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    1. Wonder (shmeion). Better, as Rev., sign. See on Matt. xxiv. 24. Clothed (peribeblhmenh). Rev., better, arrayed. See on ch. iii. 5. The moon under her feet. See Cant. vi., 10. The symbol is usually taken to represent the Church.

    2. Travailing in birth (wdinousa). See on sorrows, Mark xiii. 9, and pains, Acts ii. 24.

    In pain (basanizomenh). Lit., being tormented. See on ch. xi. 10, and references. For the imagery compare Isa. lxvi. 7, 8; John xvi. 21.

    3. Red (purrov). See on ch. vi. 4.

    Dragon (drakwn). Satan. See ver. 9. The word is found only in Revelation. In the Septuagint, of the serpent into which Moses' rod was changed. In Isa. xxvii. 1; Ezek. xxix. 3, of the crocodile or leviathan of Job xli. 1. In Jer. li. 34, of a dragon.

    Crowns (diadhmata). The Kingly crown, not the chaplet (stefanov). See on ch. ii. 10

    4. Of the stars of heaven. Some expositors find an allusion to the fallen angels (Jude 6).

    Did cast them to the earth. Compare Dan. viii. 10.

    To devour her child as soon as it was born (ina otan tekh to teknon authv katafagh). Rev., more literally, that when she was delivered he might devour her child. Professor Milligan says: "In these words we have the dragon doing what Pharaoh did to Israel (Exod. i. 15-22), and again and again, in the Psalms and the Prophets, Pharaoh is spoken of as the dragon (Psalm lxxiv. 13; Isa. xxvii. 1; li. 9; Ezek. xxix. 3). Nor is it without interest to remember that Pharaoh's crown was wreathed with a dragon (the asp or serpent of Egypt), and that just as the eagle was the ensign of Rome, so the dragon was that of Egypt. Hence the significance of Moses' rod being turned into a serpent."

    5. A man-child (uion arrena). Lit., a son, a male. The correct reading is arsen, the neuter, not agreeing with the masculine individual (uion son) but with the neuter of the genus. The object is to emphasize, not the sex, but the quality of Masculinity - power and vigor. Rev., a son, a man-child. Compare John xvi. 21; Jer. xx. 15.

    To rule (poimainein). Lit., to shepherd or tend. See on Matt. ii. 6. A rod of iron. Compare Psalm ii. 9, and see on ch. ii. 27.

    Was caught up (hrpasqh). See on Matt. xii. 12. Compare Acts xxiii. 10; Jude 23.

    6. Of God (apo tou Qeou). Lit., from God, the preposition marking the source from which the preparation came. For a similar use, see Jas. i. 13, "tempted of God."

    7. There was (egeneto). Lit., there arose.

    War in heaven. Compare 1 Kings 22; Job 1, 2; Zechariah 3; Luke x. 18. Michael. See Dan. x. 13, 21; xii. 1; and on Jude 9.

    Fought (epolemhsan). The correct reading is tou polemhsai to fight. So Rev., "going forth to war against the dragon (kata tou drakontov). The correct reading is meta with.

    8. Prevailed (iscusan). See on Luke xiv. 30; xvi. 3; Jas. v. 16.

    9. The great dragon (o drakwn o megav). Lit., the dragon, the great (dragon).

    That old serpent (o ofiv o arcaiov). Lit., the serpent, the old (serpent). For this habitual construction in John, see on 1 John iv. 9. For ajrcaiov old, see on 1 John ii. 7, and compare "he was a murderer ajp' ajrchv from the beginning," John viii. 44; ajrch beginning being etymologically akin to ajrcaiov old.

    The Devil. See on Matt. iv. 1.

    Satan. See on Luke x. 18.

    The deceiver (o planwn). Lit., he that deceiveth. See on 1 John i. 8. World (oikoumenhn). See on Luke ii. 1 The world with all its inhabitants. Down to (eiv). Lit., into.

    10. Saying in heaven (legousan en tw ouranw). The correct reading joins in heaven with great voice. So Rev. I heard a great voice in heaven. Now (arti). See on John xiii. 33.

    Is come (egeneto). Lit., came to pass. Alford says: "It is impossible in English to join to a particle of present time, such as arti now, a verb in aoristic time. We are driven to the perfect in such cases."

    Salvation, power, the kingdom. All have the article: the salvation, etc. So Rev. The phrase, now is come the salvation, etc., means that these are realized and established. Some, less correctly, render, now is the salvation, etc., become our God's Compare Luke iii. 6.

    Power (exousia). See on Mark ii. 10. Rev., authority.

    The accuser of our brethren (o kathgorov twn adelfwn hmwn). The correct form of the Greek for accuser is a transcript of the Rabbinical Hebrew, kathgwr. The Rabbins had a corresponding term sunhgwr for Michael, as the advocate of God's people. The phrase is applied to Satan nowhere else in the New Testament.

    Is cast down (kateblhqh). The aorist tense. Once and for all. Compare John xii. 31; xvi. 8, 11.

    Which accuseth (o kathgorwn). Lit., the one. The article with the present participle expresses what is habitual.

    11. Overcame (enikhsan). See on 1 John ii. 13.

    By the blood of the Lamb (dia to aima tou arniou). The preposition dia with the accusative signifies on account of. Hence Rev., correctly, because of: in virtue of the shedding of that blood. Similarly in the succeeding clause, "because of the word of their testimony." For lamb, see on ch. v. 6.

    Testimony (marturiav). See on John i. 7.

    They loved not their life even unto death. Alford, correctly, "they carried their not-love of their life even unto death."

    12. Dwell (skhnountev). See on John i. 14. Compare ch. vii. 15; xiii. 6; xxi. 3. To the inhabiters (toiv katoikousin). Omit. Read, as Rev., woe for the earth and for the sea.

    Wrath (qumon). See on John iii. 36.

    Time (kairon). See on Matt. xii. 1; Mark i. 15; Acts i. 7.

    14. Two wings. The definite article aiJ the should be added: "the two wings." Compare Exod. xix. 4; Deut. xxxii. 11; Psalm xxxvi. 7.

    The great eagle. The article does not point to the eagle of ch. viii. 13, but is generic.

    A time and times and half a time. Three years and a half. See on ch. xi. 2.

    15. Cause her to be carried away of the flood (pauthn potamoforhton poihsh). Lit., might make her one carried away by the stream: a river-born one. The word occurs only here in the New Testament.

    17. Jesus Christ. Omit Christ.

    The best texts add to this chapter the opening words of ch. xiii. (A.V.), "And I stood upon the sand of the sea." Some, however, change ejstaqhn I stood, to ejstaqh he stood, referring to the dragon. So Rev.


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