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    Paul, in his address to the people, gives an account of his birth and education, 1-3. His prejudices against Christianity, 4, 5. And of his miraculous conversion, and call to the apostleship, 6-21. The Jews, hearing him say that God had sent him to preach the Gospel to the Gentiles, become exceedingly outrageous, and clamour for his life, 22, 23. The chief captain orders him to be examined by scourging; but he, pleading his privilege as a Roman citizen, escapes the torture, 24-29. The next day the chief captain brings Paul before the chief priests and their council, 30.


    Verse 1. "Men, brethren, and fathers" - A Hebrew form of expression for brethren and fathers: for two classes only are addressed. See the note on chap. vii. 2.

    "Hear ye my defense" - mou thv apologiav, This apology of mine; in this sense the word apology was anciently understood: hence the Apologies of the primitive fathers, i.e. their defenses of the Christian religion. And this is as proper literal meaning; but it is now used only as implying an excuse for improper conduct. That this is an abuse of the term requires no proof.

    Verse 2. "When they heard that he spake in the Hebrew tongue" - He had probably been traduced by the Jews of Asia as a mere Gentile, distinguished only by his virulence against the Jewish religion; which virulence proceeded from his malice and ignorance.

    Verse 3. "I am verily a man which am a Jew" - A periphrasis for, I am really a Jew: and his mentioning this adds weight to the conjecture in the preceding note. He shows that he could not be ignorant of the Jewish religion, as he had had the best instructer in it which Jerusalem could produce.

    "Yet brought up, &c." - Bp. Pearce proposes that this verse should be thus read and translated: but brought up in this city; instructed at the feet of Gamaliel, according to the most exact manner, being exceedingly zealous for the law of our fathers, as ye all are this day.

    Born in Tarsus] See the notes on chap. ix. 11; xxi. 39.

    Feet of Gamaliel] See a full account of this man in the note on chap. v. 34.

    It has been generally supposed that the phrase, brought up at the feet, is a reference to the Jewish custom, viz. that the disciples of the rabbins sat on low seats, or on the ground, whilst the rabbin himself occupied a lofty chair. But we rather learn, from Jewish authority, that the disciples of the rabbins stood before their teachers, as Vitringa has proved in his treatise Deuteronomy Synag. Vet. lib. i. p. 1, cap. 7. Kypke, therefore, contends that para touv podav, at the feet, means the same as plhsion, near, or before, which is not an unfrequent mode of speech among both sacred and profane writers. Thus, in chap. iv. 35, 37; v. 2, etiqoun para touv podav twn apostolwn, they laid it at the apostles' feet, means only, they brought it to the apostles. So in 2 Macc. iv. 7, para podav hdh ton fohn orwntev keimenon, they saw death already lying at their feet; that is, as the Syriac translator has properly rendered it, they saw death immediately before them. So Themistius, Or. 27, p. 341, who adds the term by which the phrase is explained, esti kai plhsion aei tw dunamenw lambanein, ante pedes id temper et prope est, illi qui accipere potest.

    Also Lucian, Deuteronomy Conser. Hist. p. 669, wn para podav oi elegcoi. The refutation of which is at hand. The same kind of form occurs in the Hebrew, Exod. xi. 8: All the people that are at thy feet, Żylgrb beragleica, i.e. who are with thee, under thy command, 2 Sam. xv. 16.

    And the king went out, and all his household, wylgrb beraglaiv, at his feet; that is, with him, in his company. See Kypke. The phrase is used in the same sense among the Hindoos: I learned this at my father's feet-instead of, I learned it of my father. I was taught at the feet of such a teacher-my teacher's feet say so; meaning, simply, such and such persons taught me.

    "According to the perfect manner" - That is, according to that strict interpretation of the law, and especially the traditions of the elders, for which the Pharisees were remarkable. That it is Pharisaism that the apostle has in view, when he says he was taught according to, akribeian, the most extinct manner, is evident; and hence, in chap. xxvi. 5, he calls Pharisaism akribestathn, the most exact system; and, under it, he was zealous towards God; scrupulously exact in every part of his duty, accompanying this with reverence to the supreme Being, and deep concern for his honour and glory.

    Verse 4. "I persecuted this way" - tauthn thn odon; This doctrine, the way of worshipping God, and arriving at a state of blessedness. See on chap. ix. 2.

    "Binding and delivering into prisons" - See on chap. viii. 3; ix. 2.

    Verse 5. "The high priest doth bear me witness, &c." - He probably referred to the letters of authority which he had received from the high priest, and the whole estate of the elders, pan to presbuterion, the whole of the presbytery, that is, the sanhedrin; and it is likely, that he had those letters to produce. This zeal of his against Christianity was an ample proof of his sincerity as a Pharisaical Jew.

    Verse 6. "- 13. As I made my journey, &c." - See the whole of this account, and all the particular circumstances, considered at large in the notes on chap. ix. 1, &c., and the observations at the conclusion of that chapter.

    Verse 14. "And see that Just One" - The Lord Jesus, called the Just One, in opposition to the Jews, who crucified him as a malefactor: see the note on chap. vii. 52. This is an additional proof that Jesus Christ did actually appear unto Saul of Tarsus.

    Verse 15. "Thou shalt be his witness unto all" - Thou shalt proclaim Christ crucified, both to Jews and Gentiles.

    Verse 16. "Arise, and be baptized" - Take now the profession of Christ's faith most solemnly upon thee, by being baptized in the name of Father, Son, and Holy Spirit.

    Wash away thy sins, &c.] Let this washing of thy body represent to thee the washing away of thy sins: and know that this washing away of sin can be received only by invoking the name of the Lord.

    Verse 17. "When I was come again to Jerusalem" - It is likely that he refers to the first journey to Jerusalem, about three years after his conversion, chap. ix. 25, 26, and Gal. i. 18.

    "I was in a trance" - This circumstance is not mentioned any where else, unless it be that to which himself refers in 2 Corinthians xii. 2-4, when he conceived himself transported to the third heaven; and, if the case be the same, the appearance of Jesus Christ to him, and the command given, are circumstances related only in this place.

    Verse 19. "I imprisoned and beat in every synagogue" - This shows what an active instrument Saul of Tarsus was, in the hands of this persecuting priesthood, and how very generally the followers of Christ were persecuted, and how difficult it was at this time to profess Christianity.

    Verse 20. "When the blood of thy martyr Stephen was shed" - See on chap. vii. 58; viii. 1. All these things Paul alleged as reasons why he could not expect to be received by the Christians; for how could they suppose that such a persecutor could be converted?

    Verse 21. "I will send thee far hence unto the Gentiles." - This was the particular appointment of St. Paul: he was the apostle of the Gentiles; for, though he preached frequently to the Jews, yet to preach the Gospel to the Gentiles, and to write for the conversion and establishment of the Gentile world, were his peculiar destination. Hence we find him and his companions travelling every where; through Judea, Phoenicia, Arabia, Syria, Cilicia, Pisidia, Lycaonia, Pamphylia, Galatia, Phrygia, Macedonia, Greece, Asia, the Isles of the Mediterranean Sea, the Isles of the AEgean Sea, Italy, and some add Spain and even Britain. This was the diocess of this primitive bishop: none of the apostles traveled, none preached, none laboured as this man; and, we may add, none was so greatly owned of God.

    The epistles of Peter, John, James, and Jude, are great and excellent; but, when compared with those of Paul, however glorious they may be, they have no glory comparatively, by reason of that glory which excelleth. Next to Jesus Christ, St. Paul is the glory of the Christian Church. Jesus is the foundation; Paul, the master-builder.

    Verse 22. "They gave him audience unto this word" - Namely, that God had sent him to the Gentiles: not that they refused to preach the law to the Gentiles, and make them proselytes; for this they were fond of doing, so that our Lord says, they compassed sea and land to make a proselyte; but they understood the apostle as stating that God had rejected them, and called the Gentiles to be his peculiar people in their place; and this they could not bear.

    "Away with such a fellow" - According to the law of Moses, he who attempted to seduce the people to any strange worship was to be stoned, Deut. xiii. 15. The Jews wished to insinuate that the apostle was guilty of this crime, and that therefore he should be stoned, or put to death.

    Verse 23. "Cast off their clothes" - Bishop Pearce supposes that shaking their upper garments is all that is meant here; and that it was an ancient custom for men to do so when highly pleased or greatly irritated; but it is likely that some of them were now actually throwing off their clothes, in order to prepare to stone Paul.

    "Threw dust into the air" - In sign of contempt, and by way of execration.

    Shimei acted so, in order to express his contempt of David, 2 Sam. xvi. 13, where it is said, he cursed him as he went, and threw stones at him; or, as the margin, he dusted him with dust. Their throwing dust in the air was also expressive of extraordinary rage and vindictive malice. The apostle, being guarded by the Roman soldiers, was out of the power of the mob; and their throwing dust in the air not only showed their rage, but also their vexation that they could not get the apostle into their power. It is still used as a token of hostility and defiance. M. Denon, (Travels in Egypt, vol. iii. p. 98,) on coming down the Nile to Cairo, stopped at the ancient city of Antinoe, to examine its ruins. "Being desirous of obtaining a view of the whole of these ruins, we ascended a little hill, and soon perceived the inhabitants of the modern village assembling behind an opposite eminence: scarcely had we come over against them than, supposing our intentions to be hostile, they called out for assistance, and threw dust into the air, in token of defiance. The alarm spread, and they began firing upon us."

    Verse 24. "Examined by scourging" - As the chief captain did not understand the Hebrew language, he was ignorant of the charge brought against Paul, and ignorant also of the defense which the apostle had made; and, as he saw that they grew more and more outrageous, he supposed that Paul must have given them the highest provocation; and therefore he determined to put him to the torture, in order to find out the nature of his crime. The practice of putting people to the rack, in order to make them confess, has, to the disgrace of human nature, existed in all countries.

    Verse 25. "And as they bound him, &c." - They were going to tie him to a post, that they might scourge him.

    "Is it lawful, &c." - The Roman law absolutely forbade the binding of a Roman citizen. See the note on chap. xvi. 37.

    Verse 28. "With a great sum obtained I this freedom" - So it appears that the freedom, even of Rome, might be purchased, and that it was sold at a very high price.

    "But I was free born." - It has been generally believed that the inhabitants of Tarsus, born in that city, had the same rights and privileges as Roman citizens, in consequence of a charter or grant from Julius Caesar. Calmet disputes this, because Tarsus was a free not a colonial city; and he supposes that Paul's father might have been rewarded with the freedom of Rome for some military services, and that it was in consequence of this that Paul was horn free. But that the city of Tarsus had such privileges appears extremely probable. In chap. xxi. 39, Paul says he was born at Tarsus in Cilicia, and in ver. 28, he says he was free born; and, at ver. 26, he calls himself a Roman; as he does also chap. xvi. 37. From whence it has been concluded, with every show of reason, that Tarsus, though no Roman colony, yet had this privilege granted to it, that its natives should be citizens of Rome. PLINY, in Hist. Nat. lib. v. 27, tells us that Tarsus was a free city. And APPIAN, Deuteronomy Bello Civil. lib. v. p. 1077, edit. Tollii, says that Antony, tarseav eleuqerouv hfiei, kai ateleiv forwn, made the people of Tarsus free, and discharged them from paying tribute. DIO CASSIUS, lib. xlvii. p. 508, edit. Reimar, farther tells us, Adeo Caesari priori, et ejus gratia etiam posteriori, favebant Tarsenses, ut urbem suam pro Tarso JULIOPOLIN vocaverint: "that, for the affection which the people of Tarsus bore to Julius Caesar, and afterwards to Augustus, the former caused their city to be called Juliopolis." The Greek text is as follows:- outw prosfilwv tw kaisari proterw, kai di∆ ekeinon tw deuterw, oi tarseiv eicon, wste kai iouliopolin sfav ap∆ autou metonomasai. To which I add, that PHILO, de Virt. vol.

    ii. p. 587, edit. Mang., makes Agrippa say to Caligula, filwn eniwn patridav olav thv ∆rwmaikhv hxiwsav politeiav? You have made whole countries, to which your friends belong, to be citizens of Rome. See the note on chap. xxi. 39. These testimonies are of weight sufficient to show that Paul, by being born at Tarsus, might have been free born, and a Roman. See Bishop Pearce on chap. xvi. 37.

    Verse 29. "After he knew that he was a Roman" - He who was going to scourge him durst not proceed to the torture when Paul declared himself to be a Roman. A passage from Cicero, Orat. pro Verr. Act. ii. lib. v. 64, throws the fullest light on this place: Ille, quisquis erat, quem tu in crucem rapiebas, qui tibi esset ignotus, cum civem se Romanum esse diceret, apud te Praetorem, si non effugium, ne moram quidem mortis mentione atque usurpatione civitatis assequi potuit? "Whosoever he might be whom thou wert hurrying to the rack, were he even unknown to thee, if he said that he was a Roman citizen, he would necessarily obtain from thee, the Praetor, by the simple mention of Rome, if not an escape, yet at least a delay of his punishment." The whole of the sixty-fourth and sixty-fifth sections of this oration, which speak so pointedly on this subject, are worthy of consideration. Of this privilege he farther says, Ib. in cap. lvii., Illa vox et exclamatio, Civis Romanus sum, quae saepe multis in ultimis terris opem inter barbaros et salutem tulit, &c. That exclamation, I am a Roman citizen, which often times has brought assistance and safety, even among barbarians, in the remotest parts of the earth, &c.

    PLUTARCH likewise, in his Life of Pompey, (vol. iii. p. 445, edit. Bryan,) says, concerning the behaviour of the pirates, when they had taken any Roman prisoner, ekeino de hn ubristikwtaton k. t. l. what was the most contumelious was this; when any of those whom they had made captives cried out, ∆rwmaiov einai, THAT HE WAS A ROMAN, and told them his name, they pretended to be surprised, and be in a fright, and smote upon their thighs, and fell down (on their knees) to him, beseeching him to pardon them! It is no wonder then that the torturer desisted, when Paul cried out that he was a Roman; and that the chief captain was alarmed, because he had bound him.

    Verse 30. "He-commanded-all their council to appear" - Instead of elqein, to come, which we translate, to appear, sunelqein, to assemble, or meet together, is the reading of ACE, nearly twenty others, the AEthiopic, Arabic, Vulgate, Chrysostom, and Theophylact: this reading Griesbach has received into the text; and it is most probably the true one: as the chief captain wished to know the certainty of the matter, he desired the Jewish council, or Sanhedrin, to assemble, and examine the business thoroughly, that he might know of what the apostle was accused; as the law would not permit him to proceed against a Roman in any judicial way, but on the clearest evidence; and, as he understood that the cause of their enmity was something that concerned their religion, he considered the Sanhedrin to be the most proper judge, and therefore commanded them to assemble; and there is no doubt that he himself, and a sufficient number of soldiers, took care to attend, as the person of Paul could not be safe in the hands of persons so prejudiced, unprincipled, and enraged.

    This chapter should end with the twenty-ninth verse, and the following should begin with the thirtieth; this is the most natural division, and is followed by some of the most correct editions of the original text.

    1. IN his address to the council, Paul asserts that he is a Jew, born of and among Jews; and that he had a regular Jewish education; and he takes care to observe that he had early imbibed all the prejudices peculiar to his countrymen, and had given the fullest proof of this in his persecution of the Christians. Thus, his assertions, concerning the unprofitableness of the legal ceremonies, could neither be attributed to ignorance nor indifference.

    Had a Gentile, no matter how learned or eminent, taught thus, his whole teaching would have been attributed to ignorance, prejudice, and envy.

    God, therefore, in his endless mercy, made use of a most eminent, learned, and bigoted Jew, to demonstrate the nullity of the whole Jewish system, and show the necessity of the Gospel of Jesus Christ.

    2. At the close of this chapter, Dr. Dodd has the following judicious remark:-"As unrighteous as it was in the Roman officer, on this popular clamour, to attempt putting this holy apostle to the torture, so reasonable was St. Paul's plea, as a Roman citizen, to decline that suffering. It is a prudence worthy the imitation of the bravest of men, not to throw themselves into unnecessary difficulties. True courage widely differs from rash and heedless temerity; nor are we under any obligation, as Christians, to give up our civil privileges, which ought to be esteemed as the gifts of God, to every insolent and turbulent invader. In a thousand circumstances, gratitude to God, and duty to men, will oblige us to insist upon them; and a generous concern for those who may come after us should engage us to labour to transmit them to posterity improved rather than impaired." This should be an article in the creed of every genuine Briton.


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