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1. A rod. See on ch. ii. 27.
And the angel stood. Omit. The insertion of these words furnishes a subject for the agreement of the participle legwn, which is irregular an construction. Literally the correct text reads, "there was given me a reed, saying.". Accordingly Wordsworth refers the speech to the reed as an inspired medium of speech. Rev., better, and one said.
The temple (ton naon). See on Matt. iv. 5.
Leave out (ekbale exw). Lit., throw out, i.e., of the measurement. Unto the Gentiles (toiv eqnesin). See on Luke ii. 32. Rev., nations. Forty and two months. A period which appears in three forms in Revelation: forty-two months (ch. xiii. 5); twelve hundred and sixty days (ver. 3, ch. xii. 6); a time, times and half a time, or three years and a half (12, 14, compare Dan. vii. 25; xii. 7)
3. Power. Omit.
Two witnesses. The reader may profitably consult on this point the lectures of Professor Milligan on the Revelation of St. John. He maintains that the conception of the Apocalypse is powerfully molded by John's recollections of the life of Jesus; that there is a close parallelism between the Apocalypse and the delineation of the life of Christ contained in the fourth Gospel; and that the Apocalypse is, in the deeper conceptions which pervade it, a repetition of the Gospel. See pp. 59-69.
They shall prophesy (profhteusousin). See on prophet, Luke vii. 26. Commonly explained of preaching repentance, though some take it in the later sense of foretelling future events.
4. Two olive trees. See Zechariah 4.
Candlesticks. See Zechariah 4, and note on Matt. x. 15.
To smite (pataxai). Used by John only in Revelation, here and xix. 15. Compare Matt. xxvi. 31; Mark xiv. 27; Luke xxii. 49, 50; Acts xii. 7, 23. With all plagues (pash plhgh). Singular number. Rev., correctly, with every plague. See on Mark iii. 10. Not merely with the plagues with which Moses smote Egypt.
7. The beast (qhrion). Wild beast See on ch. iv. 6. A different word from that wrongly translated beast, ch. iv. 6, 7; v. 6, etc. Compare ch. xiii. 1; xvii. 8, and see Daniel 7.
Bottomless pit (abussou). See on ch. ix. 1.
The great city. Jerusalem is never called by this name. Different expositors refer it to Rome or Babylon. Milligan to Jerusalem.
Spiritually (pneumatikwv). Typically or allegorically. (compare 1 Corinthians x. 3, 4.
Our Lord. Read aujtwn their for hJmwn our.
10. Shall rejoice (carousin). Read cairousin, present tense, rejoice. Shall make merry ( eufranqhsontai). Read eujfrainontai, present tense, make merry; and for the word see note on fared sumptuously, Luke xvi. 19.
Entered into them. Compare Ezek. xxxvii. 1-10.
Saw (qewrountav). See on John i. 18.
13. Earthquake. See on ch. vi. 12.
Of men (onomata anqrwpwn). Lit., names of men See on ch. iii. 4. Gave glory to the God of heaven. The phrase signifies not conversion, nor repentance, nor thanksgiving, but recognition, which is its usual sense in scripture. Compare Josh. vii. 19 (Sept.). John ix. 24; Acts xii. 23; Romans iv. 20.
15. The kingdoms - are become (egenonto ai basileiai). Read ejgeneto hJ basileia, the kingdom - is become.
Of our Lord, etc. Compare Psalm ii. 2-9.
17. O Lord God, etc. See on ch. iv. 8.
And art to come. Omit.
Hast taken to Thee. Omit to thee.
18. Were angry (orgisqhsan). See on wrath, John iii. 36 Compare Psalm ii. 1.
Destroy (diafqeirai).Also to corrupt.
Which destroy (touv diafqeirontav). Or, the destroyers.
19. The temple (o naov).The sanctuary. Compare ver. 1 and see on Matt. iv. 5.
In heaven. Join with temple of God, as Rev., instead of with opened, as A.V.
The ark of His covenant (h kibwtov thv diaqhkhv autou). Kibwtov ark, meaning generally any wooden box or chest used of the ark in the tabernacle only here and Heb. ix. 4 Elsewhere of Noah's ark. See Matt. xxiv. 38; Luke xvii. 27; Heb. xi. 7; 1 Pet. iii. 20. For covenant, see note on testament, Matt. xxvi. 28. This is the last mention in scripture of the ark of the covenant. It was lost when the temple was destroyed by the Chaldeans (2 Kings xxv. 10), and was wanting in the second temple. Tacitus says that Pompey "by right of conquest entered the temple. Thenceforward it became generally known that the habitation was empty and the sanctuary unoccupied do representation of the deity being found within it" ("History," v., 9). According to Jewish tradition Jeremiah had taken the ark and all that the Most Holy Place contained, and concealed them, before the destruction of the temple, in a cave at Mount Sinai, whence they are to be restored to the temple in the days of Messiah. Lightnings and voices, etc. "The solemn salvos. so to speak, of the artillery of heaven, with which each series of visions is concluded."