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Of the bottomless pit (tou freatov thv abussou). Rev., of the pit of the abyss. See on John iv. 6, and compare Luke xiv. 5. It is not however a pit that is locked, but the long shaft leading to the abyss, like a well-shaft, which, in the East, is oftener covered and locked.
3. Locusts (akridev). The idea of this plague is from the eighth plague in Egypt (Exod. x. 14, 15). Compare the description of a visitation of locusts in Joel 2. There are three Hebrew words in the Old Testament which appear to mean locust, probably signifying different species. Only this word is employed in the New Testament. Compare Matt. iii. 4; Mark i. 6.
Scorpions. See Ezek. ii. 6; Luke x. 19; xi. 12. Shaped like a lobster, living in damp places, under stones, in clefts of walls, cellars, etc. The sting is in the extremity of the tail. The sting of the Syrian scorpion is not fatal, though very painful. The same is true of the West Indian scorpion. Thomson says that those of North Africa are said to be larger, and that their poison frequently causes death. The wilderness of Sinai is especially alluded to as being inhabited by scorpions at the time of the Exodus (Deut. viii. 15); and to this very day they are common in the same district. A part of the mountains bordering on Palestine in the south was named from these Akrabbim, Akrab being the Hebrew for scorpion.
4. Green. See on ch. vi. 8.
5. They should be tormented (basanisqwsin). See on torments, Matt. iv. 24.
Striketh (paish). Dr. Thomson says that the scorpion cannot strike sideways. All accounts agree as to the fearful pain from its sting.
Shall desire (epiqumhsousin). Epi has the force of vehemently, earnestly.
Shall flee (feuxetai). Read feugei fleeth. Aeschylus says: "Not justly do mortals hate death, since it is the greatest deliverance from their many woes" ("Fragment"). Herodotus relates the address of Artabanus to Xerxes, when the latter wept on beholding his vast armament. "There is no man, whether it be here among this multitude or elsewhere, who is so happy as not to have felt the wish - I will not say once, but full many a time - that he were dead rather than alive. Calamities fall upon us, sicknesses vex and harass us, and make life, short though it be, to appear long. So death, through the wretchedness of our life, is a most sweet refuge to our race" (7, 46).
7. Shapes (omoiwmata). Lit., likenesses.
Horses. Compare Joel ii. 4. The likeness of a locust to a horse, especially to a horse equipped with armor, is so striking that the insect is named in German Heupferd hay-horse, and in Italian calvaletta little horse. Crowns. Not actual crowns, but as crowns. Milligan remarks that any yellow brilliancy about the head of the insect is a sufficient foundation for the figure.
Teeth of lions. Compare Joel. i. 6.
Sound of their wings. Olivier, a French writer, says: "It in difficult to express the effect produced on us by the sight of the whole atmosphere filled on all sides and to a great height by an innumerable quantity of these insects, whose flight was slow and uniform, and whose noise resembled that of rain." For a graphic description of their numbers and ravages, see Thomson, "Land and Book, Central Palestine and Phoenicia," 295-302.
Tails like unto scorpions. The comparison with the insect as it exists in nature fails here, though Smith's "Bible Dictionary" gives a picture of a species of locust, the Acridium Lineola, a species commonly sold for food in the markets of Bagdad, which has a sting in the tail.
Stings (kentra). Originally any sharp point. A goad. See on pricks, Acts xxvi. 14. Plato uses it of the peg of a top ("Republic," 436). Herodotus of an instrument of torture. Democedes, the Crotoniat physician, having denied his knowledge of medicine to Darius, Darius bade his attendants "bring the scourges and pricking-irons kentra) (3, 30) Sophocles of the buckle-tongues with which Oedipus put out his eyes.
"Woe, woe, and woe again! How through me darts the throb these clasps (kentrwn). have caused." "Oedipus Tyrannas," 1318.
Of the spur of a cock, the quill of a porcupine, and the stings of insects. For the A.V., there were stings in their tails, read as Rev., and stings; and in their tails is their power to hurt.
Abaddon. Meaning destruction. Compare Job xxvi. 6; xxviii. 22; Prov. xv. 11. Here the Destroyer, as is evident from the Greek equivalent Apolluwn Apollyon destroyer. Perdition is personified. It is after John's manner to give the Hebrew with the Greek equivalent. Compare John i. 38, 42; iv. 25; ix. 7; xi. 16, etc.
12. The first woe (h ouai h mia). Lit., the one woe.
Altar. See on ch. viii. 3.
14. In the great river (epi). Rev., more correctly, at.
Euphrates. The Euphrates was known as the great River, the River, the Flood. It rises in the mountains of Armenia, breaks through the Taurus range and runs south and southeast until it joins the Tigris in lower Babylonia Its total length is from 1,600 to 1,800 miles, and it is navigable for small craft twelve hundred miles from its mouth. It was the boundary-line of Israel on the northeast (Gen. xv. 18; Deut. i. 7; Josh. i. 4. Compare 2 Sam. viii. 3-8; 1 Kings iv. 21). It thus formed the natural defense of the chosen people against the armies of Assyria. The melting of the mountain snows causes an annual flood, beginning in March and increasing until May. These floods became an emblem of the judgments inflicted by God upon Israel by means of Babylon and Assyria. The brook of Shiloah which flowed past Zion and Moriah was a type of the temple and of its mighty and gracious Lord; and the refusal of allegiance to God by the chosen people is represented as their rejection of the waters of Shiloah which flows softly, and their punishment therefor by the bringing in of the waters of the mighty and great river (Isa. viii. 5-8; compare Jer. xvii. 13). To the prophets the Euphrates was the symbol of all that was disastrous in the divine judgments.
15. For an hour and a day and a month and a year. This rendering is wrong, since it conveys the idea that the four periods mentioned are to be combined as representing the length of the preparation or of the continuance of the plague. But it is to be noted that neither the article nor the preposition are repeated before day and month and year. The meaning is that the angels are prepared unto the hour appointed by God, and that this hour shall fall in its appointed day and month and year.
Two hundred thousand thousand (duo muriadev muriadwn). Lit., two ten-thousands of ten-thousands. See on ch. v. 11. Rev., twice ten-thousand times ten-thousand. Compare Psalm lxviii. 17; Dan. vii. 10; Heb. xii. 22; Jude 14.
17. Thus (outwv). After this manner.
Of jacinth (uakinqinouv). Uakinqov hyacinth is the name of a flower and also of a precious stone. The noun occurs only Apoc. xxi. 20, and the adjective only here. According to classical mythology, the flower sprang up from the blood of Hyacinthus, a beautiful Spartan youth, who was accidentally killed during a game of quoits. It was thought by some that the letters AI, AI, the exclamation of woe, could be traced on the petals, while others discovered the letter U, the initial letter of Uakinqov. The story of the slaying of Hyacinthus is told by Ovid.
"Lo, the blood Which, on the ground outpoured, had stained the sod, Is blood no more. Brighter than Tyrian dye, Like to the lily's shape a flower appears, Purple in hue as that is silvery white. Nor yet does such memorial content Phoebus Apollo at whose word it rose. Upon its leaves he writes his own laments, And on the flower forever stands inscribed AI, AI"
"Metamorphoses," 10., 175 sqq.
As a stone, it is identified by some with the sapphire. As to color, the hyacinth of the Greeks seems to have comprehended the iris, gladiolus, and larkspur. Hence the different accounts of its color in classical writings, varying from red to black. A dull, dark blue seems to be meant here. Of brimstone (qeiwdeiv). Perhaps light yellow, such a color as would be produced by the settling fumes of brimstone.
Of the horses. In the Bible the horse is always referred to in connection with war, except Isa. xxviii. 28, where it is mentioned as employed in threshing, the horses being turned loose in the grain as in the Italian triglia. The magnificent description in John xxxix. 19-25 applies to the war-horse. He is distinguished not so much for his speed and utility as for his strength (see Psalm xxxiii. 17; cxlvii. 10), and the word abbir strong is used as an equivalent for a horse (Jer. viii. 16; xlvii. 3). The Hebrews as a pastoral race, did not need the horse; and, for a long time after their settlement in Canaan, dispensed with it, partly because of the hilly nature of the country, which allowed the use of chariots only in certain places (Judges i. 19), and partly because of the prohibition in Deut. xvii. 16. Accordingly they hamstrung the horses of the Canaanites (Josh. xi. 6, 9). The great supply of horses was effected by Solomon through his connection with Egypt. See 1 Kings iv. 26.
Proceedeth fire and smoke. Compare Virgil.
"Then, if the sound of arms he hear from far, Quiet he cannot stand, but pricks his ears, Trembles in every limb, and snorting, rolls The gathered fire beneath his nostrils wide" "Georgics," iii, 83-85.
Also Job xxxix. 20: "the glory of his nostrils is terrible."
Like unto serpents. "Long, smooth, subtle, clasping their victim in an embrace from which he cannot escape" (Milligan). As one of the innumerable fantasies of Apocalyptic exposition may be cited that of Elliott ("Horsae Apocalypticae") who finds a reference to the horse tails, the symbols of authority of the Turkish pashas.
20. Repented not of the works (oute metenohsan ek twn ergwn). Lit., "Out of the works." The preposition ejk out of with repent, denotes a moral change involving an abandonment of evil works. See on Matthew iii. 2; xxi. 29.
Works of their hands. Not their course of life, but the idols which their hands had made. Compare Deut. iv. 28; Psalm cxxxiv. 15; Acts vii. 4. Devils (daimonia). More properly, demons. See on Mark i. 34. Compare 1 Cor. x. 20; 1 Tim. iv. 1.
See, hear, walk. Compare Dan. v. 23.
21. Sorceries (farmakeiwn). Only here, ch. xviii. 23; and Gal. v. 20, where farmakeia sorceries, A.V., witchcraft is enumerated among the "works of the flesh." Used in the Septuagint of the Egyptian sorceries (Exod. vii. 22. Of Babylon, Isa. xlvii. 9, 12). From farmakon a drug, and thence a poison, an enchantment. Plato says: "There are two kinds of poisons used among men which cannot clearly be distinguished. There is one kind of poison which injures bodies by the use of other bodies according to a natural law... but there is another kind which injures by sorceries and incantations and magic bonds, as they are termed, and induces one class of men to injure another as far as they can, and persuades others that they, above all persons, are liable to be injured by the powers of the magicians. Now it is not easy to know the nature of all these things; nor if a man do know can he readily persuade others of his belief. And when men are disturbed at the sight of waxen images, fixed either at the doors, or in a place where three ways meet, or in the sepulchers of parents, there is no use of trying to persuade them that they should despise all such things, because they have no certain knowledge about them. But we must have a law in two parts concerning poisoning, in whichever of the two ways the attempt is made; and we must entreat and exhort and advise men not to have recourse to such practices, by which they scare the multitude out of their wits, as if they were children, compelling the legislator and the judge to heal the fears which the sorcerer arouses, and to tell them, in the first place, that he who attempts to poison or enchant others knows not what he is doing, either as regards the body (unless he have a knowledge of medicine) or as regards his enchantments, unless he happens to be a prophet or diviner" ("Laws," xi., 933).