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    The psalmist describes his afflicted state, and the wickedness of his adversaries, 1-21; he declares the miseries that should come upon his enemies, 22-28; enlarges on has afflicted state, and expresses his confidence in God, 29-34; prophesies the restoration of the Jews to their own land and temple, 35, 36.


    The title is: "To the chief Musician upon Shoshannim, A Psalm of David." See this title explained on Psalm 45.

    The Psalms is supposed to have been written during the captivity, and to have been the work of some Levite Divinely inspired. It is a very fine composition, equal to most in the Psalter. Several portions of it seem to have a reference to our Lord; to his advent passion, resurrection, the vocation of the Gentiles, the establishment of the Christian Church, and the reprobation of the Jews. The ninth verse is quoted by St. John, ii. 17.

    The twenty-first verse is quoted by St. Matthew, xxvii. 34, 48; by St. Mark, xv. 23; by St. John, xix. 29; and applied to the sufferings of our Lord, in the treatment he received from the Jews. St. Paul quotes the twenty-second as a prophecy of the wickedness of the Jews, and the punishment they were to receive. He quotes the twenty-third verse in the same way. See the marginal references. Those portions which the writers of the New Testament apply to our Lord, we may apply also; of others we should be careful.

    Verse 1. "The waters are come in unto my soul. " - I am in the deepest distress. The waters have broken their dikes, and are just ready to sweep me away! Save me, Lord! In such circumstances I can have no other help.

    In the first, second, third, fourteenth, and fifteenth verses, the psalmist, speaking in the person of the captives in Babylon, compares their captivity to an abyss of waters, breaking all bounds, and ready to swallow them up; to a deep mire, in which there was no solid bottom, and no standing; and to a pot. in which they were about to be inclosed for ever.

    This is strongly figurative, and very expressive.

    Verse 3. "I am weary of my crying " - A pathetic description of the state of the poor captives for about seventy years.

    Verse 4. "Then I restored that which I took not away. " - I think, with Calmet, that this is a sort of proverbial expression, like such as these, "Those who suffered the wrong, pay the costs." Delirant reges, plectuntur Achivi. "Kings sin, and the people are punished."The fathers have eaten sour grapes, and the children's teeth are set on edge." Our fathers have grievously sinned against the Lord, and we their posterity suffer for it. See on verse 12. Some have applied it to our Lord. I restored, by my suffering and death, that image of God and the Divine favour, which I took not away.

    That is, In my human nature I expiated the crime that human beings had committed against God. But such applications are very gratuitous.

    Verse 5. "Thou knowest my foolishness " - Though we have been brought into captivity in consequence of the crimes of our fathers, yet we have guilt enough of our own to merit a continuation of our miseries. How can such words as are in this verse be attributed to our blessed Lord, however they may be twisted or turned?

    Verse 6. "Be ashamed for my sake " - The sins of the Jews were a great stumbling-block in the way of the conversion of the Gentiles. They had been the peculiar people of the Lord. "How," say the Gentiles, "can a pure and holy Being love such people?" They were now punished for their crimes. "How," say the Gentiles, "can God deal so hardly with those whom he professes to love?" The pious among the captives felt keenly, because this reproach seemed to fall upon their gracious and merciful God.

    Verse 7. "For thy sake I have borne reproach " - The Gentiles have said, "Why such an obstinate attachment to the worship of a Being who treats you so rigorously, and who interests not himself in your comfort and deliverance?" And in these cutting reproaches some of the ungodly Jews took a part: "I am an alien to my mother's children."

    Verse 9. "The zeal of thine house hath eaten me up " - The strong desire to promote thy glory has absorbed all others. All the desires of my body and soul are wrapped up in this. This verse is very properly applied to our Lord, John ii. 17, who went about doing good; and gave up his life, not only for the redemption of man, but to "magnify the law, and make it honourable."

    Verse 12. "They that sit in the gate " - At the gates were the courts for public justice; there were complaints lodged, and causes heard. No doubt many vexatious complaints were made against the poor captives; and false accusations, through which they grievously suffered; so that, literally, they were often "obliged to restore that which they had not taken away." See ver. 4.

    "The song of the drunkards. " - These poor miserable people were exposed to all sorts of indignities. Though the conduct is base, the exultation over a fallen enemy is frequent. How miserable was this lot! Forsaken by friends, scorned by enemies, insulted by inferiors; the scoff of libertines, and the song of drunkards; besides hard travail of body, miserably lodged and fed; with the burning crown of all, a deep load of guilt upon the conscience. To such a life any death was preferable.

    Verse 13. My prayer is unto thee, O Lord, in an acceptable time - This seems to refer to the end of the captivity, which Jeremiah had said should last seventy years, Jer. xxv. 11, 12: "The whole land shall be a desolation, and an astonishment; and these nations shall serve the king of Babylon seventy years. And it shall come to pass, when seventy years are accomplished, that I will punish the king of Babylon," &c. The conclusion of this period was the accepted tome of which the psalmist speaks. Now, they incessantly pray for the fulfillment of the promise made by Jeremiah: and to hear them, would be the truth of God's salvation; it would show the promise to be true, because the salvation-the deliverance, was granted.

    Verse 16. "Thy loving-kindness is good " - The word dsj chesed signifies exuberance of kindness, and the word ymjr rachamim, which we translate tender mercies, signifies such affection as mothers bear to their young: and in God, there is br rob, a multitude, of such tender mercies towards the children of men!

    Verse 18. "Deliver me because of mine enemies. " - Probably they now began to think that the redemption of these captives was not an impossible thing; that it was not far off; and therefore they had great rage, because they found their time was but short.

    Verse 19. "Thou hast known my reproach " - This is one of the most forcible appeals to mercy and compassion that was ever made. The language of these two verses is inimitable; and the sentiment cannot be mended. I can devise no comment that would not lessen their effect.

    Verse 21. "They gave me also gall for my meat " - Even the food, necessary to preserve us in their slavery, was frequently mingled with what rendered it unpleasant and disgusting, though not absolutely unwholesome. And vinegar, sour small wines, was given us for our beverage. This is applied to our Lord, Matthew xxvii. 34, where the reader is requested to consult the notes.

    Verse 22. "Let their table become a snare " - The execrations here and in the following verses should be read in the future tense, because they are predictive; and not in the imperative mood, as if they were the offspring of the psalmist's resentment: "Their table SHALL become a snare; - their eyes SHALL be darkened; -thou WILT pour out thine indignation upon them; - thy wrathful anger SHALL take hold of them; - their habitation SHALL be desolate,- and none SHALL dwell in their tents." The psalmist prophesies that the evils which they had inflicted on the Israelites should be visited on themselves; that as they had made them eat, drink, labour, and suffer, so God should in his judgment treat them.

    Verse 27. "Add iniquity unto their iniquity " - nw[ l[ w[ hnt tenah avon al avonam; give iniquity, that is, the reward of it, upon or for their iniquity. Or, as the original signifies perverseness, treat their perverseness with perverseness: act, in thy judgments, as crookedly towards them as they dealt crookedly towards thee. They shall get, in the way of punishment, what they have dealt out in the way of oppression.

    Verse 28. "Let them be blotted out " - They shall be blotted out from the land of the living. They shall be cut off from life, which they have forfeited by their cruelty and oppression. The psalmist is speaking of retributive justice; and in this sense all these passages are to be understood.

    "And not be written with the righteous. " - They shall have no title to that long life which God has promised to his followers.

    Verse 29. "I am poor and sorrowful " - Literally, I an laid low, and full of pain or grief. Hence the prayer, "Let thy salvation, O God set me on high!" My oppression has laid me low; thy salvation shall make me high!

    Verse 31. "An ox or bullock that hath horns and hoofs. " - Oxen offered in sacrifice had their horns and hoofs gilded; and the psalmist might mention these parts of the victim more particularly, because they were more conspicuous. Others think that full-grown animals are intended, those that had perfect horns, in opposition to calves or steers. I think the first the preferable sense; for the horns, &c., of consecrated animals are thus ornamented in the east to the present day.

    Verse 32. "The humble shall see this, and be glad " - Those who are low, pressed down by misfortune or cruelty, shall see this and take courage; expecting that thou wilt lift them up also; and thus the heart of those who seek the Lord shall be revived.

    Verse 33. "For the Lord heareth the poor " - ynwyba ebyonim, of the beggars. He perhaps refers here to the case of the captives, many of whom were reduced to the most abject state, so as to be obliged to beg bread from their heathen oppressors.

    "His prisoners. " - The captives, shut up by his judgments in Chaldea, without any civil liberty, like culprits in a prison.

    Verse 34. "Let the heaven and earth praise him " - The psalmist has the fullest confidence that God will turn their captivity, and therefore calls upon all creatures to magnify him for his mercy.

    Verse 35. "God will save Zion " - This fixes the Psalm to the time of the captivity. There svas no Zion belonging to the Jews in the time of Saul, when those suppose the Psalm to be written who make David the author; for David after he came to the throne, won the stronghold of Zion from the Jebusites. 2. Sam. v. 7; 1 Chron. xi. 5.

    "Will build the cities of Judah " - This refers to the return from the captivity, when all the destroyed cities should be rebuilt, and the Jews repossess their forfeited heritages. Some apply this to the redemption of the human race; and suppose that Zion is the type of the Christian Church into which the Gentiles were to be called. What evangelists and apostles apply to our Lord, we safely may. What others see so clearly in this Psalm relative to Gospel matters, I cannot discern.


    There are three parts in this Psalm: - I. The psalmist's prayer, and the reasons for it, ver. 1-21.

    II. Declaration of God's judgments against his enemies, ver. 22-28.

    III. His profession of thanks, ver. 29-36.

    I. His prayer: "Save me, O God!" And then his reasons.

    1. His present condition: "The waters are come in unto my soul." 2. "I sink in deep mire." 3. "I am come into deep waters." 4. "I am weary of my crying." 5. "My throat is dried" with calling on thee.

    6. "Mine eyes fail while I wait for my God." When he considered his enemies, he found reason to cry. They were, 1. Malicious: "They hate me without a cause." 2. Numerous: "More than the hairs of my head." 3. Powerful: "My enemies are mighty," ver. 1-4.

    1. He declares his innocence with respect to their accusations, and the oppression he suffered: "I restored that which I took not away." 2. Begs to be heard, lest he should be confounded before his enemies.

    3. Shows that he suffers for God's cause.

    4. He was zealous for the Divine worship.

    5. He was a deep penitent.

    On which account he was a subject of reproach: - 1. To the high-those who sat in the gate.

    2. To the low and base: "I was the song of the drunkards." He renews his petition, and presses on God to hear him: - 1. Because of his being ready to sink. ver. 13-15.

    2. Because of God's goodness, mercy, and truth: "In the multitude of thy mercies," &c.

    3. Because he was God's servant, and would not desert his Master.

    4. Because of his enemies, who would have a sinful triumph if he was not delivered.

    And he pleads their ill usage as a reason why God should help him.

    1. They were scorners, and God knew it: "They are all before thee," ver. 19.

    2. Reproach had almost broken his heart.

    3. His friends had abandoned him, ver. 20.

    4. His enemies were inhuman: "They gave me gall," &c., ver. 22.

    II. Prophetic declaration of God's judgments against them: - 1. Their "table should be a snare to them," ver. 22.

    2. They should be given up to judicial blindness, ver. 23.

    3. They should be enfeebled in their bodies: "Make their loins shake," ver. 23.

    4. God's "wrath should be poured out upon them," ver. 24.

    5. Their country should be wasted, ver. 25.

    6. They should have the punishment due to their iniquity, ver. 27.

    7. They should come to an untimely death: "Let them be blotted out," ver. 28.

    III. His profession of thanks. Having spoken of his own condition, that he was poor and sorrowful, he now breaks out into praise: - 1. "I will praise the name of God," ver. 30.

    2. This will be the most acceptable sacrifice, ver. 31.

    The effect of his deliverance would be double: - 1. It would "gladden the poor," ver. 32, 33.

    2. All "creatures would take an interest in it," ver. 34. All shall praise God.

    And for this he gives the following reasons: - 1. God's goodness to his Church: "He will save Zion." 2. He will confirm his kingdom among them: "He will build," &c.

    3. They shall have peace and security: "That they may dwell there, and have it in possession," ver. 35.

    4. All that love his name should have it perpetually, ver. 36.

    The cruel, the oppressor, the scorner, the irreligious, the hypocrite, shall have nothing of God's approbation here, and shall be excluded from his heavenly kingdom for ever.


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