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PARALLEL BIBLE - Romans 3:25

CHAPTERS: Romans 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16     

VERSES: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31




King James Bible - Romans 3:25

Whom God hath set forth to be a propitiation through faith in his blood, to declare his righteousness for the remission of sins that are past, through the forbearance of God;

World English Bible

whom God set forth to be an atoning sacrifice, through faith in his blood, for a demonstration of his righteousness through the passing over of prior sins, in God's forbearance;

Douay-Rheims - Romans 3:25

Whom God hath proposed to be a propitiation, through faith in his blood, to the shewing of his justice, for the remission of former sins,

Webster's Bible Translation

Whom God hath set forth to be a propitiation, through faith in his blood, to declare his righteousness for the remission of sins that are past, through the forbearance of God;

Greek Textus Receptus

3739 R-ASM προεθετο 4388 5639 V-2AMI-3S ο 3588 T-NSM θεος 2316 N-NSM ιλαστηριον 2435 N-ASN δια 1223 PREP της 3588 T-GSF πιστεως 4102 N-GSF εν 1722 PREP τω 3588 T-DSN αυτου 846 P-GSM αιματι 129 N-DSN εις 1519 PREP ενδειξιν 1732 N-ASF της 3588 T-GSF δικαιοσυνης 1343 N-GSF αυτου 846 P-GSM δια 1223 PREP την 3588 T-ASF παρεσιν 3929 N-ASF των 3588 T-GPN προγεγονοτων 4266 5761 V-RAP-GPN αμαρτηματων 265 N-GPN

Treasury of Scriptural Knowledge

VERSE (25) -
Ac 2:23; 3:18; 4:28; 15:18 1Pe 1:18-20 Re 13:8

SEV Biblia, Chapter 3:25

al cual Dios ha propuesto por aplacacin mediante la fe en su sangre, para manifestacin de su justicia, para la remisin de los pecados pasados;

Clarke's Bible Commentary - Romans 3:25

Verse 25. Whom
God hath set forth] Appointed and published to be a propitiation, ilasthrion, the mercy-seat, or place of atonement; because the blood of the sacrifice was sprinkled on and before that, in order to obtain remission of sin, punishment, &c. The mercy-seat was the lid or cover of the ark of the covenant, where God was manifest in the symbol of his presence, between the cherubim; therefore the atonement that was made in this place was properly made to God himself. See the note on Luke xviii. 13.

Through faith in his blood] This shows what we are to understand both by the apolutrwsiv, redemption, and the ilasthrion, propitiation; viz. that they refer to the sacrificial death of Jesus Christ, as the atonement made, and the price paid down, for the redemption of the souls of men.

To declare his righteousness] eiv endeixiv, for the manifestation of his righteousness; his mercy in saving sinners, by sending Jesus Christ to make an atonement for them; thereby declaring his readiness to remit all past transgressions committed both by Jews and Gentiles, during the time in which his merciful forbearance was exercised towards the world; and this applies to all who hear the Gospel now: to them is freely offered remission of all past sins.

John Gill's Bible Commentary

Ver. 25. Whom God had set forth to be a propitiation , etc..] Redemption by Christ is here further explained, by his being a propitiation: which word may design either Christ the propitiator, the author of peace and reconciliation; or the propitiatory sacrifice, by which he is so; and both in allusion to the mercy seat, which was a type of him as such. The apostle here uses the same word, which the Septuagint often render trpk the mercy seat, by; and Philo the Jew calls it by the same name, and says it was a symbol, thv ilew tou yeou dunamewv of the propitious power of God f49 . Christ is the propitiation to God for sin; which must be understood of his making satisfaction to divine justice, for the sins of his people; these were imputed to him, and being found on him, the law and justice of God made demands on him for them; which he answered to satisfaction, by his obedience and sacrifice; and which, as it could not be done by any other, nor in any other way, is expressed by reconciliation, and atonement: whence God may be said to be pacified, or made propitious; not but that he always loved his people, and never hated them; nor is there, nor can there be any change in God, from hatred to love, any more than from love to hatred: Christ has not, by his sacrifice and death, procured the love and favour of God, but has removed the obstructions which lay in the way of love's appearing and breaking forth; there was, a law broken, and justice provoked, which were to be attended to, and Christ by his sacrifice has satisfied both; so that neither the wrath of God, nor any of the effects of it, can fall upon the persons Christ is the propitiation for, even according to justice itself; so that it is not love, but justice that is made propitious: for this is all owing to the grace and goodness of God, who hath set him forth, for this intent, in his eternal purposes and decrees; in the promises of the Old Testament, in the types, shadows, and sacrifices of the old law; by the exhibition of him in our nature, and in the ministration of the Gospel; and this is said to be through faith in his blood . The blood of Christ is that, by which Christ is the propitiation; for without the shedding of that blood, there is no redemption, no peace, no reconciliation, or remission of sin; and faith in his blood is the means by which persons become partakers of the benefits of his propitiation; such as peace, pardon, atonement, justification, and adoption: and the end of Christ's being set forth as a propitiation, on the part of God's people, is, for the remission of sins that are past, through the forbearance of God : by sins that are past, are meant, not sins before baptism, nor the sins of a man's life only, but the sins of Old Testament saints, who lived before the incarnation of Christ, and the oblation of his sacrifice; and though this is not to be restrained to them only, for Christ's blood was shed for the remission of all his people's sins, past, present, and to come; yet the sins of the saints before the coming of Christ, seem to be particularly designed; which shows the insufficiency of legal sacrifices, sets forth the efficacy of Christ's blood and sacrifice, demonstrates him to be a perfect Saviour, and gives us reason under the present dispensation to hope for pardon, since reconciliation is completely made: remission of sin does not design that weakness which sin has brought upon, and left in human nature, whereby it is so enfeebled, that it cannot help itself, and therefore Christ was set forth, and sent forth, to be a propitiation; but rather God's passing by, or overlooking sin, and not punishing for it, under the former dispensation; or else the forgiveness of it now, and redemption from it by the blood of Christ, through the forbearance of God; in deferring the execution of justice, till he sent his Son, and in expecting satisfaction of his Son; which shows the grace and goodness of God to his people, and the trust and confidence he put in his Son: the other end on the part of God, in setting forth Christ to be a propitiation, was to declare his righteousness ( Psalm 22:31); meaning either the righteousness of Christ, which was before hid, but now manifested; or rather the righteousness of God the Father, his faithfulness in his promises relating to Christ, his grace and goodness in the mission of his Son, the holiness and purity of his nature, and his vindictive justice, in avenging sin in his own Son, as the surety of his people: the execution of this was threatened from the beginning; the types and sacrifices of the old law prefigured it; the prophecies of the Old Testament express it; and the sufferings and death of Christ openly declare it, since God spared not his own Son, but sheathed the sword of justice in him.

Matthew Henry Commentary

Verses 21-26 - Must
guilty man remain under wrath? Is the wound for ever incurable No; blessed be God, there is another way laid open for us. This is the righteousness of God; righteousness of his ordaining, and providing and accepting. It is by that faith which has Jesus Christ for it object; an anointed Saviour, so Jesus Christ signifies. Justifyin faith respects Christ as a Saviour, in all his three anointed offices as Prophet, Priest, and King; trusting in him, accepting him, an cleaving to him: in all these, Jews and Gentiles are alike welcome to God through Christ. There is no difference, his righteousness is upo all that believe; not only offered to them, but put upon them as crown, as a robe. It is free grace, mere mercy; there is nothing in u to deserve such favours. It comes freely unto us, but Christ bought it and paid the price. And faith has special regard to the blood of Christ, as that which made the atonement. God, in all this, declare his righteousness. It is plain that he hates sin, when nothing les than the blood of Christ would satisfy for it. And it would not agre with his justice to demand the debt, when the Surety has paid it, an he has accepted that payment in full satisfaction.

Greek Textus Receptus

3739 R-ASM προεθετο 4388 5639 V-2AMI-3S ο 3588 T-NSM θεος 2316 N-NSM ιλαστηριον 2435 N-ASN δια 1223 PREP της 3588 T-GSF πιστεως 4102 N-GSF εν 1722 PREP τω 3588 T-DSN αυτου 846 P-GSM αιματι 129 N-DSN εις 1519 PREP ενδειξιν 1732 N-ASF της 3588 T-GSF δικαιοσυνης 1343 N-GSF αυτου 846 P-GSM δια 1223 PREP την 3588 T-ASF παρεσιν 3929 N-ASF των 3588 T-GPN προγεγονοτων 4266 5761 V-RAP-GPN αμαρτηματων 265 N-GPN

Vincent's NT Word Studies

25. Set forth (proeqeto). Publicly, openly (pro); correlated with to declare. He brought Him forth and put Him before the public. Bengel, "placed before the eyes of all;" unlike the
ark of the covenant which was veiled and approached only by the high-priest. The word is used by Herodotus of exposing corpses (v. 8); by Thucydides of exposing the bones of the dead (ii. 34). Compare the shew-bread, the loaves of the setting-forth (thv proqesewv). See on Mark ii. 26. Paul refers not to preaching, but to the work of atonement itself, in which God's righteousness is displayed. Some render purposed or determined, as Rom. i. 13; Eph. i. 9, and according to the usual meaning of proqesiv purpose, in the New Testament. But the meaning adopted here is fixed by to declare.

Propitiation (ilasthrion). This word is most important, since it is the key to the conception of Christ's atoning work.

In the New Testament it occurs only here and Heb. ix. 5; and must be studied in connection with the following kindred words: iJlaskomai which occurs in the New Testament only Luke xviii. 13, God be merciful, and Heb. ii. 17, to make reconciliation. Ilasmov twice, 1 John ii. 2; iv. 10; in both cases rendered propitiation. The compound ejxilaskomai, which is not found in the New Testament, but is frequent in the Septuagint and is rendered purge, cleanse, reconcile, make atonement. Septuagint usage. These words mostly represent the Hebrew verb kaphar to cover or conceal, and its derivatives. With only seven exceptions, out of about sixty or seventy passages in the Old Testament, where the Hebrew is translated by atone or atonement, the Septuagint employs some part or derivative of iJlaskomai or ejxilaskomai or Ilasmov or ejxilasmov is the usual Septuagint translation for kippurim covering for sin, A.V., atonement. Thus sin-offerings of atonement; day of atonement; ram of the atonement. See Exod. xxix. 36; xxx. 10; Lev. xxiii. 27; Num. v. 8, etc. They are also used for chattath sin-offering, Ezek. xliv. 27; xlv. 19; and for selichah forgiveness. Psalm cxxix. 4; Dan. ix. 9.

These words are always used absolutely, without anything to mark the offense or the person propitiated.

Ilaskomai, which is comparatively rare, occurs as a translation of kipher to cover sin, Psalm lxiv. 3; lxxvii. 38; lxxviii. 9; A.V., purge away, forgive, pardon. Of salach, to bear away as a burden, 2 Kings v. 18; Psalm xxiv. 11: A.V., forgive, pardon. It is used with the accusative (direct objective) case, marking the sin, or with the dative (indirect objective), as be conciliated to our sins.

Exilaskomai mostly represents kipher to cover, and is more common than the simple verb. Thus, purge the altar, Ezek. xliii. 26; cleanse the sanctuary, Ezek. xlv. 20; reconcile the house, Dan. ix. 24. It is found with the accusative case of that which is cleansed; with the preposition peri concerning, as "for your sin," Exod. xxxii. 30; with the preposition uJper on behalf of A.V., for, Ezek. xlv. 17; absolutely, to make an atonement, Lev. xvi. 17; with the preposition ajpo from, as "cleansed from the blood," Num. xxxv. 33. There are but two instances of the accusative of the person propitiated: appease him, Gen. xxxii. 20; pray before (propitiate) the Lord, Zech. vii. 2.

Ilasthrion, A.V., propitiation, is almost always used in the Old Testament of the mercy-seat or golden cover of the ark, and this is its meaning in Heb. ix. 5, the only other passage of the New Testament in which it is found. In Ezek. xliii. 14, 17, 20, it means a ledge round a large altar, and is rendered settle in A.V.; Rev., ledge, in margin.

This term has been unduly pressed into the sense of explanatory sacrifice. In the case of the kindred verbs, the dominant Old-Testament sense is not propitiation in the sense of something offered to placate or appease anger; but atonement or reconciliation, through the covering, and so getting rid of the sin which stands between God and man. The thrust of the idea is upon the sin or uncleanness, not upon the offended party. Hence the frequent interchange with ajgiazw to sanctify, and kaqarizw to cleanse. See Ezekiel xliii. 26, where ejxilasontai shall purge, and kaqariousin shall purify, are used coordinately. See also Exod. xxx. 10, of the altar of incense: "Aaron shall make an atonement (exilasetai) upon the horns of it - with the blood of the sin-offering of atonement" (kaqarismou purification). Compare Lev. xvi. 20. The Hebrew terms are also used coordinately.

Our translators frequently render the verb kaphar by reconcile, Leviticus vi. 30; xvi. 20; Ezek. xlv. 20. In Lev. viii. 15, Moses put blood upon the horns of the altar and cleansed (ekaqarise) the altar, and sanctified (hgiasen) it, to make reconciliation (tou exilasasqai) upon it. Compare Ezek. xlv. 15, 17; Dan. ix. 24.

The verb and its derivatives occur where the ordinary idea of expiation is excluded. As applied to an altar or to the walls of a house (Leviticus xiv. 48-53), this idea could have no force, because these inanimate things, though ceremonially unclean, could have no sin to be expiated. Moses, when he went up to make atonement for the idolatry at Sinai, offered no sacrifice, but only intercession. See also the case of Korah, Numbers xvi. 46; the cleansing of leprosy and of mothers after childbirth, Leviticus xiv. 1-20; xii. 7; xv. 30; the reformation of Josiah, 2 Chronicles 34; the fasting and confession of Ezra, Ezra x. 1-15; the offering of the Israelite army after the defeat of Midian. They brought bracelets, rings, etc., to make an atonement (exilasasqai) before the Lord; not expiatory, but a memorial, Num. xxxi. 50-54. The Passover was in no sense expiatory; but Paul says, "Christ our Passover was sacrificed for us; therefore purge out (ekkaqarate) the old leaven. Let us keep the feast with sincerity and truth;" 1 Cor. v. 7, 8.

In the Old Testament the idea of sacrifice as in itself a propitiation continually recedes before that of the personal character lying back of sacrifice, and which alone gives virtue to it. See 1 Sam. xv. 22; Psalm xl. 6-10; l. 8-14, 23; li. 16, 17; Isa. i. 11-18; Jer. vii. 21-23; Amos v. 21-24; Micah vi. 6-8. This idea does not recede in the Old Testament to be reemphasized in the New. On the contrary, the New Testament emphasizes the recession, and lays the stress upon the cleansing and life-giving effect of the sacrifice of Christ. See John i. 29; Colossians i. 20-22; Heb. ix. 14; x. 19-21; 1 Pet. ii. 24; 1 John i. 7; iv. 10-13. The true meaning of the offering of Christ concentrates, therefore, not upon divine justice, but upon human character; not upon the remission of penalty for a consideration, but upon the deliverance from penalty through moral transformation; not upon satisfying divine justice, but upon bringing estranged man into harmony with God. As Canon Westcott remarks: "The scripture conception of iJlaskesqai is not that of appeasing one who is angry with a personal feeling against the offender, but of altering the character of that which, from without, occasions a necessary alienation, and interposes an inevitable obstacle to fellowship "(Commentary on St. John's Epistles, p. 85).

In the light of this conception we are brought back to that rendering of iJlasthrion which prevails in the Septuagint, and which it has in the only other New-Testament passage where it occurs (Heb. ix. 5) - mercy-seat; a rendering, maintained by a large number of the earlier expositors, and by some of the ablest of the moderns. That it is the sole instance of its occurrence in this sense is a fact which has its parallel in the terms Passover, Door, Rock, Amen, Day-spring, and others, applied to Christ. To say that the metaphor is awkward counts for nothing in the light of other metaphors of Paul. To say that the concealment of the ark is inconsistent with set forth is to adduce the strongest argument in favor of this rendering. The contrast with set forth falls in perfectly with the general conception. That mercy-seat which was veiled, and which the Jew could approach only once a fear, and then through the medium of the High-Priest, is now brought out where all can draw nigh and experience its reconciling power (Heb. x. 19, 22; compare Heb. ix. 8). "The word became flesh and dwelt among us. We beheld His glory. We saw and handled" (John i. 14; 1 John i. 1-3). The mercy-seat was the meetingplace of God and man (Exod. xxv. 17-22; Lev. xvi. 2; Num. vii. 89); the place of mediation and manifestation. Through Christ, the antitype of the mercy-seat, the Mediator, man has access to the Father (Eph. ii. 18). As the golden surface covered the tables of the law, so Christ stands over the law, vindicating

Robertson's NT Word Studies

3:25 {Set forth} (proetheto). Second aorist middle indicative. See on 1:13 for this word. Also in #Eph 1:9, but nowhere else in N.T. God set before himself (purposed) and did it publicly before (pro) the whole world. {A propitiation} (hilasterion). The only other N.T. example of this word is in #Heb 9:5 where we have the "cherubim overshadowing the mercy seat" (to hilasterion). In Hebrews the adjective is used as a substantive or as "the propitiatory place " But that idea does not suit here. Deissmann (_Bible Studies_, pp. 124-35) has produced examples from inscriptions where it is used as an adjective and as meaning "a votive offering" or "propitiatory gift." Hence he concludes about #Ro 3:25: "The crucified Christ is the votive gift of the Divine Love for the salvation of men." God gave his Son as the means of propitiation (#1Jo 2:2). hilasterion is an adjective (hilasterios) from hilaskomai, to make propitiation (#Heb 2:17) and is kin in meaning to hilasmos, propitiation (#1Jo 2:2; 4:10). There is no longer room for doubting its meaning in #Ro 3:25. {Through faith, by his blood} (dia pistews en twi autou haimati). So probably, connecting en toi haimati (in his blood) with proetheto. {To show his righteousness} (eis endeixin ts dikaiosuns autou). See #2Co 8:24. "For showing of his righteousness," the God-kind of righteousness. God could not let Sin go as if a mere slip. God demanded the atonement and provided it. {Because of the passing over} (dia tn paresin). Late word from pariemi, to let go, to relax. In Dionysius Hal., Xenophon, papyri (Deissmann, _Bible Studies_, p. 266) for remission of punishment, especially for debt, as distinct from afesis (remission). {Done aforetime} (progegonot"n). Second perfect active genitive participle of proginomai. The sins before the coming of Christ (#Ac 14:16; 17:30; Heb 9:15). {Forbearance} (anochi). Holding back of God as in #2:4. In this sense Christ tasted death for every man (#Heb 2:9).

CHAPTERS: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16
VERSES: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31


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