt. (the old and the new as here). {Begging} (epaitwn). Asking for something. He probably was by the wayside between the old Jericho and the new Roman Jericho. Mark gives his name Bartimaeus (#10:46). #Mt 20:30 mentions two.

    18:36 {Inquired} (epunqaneto). Imperfect middle. Repeatedly inquired as he heard the tramp of the passing crowd going by (diaporeuomenou). {What this meant} (ti eie touto). Literally, What it was. Without an the optative is due to indirect discourse, changed from estin. With an (margin of Westcott and Hort) the potential optative of the direct discourse is simply retained.

    18:37 {Passeth by} (parercetai). Present middle indicative retained in indirect discourse as paragei is in #Mt 20:30. No reason for differences of English tenses in the two passages (was passing by, passeth by).

    18:38 {He cried} (eboesen). Old verb, boaw, to shout, as in #9:38. {Son of David} (huie daueid). Shows that he recognizes Jesus as the Messiah.

    18:39 {That he should hold his peace} (hina sigesei). Ingressive aorist subjunctive. That he should become silent; as with hina siwpesei in #Mr 10:48. {The more a great deal} (pollwi mallon). By much more as in #Mr 10:48.

    18:40 {Stood} (staqeis). First aorist passive where #Mr 10:49; Mt 20:32 have stas (second aorist active) translated "stood still." One is as "still" as the other. The first is that Jesus " stopped." {Be brought} (acqenai). First aorist infinitive in indirect command.

    18:41 {What wilt thou that I should do unto thee?} (ti soi qeleis poiesw;). Same idiom in #Mr 10:51; Mt 20:32 which see, the use of qelw without hina with aorist subjunctive (or future indicative). See same references also for hina anableyw "that I may see again" without verb before hina. Three uses of anablepw here (verses #41,42,43).

    18:43 {Followed} (ekolouqei). Imperfect active as in #Mr 10:52. Either inchoative he began to follow, or descriptive, he was following.


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