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PARALLEL BIBLE - 1 Corinthians 13:1

CHAPTERS: 1 Corinthians 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16     

VERSES: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13




King James Bible - 1 Corinthians 13:1

Though I speak with the tongues of men and of angels, and have not charity, I am become as sounding brass, or a tinkling cymbal.

World English Bible

If I speak with the languages of men and of angels, but don't have love, I have become sounding brass, or a clanging cymbal.

Douay-Rheims - 1 Corinthians 13:1

IF I speak with the tongues of men, and of angels, and have not charity, I am become as sounding brass, or a tinkling cymbal.

Webster's Bible Translation

Though I speak with the tongues of men and of angels, and have not charity, I am become as sounding brass, or a tinkling cymbal.

Greek Textus Receptus

1437 COND ταις 3588 T-DPF γλωσσαις 1100 N-DPF των 3588 T-GPM ανθρωπων 444 N-GPM λαλω 2980 5725 V-PAS-1S και 2532 CONJ των 3588 T-GPM αγγελων 32 N-GPM αγαπην 26 N-ASF δε 1161 CONJ μη 3361 PRT-N εχω 2192 5725 V-PAS-1S γεγονα 1096 5754 V-2RAI-1S χαλκος 5475 N-NSM ηχων 2278 5723 V-PAP-NSM η 2228 PRT κυμβαλον 2950 N-NSN αλαλαζον 214 5723 V-PAP-NSN

Treasury of Scriptural Knowledge

VERSE (1) -
:2,3; 12:8,16,29,30; 14:6 2Co 12:4 2Pe 2:18

SEV Biblia, Chapter 13:1

¶ Si yo hablase lenguas humanas y anglicas, y no tengo caridad, soy como metal que resuena, o címbalo que retie.

Clarke's Bible Commentary - 1 Corinthians 13:1

Verse 1. Though I speak, &c.] At the conclusion of the preceding chapter the
apostle promised to show the Corinthians a more excellent way than that in which they were now proceeding. They were so distracted with contentions, divided by parties, and envious of each other's gifts, that unity was nearly destroyed. This was a full proof that love to God and man was wanting; and that without this, their numerous gifts and other graces were nothing in the eyes of God; for it was evident that they did not love one another, which is a proof that they did not love God; and consequently, that they had not true religion. Having, by his advices and directions, corrected many abuses, and having shown them how in outward things they should walk so as to please God, he now shows them the spirit, temper, and disposition in which this should be done, and without which all the rest must be ineffectual.

Before I proceed to the consideration of the different parts of this chapter, it may be necessary to examine whether the word agaph be best translated by charity or love. Wiclif, translating from the Vulgate, has the word charity; and him our authorized version follows. But Coverdale, Matthews, Cranmer, and the Geneva Bible, have love; which is adopted by recent translators and commentators in general; among whom the chief are Dodd, Pearce, Purver, Wakefield, and Wesley; all these strenuously contend that the word charity, which is now confined to almsgiving, is utterly improper; and that the word love, alone expresses the apostle's sense. As the word charity seems now to express little else than almsgiving, which, performed even to the uttermost of a man's power, is nothing if he lack what the apostle terms agaph, and which we here translate charity; it is best to omit the use of a word in this place which, taken in its ordinary signification, makes the apostle contradict himself; see 1 Cor. xiii. 3: Though I give all my goods to feed the poor, and have not charity, it profiteth me nothing. That is: "Though I have the utmost charity, and act in every respect according to its dictates, yet, if I have not charity, my utmost charity is unprofitable." Therefore, to shun this contradiction, and the probable misapplication of the term, LOVE had better be substituted for CHARITY! The word agaph, love, I have already considered at large in the note on Matt. xxii. 37; and to that place I beg leave to refer the reader for its derivation and import. Our English word love we have from the Teutonic leben to live, because love is the means, dispenser, and preserver of life; and without it life would have nothing desirable, nor indeed any thing even supportable: or it may be taken immediately from the Anglo-Saxon (Anglo-Saxon) and (Anglo-Saxon) love, from (Anglo-Saxon) and (Anglo-Saxon), to desire, to love, to favour. It would be ridiculous to look to the Greek verb filein for its derivation.

Having said so much about the word love, we should say something of the word charity, which is supposed to be improper in this place. Charity comes to us immediately from the French charite, who borrowed it from the Latin charitas, which is probably borrowed from the Greek cariv, signifying grace or favour, or cara, joy, as a benefit bestowed is a favour that inspires him who receives it with joy; and so far contributes to his happiness. The proper meaning of the word CHARUS, is dear, costly; and CRARITAS, is dearth, scarcity, a high price, or dearness. Hence, as in times of dearth or scarcity, many, especially the poor, must be in want, and the benevolent will be excited to relieve them; the term which expressed the cause of this want was applied to the disposition which was excited in behalf of the sufferer. Now, as he who relieves a person in distress, and preserves his life by communicating a portion of his property to him, will feel a sort of interest in the person thus preserved; Hence he is said to be dear to him: i.e. he has cost him something; and he values him in proportion to the trouble or expense he has cost him. Thus charity properly expresses that affectionate attachment we may feel to a person whose wants we have been enabled to relieve; but originally it signified that want of the necessaries of life which produced dearth or dearness of those necessaries; and brought the poor man into that state in which he stood so much in need of the active benevolence of his richer neighbour. If the word be applied to God's benevolence towards man, it comes in with all propriety and force: we are dear to God, for we have not been purchased with silver or gold, but with the precious (timiw aimati, costly) blood of Christ, who so loved us as to give his life a ransom for ours.

As Christians in general acknowledge that this chapter is the most important in the whole New Testament, I shall give here the first translation of it into the English language which is known to exist, extracted from an ancient and noble MS. in my own possession, which seems to exhibit both a text and language, if not prior to the time of Wiclif, yet certainly not posterior to his days. The reader will please to observe that there are no divisions of verses in the MS.

The XIII. Chapter of I. Corinthians, from an ancient MS. Gyf I speke with tungis of men and aungels sotheli I have not charitee: I am maad as brasse sounynge, or a symbale tynking. And gif I schal habe prophecie and habe knowen alle mysteries and alle hunynge and gif I schal have al feith so that I oder bere hills fro oo place to an other.

forsothe gif I schal not have charite: I am nought. And gif I schal deperte al my goodid into metis of pore men. And gif I schal bitake my body so that I brenne forsothe gif I schal not have charite it profitith to me no thing.

Charite is pacient It is benyngne or of good wille. Charite envyeth not. It doth not gyle it is not inblowen with pride it is not ambyciouse or coveitouse of wirschippis. It seeketh not the thingis that ben her owne. It is not stirid to wrath it thinkith not yvil. it joyeth not on wickidnesse forsothe it joyeth to gydre to treuthe. It suffreth all thingis. it bileeveth alle thingis. it hopith alle thingis it susteeneth alle things. Charite fallith not doun. Whether prophecies schuln be bolde eyther langagis schuln ceese: eyther science schul be distruyed. Forsothe of the party we ban knowen: and of partye prophecien. Forsothe whenne that schal cum to that is perfit: that thing that is of partye schal be avoydid. Whenne I was a litil chiilde: I spake as a litil chiilde. I understode as a litil chiilde: I thougte as a litil chiild. Forsothe whenne I was a maad a mam: I avoydid tho thingis that weren of a litil chiild. Forsothe we seen now bi a moror in dercness: thanne forsothe face to face. Nowe I know of partye: thanne forsothe I schal know and as I am knowen. Nowe forsothe dwellen feith hoope charite. These three: forsothe the more of hem is charite.

This is the whole of the chapter as it exists in the MS., with all its peculiar orthography, points, and lines. The words with lines under may be considered the translator's marginal readings; for, though incorporated with the text, they are distinguished from it by those lines.

I had thought once of giving a literal translation of the whole chapter from all the ancient versions. This would be both curious and useful; but the reader might think it would take up too much of his time, and the writer has none to spare.

The tongues of men] All human languages, with all the eloquence of the most accomplished orator.

And of angels] i.e. Though a man knew the language of the eternal world so well that he could hold conversation with its inhabitants, and find out the secrets of their kingdom. Or, probably, the apostle refers to a notion that was common among the Jews, that there was a language by which angels might be invoked, adjured, collected, and dispersed; and by the means of which many secrets might be found out, and curious arts and sciences known.

There is much of this kind to be found in their cabalistical books, and in the books of many called Christians. Cornelius Agrippa's occult philosophy abounds in this; and it was the main object of Dr. Dee's actions with spirits to get a complete vocabulary of this language. See what has been published of his work by Dr. Casaubon; and the remaining manuscript parts in the Sloane library, in the British museum.

In Bava Bathra, fol. 134, mention is made of a famous rabbin, Jochanan ben Zaccai, who understood the language of devils, trees, and angels.

Some think that the apostle means only the most splendid eloquence; as we sometimes apply the word angelic to signify any thing sublime, grand, beautiful, &c.; but it is more likely that he speaks here after the manner of his countrymen, who imagined that there was an angelic language which was the key to many mysteries; a language which might be acquired, and which, they say, had been learned by several.

Sounding brass] calkov hcwn? That is, like a trumpet made of brass; for although; calkov signifies brass, and aes signifies the same, yet we know the latter is often employed to signify the trumpet, because generally made of this metal. Thus Virgil, when he represents Misenus endeavouring to fright away the harpies with the sound of his trumpet:- Ergo, ubi delapsae sonitum per curva dedere Littora, dat signum specula Misenus ab alta AEre cavo: invadunt socii, et nova praelia tentant, Obscoenas pelagi ferro faedare volucres.

AEneid, lib. iii. ver. 238.

Then as the harpies from the hills once more Poured shrieking down, and crowded round the shore, On his high stand Misenus sounds from far The brazen trump, the signal of the war.

With unaccustomed fight, we flew to slay The forms obscene, dread monsters of the sea. - Pitt.

The metal of which the instrument was made is used again for the instrument itself, in that fine passage of the same poet, AEneid, lib. ix. ver. 603, where he represents the Trojans rushing to battle against the Volsciane:- At tuba terribilem sonitum procul aere canoro Increpuit: sequitur clamour, caelumque remugit.

And now the trumpets, terrible from far, With rattling clangour rouse the sleepy war.

The soldiers' shouts succeed the brazen sounds And heaven from pole to pole their noise rebounds. Dryden.

And again, in his Battle of the Bees, Geor., lib. iv. ver. lxx. -- namque morantes Martius ille aeris rauci canor increpat, et vox Auditur fractos sonitus imitata tubarum.

With shouts the cowards' courage they excite, And martial clangours call them out to fight; With hoarse alarms the hollow camp rebounds, That imitate the trumpet's angry sounds. DRYDEN.

Examples of the same figure might be multiplied; but these are sufficient.

Tinkling cymbal.] "The cymbal was a concavo-convex plate of brass, the concave side of which being struck against another plate of the same kind produced a tinkling, inharmonious sound." We may understand the apostle thus: "Though I possessed the knowledge of all languages, and could deliver even the truth of God in them in the most eloquent manner, and had not a heart full of love to God and man, producing piety and obedience to the ONE, and benevolence and beneficence to the other, doing unto all as I would wish them to do to me were our situations reversed, my religion is no more to my salvation than the sounds emitted by the brazen trumpet, or the jingling of the cymbals could contribute intellectual pleasure to the instruments which produce them; and, in the sight of God, I am of no more moral worth than those sounds are. I have, it is true, a profession; but, destitute of a heart filled with love to God and man, producing meekness, gentleness, long-suffering, &c., I am without the soul and essence of religion." I have quoted several passages from heathens of the most cultivated minds in Greece and Rome to illustrate passages of the sacred writers. I shall now quote one from an illiterate collier of Paulton, in Somerset; and, as I have named Homer, Horace, Virgil, and others, I will quote Josiah Gregory, whose mind might be compared to a diamond of the first water, whose native splendour broke in various places through its incrustations, but whose brilliancy was not brought out for want of the hand of the lapidary.

Among various energetic sayings of this great, unlettered man, I remember to have heard the following: "People of little religion are always noisy; he who has not the love of God and man filling his heart is like an empty wagon coming violently down a hill: it makes a great noise, because there is nothing in it."

John Gill's Bible Commentary

Ver. 1. Though I speak with the tongues of men , etc.] That is, of all men, all languages that men anywhere speak, or have been spoken by them. The number of these is by some said to be seventy five; but the general opinion of the Jews is, that at the confusion of languages at Babel, they were seventy; for they say f248 , that then the holy blessed God descended, and seventy angels surrounding the throne of his glory, and confounded the languages of seventy people, and every nation of the seventy had their own language and writing, and an angel set over each nation; whether this may be the reason, why the tongues of angels are mentioned here with those of men, let it be considered. Mordecai, they say f249 , was skilled in all these seventy languages, so that when he heard Bigthan and Teresh, who were Tarsians, talking together in the Tarsian language, he understood them. The same is said of R. Akiba, R. Joshua, and R.

Eliezer; yet, they say f251 , that this was one of the qualifications of the sanhedrim, or of such that sat in that great council, that they should understand these seventy languages, because they were not to hear causes from the mouth of an interpreter. It is affirmed of Mithridates, king of Pontus and Bithynia, that he had twenty five nations under his government, and that he so well understood, and could speak the language of each nation, as to converse with men of any of them, without an interpreter. Apollonius Tyaneus pretended to understand, and speak with the tongues of all men; such a case the apostle supposes here, whether attained to by learning, industry, and close application, or by an extraordinary gift of the Spirit, which latter seems to be what he intends; and the rather he mentions this, and begins with it, because many of the Corinthians were greatly desirous of it; some that had it not, were dejected on that account; wherefore to comfort them, the apostle suggests, that the grace of love which they were possessed of, was abundantly preferable to it; and others that had it were lifted up with it, and used it either for ostentation or gain, or to make parties, and not to the edification of their brethren; which showed want of love, and so were no better than what the apostle hereafter asserts: what he says here and in the following verses, is in an hypothetical way, supposing such a case, and in his own person, that it might be the better taken, and envy and ill will be removed: he adds, and of angels ; not that angels have tongues in a proper sense, or speak any vocal language, in an audible voice, with articulate sounds; for they are spirits immaterial and incorporeal; though they have an intellectual speech, by which they celebrate the perfections and praises of God, and can discourse with one another, and communicate their minds to each other; (see Isaiah 6:3, Daniel 8:13) and which is what the Jews call, blh rwbyd , the speech of the heart; and is the speech (they say) yrbdm ykalmh , which the angels speak in their heart; and is the pure language, and more excellent than other tongues; is pleasant discourse, the secret of the holy seraphim and is ykalmh jy , the talk of angels; who do the will of their Creator in their hearts, and in their thoughts: this is not what the apostle refers to; but rather the speech of angels, when they have assumed human bodies, and have in them spoke with an audible voice, in articulate sounds; of which we have many instances, both in the Old Testament and the New, wherein they have conversed with divers persons, as Hagar, Abraham, Jacob, Moses, Manoah and his wife, the Virgin Mary, Zechariah, and others; unless by the tongues of angels should be meant the most eloquent speech, and most excellent of languages; or if there can be thought to be any tongue that exceeds that of men, which, if angels spoke, they would make use of. Just as the face of angels is used, to express the greatest glory and beauty of the face, or countenance, ( Acts 6:15) and angels bread is used for the most excellent food, ( Psalm 78:25). Dr. Lightfoot thinks, and that not without reason, that the apostle speaks according to the sense and conceptions of the Jews, who attribute speech and language to angels. They tell us that R. Jochanan ben Zaccai, who was contemporary with the apostle, and lived to the destruction of Jerusalem, among other things, he was well versed in, understood tr ykalm tjyw yd tjy , the speech of demons, and the speech of the ministering angels: and which they take to be the holy tongue, or the Hebrew language; they observe f256 , that the children of men (by whom I suppose they mean the Israelites) are in three things like to the ministering angels; they have knowledge as the ministering angels, and they walk in an erect stature as the ministering angels, trh ykalmk dqh wlb yrpsmw , and they speak in the holy tongue, as the ministering angels.

They pretend that the angels do not understand the Syriac language; hence they advise a man, never to ask for what he wants in the Syriac language; for (says R.

Jochanan) whoever asks for what he wants in the Syriac language, the ministering angels do not join with him, for they do not know the Syriac language; and yet, in the same page, they say that Gabriel came and taught one the seventy languages: but let the tongues of angels be what they will, and a man be able to speak with them ever so well, and have not charity ; by which is meant not giving of alms to the poor, for in ( 1 Corinthians 13:3) this is supposed in the highest degree it can be performed, and yet a man be destitute of charity; nor a charitable opinion of men as good men, let their principles and practices be what they will; for this is not true charity, but rather uncharitableness, and acting the most unkind part to their souls, to consider and caress them as such, when destruction and ruin are in all their ways; but the grace of love is here meant, even love to God, and love to Christ, and love to the saints, which is a grace implanted in regeneration by the Spirit of God; and which, if a person is destitute of, as he may, who has never so great a share of learning, or knowledge of the languages, or even the extraordinary gift of speaking with divers tongues; all his learning is but an empty sound, his eloquence, his diversity of speech, is but like the mans nightingale, vox & praeterea nihil, a voice and nothing else; or as the apostle here says, supposing it was his own case, I am become as sounding brass, or a tinkling cymbal ; or rather, the loud, or high sounding cymbal, as in ( <19F005> Psalm 150:5) which the Septuagint there render by kumbaloiv alalagmou , a phrase of the same signification with this: for not that little tinkling instrument used by the Heathens is here meant; though what is here said of the cymbal agrees with that; which made a tinkling noise when shaken, or struck with anything, or with one against another; and was an hollow vessel of brass, in form of the herb called navel wort f258 ; but rather that musical instrument which bore this name, used in the Jewish worship under the Old Testament; and which, the Jews say, was an instrument that gave a very great sound; and that the sound of it was heard as far as Jericho f260 , which was some miles from Jerusalem; they say f261 , that the cymbals were two brazen instruments or pieces of brass, which they struck one against another, and so made a sound. The cymbal was also used in the worship of Heathen deities, and the allusion here in both the things mentioned, is either to the tinkling of brass, and the sounding of cymbals in the worship of idols f262 ; which were mere empty sounds, and of no avail, as is a mans speaking with divers tongues, destitute of the grace of love; or to the confused clamours and noises made upon going to battle, just upon the onset, by drums and cymbals, and hceioiv calkoiv , hollow sounding pieces of brass; as appears from Polytenus, Plutarch, Appianus and others f263 ; to which confused noises the apostle compares the most eloquent speech without love. The Greeks had a play they used at feasts, I will not say the allusion is to it here, but leave it to be though of, which they call Cottabisis; when, the liquor that was left, they cast into cups of brass, and such whose liquor made the greatest sound in the cup, fancied himself to be loved again, by the person he loved f264 : sounding brass and tinkling cymbals are inanimate things, things without life, as all such persons are destitute of spiritual life, who are devoid of the grace of love; and though they, by an extraordinary gift, and under a divine impulse, speak with divers tongues, they are but like hollow vessels of brass, and sounding cymbals, which only make a noise when they are stricken, and what they give is a mere empty sound, which is of no profit to themselves; they cannot hear, nor be delighted with it, but are rather hurt, being worn out thereby; nor of no great advantage to others, unless they give a musical sound, and that only delights the ear, but neither feeds nor clothes the body; of such little use and profit are men, speaking with tongues destitute of the grace of love, either to themselves or others.

Matthew Henry Commentary

Verses 1-3 - The excellent way had in view in the close of the former chapter, is not what is meant by charity in our common use of the word, almsgiving but love in its fullest meaning; true love to God and man. Withou this, the most glorious gifts are of no account to us, of no esteem in the sight of God. A clear head and a deep understanding, are of n value without a benevolent and charitable heart. There may be an ope and lavish hand, where there is not a liberal and charitable heart Doing good to others will do none to us, if it be not done from love to God, and good-will to men. If we give away all we have, while we withhold the heart from God, it will not profit. Nor even the mos painful sufferings. How are those deluded who look for acceptance an reward for their good works, which are as scanty and defective as the are corrupt and selfish!

Greek Textus Receptus

1437 COND ταις 3588 T-DPF γλωσσαις 1100 N-DPF των 3588 T-GPM ανθρωπων 444 N-GPM λαλω 2980 5725 V-PAS-1S και 2532 CONJ των 3588 T-GPM αγγελων 32 N-GPM αγαπην 26 N-ASF δε 1161 CONJ μη 3361 PRT-N εχω 2192 5725 V-PAS-1S γεγονα 1096 5754 V-2RAI-1S χαλκος 5475 N-NSM ηχων 2278 5723 V-PAP-NSM η 2228 PRT κυμβαλον 2950 N-NSN αλαλαζον 214 5723 V-PAP-NSN

Vincent's NT Word Studies

Tongues. Mentioned first because of the exaggerated importance which the Corinthians attached to this gift.

Angels. Referring to the ecstatic utterances of those who spoke with tongues.

Charity (agaphn). Rev., love. The word does not occur in the classics, though the kindred verbs ajgapaw and ajgapazw to love, are common. It first appears in the Septuagint, where, however, in all but two of the passages, it refers to the love of the sexes. Eleven of the passages are in Canticles. See, also, 2 Sam. xiii. 15, Sept. The change in the Rev. from charity to love, is a good and thoroughly defensible one. Charity follows the caritas of the Vulgate, and is not used consistently in the A.V. On the contrary, in the gospels, ajgaph is always rendered love, and mostly elsewhere, except in this epistle, where the word occurs but twice. Charity, in modern usage, has acquired the senses of tolerance and beneficence, which express only single phases of love. There is no more reason for saying "charity envieth not," than for saying "God is charity;" "the charity of Christ constraineth us;" "the charity of God is shed abroad in our hearts." The real objection to the change on the part of unscholarly partisans of the A.V. is the breaking of the familiar rhythm of the verses. Sounding brass (calkov hcwn). The metal is not properly brass, the alloy of copper and zinc, but copper, or bronze, the alloy of copper and tin, of which the Homeric weapons were made. Being the metal in common use, it came to be employed as a term for metal in general. Afterward it was distinguished; common copper being called black or red copper, and the celebrated Corinthian bronze being known as mixed copper. The word here does not mean a brazen instrument, but a piece of unwrought metal, which emitted a sound on being struck. In the streets of Seville one may see pedlers striking, together two pieces of brass instead of blowing a horn or ringing a bell.

Tinkling cymbal (kumbalon alalazon). The verb rendered tinkling, alalazo, originally meant to repeat the cry alala, as in battle. It is used by Mark (vi. 38) of the wailings of hired mourners. Hence, generally, to ring or clang. Rev., clanging. Kumbalon cymbal, is derived from kumbov a hollow or a cup. The cymbal consisted of two half-globes of metal, which were struck together. In middle-age Latin, cymbalum was the term for a church or convent-bell. Ducange defines: "a bell by which the monks are called to meals, and which is hung in the cloister." The comparison is between the unmeaning clash of metal, and music; between ecstatic utterances which are jargon, and utterances inspired by love, which, though unintelligible to the hearers, may carry a meaning to the speaker himself and to God, 1 Cor. xiv. 4, 7.

Robertson's NT Word Studies

13:1 {With the tongues} (tais glwssais). Instrumental case. Mentioned first because really least and because the Corinthians put undue emphasis on this gift. Plato (_Symposium_, 197) and many others have written on love, but Paul has here surpassed them all in this marvellous prose-poem. It comes like a sweet bell right between the jangling noise of the gifts in chapters 12 and 14. It is a pity to dissect this gem or to pull to pieces this fragrant rose, petal by petal. Fortunately Paul's language here calls for little comment, for it is the language of the heart. "The greatest, strongest, deepest thing Paul ever wrote" (Harnack). The condition (ean and present subjunctive, lalw kai me ecw, though the form is identical with present indicative) is of the third class, a supposable case. {But have not love} (agapen de me ecw). this is the _crux_ of the chapter. Love is the way _par excellence_ of #12:31. It is not yet clearly certain that agape (a back-formation from agapaw) occurs before the LXX and the N.T. Plutarch used agapesis. Deissmann (_Bible Studies_, p. 198) once suspected it on an inscription in Pisidia. It is still possible that it occurs in the papyri (Prayer to Isis). See _Light from the Ancient East_, p. 75 for details. The rarity of agape made it easier for Christians to use this word for Christian love as opposed to erws (sexual love). See also Moffatt's Love in the N.T. (1930) for further data. The word is rare in the Gospels, but common in Paul, John, Peter, Jude. Paul does not limit agape at all (both toward God and man). Charity (Latin _caritas_) is wholly inadequate. "Intellect was worshipped in Greece, and power in Rome; but where did St. Paul learn the surpassing beauty of love?" (Robertson and Plummer). Whether Paul had ever seen Jesus in the flesh, he knows him in the spirit. One can substitute Jesus for love all through this panegyric. {I am become} (gegona). Second perfect indicative in the conclusion rather than the usual future indicative. It is put vividly, "I am already become." Sounding brass (calcos ecwn). Old words. Brass was the earliest metal that men learned to use. Our word _echoing_ is ecwn, present active participle. Used in #Lu 21:25 of the roaring of the sea. Only two examples in N.T. {Clanging cymbal} (kumbalon alalazon). Cymbal old word, a hollow basin of brass. alalazw, old onomatopoetic word to ring loudly, in mourn (#Mr 5:38), for any cause as here. Only two N.T. examples.

CHAPTERS: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16
VERSES: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13


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